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Sample records for bamboo crude vinegars

  1. Preliminary study of application effect of bamboo vinegar on vegetable growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Yu Zhi-ming; Wu Wen-qiang; Wu Qing-li

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescense) vinegar, with different diluents, on the growth of lettuce, cole and cucumber based on field tests. The results show that moso bamboo vinegar with 500-800 times dilution had good effect on the growth of tested vegetables. The harvest of vegetables increased from 18.8%-20.2% compared with a control. The height and the weight of the average single vegetable tested also increased. The main components of moso bamboo vinegar were analyzed by GC-MS and the positive effect on the growth was, in the first instance, attributed to a synergistic effect of trace amounts of the main components of bamboo vinegar.

  2. Effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as antibiotic alternatives on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora population in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gyo Moon; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Hoi Yun; Ha, Ji Hee; Kim, Jong Hyun; Jung, Min Seob; Lee, Shin Ja; Song, Yuno; Ibrahim, Rashid Ismael Hag; Cho, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Sung Sill; Song, Young Min

    2013-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as alternatives of antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs and their influence on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. Crossed pigs (n = 144, 79 kg body weight) were divided into 12 heads per pen, four diets and three replications. The basal diet (negative control: NC) was supplemented with 0.3% antibiotics (positive control: PC), 0.3% bamboo charcoal (BC) and 0.3% bamboo vinegar (BV). Average daily weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (P bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar as antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs leads to a better growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. The results of the present study suggest that bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar could be a potential additives in animal production as an alternative to antibiotics.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  4. 竹醋液抑菌活性及其稳定性研究%Study on antimicrobial activities and stability of bamboo vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬国胜; 李敏; 应国清

    2011-01-01

    本实验主要对竹醋液的抑菌作用进行研究,结果表明:竹醋液具有较强的抑菌活性,其对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌的最小抑菌质量浓度为7.813μg/mL,对酿酒酵母、白色念珠菌和黑曲霉的最小抑菌质量浓度为62.5 μg/mL.同时,以除酿酒酵母的上述菌种为指示菌,研究竹醋液抑菌成分的稳定性,结果表明:竹醋液在酸性条件下具有较好的抑菌活性,经碱处理后抑菌活性显著降低.温度对其抑菌稳定性并无影响,紫外照射后使其抑菌活性有微弱下降.%Antimicrobial activities of bamboo vinegar were tested in this study. The results showed that bamboo vinegar has strong antibacterial activities. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bamboo vinegar to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 7. 813 μg/mL, while to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Canidia albicans and Aspergillus niger were 62. 5 μg/mL. Bamboo vinegar was also investigated concerning its stability under the influence of different factors such as acid, alkali, temperature and ultraviolet.The results showed that the bamboo vinegar was very stable to temperature. After treatment with alkaline the bamboo vinegar has almost no antibacterial activity. The UV radiation showed little effect on the antimicrobial activity of bamboo vinegar.

  5. 竹醋液的抗炎活性研究%Study on antiinflammatory activities of bamboo vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青; 吴宏君; 金再宿; 郭辉

    2012-01-01

    研究竹醋液以及在不同的条件下减压蒸馏得到的各馏分的抗炎活性.采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法检测竹醋液和各馏分的抗炎活性,并根据馏分沸点的不同确定其中主要有效组分.竹醋原液和提取出来的各馏分均显示了不同程度的抗炎活性(P<0.01).其中竹醋原液的抗炎效果最好(60.42%),低沸点的醇、酮、酯、吡啶和直链酸类次之(49.24%),酚类再次之(32.73%),苯甲酸类及其衍生物和醛类抗炎效果较弱.竹醋液具有抗炎活性,为其抗炎应用领域奠定实验基础,对竹醋功用开发具有积极意义,其抗炎机理需进一步研究.%The bamboo vinegar fluid and the anti-inflammatory activity of its main components were studied, at different vacuum distillation conditions for separating the mixture. We test the antiinflammatory activity of main components and determine their effectiveness through establishing a reasonable mice antiinflammatory pharmacology experiment model, adopting mouse xyleneinduced auricular swelling of the shell. The original bamboo vinegar and the extracted main components are in different degree of inhibit xylene-induced ear edema in mice induced by the swelling of the pinna (P<0. 01), which all have certain antiinflammatory activities. The antiinflammatory effect of original bamboo vinegar is the best (60. 42%), the alcohol, ketones, esters, pyridine and aliphatic acids with low boiling point are the second (49. 24%), and the phenols are the third (32. 73%) , the antiinflammatory effect of benzoic acids and their derivatives and aldehyde is little. The bamboo vinegar fluid has the sterilization and antiinflammatory effect, which promoted its application areas. The further development of bamboo vinegar and its function are significantly important. Further researches on the antiinflammatory mechanism are expected.

  6. 竹醋液防治甜瓜细菌性果斑病药效试验%Experiment on Effect of Bamboo Vinegar on Bacterial Fruit Blotch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩岩; 彭艳芳; 于文青; 张温典; 崔文杰; 李洁

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriostasis circle trials were conducted on different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%, 12.5% and 10%) of bamboo vinegar on bacterial fruit blotch byAcidovorax avenae subsp. citrulliofCucumis melo var. melowith sterile water and 0.5mg/mL of streptomycin as control. The results showed that concentration of bamboo vinegar had positive effect on inhibition zone diameter. It had 35.17mm inhibition zone of 100% of bamboo vinegar, 9.13mm of 10%. InfectedC. melo var. meloboo seeds soaking by 20% and 12.5% of bamboo vinegar and control demonstrated that germination rate of the later one was better, the same as the control(0.5mg/mL of streptomycin). Seeds treated by 12.5% bamboo vinegar had the best seedling growth.%采用抑菌圈法测定竹醋液原液,50%、20%、12.5%、10%体积浓度竹醋液,无菌水和链霉素0.5 mg/mL作对照,对甜瓜(Cucumis melo var. melo)细菌性果斑病菌进行药效试验。结果表明:竹醋液浓度越高,抑菌圈越大,其中以竹醋液原液抑菌效果最佳,其抑菌圈直径可达35.17 mm,50%竹醋液与0.5 mg/mL链霉素抑菌效果相当,10%竹醋液抑菌圈直径最小,为9.13 mm;12.5%竹醋液与硫酸链霉素0.5 mg/mL浸种过的甜瓜种子出芽率和出苗率均较高,且二者效果相当;竹醋液(20%、12.5%)与0.5 mg/mL硫酸链霉素浸种的幼苗长势优且二者相当,但竹醋液处理组幼苗更为矮壮,尤其竹醋液12.5%处理组效果最佳,其平均干物质重量可达0.112 g。

  7. Use of Bamboo Vinegar in Low-odor De-formaldehyde Latex Coatings for Interior Wall%竹醋液在低气味除甲醛内墙乳胶漆中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲; 胡中源

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的竹炭低气味除甲醛内墙乳胶漆,精选纯天然竹醋液,采用中空聚合物包埋技术,延缓了天然竹醋液的挥发,保证了长期除甲醛作用。%This paper introduces a new kind of bamboo carbon low-odor de-tbrmaldehyde latex coatings for interior wall. Using pure natural bamboo vinegar encapsulated by hollow polymer to delay the volatilization of natural barnboo vinegar can ensure the long-term de-formaldehyde effect.

  8. 竹醋液在净味抗菌内墙乳胶漆中的应用%The Application of Bamboo Vinegar in Interior Latex Paint with Clean Taste and Antibacterial Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲; 胡中源; 王德华

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的净味抗菌内墙乳胶漆,精选纯天然竹醋液,采用中空聚合物包埋,延缓了天然竹醋液的挥发。保证了长期的抗菌作用。%A new interior latex paint with clean taste and antibacterial effect was introduced. The latex paint was possessed of long antibacterial activity by selection of natural bamboo vinegar and embedding with hollow polymer as to delay the evaporation of natural bamboo vinegar.

  9. 竹醋液对番茄生长发育及桃蚜的影响%Effects of bamboo vinegar with different concentrations on the growth and development of tomato and Myzus persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 陈正洲; 洪科; 曹浩冰; 刘佳; 黄婷; 巫厚长

    2012-01-01

    通过种子萌发、盆栽灌根、田间喷雾等试验方法,研究不同浓度的竹醋液对番茄种子萌发、桃蚜Myzus persicae、生长发育、果实产量及品质的影响.结果表明:(1)5 000×稀释竹醋液显著促进番茄种子萌发,5 00×则显著抑制番茄种子的萌发.(2) 500×的竹醋液灌根显著增加了番茄的根长、株高、生物量和叶绿素含量,各种浓度对侧枝数均无显著作用.(3)田间叶面喷施300×、500×和700×的竹醋液后显著提高叶绿素含量,其它浓度对叶绿素含量无显著影响.(4)田间叶面喷施各浓度的竹醋液对桃蚜的虫口减退率在药后3d、5d均显著高于对照,且浓度愈高,虫口减退率也愈高.(5)田间叶面喷施500×的竹醋液后显著提高番茄产量,叶面喷施其它浓度的竹醋液对产量均无显著影响.(6)田间喷施各种浓度的竹醋液均显著降低了番茄果实中的有机酸含量;100×的竹醋液喷施后显著降低了果实中的VC含量,300×、500×、700×、1 000×和1 500×的竹醋液均显著提高了VC含量.%Seed germination, irrignting roots in the pots and spraying in the field were conducted to study the effects of bamboo vinegar with different concentrations on seed germination, growth and development, M.persicae, fruit yield and quality of tomato {Solarium lycopersicum). The results showed that: (l)The bamboo vinegar with 5 000 × promoted the seed germination significantly, and that with 500x inhibited the seed germination significantly. (2) The root length, plant height, living biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato were significantly increased in the pots after irrigating roots with 500 × bamboo vinegar compared with control. The number of tomato offshoot was not affected significantly by bamboo vinegar with all concentrations. (3)The chlorophyll content was increased significantly after spraying bamboo vinegar with 300x, 500x and 700x, and the bamboo vinegar with other concentrations had no

  10. Development Research for Bamboo Vinegar as Potential Plant Growth Regulator: Laboratory Test and Field Investigation%竹醋液作为植物生长调节剂的开发研究:室内和田间试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王品维; 童森淼

    2008-01-01

    本文采用萝卜子叶扩张法,萝卜、小麦和黄瓜的幼苗生长法,分别对原竹醋液和中和竹醋液进行室内生物活性筛选试验.结果表明:(1)低浓度(黄瓜根茎长>萝卜根茎长>小麦根茎长,其中对于黄瓜、萝卜和小麦,根长敏感性均高于茎长.对原竹醋液和中和竹醋液在苹果、柑橘、草莓等作物上进行应用试验.表明:竹醋液不仅显著地提高农林作物的产量;具有明显改善叶片质量,延长叶片寿命,提高果实硬度从而改善果实的储藏品质,改善果品的内在品质和外观品质等功能;在调节果实成熟期减少锈斑面积、落叶、落果和病害等方面均有显著作用.%The bioactivity of original and neutralized bamboo vinegar are screened by means of radish cotyledon, radish seedling, wheat seedling and cucumber seedling in laboratory. The results showed: (1) The bamboo vinegar of low concentration (500mg/L) effect as plant growth regulator stimulated growth similar to 2, 4-D herbicides; those of high concentration (2000~5000mg/L) inhibit growth as plant growth regular, the effect is similar to hormones herbicides, gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-Benzylaminop-urine (6-BA). (2) The bioactivity of neutralized bamboo vinegar is higher than that of original bamboo vinegar. (3) The sensitivity of tested plants for screen bioactivity from high to low expressed as follows: radish cotyledon>cucumber seedling>radish seedling>wheat seedling. The sensitivity of root growth was higher than that of stem; The field experiments are carried out to test the stimulating effect of original and neutralized bamboo vinegar on apple, orange and strawberry in China. The results showed that Original bamboo vinegar and neutralized bamboo vinegar could add yield greatly; They could also improve leaf quality, prolong its natural life, increased the fruit hardness to improve its storage quality, make the fruit had better intrinsic quality and appearance; Original bamboo

  11. Preservation of Grass Carp Using Purified Bamboo Vinegar%竹醋精制液对冷藏草鱼的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宇; 刘华巍; 谢晶; 孙涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the impact of the purified bamboo vinegar with different concentrations(volume concentrations were 0.5%,2.5% and 5.0%) on the preservation of grass carp.The pH value,volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),the total bacterial count(TBC) and thiobarbituric acid(TBA) were adopted as the quality indicators to measure the change in quality of grass carp in cold storage at(3±1)℃.The results showed that the purified bamboo vinegar with the three concentrations could inhibit the reproduction and growth of bacterial and lower the TBC value,TVB-N value and TBA value.The conclusion was that 5.0% purified bamboo vinegar performed the best in the inhibition of bacterial and anti-oxygen,which can apparently prolong the preservation period of grass carp.%本文以草鱼为试材,研究不同浓度(体积浓度分别为0.5%、2.5%、5.0%)竹醋精制液对草鱼冷藏过程中品质的影响。以pH值、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、细菌总数(TBC)、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)作为质量指标,测定草鱼在(3±1)℃冷藏过程中的品质变化。结果表明:3种浓度的竹醋精制液都能够抑制细菌生长繁殖,降低TVB-N值、TBC值和TBA值。其中:5.0%竹醋精制液对冷藏草鱼的抑菌和抗氧化效果最好,能够明显延缓草鱼的腐败变质,延长货架期。

  12. Preparation of Hemp Stalk Activated Carbons for Decolorizing and Deodorizing of Bamboo Vinegar%汉麻杆活性炭的制备及对竹醋液脱色脱臭的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 高雅琳; 林小云; 周文富

    2012-01-01

    为了研究自制的汉麻活性炭对竹醋原液的脱色脱臭的最佳工艺,以单因素试验考察活性炭的用量、吸附时间、温度对竹醋原液(100℃蒸馏液)脱色脱臭的影响.结果表明:最佳工艺条件为单位体积竹醋原液汉麻活性炭用量24mg/mL,单位体积竹醋蒸馏液汉麻活性炭用量10mg/mL,吸附20min,吸附温度60℃,pH值为3.0,磷酸汉麻活性炭脱色率达85%以上;氯化锌脱色率达60%以上,磷酸汉麻活性炭吸附量高达385.3~427.3mg/g.结论:磷酸汉麻活性炭脱色率比其他活性炭脱色、脱臭率高,可应用于竹醋液的脱色脱臭.%The optimum process of decolorization and deodorization was studied, by using self-made hemp activated carbons and bamboo vinegar. The influence of adsorption dosage, time, and temperature on the decolorization and deodorization of bamboo vinegar liquid and its distillate(100℃) were explored by single factor. The results show that the optimum process conditions are. The hemp activated carbon is processed by phosphoric acid for bamboo vinegar liquid, dosage of activated carbons 24 mg/ml bamboo vinegar, dosage of activated carbons 10 mg/ml bamboo vinegar liquid and its distillate, adsorption time is 20 min, adsorption temperature is 60 ~C, pH=3.0, in this condition, the color removal rate of phosphoric acid processing hemp activated carbon is up to 85~; The color removal rate of zinc chloride processing hemp activated carbon is up to 60~/~o. The maximum adsorption of phosphoric acid processing hemp activated carbon is up to 358. 3~427.3 mg/g. The conclusion is drawn: The color removal rate and deodorizing rate of phosphoric acid processing activated carbon are higher than other activated carbons for the decolorization and deodorization of bamboo vinegar liquid.

  13. 竹醋液组分分析及抗真菌活性的初步研究%Studies on component analysis and antifungal activity of bamboo vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亮; 赵婷; 邹艳敏; 李芳; 樊懿娜; 周叶; 仰榴青

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察竹醋液的基本理化参数、主要组分及其对新型隐球菌、白色念珠菌、石膏样毛癣菌、酿酒酵母、黑曲霉菌5种真菌的抗真菌活性.方法:分别通过密度计、pH计、阿贝折光仪、酸碱滴定法和甲苯法测定密度、pH值、折光率、总酸和含水率等基本理化参数,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对其成分进行分析,通过抑菌圈试验初步考察竹醋液的抗真菌活性.结果:竹醋液密度为1.013 g/cm3,pH 值为2.63,折光率为11.622 6,总酸度为0.08 mol/L,含水率为81.17%.GC-MS 分析结果表明,竹醋液主要成分为有机酸类(33.04%)、醇类(4.88%)、酮类(25.60%)、酚类(23.29%)、酯类(5.12%)、醛类(4.29%)等.竹醋液对新型隐球菌、白色念球菌、石膏样毛癣菌、酿酒酵母、黑曲霉菌的抑菌圈分别为14.9,14.0,15.5,17.8和13.8 mm.结论:竹醋液中的成分以有机酸类为主,其次是酮类和酚类等.竹醋液对5种真菌均有一定的抑制作用.%Objective : To cletermine basic physical chemical properties , chemical components of bamboo vinegar and its antifungal activity . Methods : Basic physical chemical properties including density , pH value ,refractive index , total acid and moisture content were determined by densimeter , pH-meter, refractometer,acid-base titration and toluene method , respectively ; components were analyzed by GC -MS; and the antifungal activities against Cryptococcus neoformans , Candida albicans , Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and A.spergillus niger were determined by the inhibition zone assay . Results : Bamboo vinegar was a kind of red-brown liquid with density 1. 013 g/cm3 , pH value 2. 63 , refractive index 11. 622 6, total acidity 0. 08 mol/L, water content 81. 17% , and dehydrated bamboo vinegar included organic acids (33. 04% ) , alcohol (4. 88% ) , ketones ( 25. 60% ) , phenols ( 23. 29% ) , esters (5. 12% ) , aldehydes (4. 29% ) , etc

  14. 两种前处理方法分析竹醋液挥发性成分的比较%Comparison of Two Sample Pretreatment Methods for Volatile Composition Analysis of Bamboo Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 崔宇; 王志勇; 岳永德; 汤锋

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of bamboo vinegar was qualitatively analyzed by each of the pretreatment methods purge and trap-thermal desorption(PT-TD) and liquid-liquid extraction(LLE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) and quantified by peak area normalization method.A total of 50 compounds including acids,phenols,ketones,esters,aldehydes,etc.were identified in bamboo vinegar based on both pretreatment methods,of which 28 were identified by PT-TD/GC-MS,and 29 by LLE/GC-MS.The major components with a relative content of more than 2% were acetic acid methyl ester,methyl propionate,acetic acid,1-hydroxy-2-butanone,cyclopentanone,furfural,phenol,2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one,and 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol.The volatile composition of bamboo vinegar identified by both methods revealed considerable differences and complementarities.So,the combination of both methods can result in a complete determination of the volatile composition of bamboo vinegar.%为探明用于熏液的竹醋液挥发性成分,分别采用吹扫捕集-热脱附法(purge and trap-thermal desorption,P&T-TD)和液液分配萃取(liquid-liquid extraction,LLE)法对竹醋液中挥发性成分进行富集,以气相色谱-质谱联用法(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-MS)进行定性检测,用面积归一化法确定各组分的相对含量。结果表明:两种方法共鉴定竹醋液挥发性成分——酸类、酚类、酮类、酯类、醛类等化合物共50种,其中P&T-TD-GC-MS鉴定出28种、LLE-GC-MS鉴定出29种,相对含量在2%以上的主要成分为乙酸甲酯、丙酸甲酯、乙酸、1-羟基-2-丁酮、环戊酮、糠醛、苯酚、甲基环戊烯醇酮和2,6-二甲氧基苯酚。两种方法获得的竹醋液挥发性成分差异较大,具有一定的互补性,相结合应用两种方法能够较全面地检测出竹醋液的挥发性成分。

  15. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  16. Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society.

  17. PRODUCTION OF ginger vinegar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonel, Magali; Suman, Priscila Aparecida; Garcia, Emerson Loli

    2015-01-01

    Vinegar is a food of condiments group that have great use in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parameters of the acetic fermentation process in the production of ginger vinegar...

  18. Functional properties of vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Nilgün H; Aykin, Elif; Seydim, Atif C; Greene, Annel K; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2014-05-01

    A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars.

  19. PRODUCTION OF ginger vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a food of condiments group that have great use in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parameters of the acetic fermentation process in the production of ginger vinegar. A suspension of ginger rhizomes with 12% of starch was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis process to obtain hydrolyzed with 85.6% of glucose. After the alcoholic fermentation the wine was obtained with 40.3% ethanol. The acetic fermentation process of ginger alcoholic solution followed a completely randomized design in a factorial for three factors at two levels. The independent variables were: temperature, nutrients and proportion of "strong vinegar" and alcoholic solution (initial acidity. Results showed variation from 2.74 to 3.70% for dry extract and 2.13 to 2.83 % for ash in vinegars. The profile of organic acids of ginger vinegars showed the presence of acetic, citric, malic and succinic acids in all treatments. The condition of 20°C, initial acidity 1:1,with addition of nutrients allow obtaining good quality vinegars and higher GK yields

  20. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple an

  1. Spotlight on Shanxi very mature vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Fang; Wang Lixia; Li Wende

    2005-01-01

    @@ There are four kinds of the most famous vinegars in China. Qingxu Very Mature Vinegar of Shanxi Province is number one. Three others are Zhenjiang Savory Vinegar of Jiangsu Province, Baoning Bran Vinegar of Sichuan Province and Yongchun Vinegar of Fujian Province.

  2. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar... commercial standards for the production of vinegar. Vinegar stock may be made only by the addition of...

  3. SALIENT FEATURES OF BAMBOO FIBRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrata; Das

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo.Starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multi- phase bleaching.Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre.

  4. SALIENT FEATURES OF BAMBOO FIBRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrata Das

    2007-01-01

    @@ Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo. Starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multiphase bleaching. Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre.

  5. Isotopic composition of carbon in vinegars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, D.A.; Krueger, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Measurements of delta TC and UC-activity were performed on vinegars from various known sources. Natural vinegar can be distinguished from petrochemical acetic acid by UC-analysis: Natural vinegar currently gives values of greater than 112% of modern activity; petrochemical acetic acid yields values of 0% of modern activity. Apple cider vinegar can be distinguished from corn-derived vinegar by delta TC-analysis: Cider vinegar gives delta TC-values near -26%; corn-derived vinegars yield delta TC-values near -10%. These techniques are applied to a series of retail vinegars.

  6. Wood vinegar and its properties from pyrolysis of biomass%生物质热解制备木醋液及其性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宝鑫; 张守玉; 吴巧美; 茆青; 姚云隆; 涂圣康; 金涛; 赵孟浩

    2015-01-01

    The basic physical and chemical properties, yields and organic ingredients of the refined wood vinegar obtained from pyrolysis of Chinese fir sawdust ( CFS) , cotton stalk ( CS) and bamboo sawdust ( BS) were investigated. The results show that yields of crude wood vinegar and the refined one from the three biomasses at 350℃ are nearly the same. However, yield of the wood vinegar from KCl-treated CFS ( KCl-CFS) under the same conditions decreases. The physical and chemical properties of the three refined wood vinegars are different from each other. The pH value of CFS wood vinegar is the lowest and its density is the highest. The content of the organic acids contained from BS and CS wood vinegars is higher than that of CFS wood vinegar. The organic components in the refined wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) . The results indicate that CFS wood vinegar includes acids, phenols and ketones. Besides the three ingredients, alcohols with high relative content are found in BS and CS wood vinegars. The relative contents of the acids and phenols contained in the three wood vinegars are in the order of BS>CS>CFS and that of the ketones is CFS > CS > BS. The relative contents of the phenols and ketones contained in the refined wood vinegar produced from KCl-CFS decrease and that of the acids increases, especially the acetic acid. The relative content of the alcohols contained in the refined KCl-CFS wood vinegar roughly doubles compared with that of CFS wood vinegar.%对杉木屑、棉杆、竹屑三种生物质热解制得的木醋液产率、基本理化性质及其有机成分进行了分析研究. 结果表明,三种生物质原料在350℃下热解制得的粗木醋液、精制木醋液产率相差不大,相同条件下氯化钾浸渍处理后的杉木屑热解所得的粗木醋液、精制木醋液的产率有所降低. 三种原料制得的精制木醋液的理化性质不同,杉木屑木醋液的pH值最小,密度最

  7. Stamp Collecting Bamboo Bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Bamboo is used for construction materials. papermaking, household implements, crafts and as ornamental plants. Records about the use of bamboo can be found in inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells dating

  8. 27 CFR 21.133 - Vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinegar. 21.133 Section 21... TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.133 Vinegar. (a) Vinegar, 90-grain: Acidity (as acetic acid). 9.0 percent by weight, minimum. (b) Vinegar,...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  10. Changes of foraging patch selection and utilization by a giant panda after bamboo flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Song, Huadong; Altigani, Latifa A A; Zheng, Xueli; Bu, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    The bamboo flowering leads to the habitat fragmentation and food quality decline of a giant panda. Few empirical research has been conducted about the giant panda's response to the bamboo flowering. Here, we investigated the characteristics of bamboo stands, giant panda's activity, and selection and utilization of bamboo stands by giant panda in Taibaishan National Nature Reserve, China, over a 3-year period (September 2013-May 2016) during the Fargesia qinlingensis flowering period. Our results indicated that the proportion of whole bamboo stands flowering has gradually expanded from 26.7% in 2013 and 33.9% in 2014 to 52.3% in 2015. Although the flowering bamboo has lower crude protein and higher crude fiber than a non-flowering bamboo, the giant panda still fed on flowering bamboo from the evidence of droppings. The giant panda left its feeding sites and moved to the high elevation along river when the proportion of flowering reached 69.2% at elevation of 2350-2450 m in the third year. With the decline of the quality of bamboo stand of Fargesia qinlingensis, the giant panda abandoned its feeding sites when the threshold value of bamboo flowering reached 56.9-69.2%. Flexibility in foraging strategy and spatial behavior can help the giant panda to better adapt to the environment.

  11. Isotopic composition of carbon in vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, D A; Krueger, H W

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of delta 13C and 14C-activity were performed on vinegars from various known sources. Natural vinegar can be distinguished from petrochemical acetic acid by 14C-analysis: Natural vinegar currently gives values of greater than 112% of modern activity; petrochemical acetic acid yields values of 0% of modern activity. Apple cider vinegar can be distinguished from corn-derived vinegar by delta 13C-analysis: Cider vinegar gives delta 13C-values near -26%; corn-derived vinegars yield delta 13C-values near -10%. delta 13C-Analysis also can be applied, with some restrictions, to wine vinegars. These techniques are applied to a series of retail vinegars.

  12. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  13. A hedonic analysis of retail Italian vinegars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Galletto

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about factors affecting the vinegar price can help producers make decisions about what vinegars should be produced and how to price them, which will benefit a consistent proportion of wine and grape producers.

  14. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  15. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AT VINEGAR TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Giurgiulescu; Olimpia Mihaela Hoban

    2009-01-01

    In this article are presented some physico-chemical applied vinegar, to see some chemical properties of vinegar suchas total acidity, volatile and fixed, by colorimetric determination of iron content in the vinegar, the extract andresidue determination dry.

  16. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J Ballhorn; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation...

  17. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  18. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  19. Anji,Home of Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ANJI County in northwestern Zhejiang Province is synonymous with bamboo, with its 60,000 hectares of bamboo groves. Anji has been designated a pilot county for ecological construction. Within its boundaries are moun-

  20. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation in cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and nutritive characteristics among five sympatric bamboo species in the Ranomafana area, southeastern Madagascar. The HCNp ranged from 209±72 μmol cyanide*g-1 dwt in Cathariostachys madagascariensis to no cyanide in Bambusa madagascariensis. Among three sympatric bamboo lemur species, the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) has the narrowest food range as it almost exclusively feeds on the highly cyanogenic C. madagascariensis. Our data suggest that high HCNp is the derived state in bamboos. The ancestral state of lemurs is most likely "generalist" while the ancestral state of bamboo lemurs was determined as equivocal. Nevertheless, as recent bamboo lemurs comprise several "facultative specialists" and only one "obligate specialist" adaptive radiation due to increased flexibility is likely. We propose that escaping a strict food plant specialization enabled facultative specialist bamboo lemurs to inhabit diverse geographical areas.

  1. Bamboo and the Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE bamboo plant, fargesia spathacea, is the staple food of the giant panda and a cultural icon in Chinese history. In sharp contrast to other plants, the bamboo only blossoms every 60 to 80 years, and perishes soon after. It takes one to three decades for its seeds to grow. In the past 3 million years bamboos have undergone more than 50,000 extensive blooms. Pandas survived by migrating,but this is no longer an option owing to the sharp decrease of bamboo forests. The last two bloomings of bamboo caused 250 giant pandas to starve to death.

  2. Plan de empresa Bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Hernández, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Este plan de empresa tiene como objetivo principal describir, cuantificar y analizar la viabilidad de la idea de negocio “Bamboo” en el mercado. Bamboo por su parte, se dedicará a producir y comercializar alimentos a base de insumos naturales. Dichos productos serán entregados en un establecimiento comercial que se ubicará en el barrio de Ciudad Salitre en Bogotá y el cual será un espacio acogedor y relajado, en el que los clientes se sientan a gusto tanto a nivel físico como espiritual y a...

  3. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  4. Engineered bamboo for structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhavna; Gatóo, Ana; Bock, Maximilian; Ramage, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the published version. It was first published at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815001117# Bamboo is a rapidly renewable material that has many applications in construction. Engineered bamboo products result from processing the raw bamboo culm into a laminated composite, similar to glue-laminated timber products. These products allow the material to be used in standardised sections and have less inherent variability than the natural material. The present w...

  5. Benefits from additives and xylanase during enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kena; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-09-01

    Effects of additives (BSA, PEG 6000, and Tween 80) on enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branches) by cellulases and/or xylanase were evaluated. The addition of additives was comparable to the increase of cellulase loadings in the conversion of cellulose and xylan in bamboo fractions. Supplementation of xylanase (1 mg/g DM) with cellulases (10 FPU/g DM) in the hydrolysis of bamboo fractions was more efficient than addition of additives in the production of glucose and xylose. Moreover, addition of additives could further increase the glucose release from different bamboo fractions by cellulases and xylanase. Bamboo green exhibited the lowest hydrolyzability. Almost all of the polysaccharides in pretreated bamboo shoot fractions were hydrolyzed by cellulases with the addition of additives or xylanase. Additives and xylanase showed great potential for reducing cellulase requirement in the hydrolysis of bamboo.

  6. SWOT Analysis of Vinegar Export of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业璇

    2012-01-01

      This article is based on the SWOT theory, and analyze the vinegar export situations of Shanxi province. Finding out the opportunities and challenges the vinegar plants confronts is this article’s main purpose.

  7. Current Status and Prospects of New Architecture Materials from Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of the technologies has been discussed in the paper that bamboo is used for middling and top-grade building construction, architecture decorating, and other major applications. The content includes the current application of bamboo materials in construction field; the bamboo bearing material technological process such as the laminated bamboo board, bamboo mat plywood processes; bamboo ceiling and wall material technologies such as the bamboo particleboard, cement-bonded bamboo particlebo...

  8. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  9. 27 CFR 20.104 - Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinegar. 20.104 Section 20.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process Approval Policies § 20.104 Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar. Commercial strength (40 grain) vinegar made from specially denatured alcohol may contain trace amounts of residual alcohol,...

  10. Acetylation of Chinese bamboo flour and thermoplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-fang; CHEN Qin-hui; LIN Jin-huo; ZHUO Dong-xian; WU Xiu-ling

    2008-01-01

    Chinese bamboo flour was chemically modified by acetylation with acetic anhydride by using trichloroacetic acid as an activation agent and the optimized condition for acetylation of bamboo flour was determined as the trichloroacetic acid amount 6.0 g per 1.5-g bamboo flour, ultrasosonication duration 40 min and the reaction time 1 h at 65℃. The composition, microstructure and thermal behavior of acetylated bamboo flour were preliminarily characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM etc. The acetylated bamboo flour can be molded into sheets at 130℃ and 10 MPa, indicating the modified bamboo flour possesses thermalplastic performance.

  11. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  12. Towards a new tectonics in bamboo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif; Kim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reflective description of the unique development of three constructions in bamboo - in India, Italy and South Korea......Reflective description of the unique development of three constructions in bamboo - in India, Italy and South Korea...

  13. Bamboo construction generated by cocoon contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif; Kim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reflective description of the ecological aspects of the bamboo building 'Cocoon I' in South India.......Reflective description of the ecological aspects of the bamboo building 'Cocoon I' in South India....

  14. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  15. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R.; de Carvalho-Silva, Samuel; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; Villas-Boas, Silas G.

    2016-01-01

    Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. PMID:27455339

  16. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation.

  17. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN; SHAIFUL ADZNI SHARIFUDIN; AZLINA MANSOR; AINAA ABD KAHAR; KAMARIAH LONG

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which correspo...

  18. Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy

    OpenAIRE

    Poppens, R.P.; Van Dam; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for rural development, especially in developing countries. Bamboo plants are among the most versatile and widely utilized plants, with applications varying from edible shoots to soil protection and cons...

  19. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  20. Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for r

  1. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems.

  2. Variability of macroscopic dimensions of Moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Le; Peng, Wanxi; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Lu, Huangfei; Chen, Guoning

    2015-03-01

    In order to the macroscopic geometry distributions of vascular bundles in Moso bamboo tubes. The circumference of bamboo tubes was measured, used a simple quadratic diameter formula to analyze the differences between the tubes in bamboo culm, and the arrangement of vascular bundles was investigated by cross sectional images of bamboo tubes. The results shown that the vascular bundles were differently distributed in a bamboo tube. In the outer layer, the vascular bundles had a variety of shapes, and were aligned parallel to each other. In the inner layers, the vascular bundles weren't aligned but uniform in shape. It was concluded that the vascular bundle sections arranged in parallel should be separated from the non-parallel sections for the maximum bamboo utilization.

  3. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  4. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  5. 27 CFR 19.821 - Production of vinegar by the vaporizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production of vinegar by... Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Scope of Subpart § 19.821 Production of vinegar by the vaporizing process. The regulations in this subpart relate to the production of vinegar by the vaporizing...

  6. Research on Variation of Bamboo Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo as an important biological resource has become an alternative to wood gradually,but the variation in mechanical properties leads to difficulty in its use to some extent.So deep understanding of the nature in bamboo is needed to satisfy the utilization effectively.As we have known,the density is one of mechanical properties of bamboo.Therefore,this paper studied the variation in bamboo density with the weighing method.The results showed that the density decreases gradually from the outer to the inn...

  7. Methane production from steam-exploded bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Take, Harumi; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To convert unutilized plant biomass into a useful energy source, methane production from bamboo was investigated using a steam explosion pretreatment. Methane could not be produced from raw bamboo but methane production was enhanced by steam explosion. The maximum amount of methane produced, i.e., about 215 ml, was obtained from 1 g of exploded bamboo at a steam pressure of 3.53 MPa and a steaming time of 5 min. A negative correlation between the amount of methane produced and the amount of Klason lignin was observed in the methane fermentation of steam-exploded bamboo.

  8. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars, especial

  9. Insights on predominant edible bamboo shoot proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp pc

    nutritive value and health enhancing properties; making it a suitable candidate for food security. Quantitative ... data that edible bamboo species as healthy food and a rich source of protein. ..... loci impedes accurate phylogenetic inference of bamboo species ... (P < 0.05) they failed the FDR test at cut-off value ≤ 1%.

  10. Structural elucidation of inhomogeneous lignins from bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Long; Xue, Bai-Liang; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the inhomogeneous molecular structure of lignin from bamboo is a prerequisite for promoting the "biorefinery" technologies of the bamboo feedstock. A mild and successive method for fractionating native lignin from bamboo species was proposed in the present study. The molecular structure and structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignin polymers were comprehensively investigated by elemental analysis, carbohydrate analysis, state-of-the-art NMR and analytical pyrolysis techniques (quantitative (13)C NMR, (13)C-DEPT 135 NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, (31)P NMR, and pyrolysis-GC-MS). The results showed that the proposed method is effective for extracting lignin from bamboo. NMR results showed that syringyl (S) was the predominant unit in bamboo lignin over guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In addition, the lignin was associated with p-coumarates and ferulates via ester and ether bonds, respectively. Moreover, various substructures, such as β-O-4, β-β, β-5, β-1, and α,β-diaryl ether linkages, were identified and quantified by NMR techniques. Based on the results obtained, a proposed schematic diagram of structural heterogeneity of the lignin polymers extracted from the bamboo is presented. In short, well-defined inhomogeneous structures of native lignin from bamboo will facilitate further applications of bamboo in current biorefineries.

  11. Soft Bamboo: Calling for an Industrial Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ On August 29-31, the First YunZhu Cup China Bamboo Fiber Industrial Development Summit, organized by the China Knitting Industrial Association, the China Textile Engineer Institute and the China Textile Resources PuDong Ltd, China Chemical Fiber Economic Information Network, was held in Shanghai, aiming to promote the communication and development of Chinese bamboo fiber industry.

  12. Bamboo-based Panels for Structural Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXuhe; WANGZheng

    2005-01-01

    With technical assistance from INBAR and the Research Institute of Wood Industry of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the construction of the Pingbian Primary School was completed in 2004,where bamboo plywood panels and laminated beams were used for the roof trusses, sheathing boards and wall panels. This is the first time that bamboo-based panels are used for structural applications.

  13. Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli; Walters, Matthew C.; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-01

    Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases.

  14. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a five-year period (2003-2007 after a mast flowering event (2003. We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the five years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves. Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  15. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  16. Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Truss Bridge for Rural Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    D. Nuralinah; S. M. Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is one of a potential renewable construction material in the village. Bamboo is known to have a high mechanical strength in direction of the fibers. The weakness of bamboo in lateral direction of the fiber could be solved by constructing a composite structure with the concrete. The appropriate construction with hold the loads in axial direction is a truss structure. In a bamboo concrete truss structure, the bars are composed from the concrete column with a bamboo reinforcem...

  17. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  18. BambooGDB: a bamboo genome database with functional annotation and an analysis platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hansheng; Peng, Zhenhua; Fei, Benhua; Li, Lubin; Hu, Tao; Gao, Zhimin; Jiang, Zehui

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo, as one of the most important non-timber forest products and fastest-growing plants in the world, represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests. Recent success on the first high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) provides new insights on bamboo genetics and evolution. To further extend our understanding on bamboo genome and facilitate future studies on the basis of previous achievements, here we have developed BambooGDB, a bamboo genome database with functional annotation and analysis platform. The de novo sequencing data, together with the full-length complementary DNA and RNA-seq data of moso bamboo composed the main contents of this database. Based on these sequence data, a comprehensively functional annotation for bamboo genome was made. Besides, an analytical platform composed of comparative genomic analysis, protein-protein interactions network, pathway analysis and visualization of genomic data was also constructed. As discovery tools to understand and identify biological mechanisms of bamboo, the platform can be used as a systematic framework for helping and designing experiments for further validation. Moreover, diverse and powerful search tools and a convenient browser were incorporated to facilitate the navigation of these data. As far as we know, this is the first genome database for bamboo. Through integrating high-throughput sequencing data, a full functional annotation and several analysis modules, BambooGDB aims to provide worldwide researchers with a central genomic resource and an extensible analysis platform for bamboo genome. BambooGDB is freely available at http://www.bamboogdb.org/. Database URL: http://www.bamboogdb.org.

  19. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Bamboo constructions workshop run by Simon Velez [participation, research] Boisbuchet, France; 10-19 Jun 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.

    2000-01-01

    The Bamboo House project run by Simon Velez (Columbia) in Boisbuchet, France: designing the bamboo structure, constructing bamboo columns, completing connections between bamboo and plinth, constructing roof, erecting roof.

  1. Characterization and hypoglycemic activity of a β-pyran polysaccharides from bamboo shoot (Leleba oldhami Nakal) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yafeng; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Lu, Xu; Lin, Liangmei; Tian, Yuting; Xiao, Jianbo; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-06-25

    The bamboo shoot (Leleba oldhami Nakal) shell is a by-product during bamboo shoot processing. It is a cheap and available resource for dietary polysaccharides. Herein, a novel polysaccharide BSSP2a was isolated and characterized from the bamboo shoot shell polysaccharides, and it was identified as a homogeneous highly-branched beta type pyran polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 1.63×10(4)kDa, which consisted of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 20.4:4.9:1:3.4:20.6. The crude polysaccharides (BSSP) from the bamboo shoots shell showed hypoglycemic activity on the high fat diet and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. The administration of high dose BSSP (400mg/kg) improved body weight loss and serum insulin loss, and significantly decreased the blood glucose level, serum triglycerides as well as total cholesterol levels by 48.7%, 34.8% and 26.5%, respectively. The results highlight the potential of the bamboo shoot shell polysaccharides as a natural anti-diabetic agent.

  2. Biosynthesis of Succulent Bamboo Shoots of Bambusa balcooa into Phytosterols and Its Biotransformation into ADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kananbala SARANGTHEM; Thongam Nabakumar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation of the succulent bamboo shoots of Bambusa balcooa Roxb. resulted in an enrichment of phytosterols from 0.12% to 0.62% dry weight as compared to that of the fresh unfermented samples. The bacterial strains responsible for higher accumulation of phytosterols during fermentation of the bamboo shoots have been isolated and further extraction and purification of the crude phytosterols (isolated from the fermented samples) were done by TLC, UV, NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The isolated phytosterols (β-sitos-terols) were then subjected to microbial transformation which yielded a considerable amount of androsta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the incubation mixture in presence of metabolic inhibitors (α, α'-dipyridyl and sodium arsenate).

  3. Fried Bamboo Shoots with Salted Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of canned bamboo shoots; 75 grams of salted potherb mustard leaves; 5 grams of cooking wine, 1 gram of salt and 500 grams of vegetable oil (15 grams will be consumed). MSG to taste. Directions: 1. Chop the bamboo shoots into rectangles 4 centimeters by 1.65 centimeters. Marinate the bamboo shoots in salt and cooking wine. Clean the salted potherb mustard leaves (or any other kind of vegetable leaves) with hot water and chop into 3.5-centimeter segments.

  4. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  5. Metagenomics reveals flavour metabolic network of cereal vinegar microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Huan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zong-Min; Yu, Yong-Jian; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation. First, we identified 3 organic acids, 7 amino acids, and 20 volatiles as dominant vinegar metabolites. Second, we revealed taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiota by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. A total of 86 201 predicted protein-coding genes from 35 phyla (951 genera) were involved in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of Metabolism (42.3%), Genetic Information Processing (28.3%), and Environmental Information Processing (10.1%). Furthermore, a metabolic network for substrate breakdown and dominant flavour formation in vinegar microbiota was constructed, and microbial distribution discrepancy in different metabolic pathways was charted. This study helps elucidating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavour formation in vinegar microbiota.

  6. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  7. Preliminary Accounting on Economic Value of Bamboo Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The current area of bamboo resource in China is 7.21 million ha, 4.21 million ha of which is the pure bamboo forest The stock value of the bamboo resource is 30.312 billion Renminbi (RMB) yuan, the present value of actual output from bamboo wood and shoot is 149.062 billion RMB yuan. The bamboo forest land is valuated as much as 8.133 billion RMB yuan. It is raised to improve the production and management conditions of the 2nd and 3rd type bamboo forests to raise production capacity of wood and shoot an...

  8. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  9. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  10. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

    2012-08-01

    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  11. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants.

  12. Determination of the monosaccharide and alcohol content of balsamic and other vinegars by enzymatic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessi, M.; Monzani, A.; Coppini, D.

    1988-01-23

    The contents of monosaccharides and alcohol in bulsamic and other vinegars were determined by the enzymatic method. The traditional, unique balsamic vinegar is produced by the traditional method in modena. The older the balsamic vinegar, the higher the contents of dextrose and fructose are. The existence of wine vinegar added to the traditional balsami vinegar can be judged from the contents of them. The contents of dextrose and fructose in apple vinegar are low or medium, while those in the wine vinegar is very low. The ratio of dextrose to fructose varies according to the samples. Although sorbitol is contained in the apple vinegar, it is hardly contained in the commercially available wine vinegar. A little xylitol is contained in all the samples, while a large amount of it is contained in the apple vinegar. A sure indication of the quality and sound preparation is given by the content of glycerol which is found in all the vinegars and most distingushed in the traditional balsamic vinegar. (6 tabs, 20 refs)

  13. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which will be used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

  14. 27 CFR 24.291 - Removal of wine for vinegar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinegar production. 24.291 Section 24.291 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Without Payment of Tax § 24.291 Removal of wine for vinegar production. (a) General. Still wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, without payment of tax, for use in the manufacture of vinegar....

  15. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: drosophilidae), trapped with combinations of wines and vinegars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trapping experiments evaluated wine and vinegar baits for spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), and assessed variance in biat attractiveness with wit type, vinegar type, and bait age. A mixture of apple cider vinegar and a Merlot wine attracted more flies than a mixtur...

  16. Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter▿

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-Ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

  17. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  18. A comparative study of regenerated bamboo, cotton and viscose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... from natural bamboo fibres in a regeneration process by which bamboo pulp is ... plant in a process similar to that used to manufacture viscose rayon fibres.

  19. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  20. Bamboo: An Underutilized Resource with Extensive Application Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo is classified into Subtribe Bambusoideae of the Poaceae family which is comprised of over 1600 species of bamboo. Most species originated in Asia and Central and South America, although there are several species native to the United States. Often overlooked in the United States, bamboo is g...

  1. Bamboo: Strategies for Teaching about Aspects of Asian Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, Brother Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Ten classroom activities introduce elementary and junior high school students to Asian culture by investigating the uses of bamboo. Students are directed to read about bamboo, investigate bamboo's roles (food, building material, clothing, tools), and construct artifacts such as a fishing pole and a flute. (Author/DB)

  2. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities.

  3. Fruit Antioxidants during Vinegar Processing: Changes in Content and in Vitro Bio-Accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Bakir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple and grape are studied. Methods: A number of steps, starting from the fermentation of the fruit juices to the formation of the final vinegars, were studied from an industrial vinegar process. The effect of each of the vinegar processing steps on content of antioxidants, phenolic compounds and flavonoids was studied, by spectroscopic methods and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: The major observation was that spectrophotometric methods indicate a strong loss of antioxidant phenolic compounds during the transition from fruit wine to fruit vinegar. A targeted HPLC analysis indicates that metabolites such as gallic acid are lost in later stages of the vinegar process. Conclusion: The major conclusion of this work is that major changes occur in phenolic compounds during vinegar making. An untargeted metabolite analysis should be used to reveal these changes in more detail. In addition, the effect of vinegar processing on bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds was investigated by mimicking the digestive tract in an in vitro set up. This study is meant to provide insight into the potential of vinegar as a source of health-related compounds from fruit.

  4. Fruit Antioxidants during Vinegar Processing: Changes in Content and in Vitro Bio-Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple and grape are studied. Methods: A number of steps, starting from the fermentation of the fruit juices to the formation of the final vinegars, were studied from an industrial vinegar process. The effect of each of the vinegar processing steps on content of antioxidants, phenolic compounds and flavonoids was studied, by spectroscopic methods and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The major observation was that spectrophotometric methods indicate a strong loss of antioxidant phenolic compounds during the transition from fruit wine to fruit vinegar. A targeted HPLC analysis indicates that metabolites such as gallic acid are lost in later stages of the vinegar process. Conclusion: The major conclusion of this work is that major changes occur in phenolic compounds during vinegar making. An untargeted metabolite analysis should be used to reveal these changes in more detail. In addition, the effect of vinegar processing on bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds was investigated by mimicking the digestive tract in an in vitro set up. This study is meant to provide insight into the potential of vinegar as a source of health-related compounds from fruit. PMID:27690020

  5. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  6. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction.

  7. Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

  8. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  9. Structure and Property of Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition, fiber characteristics, crystalline structure, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the five species of bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis cv.Pachyloe, Bambusa tootisk, Arundinaia amabilis, B.vulgaris cv. Vittata, and Dendrocalamus affinis) were studied with IR, X-ray, DSC and chemical analyses. The results indicated that the benzene-ethanol extractive content of bamboo was higher than that of wood, the content of lignin and the content of pentosan were 19.1% - 25.3% and 14.9% - ...

  10. Liquefaction of bamboo,preparation of liquefied bamboo adhesives,and properties of the adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shenyuan; Ma Lingfei; Li Wenzhu; Cheng Shuna

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the liquefaction of bamboo in phenol,which involved the effects of weight ratios of phenol to bamboo,amount of catalyst,temperature,etc.The study showed that liquefaction could be accomplished with a phenol to bamboo weight ratio of 2-1:1,a 5% catalyst of HCI or BF3,and a temperature of 1150C.Liquefied bamboo formaldehyde (BLF) resin adhesive for exterior use could be obtained with a phenol to formaldehyde molar ratio of 1:1.6-2.0.The curing behavior of BLF resin adhesive,studied by TG-DSC and IR analyses,showed that BLF resin adhesives had a lower curing temperature than PF adhesives but had the same characteristic trough in IR spectra as PF adhesives.

  11. Evaluation of aqueous ammonia pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of different fractions of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Zhang, Maomao; Xin, Donglin; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-12-01

    The production of fermentable sugars from different fractions of bamboo shoots and mature bamboos (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) by cellulase and/or xylanase was investigated. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment exhibited high but different delignification capacities for different bamboo fractions. Supplementation of cellulases with xylanase synergistically improved the glucose and xylose yields of mature bamboo fractions. High hydrolyzability was observed in the hydrolysis of both non-pretreated and pretreated bamboo shoot fractions, suggesting pretreatment was not necessary for the hydrolysis of bamboo shoots. High hydrolyzability together with the advantages of low lignin content, fast growth, and widely distribution demonstrated that bamboo shoots were excellent lignocellulosic materials for the production of bioethanol and other biochemicals.

  12. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  13. Polistes spp. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) orientation to wine and vinegar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper wasps Polistes metricus Say and Polistes bellicosus Cresson were captured in Mississippi in traps baited with a mixture of a Merlot wine and a rice vinegar put in the field for spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). In a subsequent field test, P. bellicosus and P. metricu...

  14. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  15. Immune effects of extractives on bamboo biomass self-plasticization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wanxi; Xue, Qiu; Ohkoshi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo is a fast-growing renewable bioresource. However, bamboo resources are wasted, and bamboo products release toxic gases. Bamboo biomass was therefore extracted and self-plasticized, and the immune effects of bamboo extractives were determined and investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the following. (1) The 1H-NMR signals at ~5.5, 4-8, 7.4-10.2, and 12.22-12.37 ppm were attributed to the chemical shifts of active protons on carbons adjacent to R-OH, RAr-OH, oximes, and -COOH, respectively. This showed that there were highly reactive hydrogen atoms in bamboo benzene/ethanol extractives. The 13C-NMR spectrum gave further confirmation. (2) The extents of the effects of key process parameters were different: temperature > hot pressure > time. The optimal self-plasticizing conditions were temperature 170°C, hot pressure 9 MPa, time 40 min, and extraction of bamboo. (3) SEM, FT-IR, and XRD showed that contact and linkages among bamboo cells were significantly decreased by extractives, so the internal bond strengths of the self-plasticized samples were all higher after bamboo extraction. It was also found that the extractives created a significant barrier to bamboo self-plasticization as a result of their structure and chemical linkage reactions.

  16. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF THREE SPECIES OF BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vargas-Hernández

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of good quality plants for mass production of bamboo is an important factor due to the conventional methods of spreading have been little studied and limited their spreading. The present paper was carried out under green house conditions, with the purpose of evaluating the effect on spreading method factors, species of bamboo (CH, V y SN, (Ga, Bo y Bv and substrate (ATC, TCE y SIC about the surviving (SPV, number of shoots (NH, number of roots (NR, length of roots (LR, number of leaves by seedlings (NHA, height (AL and diameter of stalk (DI of the first shoot of plants of de bamboo in pots of black polyethylene The treatments were random established with three fold repetition The results were evaluated at the end of the experiment.( DDT. The method by chusquin is better. than varetas and nodal segments for the variants under study. The vareta and nodal segment offer less surviving and less number of shoots. Meantime the Guadua angustifolia and Bambusa vulgaris are the best species in relation to Bambusa oldhamii for bamboo spreading , regardless the substrate used.

  17. Medium Density Particleboard Reinforced with Bamboo Laminas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cortez Barbosa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of bamboo laminas of the species Dendrocalamus giganteus to three-layer medium density particleboard (MDP. These laminas were glued onto both the top and the bottom of each panel. With the manufactured panels laminated with bamboo, mechanical tests based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 14810 were carried out to determine the modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and the tensile strength parallel-to-surface. These mechanical tests were realized in particleboards of eucalyptus and in reinforced particleboard, both produced in the laboratory. The modulus of rupture and tensile strength parallel-to-surface of the laminated MDP had values close to those that have been reported. The reinforcements increased the values of these studied properties. Nevertheless, this fact indicated the possibility to produce a stronger MDP using bamboo lamina as surface layers. These results show the possibility of using coated-bamboo MDP for utilization in large spans, for example, in flooring for mezzanines with finish on both sides, and for robust furniture as bookshelves, beds, tables, etc.

  18. Fabrication of unsmooth bamboo-like nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of post drawing on morphology of bubbfil-spun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers was firstly investigated. Bamboo-like nanofibers were observed after drawing. The increase of surface area of the unsmooth fibers has many potential applications in various fields.

  19. The pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu; Xing’e. Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the research, thermogravimetry (TG), a combination of thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG–FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). The Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Coats–Redfern (modified) methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy (

  20. Hangzhou People and Bamboo Shoots Dish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINDA; LEE

    1995-01-01

    SOON we’ll celebrate the new year. According to Hangzhou tradition, every family will cook a hot dish for this feast which will include shredded winter bamboo shoots, hotbed chives, shredded meat and smoked bean curd. In addition, some families will also cook a dish of "braised

  1. Waste vinegar residue as substrate for phytase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Tong, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Shang-Zhong

    2011-12-01

    Waste vinegar residue, the by-product of vinegar processing, was used as substrate for phytase production from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 in solid-state fermentation to investigate the potential for the efficient re-utilization or recycling of waste vinegar residue. Statistical designs were applied in the processing of phytase production. First, a Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate eleven parameters: glucose, starch, wheat bran, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), tryptone, soybean meal, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, CaCl(2)·7H(2)O, FeSO(4)·7H(2)O, incubation time. The PB experiments showed that there were three significant factors: glucose, soybean meal and incubation time. The closest values to the optimum point were then derived by steepest ascent path. Finally, a mathematical model was created and validated to explain the behavioural process after these three significant factors were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The best phytase activity was attained using the following conditions: glucose (7.2%), soybean meal (5.1%), and incubation time (271 h). The phytase activity was 7.34-fold higher due to optimization by PB design, steepest ascent path design and RSM. The phytase activity was enhanced 0.26-fold in comparison with the results by the second step of steepest ascent path design. The results indicate that with waste vinegar residue as a substrate higher production of phytase from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 could be obtained through an optimization process and that this method might be applied to an integrated system for recycling of the waste vinegar residue.

  2. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  3. Defining the typical aroma of sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Antonio C Silva; Troncoso, Ana M

    2008-09-10

    The aroma of the three different classes of Sherry vinegar was evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC-O). GC-O was employed to identify substances responsible for aromatic notes associated with the selected descriptors of the typical aroma of Sherry vinegar and odor activity values (OAV) calculated to measure the single impact effect of different compounds selected by GC-O. Diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, ethyl isobutyrate, isovaleric acid, sotolon, and ethyl acetate reached high OAVs, turning out to be characteristic odor active compounds in Sherry vinegars. A total of 58 compounds were quantified, among them, 7 had not been previously reported in Sherry wine vinegars: ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl furoate, and ethyl benzoate, acetophenone, nonanoic acid, and sotolon. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) reveals that using aroma compounds as variables, we can classify Sherry vinegars with 100% correct scores as different from red wine vinegars.

  4. Effects of Temperature,Mother of Vinegar, and Amount of Sugar on AroniamelanocarpaChokeberry Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Won Sik Choi; Soon Hong Kwon; Sung Won Chung; Soon Goo Kwon; Jong Min Park; Jong Soon Kim; Destiani Supeno

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluatesthe effects of temperature, mother of vinegar, and amount of sugaron the fermentation of black chokeberry (Aroniamelanocarpa). To investigate temperature, samples of black chokeberrieswere compared after fermentation in a thermostat incubator (T 40ᵒC) and at room temperature (T 25ᵒC). Six mothers of vinegar were also used: white grape vinegar, brown rice black vinegar (pomegranate), brown rice black vinegar (blackberry and blueberry), pomegranate vinegar, brown rice vinega...

  5. Effect of Monascus aged vinegar on isoflavone conversion in soy germ by soaking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Cheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Li, Yan-Jie; Pang, Jie; Lin, He-Tong; Yin, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    Soy germ rich in isoflavones has attracted much attention for health-promoting characteristics. An effective approach via Monascus aged vinegar soaking was adopted to enhance the aglycone amount. The profiles and interconversion of soy germ isoflavones via Monascus aged vinegar soaking were investigated, and the distribution in vinegars were also explored. The aglycones were dramatically increased by 40.76 times. Concomitantly, β-glycosides and malonylglycosides were significantly decreased. The proportion of aglycones presented a sharp increase with the endogenous β-glucosidase activity at the initial 4h incubation. There appeared to be correlations between β-glucosidase activity and the hydrolysis of conjugated isoflavones. The results demonstrated that the reactions of decarboxylation, de-esterification and de-glycosylation were involved in the Monascus aged vinegar soaking, supporting synergistic effects of enzymolysis by endogenous β-glucosidase from soy germ and acid hydrolysis of vinegars. Soaking by vinegar is a promising pathway for preparing aglycone-rich soy germ.

  6. Diversity of Bamboos around springs in Malang East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Solikin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos have important roles to people in the villages area. They are planted and used by the people for making houses, food, buckets, fences, ropes, fuels, musical instruments and plaits. The root distribution of Bamboos is large and fibrous, also the growth of their new clumps is ascendant so the Bamboos has good potency for water and soil conservation on river banks, around the springs, hillsides and scarps. The survey to invent the bamboos growing around the springs was conducted in Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau and Lowokwaru Malang East Java in May 2009. The Bamboos invented at 0-100 m from the springs. The results Showed that there were four Bamboos founded around the springs namely Bambusa blumeana,Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter and Gigantochloa apus. Dendrocalamus asper was the most dominant species founded around the springs with relative frequency, relative density and important value index is 45.83 ; 58.49 and 104.32 respectively.

  7. The proposal of vinegar farm with the character of functional foods.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The work is focused on the development of a new functional food . The functional food in addition to nutrient sources must clearly contribute to the health improvement thanks to another ingredient which must be of natural origin. I chose vinegar as the basic component in my work. The vinegar can be made in a vinegar manufacturer through classical oxidation technique of diluted ethanol solution by acetic bacteria on the large contact surface with air alcohol analysis . Diluted ethanol may well...

  8. Comparison of in vivo toxicity, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Keong Yeap, Swee; Beh, Boon Keen; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-06-20

    Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans. Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines. Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Characterization and authentication of Spanish PDO wine vinegars using multidimensional fluorescence and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos-Reina, Rocío; Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa; Ocaña-Gonzalez, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    This work assesses the potential of multidimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for characterization and authentication of Spanish Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) wine vinegars. Seventy-nine vinegars of different categories (aged and sweet) belonging to the Spanish...... obtained better results (>92% of classification). In each category, SVM also allows the differentiation between PDOs. The proposed methodology could be used as an analysis method for the authentication of Spanish PDO wine vinegars....

  10. Biocomponent determination in vinegars with the help of 14C measured by liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudyka, Konrad; Pawlyta, Jacek

    2014-02-15

    This article presents a method of carbon extraction from vinegar used in preparation of liquid scintillation counting cocktails for measurements of low (14)C radioactivity. The presented method is relatively fast and can be used to produce liquid scintillation cocktails e.g., via benzene synthesis. In this work we present specific radiocarbon radioactivity determinations and based on them estimation of bio product content for five commercially available vinegars. All investigated vinegars are likely produced from plants in fermentation process.

  11. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, J.; Sampson, C; Vargas, J; Nilsson, T.; Gil-Martin, L. M.; Aschheim, M.

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions), maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate), an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yi...

  12. Ecological functions of bamboo forest: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUBen-zhi; FUMao-yi; XIEJin-zhong; YANGXiao-sheng_; LIZheng-cai

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo forest is an important forest type in subtropical and tropical areas. Due to its biological characteristic and growth habits,bamboo is not only an ideal economic investment that can be utilized in many different manners but also has enormous potential for alleviating many environmental problems facing the world today. This review describes ecological functions of the bamboo forest on soil erosion control, water conservation, land rehabilitation, and carbon sequestration.

  13. Influence of steam explosion pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of vinegar residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiayu; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Jiafu; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2016-07-01

    Vinegar residue is the by-product in the vinegar production process. The large amount of vinegar residue has caused a serious environmental problem owing to its acidity and corrosiveness. Anaerobic digestion is an effective way to convert agricultural waste into bioenergy, and a previous study showed that vinegar residue could be treated by anaerobic digestion but still had room to improve digestion efficiency. In this study, steam explosion at pressure of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.5 MPa and residence time of 5, 10, 15, and 20 min were used to pretreat vinegar residue to improve methane production, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were applied to validate structural changes of vinegar residue after steam explosion. Results showed that steam explosion pretreatment could destroy the structure of lignocellulose by removing the hemicellulose and lignin, and improve the methane yield effectively. Steam explosion-treated vinegar residue at 0.8 MPa for 5 min produced the highest methane yield of 153.58 mL gVS (-1), which was 27.65% (significant, α steam explosion did not influence the stability of anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that steam explosion pretreatment on vinegar residue might be a promising approach and it is worth further study to improve the efficiency of vinegar residue waste utilisation.

  14. A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meizhong; Zheng, Yanjie; Xiong, Cen; Li, Bifang; Chen, Sujuan; Bai, Wenliang; Zeng, Yongting; Li, Yongle; Zhang, Xieguang

    2013-01-01

    A discrimination method based on polyalcohol determination was developed for authenticity of protected geographical indication (PGI) vinegars-Shanxi extra aged vinegar (SVs) in China. Six polyalcohols in vinegars including erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, inositol, mannitol, and sorbitol were selected as the PGI discriminators. GC/MS was used to analyze the polyalcohols in the SVs, Zhenjiang vinegars (ZVs), Kazuo aged vinegars (KVs), and other non-geographical indication protected vinegars (NVs). SVs can be distinguished from KVs by the chemical markers mannitol and sorbitol, although the production processes for both types of vinegars are similar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish SVs from ZVs and NVs. The differences among the three kinds of vinegars shown by PCA results may be due to the higher erythritol content in SVs, and the inositol and mannitol in ZVs. This study also found that the amount of polyalcohols in Chinese vinegars increases with the acidity value only, regardless of the aging time. The overall results indicated that the polyalcohols can be practicable discriminators for SV discrimination.

  15. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”, the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties.

  16. Acetic acid bacteria and the production and quality of wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Albert; Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either "fast" or "traditional"), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties.

  17. Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Lim, Kian Lam; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) was demonstrated to be hepatoprotective. This study aims to investigate the reversing effects of pineapple vinegar on paracetamol-induced liver damage in murine model. Methods Pineapple juice was fermented via anaerobic and aerobic fermentation to produce pineapple vinegar. Male BALB/c mice (n = 70) were separated into 7 treatment groups (n = 10). Pineapple vinegar (0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW) and synthetic vinegar were used to treat paracetamol-induced liver da...

  18. Can't see the (bamboo) forest for the trees: examining bamboo's fit within international forestry institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Kathleen Carmel; Wu, Liangru; Lou, Yiping

    2014-10-01

    Over the centuries, governments and international agencies have developed a wide range of institutions to manage timber resources and conserve values provided by treed lands. Concerns regarding the sustainable supply of timber have provided opportunities for the development of substitute resources; however, bamboo and other non-timber forest resources have not been a part of the development of these institutions. Bamboo is a unique Non-Timber Forest Product, as it is often classified as forest or timber, and therefore must adhere to the same regulations as timber. Given the recent global expansion of bamboo, it is timely to examine the interplay between bamboo and the traditional institutions of forest governance. This paper aims to contribute to debates regarding cognitive institutional constraints on the development of substitute natural resources using bamboo as a case study, with specific focus on the applicability of Forest Stewardship Council certification, timber legality verification and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation to bamboos.

  19. Characteristics of water and carbon balance in moso bamboo forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Laplace, S.; Tseng, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Wey, T.; Komatsu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Water and carbon cycles in mountainous areas can have considerable impacts on our available nature resources such as water resources and timber production. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the difference of water and carbon balances between different types of forested ecosystems. Recently, bamboo forests have been expanding by replacing surrounding vegetation such as coniferous and broad-leaved forests in eastern Asian countries. It has been speculated that the replacements by bamboo forests could alter the vegetation water and carbon cycles. However, our knowledge for the bamboo forests was still limited due to lack of applicable methodology based on a field measurement. To clarify the potential impacts of bamboo expansion on water and carbon cycles, our previous study established optimal and effective design for assessing bamboo forest water use (ie, transpiration) based on sap flux measurements. Using the method, we quantified stand-scale transpiration in bamboo forests and coniferous forests in Taiwan. Consequently, we found significantly larger transpiration in bamboo forests compared with those of surrounding vegetation due to larger canopy conductance in bamboo forests. The unique characteristics of the water use accompanied larger carbon assimilation and soil CO2 efflux in bamboo forests.

  20. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-06-11

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  1. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-04-16

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1) and 4.5 × 10(8)kg CO2 y(-1), respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 10(9) kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths.

  2. Effects of silicon and copper on bamboo grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Blanche; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Keller, Catherine; Panfili, Frédéric; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Due to its high growth rate and biomass production, bamboo has recently been proven to be useful in wastewater treatment. Bamboo accumulates high silicon (Si) levels in its tissues, which may improve its development and tolerance to metal toxicity. This study investigates the effect of Si supplementation on bamboo growth and copper (Cu) sensitivity. An 8-month hydroponic culture of bamboo Gigantocloa sp. "Malay Dwarf " was performed. The bamboo plants were first submitted to a range of Si supplementation (0-1.5 mM). After 6 months, a potentially toxic Cu concentration of 1.5 μM Cu(2+) was added. Contrary to many studies on other plants, bamboo growth did not depend on Si levels even though it absorbed Si up to 218 mg g(-1) in leaves. The absorption of Cu by bamboo plants was not altered by the Si supplementation; Cu accumulated mainly in roots (131 mg kg(-1)), but was also found in leaves (16.6 mg kg(-1)) and stems (9.8 mg kg(-1)). Copper addition did not induce any toxicity symptoms. The different Cu and Si absorption mechanisms may partially explain why Si did not influence Cu repartition and concentration in bamboo. Given the high biomass and its absorption capacity, bamboo could potentially tolerate and accumulate high Cu concentrations making this plant useful for wastewater treatment.

  3. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  4. The floral transcriptomes of four bamboo species (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): support for common ancestry among woody bamboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, William P; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Yin, Yanbin; Duvall, Melvin R

    2016-05-20

    Next-generation sequencing now allows for total RNA extracts to be sequenced in non-model organisms such as bamboos, an economically and ecologically important group of grasses. Bamboos are divided into three lineages, two of which are woody perennials with bisexual flowers, which undergo gregarious monocarpy. The third lineage, which are herbaceous perennials, possesses unisexual flowers that undergo annual flowering events. Transcriptomes were assembled using both reference-based and de novo methods. These two methods were tested by characterizing transcriptome content using sequence alignment to previously characterized reference proteomes and by identifying Pfam domains. Because of the striking differences in floral morphology and phenology between the herbaceous and woody bamboo lineages, MADS-box genes, transcription factors that control floral development and timing, were characterized and analyzed in this study. Transcripts were identified using phylogenetic methods and categorized as A, B, C, D or E-class genes, which control floral development, or SOC or SVP-like genes, which control the timing of flowering events. Putative nuclear orthologues were also identified in bamboos to use as phylogenetic markers. Instances of gene copies exhibiting topological patterns that correspond to shared phenotypes were observed in several gene families including floral development and timing genes. Alignments and phylogenetic trees were generated for 3,878 genes and for all genes in a concatenated analysis. Both the concatenated analysis and those of 2,412 separate gene trees supported monophyly among the woody bamboos, which is incongruent with previous phylogenetic studies using plastid markers.

  5. Functional components of bamboo shavings and bamboo leaf extracts and their antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Xia, Daozong; Huang, Jun; Ge, Qing; Mao, Jianwei; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to detect characteristic compounds and evaluate the free radical scavenging capacity of the bamboo leaves extract and bamboo shavings extract (BSE). The antioxidant capacity of bamboo leaf n-butanol fraction (AOB) exhibited the highest total phenolic content (49.93%), total flavonoids content (24.11%), and characteristic flavonoids and phenolic acids, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, orientin, homoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. Available data obtained with in vitro models suggested that AOB had higher free radical scavenging capacity with IC(50) values of 1.04, 4.48, 5.37, and 1.12 μg/mL on DPPH(•), O(2)(•-), (•)OH, and H(2)O(2), respectively, than the other two extracts, bamboo leaf water extract and BSE. The results indicated that the extracts from different parts of the bamboo possess excellent antioxidant activity, which can be used potentially as a readily accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  7. Study of pineapple peelings processing into vinegar by biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossou, Seyram K; Ameyapoh, Yaovi; Karou, Simplice D; de Souza, Comlan

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to reduce post-harvest losses of pineapple local variety egbenana by the transformation of juice into vinegar through biotechnological process. Vinegar was produced through two successive fermentations: alcoholic and acetic fermentations. The alcohol fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C using yeast. Biomass, pH and Brix were evaluated daily during the fermentation. Acetic fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C using an acetic bacteria strain isolated from pineapple wine previously exposed to ambient temperature (28 degrees C) for 5 days. Biomass, pH and acid levels were monitored each 2 days. The performance of acetic bacteria isolated was also assessed by studying their glucose and ethanol tolerance. The study allowed the isolation of yeast coded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) and an acetic bacteria coded Acetobacter sp. (ASV03) both occurring in the pineapple juice. The monitoring of successive fermentations indicated that the pineapple juice with sugar concentration of 20 Brix, seeded with 10(6) cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) for alcoholic fermentation for 4 days and afterwards seeded with 10(6) cells of Acetobacter sp. resulted in 4.5 acetic degree vinegar at Brix 5.3% and pH 2.8 for 23 to 25 days. The study of glucose tolerance of the strain of Acetobacter sp. showed that the growth of acetic bacteria was important in a juice with high concentration of sugar. However, the concentration of ethanol did not effect on the acetic bacteria growth. These results enabled on one hand to improve the manufacturing technology of vinegar from fruits and on the other hand to produce a starter of yeast and acetic bacteria strains for this production.

  8. The determination and comparison of phenolics in apple vinegar, persimmon vinegar and kiwifruit vinegar%苹果醋、柿子醋、猕猴桃醋中酚类物质测定与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓娇; 王晓宇; 袁静; 卢敏; 孙翔宇; 王瑞花; 全志杰

    2013-01-01

    The Folin-Ciocalteu and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were employed to determine the total phenolics and mono-phenols in apple vinegar,persimmon vinegar and kiwifruit vinegar.The results showed that the kiwifruit vinegar contained the highest total phenolics (754.50mgGAE/L),followed by persimmon vinegar (343.67GAEmg/L),and the apple vinegar was relatively low (274.08mgGAE/L).Eight kinds of mono-phenols in apple vinegar and nine kinds of mono-phenols in persimmon vinegar and kiwifruit vinegar would be quantified with this method.Chlorogenic acid (6.56mg/L),Caffeic acid (3.03 mg/L) and Phloridzin (1.76mg/L) as the characteristic components of apple vinegar had accounted for 86.7% of the total mono-phenols contents.The total amount of Chlorogenic acid and Phloridzin was more than 27 times as much as Gallic acid in apple vinegar.Gallic acid respectively reached 22.92mg/L and 9.67mg/L in persimmon vinegar and kiwifruit vinegar,which was the highest component of the total mono-phenols in these two fruit vinegar.At the same time,(+/-)-Cat-echin hydrate was only quantified in persimmon vinegar and kiwifruit vinegar.%确定苹果醋、柿子醋和猕猴桃醋中酚类物质特征,为果醋的加工、营养评价以及特征物质的确定提供理论依据.采用福林-肖卡法(Folin-Ciocalteu)和反相高效液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)对苹果(富士)醋、柿子(月柿)醋和猕猴桃(秦美)醋中总酚和单体酚进行分析.结果显示:3种水果醋中,猕猴桃醋的总酚含量最高(754.50 mg-GAE/L),柿子醋次之(343.67 mg GAE/L),苹果醋相对较低(274.08 rmg/L).HPLC检测显示,以没食子酸等16种单体酚作为标准品,苹果醋中能被定量的单体酚有8种,柿子醋和猕猴桃醋中均有9种.苹果醋中绿原酸(6.56 mg/L)、咖啡酸(3.03 mg/L)和根皮苷(1.76 mg/L)含量较高,是苹果醋的特征物质,占可定量单体酚总含量的86.7%.柿子醋和猕猴桃醋中含量最高的均是

  9. 酿造醋和配置醋质量分析与鉴别%Quality Analysis and Distinction About Brewed Vinegar and Prepared Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先端; 马志静; 张丽宏; 肖碧英; 戴明辉; 毛淑杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:对酿造醋和配置醋的质量进行分析并建立鉴别方法,为区别市场其成品的真伪优劣提供依据.方法:采用紫外光谱鉴别及国标规定方法,比较各样品变化情况.结果:酿造白米醋在270nm下有吸收,配置白醋则没有.酿造米醋灰分平均在2.00%左右,酿造白米醋灰分在0.29%左右,配置白醋灰分在0.02%左右.酿造米醋氨基态氮平均在0.121%左右,酿造白米醋氛基态氮在0.009%左右,配置白醋氛基态氮为0.结论:本试验方法操作简便、可靠、实用,可作为鉴别酿造醋和配置醋质量的真伪优劣指标.%[Objective]To analyze quality of brewed vinegar and prepared vinegar and establish identification methods. [Method]According to national standards and ultra-violet spectrograph, various samples were compared. [Result] The brewed rice vinegar had the absorption under 270nm, but the prepared white vinegar did not have. The ash of brewed rice vinegar was about 2.00% on average,brewed white rice vinegar was about 0.29%, and prepared white vinegar was about 0.02%. The amino nitrogen of brewed rice vinegar was about 0.121% on average, brewed white rice vinegar was about 0.009%, and the prepared white vinegar was 0. [Conclusion] This empirical approach is easy to operate, reliable, practical and can be used as a indicator to distinguish the quality between brewed vinegar and prepared vinegar.

  10. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BAMBOO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Yu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC has many potential applications because of its special properties. In this paper, NCC was prepared from bamboo pulp. Bamboo pulp was first pretreated with sodium hydroxide, followed by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. The concentration of sulfuric acid and the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC were studied. The results showed that sulfuric acid concentration had larger influence than the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC. When the temperature was 50oC, the concentration of sulfuric acid was 48wt% and the reaction time was 30 minutes, a high quality of nanocrystalline cellulose was obtained; under these conditions, the length of the nanocrystalline cellulose ranged from 200 nm to 500 nm, the diameter was less than 20 nm, the yield was 15.67wt%, and the crystallinity was 71.98%, which is not only higher than those of cellulose nanocrystals prepared from some non-wood materials, but also higher than bamboo cellulose nanocrystals prepared by other methods.

  11. Fermentation characteristics of vinegar residue and some natural materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian; Yang Ji-chu

    2006-01-01

    Solid state fermentation is an attractive process to produce cellulase economically due to its lower financial investment and lower operating costs. Generally available natural materials in our study included vinegar residue, wheat bran, rice bran and wheat straw. Cellulase production was carried out by solid state fermentation using these materials as the substrate of Trichoderma koningii.The ingredients of natural materials, associated with the effects of water content, time and nitrogen sources on cellulase synthesis were studied.A comparatively high cellulase activity(>4 IU·g-1 SDM) was obtained in the fermentation batch.The optimum culture time of vinegar residue, wheat bran and wheat straw were 72 hours, but that of rice bran was 60 hours. Total water contents of wheat bran, rice bran and wheat straw should not exceed 50% and that of vinegar residue should not be more than 60%. It was also shown that nitrogen salts contributed much to fermentation. (NH4)3PO4 and urea achieved good results in promoting enzyme activity.

  12. Technological process for production of persimmon and strawberry vinegars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hidalgo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Hidalgo1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Ana Belen Cerezo2, Maria-Jesús Torija1, Albert Mas11Biotecnologia Enològica, Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcel-li Domingo, Tarragona; 2Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, SpainAbstract: Fruit surplus is common in intensive agriculture in many countries. This ecologic and economic problem requires alternative uses to be found for fruit. The aim of this study was to use surplus fruit to produce vinegar by traditional methods (alcoholic fermentation and acetification from persimmon and strawberry. The process was performed with naturally occurring microorganisms and compared with inoculated commercial wine yeast for alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation proceeded faster when inoculated due to the length of the lag phases observed in spontaneous fermentations. The alcoholic fermentations of strawberry mash were faster than those of persimmon mash. In contrast, acetifications were much faster in persimmon (30 days than in strawberry (70 days, in the latter some acetifications were not finished. From the technologic point of view, to produce persimmon and strawberry wine and vinegar, it is better to avoid fruit pressing and perform the process with fruit mash. Inoculation is recommended for persimmon and is necessary for strawberry.Keywords: wine, vinegar, fruit seasonings, acetic acid bacteria

  13. Intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid in vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Kikuchi, Makiko; Hirano, Satoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-09-14

    Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of acetic acid is useful for origin discrimination and quality control of vinegar. Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions, which are each carbon isotope ratios of the methyl and carboxyl carbons in the acetic acid molecule, may be required to obtain more detailed information to discriminate such origin. In this study, improved gas chromatography-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-GC-C-IRMS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to measure the intramolecular carbon isotope distributions of acetic acid in 14 Japanese vinegars. The results demonstrated that the methyl carbons of acetic acid molecules in vinegars produced from plants were mostly isotopically depleted in (13)C relative to the carboxyl carbon. Moreover, isotopic differences (δ(13)C(carboxyl) - δ(13)C(methyl)) had a wide range from -0.3 to 18.2‰, and these values differed among botanical origins, C3, C4, and CAM plants.

  14. Crude glycerin in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  15. Crude glycerin for monogastrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  16. The structure and mechanics of Moso bamboo material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P G; Gibson, L J

    2014-10-06

    Although bamboo has been used structurally for millennia, there is currently increasing interest in the development of renewable and sustainable structural bamboo products (SBPs). These SBPs are analogous to wood products such as plywood, oriented strand board and glue-laminated wood. In this study, the properties of natural Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) are investigated to further enable the processing and design of SBPs. The radial and longitudinal density gradients in bamboo give rise to variations in the mechanical properties. Here, we measure the flexural properties of Moso bamboo in the axial direction, along with the compressive strengths in the axial and transverse directions. Based on the microstructural variations (observed with scanning electron microscopy) and extrapolated solid cell wall properties of bamboo, we develop models, which describe the experimental results well. Compared to common North American construction woods loaded along the axial direction, Moso bamboo is approximately as stiff and substantially stronger, in both flexure and compression but denser. This work contributes to critical knowledge surrounding the microstructure and mechanical properties of bamboo, which are vital to the engineering and design of sustainable SBPs.

  17. Bamboo: an overview on its genetic diversity and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Lucina; Ali, Md Nasim; Gantait, Saikat; Chakraborty, Somsubhra

    2015-02-01

    Genetic diversity represents the heritable variation both within and among populations of organisms, and in the context of this paper, among bamboo species. Bamboo is an economically important member of the grass family Poaceae, under the subfamily Bambusoideae. India has the second largest bamboo reserve in Asia after China. It is commonly known as "poor man's timber", keeping in mind the variety of its end use from cradle to coffin. There is a wide genetic diversity of bamboo around the globe and this pool of genetic variation serves as the base for selection as well as for plant improvement. Thus, the identification, characterization and documentation of genetic diversity of bamboo are essential for this purpose. During recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for characterization of bamboo species with the aid of molecular markers for sustainable utilization of genetic diversity, its conservation and future studies. Genetic diversity assessments among the identified bamboo species, carried out based on the DNA fingerprinting profiles, either independently or in combination with morphological traits by several researchers, are documented in the present review. This review will pave the way to prepare the database of prevalent bamboo species based on their molecular characterization.

  18. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL(-1), reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

  19. ATR-FTIR as a potential tool for controlling high quality vinegar categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos-Reina, Rocío; Callejón, Raquel M.; Oliver-Pozo, Celia

    2017-01-01

    potential as a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive tool for characterizing different categories of high-quality vinegars. Spectra from 67 wine vinegars belonging to the PDOs “Vinagre de Jerez” and “Vinagre Condado de Huelva”, including their different established categories, were analyzed in the 4000...

  20. Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report our recent findings on the identification of volatile compounds released from the ChiangKiang vinegar that is attractive to house flies, Musca domestica. The field trapping experiments showed that the traps baited with 50-ml of the vinegar captured the highest house flies in the diary farm...

  1. Broadcast application of vinegar for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar (acetic acid) is a non-selective contact herbicide used in organic crop production. Research was conducted to determine if vinegar could be successfully applied over the top of onion plants to control broadleaf weeds. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes...

  2. TLC Screening for Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Fifteen Bamboo Species and Identification of Antioxidant Flavone Glycosides from Leaves of Bambusa. textilis McClure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves is growing. To discover new sources of natural antioxidants, a TLC bioautography method combined with a new image processing method was developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from 15 different species of bamboo. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Bambusa. textilis McClure possessed the highest antioxidant activity among the selected bamboo species. To rapidly identify the antioxidant compounds, the crude extract of B. textilis McClure was analysed by HPLC-UV, and HPLC-micro-fractionation of the extract was carried out. Based on TLC bioautography-guided fractionation, three antioxidant fractions were isolated from B. textilis McClure by preparative chromatography. These three antioxidant compounds were identified as isoorientin 4''-O β-D-xylopyranoside (1, isoorientin 2''-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2 and isoorientin (3 according to their UV, MS, and NMR data. The proposed TLC screening method could therefore be an easy way to evaluate the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves, and the results achieved should prove very helpful for promoting their utilization, as B. textilis McClure can be considered a promising plant source of natural antioxidants.

  3. TLC screening for antioxidant activity of extracts from fifteen bamboo species and identification of antioxidant flavone glycosides from leaves of Bambusa. textilis McClure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Yue, Yong-De; Tang, Feng; Sun, Jia

    2012-10-19

    Interest in the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves is growing. To discover new sources of natural antioxidants, a TLC bioautography method combined with a new image processing method was developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from 15 different species of bamboo. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Bambusa. textilis McClure possessed the highest antioxidant activity among the selected bamboo species. To rapidly identify the antioxidant compounds, the crude extract of B. textilis McClure was analysed by HPLC-UV, and HPLC-micro-fractionation of the extract was carried out. Based on TLC bioautography-guided fractionation, three antioxidant fractions were isolated from B. textilis McClure by preparative chromatography. These three antioxidant compounds were identified as isoorientin 4''-O β-D-xylopyranoside, isoorientin 2''-O-α-L-rhamnoside and isoorientin according to their UV, MS, and NMR data. The proposed TLC screening method could therefore be an easy way to evaluate the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves, and the results achieved should prove very helpful for promoting their utilization, as B. textilis McClure can be considered a promising plant source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Sarkaki, A R; Jalali, M T; Latifi, S M

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (300+/-30 g) by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Both normal and diabetic animals were fed with standard animal food containing apple cider vinegar (6% w/w) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose did not change, while HbA1c significantly decreased by apple cider vinegar in diabetic group (pvinegar, significant reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (pcider vinegar also reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (pcider vinegar improved the serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats by decreasing serum TG, LDL-c and increasing serum HDL-c and may be of great value in managing the diabetic complications.

  5. Effect of Wood Vinegar on Seed Germination and Water Implantation of Com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling; JIANG Enchen; LI Bosong

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the effect of wood vinegar on seed germination and seedling growth, the seeds of corn are dipped in wood vinegar of different densities. The results showed that significant effects were found through all the treatments on the seed germination rate, the seed germinating energy and the germinating index. The regress CUBICS curves were developed to describe the relation. The reasonable parameters range was obtained. At the same time, the com was cultivated by wood vinegar of different densities, aiming to study the effect of wood vinegar on biomass. It showed that all treatments had obvious effects on the seedling length and dry weight aboveground, the chlorophyll and dry weight underground were not included. The research results could be used to direct the wood vinegar deeply refining process and product development.

  6. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS KETUT ARINASA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  7. 食醋原料考证%Research on Vinegar Raw MateriaIs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈子林

    2016-01-01

    Vinegar,as a kind of traditional condiment,is the necessary condiment in people's daily life. However,because of the differences in vinegar brewing regions and materials choice of the north and the south since the ancient times,the varieties and flavors of vinegar are different.In order to better understand the formation of vinegar flavor,the author researches and compares the raw materials of Jiangsu and Zhejiang rose rice vinegar,Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar,Sichuan bran vinegar,Shanxi mature vinegar and smoked vinegar,which has provided the theory and basis for the selection of raw materials in vinegar brewing process.%传统调味品的食醋是人们日常生活中必不可少的调味品。因为自古以来南北方酿醋的地域和原料的选择不同,导致南北方所酿造的醋的品种及风味各不相同。为了能更好地了解醋风味的形成,笔者研究对比了江浙玫瑰米醋、镇江香醋、四川麸醋、山西陈醋和熏醋的酿造原料,为今后食醋在酿造过程中对原料的选择等提供理论和依据。

  8. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  9. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  10. The Material Behavior Of Plastered-Bamboo Wall Towards Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. R. Hutubessy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the lateral resistance capacity of the plastered-bamboo wall. The test was carried out on three pieces of plastered-bamboo wall. The first was plastered-bamboo wall without bracing (DP-TB, second was plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing (DP-BB, and the last is a plastered-bamboo wall which uses wiremesh bracing (DP-BK. The static load (monotonic test method was used to determine the correlation between the lateral resistance and the deflection of plastered-bamboo wall. The monotonic testing was only conducted until the load has experience 20% decrease from peak load. The test results showed that the plastered-bamboo wall using wiremesh bracing had the peak load capacity, energy dissipation, and higher ductility than the plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing. Elastic stiffness of the plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing was 1.27 greater than plastered-bamboo wall using wiremesh bracing. The ultimate load resulted from the experiment of the plastered-bamboo wall with either bamboo or additional wiremeshbracingwas 25.52 kN and 26.37 kN or two times greater than the results of an analysis of the flexural failure based on Subedi method (1991 which was 14.39 kN.

  11. Effect of Lignin Derivatives in the Bio-Polyols from Microwave Liquefied Bamboo on the Properties of Polyurethane Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulong Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo residues were subjected to a microwave-assisted liquefaction process for the production of crude bio-polyols (CBP. The fractionated bio-polyols (FBP were obtained by the removal of lignin derivatives from the crude bio-polyols (CBP using a simple method. Polyurethane (PU foams were successfully prepared from both CBP and FBP. The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of lignin derivatives in bio-polyols on the physical properties, thermal stability, and microstructure of PU foams. The results revealed that the PU foam made from CBP had a higher density and superior thermal stability compared to that made from FBP; however, they were also much more fragile. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images indicated that the lignin compounds in the CBP had impact on the structure of the PU foam.

  12. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2011-06-22

    Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis.

  13. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, γ-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants.

  14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  15. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  16. Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Truss Bridge for Rural Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuralinah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of a potential renewable construction material in the village. Bamboo is known to have a high mechanical strength in direction of the fibers. The weakness of bamboo in lateral direction of the fiber could be solved by constructing a composite structure with the concrete. The appropriate construction with hold the loads in axial direction is a truss structure. In a bamboo concrete truss structure, the bars are composed from the concrete column with a bamboo reinforcement. The research studies about the performance of the bridge and the effect of loading position on the strain and deformation of bamboo reinforced concrete truss bridge. The bridge whose span and width are respectively 1.5 m and 1.2 m was prepared. Load applied to the truss bridge conducted by using vehicle load changes with position. Mounting the strains gauge in bamboo reinforcement of primary truss is to observe the strain. The LVDT is used to observe the deflection of the truss bridge. The results show that the loading position influences the strain and deformation as well as a theoretical view.

  17. "Bainiaoyi, " Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The "Bainiaoyi," or Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe, consists of young men and women of Miao nationality of the mountain villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Each of them can dance and sing well, and are often invited to perform in provinces and cities across China. Because of this, these young peasants who live deep in the mountain villages get a chance to leave their isolated homelands to visit other parts of the world and broaden their scope. The Miao people aren’t the only ones to benefit from these travels. More and more people now have the opportunity to

  18. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  19. Vinegar Treatment Prevents the Development of Murine Experimental Colitis via Inhibition of Inflammation and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fengge; Feng, Jiaxuan; Wang, Xinhui; Qi, Zhimin; Shi, Xiaochen; An, Yanan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Wang, Chao; Liu, Mingyuan; Liu, Bo; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the preventive effects of vinegar and acetic acid (the active component of vinegar) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Vinegar (5% v/v) or acetic acid (0.3% w/v) treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histopathological scores, attenuated body weight loss, and shortened the colon length in a murine experimental colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Further mechanistic analysis showed that vinegar inhibited inflammation through suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and MAPK signaling activation. Vinegar also inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis in the colitis mouse model. Surprisingly, pretreatment with vinegar for 28 days before DSS induction increased levels of the commensal lactic acid-producing or acetic acid-producing bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus faecalis, whereas decreased Escherichia coli levels were found in the feces of mice. These results suggest that vinegar supplementation might provide a new dietary strategy for the prevention of UC.

  20. Ecology of litterfall production of giant bamboo Dendrocalamus asper in a watershed area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Toledo Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant bamboo Dendrocalamus asper is recommended in environmental and livelihood programs in the Philippines due to its various ecological, economic and social benefits. However, there are limited data on the ecology of giant bamboo litterfall production, which contributes to soil nutrient availability. Bamboo also contributed in carbon sequestration. The study was conducted within the Taganibong Watershed in Bukidnon, Philippines. Nine litterfall traps measuring 1mx1m were established within the giant bamboo stand in the study area. Results show that giant bamboo litterfall is dominated by leaves. Biological characteristics of bamboo litterfall do no not influence litterfall production but temperature, wind speed and humidity correlate with the amount of litterfall. Findings of the study further revealed that fresh giant bamboo tissue contains high carbon content and the soil in the bamboo stand has higher organic matter than the open clearing. These data indicate the role of giant bamboo in carbon sequestration and soil nutrient availability.

  1. 不同品种醋炮制元胡对延胡索乙素提取率和固形物的影响%Influence of Different Vinegar-prepared Corydalis Tuber on Betacellulin and Solid Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英杰; 毛淑杰; 陈金春; 陈春生

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the effect of different vinegar-prepared corydalis tuber on betaeellulin and solid Matter. [Method] Select real dry crude drugs corydalis tuber for preparation separately with 18℃ Qinghua white vinegar, 4℃ Longmen rice vinegar, Zhenjiang rice vinegar, Tianjin Cuibo rice vinegar, 4℃ Zhenji and Shanghai Tianyu rice vinegar under “China Pharmacopoeia"; take LC to measure the contents of betacellulin and .solid matter. [Result] The different influences on betacellulin are as follows: 18℃ Qinghua white vinegar>4℃ Longrnen rice vinegar> Zhenjiang rice vinegar> 4℃ Zhenji> Shanghai Tianyu rice vinegar; on solid matter: Shanghai Tianyu rice vinegar > Tianjin Cuibo rice vinegar> Zhenjiang rice vinegar>4℃ Zhenji>4℃ Longmen rice vinegar> 18℃ Qinghua white vinegar; the differences are very marked. [Conclusion] The different influence will affect the medicinal values.%[目的]探讨不同品种醋炮制元胡对延胡索乙素提取率和固形物的影响.[方法]选用延胡索正品药材的干燥块茎分别用18℃青花白醋、4℃龙门米醋、镇江米醋、天津翠波米醋、4℃珍极、上海天鱼米醋,按2005版延胡索炮制方法制备:每种醋平行炮制6份,每份500g元胡;采用液相色谱法测定元胡炮制品中延胡索乙素及固形物的含量.[结果]不同品种醋对元胡药材中延胡索乙素提取率的影响:18℃青花白醋>4℃龙门米醋>镇江米醋>天津翠波米醋>4℃珍极>上海天鱼米醋,对固形物得率的影响:上海天鱼米醋>天津翠波米醋>镇江米醋>4℃珍极>4℃龙门米醋>8℃青花白醋,且不同品种醋对元胡药材中延胡索乙素提取率和固形物得率的影响,存在显著性差异(P<0.05).[结论]不同品种醋炮制元胡可影响其有效成分延胡索乙素的提取率和固形物的得率,从而影响其药用价值.

  2. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of a lightweight bamboo composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Andreas; Berwing, Michael; Förster, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The demand for fast changing production lines and other facilities needs new lightweight and stable systems for partitioning walls. There is also a need for ecological products for this application. The wood like grass bamboo provides a wide potential to substitute conventional wood. A composite lightweight honeycomb like bamboo board was developed and compared with reinforced and unreinforced plywood specimen. The acquired mechanical properties gave a promising result for the usability of bamboo as basis material for wide span boards. It can be manufactured with minimal technical investments, that suits also well for regions with little industry. The ecological assessment of the structure is very positive.

  4. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  5. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol), %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose), %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose). After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use. PMID:20109192

  6. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  7. THE BIODIVERSITY AND POTENTIAL OF SOME BAMBOO SPECIES IN SEREALE DISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA REGENCY, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Elis, Tambaru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the biodiversity and potential of some bamboo species in Sereale District, North Toraja Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, was done from January-May 2012 in location Sereale District, North Toraja Regency. The inventory of bamboo spesies growth was made by using the cruise method and identification of bamboo by using descriptive. The results showed that bamboo six species are Talang bamboo Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz.; Toi bamboo S. lima (Blanco) Merr.; Pa...

  8. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  9. Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura L; Woodruff, Logan H; Foote, Jerald C; Barreto-Alcoba, Morela

    2005-07-01

    Apple cider vinegar products are advertised in the popular press and over the Internet for treatment of a variety of conditions. After an adverse event was reported to the authors, eight apple cider vinegar tablet products were tested for pH, component acid content, and microbial growth. Considerable variability was found between the brands in tablet size, pH, component acid content, and label claims. Doubt remains as to whether apple cider vinegar was in fact an ingredient in the evaluated products. The inconsistency and inaccuracy in labeling, recommended dosages, and unsubstantiated health claims make it easy to question the quality of the products.

  10. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical-Emission Spectroscopy Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu AKPINAR-BAYIZIT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the mineral content of vinegar samples. The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg and P (major elements as well as Fe, Mn, Sn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd (minor elements were determined in 35 commercial vinegar samples using inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The elements with the highest concentrations were K, Na, Ca, Mg and P. The concentrations of heavy metals in the vinegar samples, including Cd, Ni, Sn and Pb, were not considered a health risk.

  11. The Material Behavior Of Plastered-Bamboo Wall Towards Lateral Loads

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. R. Hutubessy,; Hrc. Priyosulistyo

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the lateral resistance capacity of the plastered-bamboo wall. The test was carried out on three pieces of plastered-bamboo wall. The first was plastered-bamboo wall without bracing (DP-TB), second was plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing (DP-BB), and the last is a plastered-bamboo wall which uses wiremesh bracing (DP-BK). The static load (monotonic) test method was used to determine the correlation between the lateral resistance and the deflection o...

  12. Bamboo Fabric: A Study of Using Thick Bamboo Fiber for Producing and Developing Thai Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisika Wannajun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of life of Thai people has involved utensils or things which made of bamboo since the ancient time. Rural Thai people use bamboo for building houses, making handicrafts, basketwork and household utensils. At present, thick bamboo is used and developed to many new products especially the textile products. Three purposes of this research were these: (1 to investigate the background of Thai textile production, (2 to investigate current situations and difficulties of Thai textile production and (3 to investigate the use of thick bamboo fiber for producing and developing Thai textiles. Approach: Research processes divided into 2 phases were these: the first phase was a quantitative experimental research type of bamboo fibers, the second phase was an application of the results of the first phase research to the phase was a qualitative research. The instruments for collecting data for the second phase research were a survey, an interview, a focus group interview and a workshop. Research areas were Ban Lung Pra Du, Amphoe Huay Talang, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Amphoe Chonnaabot, Khon Kaen Province and Ban Tha Khon Yang, Amphoe Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 200 people consisted of 20 key informants, 100 casual informants and 100 general informants. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed by means of an interpretation within the concepts and theories involved. Research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: (1 in terms of the background of Thai textile production, it revealed that there were human beings lived in Thailand about 7,000-8,000 years ago and they could use natural fiber from plants and animals for weaving. The evidence which confirmed this truth was the excavation of historical objects in prehistorically sites in Thailand and there were remnants clung to or filled in

  13. Preliminary investigation on concentrating of acetol from wood vinegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ze, E-mail: windw100@sohu.co [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin Weigang [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Song Wenli, E-mail: wlsong@home.ipe.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yao Jianzhong [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Acetol, as one of the components in biomass pyrolysis liquid, is a high value added compound for medicine synthesis. Benefit may be obtained if acetol can be extracted from the pyrolysis liquid, while the instability of acetol makes the concentrating difficult. In this paper, the concentrating of acetol from wood vinegar is preliminarily investigated, and the conditions of distillation, solvent extraction, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} effect on the concentrating result are discussed. Herein the content of acetol can be concentrated from below 4% in the raw wood vinegar to above 60%, and the number of main components reduce from over 20 to 5, while the yield of acetol is still rather low. It was found that in the organic solution distillation process, acetol can be easily concentrated from 1% to above 40%, while a further distillation of the concentrated acetol system was rather hard. The conversion of acetol in the distillation process was probably an important cause to the low yield of acetol, and a lower distillation temperature was advantageous for the concentrating of acetol.

  14. The potential of bamboo in the design of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Delgado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an alternative sustainable material for use in product design and has been incorporated into the concepts of eco-design. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties and morphologies of low density polyethylene (LDPE/bamboo flour (BF composites that were modified with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tensile tests of the composites demonstrated poor adhesion between the filler and matrix. Contact angle measurement showed that the surface of LDPE was modified by the presence of the load. The thermal stability of the composites was studied by measuring the oxidation induction time (OIT. Preliminary bacterial penetration tests were performed using culture inoculums of E. coli and S. aureus to investigate the natural antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties attributed to bamboo. Furthermore, bamboo may have interesting antioxidant activity with potential for use in food packaging applications.

  15. 533 assessment of the impacts of bamboo promotion on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... using Freidman test, one sample T-Test and paired samples T-Test. Results ... to integrate local people into VNP management by increasing awareness on bamboo importance, ..... Urban market prices have been steadily.

  16. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Owen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social networking, gaining viewpoints of young adults who are far more interested in marketing the products than manufacturing them. Additionally, a potential for bamboo as a food source and charcoal aligns with the fiesta culture of Guam. Sourcing of Bamboo vulgaris, Guamís major bamboo species, has ecological benefits, while blumeana could be cultivated for crafts for export and tourists. Future study is planned to further involve young adults utilizing social networking methods developing culturally appealing and ecologically beneficial industry for the island.

  17. Enhancing the combustible properties of bamboo by torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Patrick; Aguiar, Clarissa; Labbé, Nicole; Commandré, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo has wide range of moisture content, low bulk energy density and is difficult to transport, handle, store and feed into existing combustion and gasification systems. Because of its important fuel characteristics such as low ash content, alkali index and heating value, bamboo is a promising energy crop for the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Bambusa vulgaris. Three different torrefaction temperatures were employed: 220, 250 and 280°C. The elemental characteristics of lignite and coal were compared to the torrefied bamboo. The characteristics of the biomass fuels tend toward those of low rank coals. Principal component analysis of FTIR data showed a clear separation between the samples by thermal treatment. The loadings plot indicated that the bamboo samples underwent chemical changes related to carbonyl groups, mostly present in hemicelluloses, and to aromatic groups present in lignin.

  18. Antibacterial activity of water-phase extracts from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of water-phase extracts from bamboo shavings against food spoilage microorganisms. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... was evaluated for its antimicrobial action against the range of food borne and food spoilage ...

  19. Towards A Sustainable Development Of The Bamboo Industry In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards A Sustainable Development Of The Bamboo Industry In Ghana. ... from locations spreading across all major ecological zones of Ghana. ... The capacity of large and small scale entrepreneurs must be enhanced for improved value ...

  20. Nutritive value of bamboo as browse for livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small farms in Appalachia need management options that diversify income opportunities; are adaptable to new livestock management strategies; and help maintain environmental integrity. Plantings of temperate bamboo (Poaceae), including species native to West Virginia, were established to determine p...

  1. Flexural and Impact Resistance of FRC/Bamboo Laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flexural and impact resistance of a newly developed FRC/bamboo laminate have been investigated. The laminate considered in this study was combined with reformed bamboo plate and extruded fiber reinforced cementitious (FRC)sheet. Innovated from the raw bamboo, reformed bamboo showed high tensile strength and high strength to weight ratio. It can not only remarkably strengthen the FRC sheet but also reduce the total weight of the laminate. Flexural and impact load, broken energy, deflection and duration were measured. Test results showed that the flexural strength value for the laminate can be improved to greater than 90 MPa, while the impact resistance is increased more than 10 times for the laminate when compared with the FRC sheet only.

  2. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  3. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), one of the most widespread member of its genus, was ... climatic conditions and soil types (United Nations, 1972). ... concrete pipes are still being used as well. .... Tropical rain Forest zone with an annual rainfall of.

  4. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-07-04

    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Blended Cement Paste and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bamboo leaf ash as cement supplement can contribute to reduction in cost and environmental hazard associated with cement production as well as waste pollution caused by the littered bamboo leaves. Therefore, the characteristics of cement paste and mortar incorporating bamboo leaf ash were investigated. The results of the physical properties of the pastes were within the requirements stipulated by relevant standards while that of the mortar cubes indicated that the compressive strength generally increased with curing age, and that the mix containing 15% Bamboo Leaf Ash (BLA by mass competes favorably with that of the reference mix at 28days and above. The water absorption and apparent porosity were observed to increase with increase in BLA content, while the bulk density decreases as the percentage of BLA increases from 5% to 25% by mass. The study concluded that 15% BLA replacing cement is adequate for the production of masonry mortar.

  6. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: international collaborative study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Freddy; Jamin, Eric

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per thousand, and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per thousand. As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (delta13C and delta18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and

  7. Study on Bamboo Treatment Technology with CuAz Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to research the effect of preservative penetrability, CuAz (copper azole) was used for the preservative, and pieces of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were used for the experimental materials in this study. The vacuum pressure process was used to treat bamboo pieces. The results showed as follows: 1) Main treatment factors were preservative concentration and applied pressure; 2) In the same technology, both the retention and the weight proportion gain of the samples without node were less tha...

  8. Managing woody bamboos for carbon farming and carbon trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jyoti Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on identifying cost-effective managed ecosystems that can substantially remove atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2 while providing essential societal benefits has gained momentum since the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Carbon farming allows farmers and investors to generate tradable carbon offsets from farmlands and forestry projects through carbon trading. Carbon trading is pertinent to climate negotiations by decelerating the climate change phenomenon. Thus, the objective of this article is to describe the potential of woody bamboos in biomass carbon storage and as an option for carbon farming and carbon trading. Bamboo is an important agroforestry and forest plant managed and used by the rural communities in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region for generating diverse economic and socio-environmental needs. Mean carbon storage and sequestration rate in woody bamboos range from 30–121 Mg ha−1 and 6–13 Mg ha−1  yr−1, respectively. Bamboo has vigorous growth, with completion of the growth cycle between 120 and 150 days. Because of its rapid biomass accumulation and effective fixation of CO2, it has a high carbon sequestration capacity. Over and above the high biomass carbon storage, bamboo also has a high net primary productivity (12–26 Mg ha−1  yr−1 even with regular selective harvesting, thus making it a standing carbon stock and a living ecosystem that continues to grow. Despite its high potential in carbon storage and sequestration and its important role in livelihood of millions of rural poor’s worldwide, prospects of bamboo ecosystems in CDM (Clean Development Mechanism and REDD (Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes remain to be explored. Thus, there is an urgent need to recognize ecosystem services that woody bamboo provides for well-being of rural communities and nature conservancy. Present synthesis suggests that bamboo offers tremendous opportunity for carbon farming and

  9. Bamboo as a potential material used for windmill turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jie; Qin, Yinyao; Zhang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    A mass of studies about windmill turbine blades have been addressed in the recent few decades. This report focus on the development of using bamboo composite materials for producing windmill turbine blades related to the life cycle assessment with sustainable perspective. So we made the problem formulation like this: How can bamboo fibers be used in the design and production of wind mill blades and how would it influence the impact of wind mill blades in a lifecycle perspective? In order to a...

  10. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  11. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  12. Molecular bonding characteristics of Self-plasticized bamboo composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiu; Peng, Wanxi; Ohkoshi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo biomass fibers were gradually separated, prepared, and then self-plasticized for immune composites. The molecular bonding characteristics of the self-plasticized bamboo composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TG). The important results were as follows. (1) During self-plasticizing of bamboo biomass, the cross-linking between celluloses mainly depended on carboxylic acid anhydrides and carboxylic acid esters, that between cellulose and lignin depended on carboxylic acid esters and C=O groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons, and that of hemi cellulose had a ether bond and ester bond bridging effect between lignin and cellulose. The cross-linking effects of hemi cellulose, lignin, and cellulose could be stacked and coupled. (2) After self-plasticization, the crystallinity of the lingo cellulosic biomass, lignin cellulose, and cellulose were increased by 5.8%, 2.28%, and 11.67%, respectively. While the TG curves of all samples were basically similar in shape, the weight loss rate turning points of the self-plasticized samples were delayed compared with those of the bamboo biomass fibers. This result demonstrated that the molecular integration of the bamboo biomass was increased after self-plasticization, and confirmed that bond cross-linking between the hemi cellulose, lignin and cellulose of the bamboo biomass had occurred.

  13. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fan-dan, E-mail: fandan_meng@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Yang-lun, E-mail: yuyanglun@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Zhang, Ya-mei, E-mail: zhangyamei@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Yu, Wen-ji, E-mail: yuwenji@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Gao, Jian-min, E-mail: gaojm@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the detailed chemical components contents change of bamboo due to heating. • Chemical analysis of bamboo main components during heating. • Identify the connection between the oxygen to carbon atomic ratio changes and chemical degradation. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  14. Performance Using Bamboo Fiber Ash Concrete as Admixture Adding Superplasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Gunalaan

    2017-06-01

    The increasing demand on natural resources for housing provisions in developing countries have called for sourcing and use of sustainable local materials for building and housing delivery. Natural materials to be considered sustainable for building construction should be ‘green’ and obtained from local sources, including rapidly renewable plant materials like palm fronds and bamboo, recycled materials and other products that are reusable and renewable. Each year, tens of millions of tons of bamboo are utilized commercially, generating a vast amount of waste. Besides that, bamboo fiber is easy availability, low density, low production cost and satisfactory mechanical properties. One solution is to activate this waste by using it as an additive admixture in concrete to keep it out of landfills and save money on waste disposal. The research investigates the mechanical and physical properties of bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement. The structural value of the bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement was evaluated with consideration for its suitability in concrete. Varied percentage of bamboo fiber powder (BFP) at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% as an admixture in 1:2:4 concrete mixes. The workability of the mix was determined through slump; standard consistency test was carried on the cement. Compressive strength of hardened cured (150 x 150 x 150) mm concrete cubes at 7days, 14days and 28days were tested.

  15. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  16. Morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene/bamboo fibers composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tri; chuong, Bui; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille

    2011-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is among the most widely used thermoplastics in many industrial fields. However, like other recycled polymers, its properties usually decrease after recycling process and sometimes are degraded to poor properties level for direct re-employment. The recycled products, in general, need to be reinforced to have competitive properties. Short bamboo fibers (BF) have been added in a recycled PP (RPP) with and without compatibilizer type maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Several properties of composite materials, such as helium gas permeability and mechanical properties before and after ageing in water, were examined. The effects of bamboo fiber content and fiber chemical treatment have been also investigated. We showed that the helium permeability increases if fiber content is higher than 30% because of a poor adhesion between untreated bamboo fiber and polymer matrix. The composites reinforced by acetylated bamboo fibers show better helium permeability due to grafting of acetyl groups onto cellulose fibers surface and thus improves compatibility between bamboo fibers and matrix, which has been shown by microscopic observations. Besides, mechanical properties of composite decrease with ageing in water but the effect is less pronounced with low bamboo fiber content.

  17. Technologies of liquefaction of bamboo and preparation of adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwen SUN; Xiaoke LI; Qian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The technology of liquefying processed-waste bamboo with phenol is investigated by single factor trials and an orthogonal design. We studied the preparation technology and properties of adhesives from this phe-nol-liquefied bamboo with formaldehyde (BPF). The results show that temperature has a significant effect on liquefaction. The effect of the mass ratio of phenol to bamboo comes second and the catalyst dosage within the range of 2%-4% is the least effective. The optimum conditions of liquefaction are as follows: a mass ratio of phenol to bamboo 3.5, a catalyst dosage of 4%, liquefying temperature 145℃ and liquefying time 60 min. The lique-faction rate of bamboo reached 99.1%. For the prepara-tion of the adhesive, a mass ratio of liquefied bamboo products to formaldehyde (37%) is 100 to 164.8-199.5, while the ratio 100 to 108.2 is the best. This adhesive has a lower curing temperature than that of normal PF resin. At a hot-press temperature of 130 or 140℃, this new adhesive provides excellent bonding strength of plywood. The most favorable temperature for hot-pressing is 140℃.

  18. Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Bamboo Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Uehara Tohru; Li Jianzhang; Furuno Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of solvent extracts from two main bamboo species, moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and madake bamboo (P. Bambusoides) in Japan, was first evaluated by scavenging free radical of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the inhibition activity for peroxidation of linoleic acid, and the reduction power. The methanol-extracts of moso bamboo culms and madake bamboo leaves presented stronger antioxidant activity compared with DPPH scavenging activity. Methanol-extract of moso bamboo culms was further fractionated by different solvents and n-butanol soluble fraction exhibited the most significant activity in the DPPH scavenging assay. The fractionation of n-butanol soluble extract was isolated by silica gel column with gradient mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol. The isolated fractions were directed by the antioxidant activity measured by scavenging the stable DPPH free radical. It was observed that most of the eluted fractions showed the antioxidative activity. Fractions acquired from elution with the mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol (10:1-5:1) showed stronger antioxidant activity than the other fractions.

  19. Adsorptive Removal of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Using Bamboo Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in wastewater has drawn great attention. Adsorption of widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotics (enrofloxacin and ofloxacin in wastewater using bamboo biochar was investigated. More than 99% of fluoroquinolone antibiotics were removed from the synthetic wastewater through adsorption. Adsorption capacities of bamboo biochar slightly changed when pH increased from 3.0 to 10.0. The adsorption capacity of bamboo biochar increased sharply when the initial concentration of enrofloxacin or ofloxacin increased from 1 to 200 mg L−1 and then began to plateau with further increases in initial concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity (45.88 ± 0.90 mg·g−1 was observed when the ratio of bamboo biochar to fluoroquinolone antibiotics was 10. The enrofloxacin adsorption capacity of bamboo biochar decreased from 19.91 ± 0.21 mg·g−1 to 14.30 ± 0.51 mg·g−1 while that of ofloxacin decreased from 19.82 ± 0.22 mg·g−1 to 13.31 ± 0.56 mg·g−1 when the NaCl concentrations increased from 0 to 30 g·L−1. The adsorptions of fluoroquinolone on bamboo biochar have isotherms that obeyed the Freundlich model (r2 values were in the range of 0.990–0.991.

  20. Bamboo resources of Sikkim Himalaya:diversity, distribution and utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deo Kumar Tamang; Dinesh Dhakal; D. G. Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    We recorded 8 genera and over 30 species of bamboo in Sikkim of the reported 23 genera and 125 species in India. Thirty percent of bamboo species were recorded in tropical forests (0-900 m), 40%of species in sub-tropical forests (900-1,800 m), 17%of species in temper-ate forests (1,800-2,700 m), 9% of species in sub-alpine forests (2,700-3,500 m) and 4%of species in alpine vegetation (3,500-4,500 m). Bamboo is used for various purposes and its versatility qualifies it to be a multiple-use alternative to timber, food for villagers and for tribal in particular. Bamboo is also equally important to Red Panda (Ailurus ful-gens), the state animal of Sikkim. We develop a list of bamboos occur-ring in Sikkim with their vernacular names, distributions and uses in the Himalayan state. However, more extensive study is required to fully describe the bamboo diversity of the Himalayan state.

  1. Determination and Quantification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Vinegars and Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic compound 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF can be formed from sugars under Maillard reaction and caramelization. In order to study the formation regular of HMF in sugary liquid condiment, vinegar and soy sauce were selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the HMF concentrations of various brands of soy sauce and vinegar. The result showed that HMF concentrations were in a range of 0.42 to 115.43 mg/kg for vinegar samples and 0.43 to 5.85 mg/kg for soy sauce samples. The concentrates of HMF were expressed in zero-order kinetics model at 100°C before the maximum HMF generation in all of the tested samples. Longer heating treatment time would reduce the HMF content in tested samples. In addition, HMF content had obviously positive correlation with sugar contents in vinegar samples, but no similar rule was found in soy sauces.

  2. Anaerobic digestion performance of vinegar residue in continuously stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Ruihong; He, Yanfeng; Wang, Wen; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of vinegar residue was investigated in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The influence of organic loading rate (OLR) and effluent recirculation on AD performance of vinegar residue was tested. Five OLRs, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g(vs) L(-1) d(-1), were used. The highest volumetric methane productivity of 581.88 mL L(-1) was achieved at OLR of 2.5 g(vs) L(-1) d(-1). Effluent reflux ratio was set as 50%, the results showed that effluent recirculation could effectively neutralize the acidity of vinegar residue, raise the pH of the feedstock, and enhance the buffering capacity of the AD system. Anaerobic digestion of vinegar residue could be a promising way not only for converting this waste into gas energy but also alleviating environmental pollution which might be useful for future industrial application.

  3. Exploring microbial succession and diversity during solid-state fermentation of Tianjin duliu mature vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Min; Han, Yue; Wang, Yuenan; Luo, Jianmei; Niu, Dandan

    2013-11-01

    Tianjin duliu mature vinegar was one of famous Chinese traditional vinegars. The unique flavor and taste of vinegar are mainly generated by the multitudinous microorganisms during fermentation. In this research, the composition and succession of microbial communities in the entire solid-state fermentation were investigated, including starter daqu and acetic acid fermentation (AAF). Molds and yeasts in daqu, including Aspergillus, Saccharomycopsis and Pichia, decreased in AAF. The bacterial compositions increased from four genera in daqu to more than 13 genera in AAF. Principal component analysis showed that Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Lactobacillus and Nostoc were dominant bacteria that were correlated well with AAF process. In the early fermentation period, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased while acetic acid bacteria and Nostoc increased rapidly with the accumulation of total acids. Then, the abundance and diversity of LAB increased (more than 80%), indicating that LAB had important influences on the flavor and taste of vinegar.

  4. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandra Stornik; Barbara Skok; Janja Trcek

    2016-01-01

      The authors compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process...

  5. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-02

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level.

  6. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  7. 木醋液多酚研究进展%Research Progress of Wood Vinegar Polyphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晨; 王海英; 杨国亭; 段晓玲; 崔莹

    2014-01-01

    在前期统计木醋液有机酸类成分组成的基础上,从木醋液酚类成分、木醋液多酚的提取和生物活性等角度综述木醋液多酚的研究现状。热解温度对木醋液总酚浓度有影响。采用pH值梯度萃取分离法可以获得木醋液多酚。木醋液多酚主要为儿茶酚、甲基儿茶酚、根皮酚等多酚类化合物。木醋液多酚具有抗氧化等生物活性,在医药、食品、化妆品等领域具有开发价值。%The research status of wood vinegar polyphenol was summarized from the perspective of wood vinegar phenol components, wood vinegar polyphenol extraction and bioactivity, based on the early statistics of wood vinegar organic acids composition. The pyrolysis temperature has an effect on wood vinegar total phenol concentration. Wood vinegar polyphenol can be obtained with the pH value of extraction gradient separation method. Wood vinegar polyphenol were mainly catechol, methyl catechol, phloroglucinol and other polyphenol compounds. Wood vinegar polyphenols have antioxidant activities, and had development value in the field of medicine, food and cosmetics.

  8. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...

  9. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  10. Apple cider vinegar supplementation modulates lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase values in lens of ovariectomized mice

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies reported that increased risk of cataracts and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women although aetiology of the mechanisms has not been clarified. Apple cider vinegar may useful treatment of ovariectomize (OVX)-induced oxidative lens injury via its antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate effects of apple cider vinegar on lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) values in OVX mice fed high cholesterol. Thirty-two mice we...

  11. Antifungal Activity of Apple Cider Vinegar on Candida Species Involved in Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Carolina Loureiro Gama; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; de Araújo Oliveira, Julyana; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of apple cider vinegar on Candida spp. involved in denture stomatitis. The microdilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of apple cider vinegar containing 4% maleic acid, and nystatin (control). Further tests of microbial kinetics and inhibition of adherence to acrylic resin were performed testing different concentrations (MIC, MICx2, MICx4) of the products at time intervals of 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. A roughness meter was used to measure the changes in surface roughness; color change of the acrylic resin specimens exposed to the test products in different concentrations and time intervals were also evaluated. Apple cider vinegar (4%) showed MIC of 2500 μg/ml and MFC of 2500, 5000, and 10,000 μg/ml depending on the strain tested. Nystatin showed MIC of 3.125 μg/ml and strain-dependent MFC values ranging from 3.125 to 12.5 μg/ml. The microbial kinetic assay showed a statistical difference between apple cider vinegar and nystatin (p cider vinegar showed fungicidal effect at MICx4, whereas nystatin maintained its fungistatic effect. Apple cider vinegar showed greater inhibition of adherence (p cider vinegar did not significantly alter the surface roughness of the acrylic resin specimens compared to nystatin (p > 0.05), and both had no influence on their color. Apple cider vinegar showed antifungal properties against Candida spp., thus representing a possible therapeutic alternative for patients with denture stomatitis. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure; Monir Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...

  13. Pineapple Vinegar to Enhance Shelf Life of Carrot and Mango in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Matunda, Aldegunda Sylvester

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable, produced seasonally, and large quantities (about 50-60% of production) are wasted during high season due to poor handling and lack of cold storage in Tanzania. Processing excess pineapple into vinegar which can be used for preservation of other fruits and vegetables may be a helpful strategy for reducing losses. Vinegar was produced from pineapple juice supplemented with sugar to produce different degrees of Brix (13, 20 and 30) and was...

  14. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol) %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10...

  15. Acoustic Emission from Breaking a Bamboo Chopstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Wang, Li-Min; Huang, Panpan; Yang, Zhengning; Chang, Chin-De; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic emission from breaking a bamboo chopstick or a bundle of spaghetti is found to exhibit similar behavior as the famous seismic laws of Gutenberg and Richter, Omori, and Båth. By the use of a force-sensing detector, we establish a positive correlation between the statistics of sound intensity and the magnitude of a tremor. We also manage to derive these laws analytically without invoking the concept of a phase transition, self-organized criticality, or fractal. Our model is deterministic and relies on the existence of a structured cross section, either fibrous or layered. This success at explaining the power-law behavior supports the proposal that geometry is sometimes more important than mechanics.

  16. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohamad; Yusuf, Nur'aini Raman; Yunus, Normawati M.; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-10-01

    The alkaline and water soluble polysaccharides were isolate by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1%, 5% and 8% NaOH. The samples were prepared at 60 °C for 3 h from local bamboo. The functional group of the sample were examined using FTIR analysis. The most precipitate obtained is from using 60% ethanol containing 8% NaOH with yield of 2.6%. The former 3 residues isolated by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1% and 5% NaOH are barely visible after filtering with cellulose filter paper. The FTIR result showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides consisted mainly of OH group, CH group, CO indicates the carbohydrate and sugar chain. The sample weight loss was slightly decreased with increasing of temperature.

  17. Bamboo structures: evoke the spirit workshop [organisation, facilitation, research] Brescia, Italy; 1-14 July 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.; Thompson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Student workshop run by MM Kolakowski and Alan Thompson for architectural students. Construction of large scale bamboo structures: 18-metre high tower, 9-metre high wheel arches and other bamboo constructions.

  18. The delignification effects of white-rot fungal pretreatment on thermal characteristics of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2012-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubesescens) is a major bamboo species which is widely used for temporary scaffolding in China. Its fast growing and low ash content make moso bamboo a potential renewable energy resource. In present work, thermal behaviors of moso bamboo and its lignocellulosic fractions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, to understand whether the delignification effect of white-rot fungi can promote the thermal decomposition of bamboo especially the lignin component, the changes in lignocellulose components as well as thermal behaviors of bamboo and acid detergent lignin were investigated. The results showed that the white-rot fungal pretreatment is advantageous to thermal decomposition of lignin in bamboo. The weight losses of ADL samples became greater and the thermal processes were accelerated after biopretreatment. The total pyrolysis weight loss increased from 57.14% to 65.07% for Echinodontium taxodii 2538 treated bamboo ADL sample.

  19. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L. produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L. for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany for the production of vinegar and was followed through 10 cycles. The vinegar had a total acidity of 6.85% (w/v, 0.17% alcohol (w/v, 1.26% (w/v minerals and 1.78% (w/v dry extract. The composition of organic acids present in rice vinegar was: cis-aconitic acid (6 mg/L, maleic acid (3 mg/L, trans-aconitic acid (3 mg/L, shikimic + succinic acid (4 mg/L, lactic acid (300 mg/L, formic acid (180 mg/L, oxalic acid (3 mg/L, fumaric acid (3 mg/L and itaconic acid (1 mg/L.

  20. Evaluation and optimisation of bacterial genomic DNA extraction for no-culture techniques applied to vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Hidalgo, Claudio; Torija, María-Jesús; Gullo, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Direct genomic DNA extraction from vinegars was set up and suitability for PCR assays performed by PCR/DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The method was tested on 12 intermediary products of special vinegars, fruit vinegars and condiments produced from different raw materials and procedures. DNAs extraction was performed on pellets by chemical, enzymatic, resin mediated methods and their modifications. Suitable yield and DNA purity were obtained by modification of a method based on the use of PVP/CTAB to remove polyphenolic components and esopolysaccharides. By sequencing of bands from DGGE gel, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Acetobacter malorum/cerevisiae and Acetobacter orleanensis were detected as main species in samples having more than 4% of acetic acid content. From samples having no acetic acid content, sequences retrieved from excised bands revealed high similarity with prokaryotes with no function on vinegar fermentation: Burkholderia spp., Cupriavidus spp., Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The method was suitable to be applied for no-culture study of vinegars containing polyphenols and esopolysaccharides allowing a more complete assessment of vinegar bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

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    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  2. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in traditional acetic acid fermentation of rice vinegar (komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (kurosu) produced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, K; Taniguchi, M; Ujike, S; Ishihara, N; Mori, H; Ono, H; Murooka, Y

    2001-02-01

    Bacterial strains were isolated from samples of Japanese rice vinegar (komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (kurosu) fermented by the traditional static method. Fermentations have never been inoculated with a pure culture since they were started in 1907. A total of 178 isolates were divided into groups A and B on the basis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analyses. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of strains belonging to each group showed similarities of more than 99% with Acetobacter pasteurianus. Group A strains overwhelmingly dominated all stages of fermentation of both types of vinegar. Our results indicate that appropriate strains of acetic acid bacteria have spontaneously established almost pure cultures during nearly a century of komesu and kurosu fermentation.

  3. 中药醋制的方法和应用%Methods and application of the TCM vinegar concocted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文红

    2013-01-01

    Vinegar concocted method is one of our main methods of TCM concocted. The author described the development of TCM vinegar concocted, the methods, and the application of vinegar in TCM concocted and contraindications of vinegar treatment.%  醋制法是我国中药传统炮制的主要方法之一。本文介绍了中药醋制法的发展、方法以及醋在中药炮制中的应用并醋疗的禁忌。

  4. Design of Experimentation, Artificial Neural Network Simulation and Optimization for Integrated Bamboo Processing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Mehar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research work experimentation on integrated bamboo processing machine for splitting and slicing of bamboo has been carried out. This paper presents the experimental investigation of some parameters of integrated bamboo processing machine. In this research paper simulation of experimental data using artificial neural network is carried out. An attempt of minimum-maximum principle has been made to optimize by range bound process for maximizing production rate of integrated bamboo processing machine.

  5. A Study on Chemical Compositions and Fiber Characteristics of Two Sympodial Bamboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition and fiber characteristics of two sympodial bamboos have been studied in this paper. Based on analysis results, it is shown that the Whangee (D. Membranaceus Munro) bamboo is better than Yunnanicus bamboo(D. yunnaicus Hsueh et D. Z. Li) in utilization because of its higher specific gravity, better fiber length and its distribution rule and higher wall/lumen ratio, and that the Whangee bamboo is more suitable for papermaking and panel processing used in house construction. In addi...

  6. Laminated Panel Manufacture of Two Kinds of Bamboo for Architecture Material and Property Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The manufacture technologies of two kinds of bamboo laminated panel and their physical-mechanical properties have been studied in the paper. The species of bamboo are the D. yunnanicus Hsueh et D. Z. Li in Yunnan Province and P. heterocycla var. pubescens Ohwi in Zhejiang Province. The data are offered in order to provide proof to produce architectural panel by bamboo materials. The results show as follows: Laminated bamboo panel can be produced by the reconstruction technology, and the mechanical prope...

  7. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  8. Study on Surface Wettability of Bamboo by Measurement of Contact Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the wettability of the processed bamboo surfaces. The important surface energy and acid-base properties for processed bamboo have been estimated by using contact angle techniques. According to the results, the change of ages has a positive relation with the contact angles of water on processed bamboo. The contact angles were increased after the bamboo surface treated in high temperature condition and preservation. The different treat methods have a stro...

  9. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to ...

  10. Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Junyi Zhang; Bo Zhang; Xiufang Chen; Bingbing Mi; Penglian Wei; Benhua Fei; Xindong Mu

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microsco...

  11. CHARACTERISTIC OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD MADE FROM THREE SPECIES OF SULAWESI BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; A Detti Yunianti1; Sahriyanti Saad1); Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    Three species of sulawesi bamboo were used to produce binderless particleboard (BP). Parring bamboo (Gigantochloa ater) was taken from Tanralili Maros, while betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) and tallang bamboo (Schizostacyum barcahycladum) were taken from Batu Papan Makale Tana Toraja. The skin and nodia were removed before converted into chip. Particle was produced from chip after it air dried. The particles were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide 15% based on oven dry particle weight and 7...

  12. Bamboo as a Building Material. Peace Corps. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, F. A.

    This manual, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Point Four program, presents critical features and principles of using bamboo as a building material. Information provided in the manual includes the following: parts of a house for which bamboos are suitable, bamboo reinforcement of concrete, geographical distribution of…

  13. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  14. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Synthesized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron-Bamboo and Manganese-Bamboo Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon E. Shaibu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bamboo impregnated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI and nanoscale manganese (nMn were prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PIXE analysis. The synthesized nMn-bamboo and nZVI-bamboo composites were subsequently applied to the sorption of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB dye was investigated under various experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of MB dye and adsorbent dosage. The results showed that the synthesized nZVI-bamboo composite was more effective than nMn-bamboo composite in terms of higher MB dye adsorption capacity of 322.5 mg/g compared to 263.5 mg/g of nMn-bamboo composite. At a concentration of 140 mg/L MB dye, 0.02 g of nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites resulted in 79.6% and 78.3% removal, respectively, at 165 rpm, contact time of 120 min and at a solution pH of 7.6. The equilibrium data was best represented by Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model better explained the kinetic data for both nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites.

  15. Separation and purification of tricin from an antioxidant product derived from bamboo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jingjing; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Jie'er; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ying

    2007-12-12

    Tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) occurs in its glycosidic form in rice bran and other grass species such as wheat, barley, and maize. Tricin is considered sufficiently safe for clinical development as a cancer chemopreventive agent, therefore it can be used for cancer prevention. This study established a new method for the preparation of tricin from bamboo leaves as an alternative to traditional methods such as chemical synthesis via the Baker-Venkata-Raman reaction between acetylsyringic acid and phloroacetophenone. Tricin was prepared from an antioxidant product that was derived from bamboo leaves (AOB) by extraction with aqueous ethanol. A concentrated solution of this product was obtained and then processed by polystyrene (AB-8) resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with 30% (v/v) acetonitrile in 1% (v/v) acetic acid as the mobile phase. The collected tricin-rich fraction was further sequentially purified by dialysis membrane separation and drowning-out crystallization methods. The purity was assessed by analytical HPLC with 25% (v/v) acetonitrile in 1% (v/v) acetic acid as the mobile phase, and the chemical confirmation was evaluated by infrared, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ultraviolet spectroscopies. Tricin (3.09 g) was prepared from 174 g of a crude column chromatography fraction obtained from 5 L of AOB concentrated solution. The present method is appropriate for preparing quantities of pure tricin, which can be used for the quantification of tricin in various plant herbs and further for pharmaceutical/biomedical applications and evaluation.

  16. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  17. Proposal for qualitative and quantitative descriptors to characterise bamboo germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Leal Generoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bamboo is a genetic resource with evident potential for use from construction until the recovery of degraded areas. Although, characterization and evaluation studies involving bamboo species are scarce and it is difficult to define a list of specific descriptors to better meet the different genres and or bamboo species. Thus, the objective of this work were propose and test the effectiveness of qualitative and quantitative descriptors for phenotypic characterization and the study of genetic diversity among six species of bamboo introduced in Brazil. Fifteen qualitative and nine quantitative descriptors were proposed and tested in clones with one year of planting. Individuals belonging to six species of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa vulgaris var. vittata, Drepanostachyum falcatum, Dendrocalamus latiforus, Phyllostachys aurea var. albovariegada and Phyllostachys edulis were characterized on the basis of vegetative descriptors, pseudopetiole, sheath, ligule, gems and culm. The genetic divergence between the clones was estimated by the methods of grouping of Tocher and UPGMA with use of average Euclidean distance and the principal component in two-dimensional plane. Qualitative and quantitative descriptors proposed were efficient to differentiate the six species studied and quantify genetic diversity. The quantitative descriptor of sheath length was the largest contributor to differentiate the species studied.

  18. Production of Particleboards with Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses José Zaia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to study the utilization of residues from bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus lamination in the manufacturing of panels for structural purposes. Bamboo particleboards were produced under three conditions: pure boards, reinforced with bamboo laminas, and with treated particles. Castor oil-based polyurethane was the resin binder, in view of using lower toxicity materials. The mechanical tests were performed according to Brazilian Standard (NBR 14810-3 (2006 and European Standard (EN 310 (2000. The results were superior to those recommended by these and other standards for internal adhesion resistance, modulus of rupture, and elasticity in static bending, as well as to the results of other studies. Starch treatment was an unnecessary stage. According to the conditions of this process, the studied panels showed a good potential for construction use. Moreover, the bamboo particleboards are an economically viable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable alternative for the use of waste generated during the processing of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo species, allied with castor oil-based polyurethane resin. The reinforced particleboard and its production process are being licensed as an Innovation Patent in Brazil, (BR 1020130133919-1-2013.

  19. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  20. Hydrolysis of bamboo fiber cellulose in formic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong SUN; Lu LIN; Haibo DENG; Hong PENG; Jiazhe LI; Runchang SUN; Shijie LIU

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo fiber dissolution and hydrolysis in formic acid were studied. After hydrolysis, formic acid can be recovered in a clean state and reused. Solid water-soluble sugars were obtained. After being dipped into the formic acid solution for 30 min, the bamboo fibers started to swell. After one hour, the bamboo fibers gradually started to dissolve in the formic acid solution. The color of the liquor/solution turned green and dark. In the end, the bamboo fibers became thoroughly dissolved in the liquor after four hours. There was a clear hierarch-ical tissue structure on the fiber surface, as observed by AFM before treatment. The differential structure disap-peared after 30 min of treatment. The fiber surface became plump and glossy. After six hours reaction at 60℃, the solid sugar mixture recovered contained glu-cose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetrose, cellopentose and cellohexaose. A significant fraction of the sugar pro-ducts consisted of monomeric glucose. More than 54.5% of the bamboo fiber mass had been transformed into monomeric glucose.

  1. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchart PREECHATIWONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  2. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Ling; Yue, Jin-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Li; Gu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz.) Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10-20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT). About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse.

  3. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz. Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10-20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT. About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse.

  4. Vinegar lacks antiglycemic action on enteral carbohydrate absorption in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbe, Arline D; Johnston, Carol S; Buyukbese, M Akif; Tsitouras, Panayiotis D; Harman, S Mitchell

    2009-12-01

    The antiglycemic effects of vinegar have been known for more than a century and have been demonstrated in animal as well as human studies. Although the exact mechanism of vinegar action is not known, several possibilities have been proposed including suppression of disaccharidase activity, delayed gastric emptying, enhanced glucose uptake in the periphery and conversion to glycogen, and increased satiety. We hypothesized that by suppressing endogenous insulin secretion, we could estimate the glucose absorption rate from an oral carbohydrate load and determine the effects of vinegar ingestion on this rate. To do so, 5 subjects had 4 studies at 1-week intervals, randomly receiving placebo twice (60 mL water) and vinegar twice (20 mL apple cider vinegar, 40 mL water), followed 2 minutes later by a meal of mashed potatoes (0.75 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight) that was consumed over 20 minutes. At the beginning of the meal, an oral octreotide/insulin suppression test (25-microg bolus octreotide; 180 minute infusion 5 mU/m(2) body surface area per minute regular human insulin, and 0.5 microg/min octreotide) was begun. Blood samples for insulin and glucose were drawn at 20-minute intervals. The oral octreotide/insulin suppression test suppressed endogenous insulin secretion for the first 100 minutes of the study. During this time, the rate of rise of glucose was modestly but significantly (P = .01) greater after vinegar ingestion compared to placebo, suggesting that vinegar does not act to decrease glycemia by interference with enteral carbohydrate absorption.

  5. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05.Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm. Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of

  6. High-temperature heating and microwave pretreatments: A new light in bamboo's enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined technology of high-temperature heating and microwave is proposed to treat bamboo substrates prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to overcome the limits of ei- ther technology. The combined technology helps to promote the reducing sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo. The protein adsorption test indicated that more enzyme proteins could adsorb on the surface of bamboo pretreated by the combined technology. Thus, the possibility of enzymes to hydrolyze bamboo increased. Meanwhile, X-ray diffractometry tested revealed that the combined technology benefited the removal of non-cellulosic substances from bamboo and resulted in a higher crystallinity.

  7. Damage of bamboo and wooden materials based on linear elastic fracture mechanics in garden design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo and wood are the most widely applied and the oldest natural structural materials in the world. Currently, worldwide output of wooden material is 1 billion ton, almost the same as steel. Most of them are used as structure, such as load carrying girder, scaffold, floor and support. Wooden materials and bamboo materials with clear microstructure are composite biomaterials which can be studied under multiple scales. Irregular evolution behaviors of initial defects or damage during loading determines macro mechanical behavior of wooden and bamboo materials. Taking wood and bamboo as test materials, this study explored mechanical characteristics and damage crack behavior of wood and bamboo as well as toughening mechanism.

  8. Institution of Fingerprint of Amino Acids of Table Vinegar and Its Application to Characterization of Table Vinegar%食醋氨基酸指纹图谱的建立及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王修宁; 韩丽; 张浩; 赵超敏; 丁卓平

    2016-01-01

    采用全自动氨基酸分析仪对液态发酵芳香醋、液态发酵苹果醋、固态发酵粮食酿造食醋和配制食醋等4种食醋中氨基酸进行测定,计算各氨基酸的峰面积比例,利用 SPSS 软件绘制食醋中氨基酸指纹图谱,并进行聚类分析。芳香醋、苹果醋和粮食酿造食醋中氨基酸质量浓度分别为0.80~1.99 g·L-1,0.01~0.98 g·L-1和2.79~10.74 g·L-1。配制食醋基本不含氨基酸。指纹图谱能够较好区分出芳香醋、配制食醋,并且可以识别出来源相同的样品。聚类分析可按照不同发酵方式、产地及原料对食醋进行较好的归类。%Amino acids in 4 kinds of table vinegar,i.e.,aromatic vinegar and apple vinegar (prepared by liquid-state fermentation),rice vinegar (prepared by solid-state fermentation)and blended vinegar,were determined by the automatic amino acid analyzer.Values of peak area ratios of the amino acids were calculated,and aided by the software of SPSS,fingerprint of amino acids in table vinegar was instituted,and furthermore clustering analysis was applied.Contents of amino acids found were in the ranges of 0.80 -1.99 g·L-1 for aromatic vinegar,0.01 -0.98 g·L-1 for apple vinegar and 2.79-10.74 g·L-1 for rice vinegar,while no amino acid was found in blended vinegar.Aromatic vinegar could be distinguished effectively from blended vinegar by using the fingerprint and vinegar with same origin could also be identified.Various kinds of vinegar prepared by different fermentation methods,or with different raw materials,or obtained from different producing areas,could be properly identified by using the clustering analysis.

  9. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  10. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-01

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha‑1yr‑1) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P bamboo and P concentrations of mature bamboo but decreased mature bamboo foliar N:P ratios (P bamboo plantations, but the positive effects were diminished when the addition rate exceeded 60 kg N ha‑1yr‑1. Nitrogen increased foliar N concentrations but aggravated P deficiency in CM bamboo plantations. The positive effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  11. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  12. Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Effect of Dietary Rubus coreanus Vinegar on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Effect of Dietary Rubus coreanus Vinegar on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Singh, Digar; Yeo, Soo Hwan; Baek, Seong Yeol; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-26

    The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC) vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX) rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV)-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV)-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN)-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Modified bamboo rayon-copper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study the bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to immobilize copper nanoprticles. The grafted bamboo rayon was first treated with CuSO4 followed by chemical reduction. The modified product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and SEM. The characteristic color developed after reduction was measured spectrophotometrically. The grafted bamboo rayon with Cu nanoparticles was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was found to be durable till 50 washes. The material can be claimed as suitable candidate for medical textile applications to prevent cross-infections.

  15. Fast Discrimination of Bamboo Species Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Dong, W. Y.; Kouba, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to discriminate different bamboo species was investigated. Vis/NIR spectra were collected on three bamboo species, Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis, and Phyllostachys glauca, in the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm. The range of 425-2400 nm was chosen for the spectra modeling. Multiplicative signal correction, standard normal variate with detrending, and 1st and 2nd derivatives were used to preprocess the raw spectral data, and the results were compared. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) methods were applied for building discriminant models. The recognition ratio of 30 samples in the validation set was 100% by both SIMCA and PLSDA models. These results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy may provide a fast and nondestructive technique to discriminate different bamboo species in the field.

  16. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  17. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars.

  18. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-03-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of

  19. Efficacy of apple cider vinegar and verjuice in the treatment of hyperlipidemia compared with lovastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seleiman Jaferian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlipidemia and especially hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There are several types of drugs with different side effects, to lower blood lipid levels. Statins are the most commonly used drugs for treating high LDL cholesterol level. Apple cider vinegar and verjuice as old folk remedies claimed to have been beneficial in treating a long list of Medical ailments for at least 10,000 years. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of apple cider vinegar and verjuice, in treating hyperlipidemia in compare with Lovastatin. Materials and methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was done on 3 groups. In each groups, 25 healthy subjects [13 men and 12 women aged 40-60, with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol, 250-390 mg/dl LDL cholesterol, 120-250 mg/dl Triglycerides, 210-380 mg/dl and HDL cholesterol 30- 60 mg/dl] who were not being treated with any drug or agent known to affect plasma lipids concentrations, participated. Pair matching was performed for patients in 3 groups. A fasting blood sample was taken for all subjects to detect the concentrations of lipids before treatment. One group was treated with apple cider vinegar (5 cc twice a day for 4 weeks, 30 minutes before lunch and dinner. Another group was treated with verjuice with the same dosage. In the third group, subjects received either 20 mg Lovastatin daily for 4 weeks or all of the subjects instructed to consume a same diet during the study. Lipid measurement was performed after 2 and 4 weeks. Pair wise comparisons for each variable between weeks 2 and 4 and baseline were carried out for each treatment group and between groups. Results: In all treatment groups, total cholesterol and LDL concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.001 and HDL concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001. A 2 weeks treatment with vinegar, verjuice and lovastatin resulted in a mean decrease of 16%, 5

  20. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Štornik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplifi ed 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90 %, Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50 %, Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35 % and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25 %. Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70 % and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30 %. Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the

  1. Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Zhong, Tuhua; Chang, Peter R; Li, Kaifu; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-04-01

    Using a method of combined HNO(3)-KClO(3) treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, bamboo cellulose crystals (BCCs) were prepared and used to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch. The structure and morphology of BCCs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and solid-state (13)C NMR. Results showed that BCCs were of typical cellulose I structure, and the morphology was dependent on its concentration in the suspension. BCC of 50-100 nm were assembled into leaf nervations at low concentration (i.e. 0.1 wt.% of solids), but congregated into a micro-sized "flower" geometry at high concentration (i.e. 10.0 wt.% of solids). Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the starch/BCC composite films (SBC) were enhanced by the incorporation of the crystals due to reinforcement of BCCs and reduction of water uptake. BCCs at the optimal 8% loading level exhibited a higher reinforcing efficiency for plasticized starch plastic than any other loading level.

  2. Evaluation of Torrefied Bamboo for Sustainable Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.; Pels, J.; Fryda, L.; Zwart, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production. Bamboo presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. Up to date, there are no studies on fuel properties of the bamboo specie Guadua angustifolia. Bamboo is a difficult fuel and most thermal conversion processes have stringent fuel specifications, which are challenging to fulfil with biomass streams. Bamboo is tenacious and fibrous which makes it difficult and expensive to grind. Furthermore, the characteristics with regard to handling, storage and degradability are not favourable for biomass in general. The thermal pre-treatment torrefaction is a promising upgrading technology that can enhance the fuel quality by addressing these issues. During torrefaction, biomass is heated to 250-320C in the absence of oxygen. At the end of the process the material is milled and compressed into pellets. In this way, the biomass becomes easy to grind, more hydrophobic and has a high energy density. Alternatively, wet torrefaction (Torwash) allows for combined torrefaction and washing of the feedstock. Wet torrefaction, a form of hydro-thermal treatment, in addition to dry torrefaction removes salts and minerals from biomass, improving even more the quality of the product. This is in particular interesting for feedstock containing significant amounts of undesirable alkali components for combustion or gasification, as is the case of bamboo. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of Guadua angustifolia as a fuel for heat and power applications. The results of biomass fuel properties and characteristics and quality improvement via dry and wet torrefaction are assessed. Torrefaction clearly shows the improvement of fuel properties and grindability of biomass. Wet-torrefied Guadua angustifolia is chemically an attractive fuel, with favourable fuel properties, e.g. the results showed a 98% of alkali removal, and the

  3. Characterizing and Authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO Vinegars Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, María-José; Arias, Mar; Ramírez, Pilar; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) “Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles” wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400–2,500 nm in both cases) and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380–1,700 nm). A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity), and alcohol content), and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars. PMID:24561402

  4. Research of fruits-vinegar and produce%果醋的产生和研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷玛莎

    2001-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the record history fo fruits-vinegar domestically & abroad,demonstrates the fruits-vinegar patent and related reports in our country,and specifies the sources of the main raw materials and support materials in fruits-vinegar developing and the nutritious and sanitarian dffect.Then refers to the process and the features of the leading fruits-vinegar.At last makes a forecast of good future to the fruits-vinegar market.%本文简述了中外果醋有文字记载的产生历史,列举出我国果醋专利和文献报道,详述了果醋研制的主料和辅料资源及其营养保健作用,介绍了目前几种主要的果醋生产工艺及其产品特点,并预测到果醋市场前景十分看好。

  5. Progress of Mulberry Vinegar%桑椹果醋的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁贵秋; 吴婧婧; 陆春霞; 沈蔚

    2012-01-01

    果醋作为一种新型保健饮料,因其营养丰富、风味独特、口感俱佳而备受广大消费者的欢迎。桑椹果醋就是以桑椹为主要原料,经酒精和醋酸发酵而成,既可作为调味品,又可作为饮料直接饮用。该文从桑椹的营养、加工现状等方面综述桑椹果醋的研究进展,证明桑椹果醋的开发具有广阔的前景。%Fruit vinegar is accepted by people because of its rich nutrients,good healthy function and unique flavor.Mulberry vinegar is produced by alcohol and acetic acid fermentation,which uses mulberry as raw nuterial. Mulberry vinegar is not only used as seasoning,but also directly drunk as beverage.The nutritional components and processing current situation of mulberry vinegar were summarized in this paper, so as to prove that the development of mulberry vinegar had broad prospects.

  6. The effect of cider vinegar on some nutritional and physiological parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, el-O A; Mohamed, S M; Mohamed, K A

    2001-01-01

    The present work was designed to investigate health effects of cider vinegar using mice as experimental model. Groups of female ICR (CD-1) mice were treated with daily oral doses of 0.17, 0.51 and 1.02 ml of the vinegar/kg body weight for 4 weeks. Cider vinegar induced a significant reduction in weight gain in animals treated with 0.51 ml/kg while others showed no significant differences in weight gain. The mean dry matter intake increased in animals treated with the smallest dose and significantly decreased in others. Hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte counts (TEC) and total leukocyte counts (TLC) were raised in all treated groups. The activity of liver aspartate amino transferase (AST) decreased in the group treated with the smallest dose while no significant variations were recorded in the other groups. No significant differences were recorded neither in the activity of hepatic alanin amino transferase (ALT) nor in hepatic acid phosphatase (ACP). Liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) noticeably elevated only in animals treated with 0.51 ml of vinegar/kg body weight per day. Treated groups also showed statistically significant increases in both mean liver and spleen weight. Kidney weight did not show significant differences. High doses of cider vinegar induced histopathological alterations in liver, stomach and duodenum. Vacuolated hepatocytes, erosion of gastric mucosa, dilatation in gastric glands and duodenum villus blunting are the common observed lesions noticed in organs of high dose-treated animals.

  7. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of wood type and thickness on acetification kinetics in traditional vinegar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesús Torija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Jesús Torija1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Carlos-Alfredo Vegas1, Carla Jara1, Angel González1, Montse Poblet1, Cristina Reguant1, Jóse-Manuel Guillamon2, Albert Mas11Biotecnología enológica. Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 2Departamento de Biotecnología de los Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC, Burjassot, València, SpainAbstract: Traditional vinegar production is a lengthy process which implies high operational risks and jeopardizes the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. In an effort to solve these problems without changing the traditional model, we modified the wood type and thickness of vinegar barrels. We acetified in triplicate in barrels made of acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak and in three wood thicknesses (15, 20, and 25 mm in two different vinegar plants. The operating volume was set at 60 L. Reducing wood thickness improved neither maximum acetification velocity or the total length of the process, and in some cases even worsened them. The process took longer in oak barrels than in other types of wood barrel in one of the vinegar plants. Therefore, the choice of wood is a parameter to be considered in the wine vinegar production. Keywords: acacia, cherry, chestnut, oak, acetic acid bacteria

  9. Characterizing and Authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO Vinegars Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José De la Haba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO “Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles” wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400–2,500 nm in both cases and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380–1,700 nm. A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity, and alcohol content, and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars.

  10. Balsamic Vinegar Improves High Fat-Induced Beta Cell Dysfunction via Beta Cell ABCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Seok

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.MethodsIn this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.ResultsIn rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1 expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.ConclusionThese findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.

  11. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Hyoun-Suk; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs) usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25°C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66mg/L from 5.29mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation.

  12. Analysis of Bacterial Diversity During Acetic Acid Fermentation of Tianjin Duliu Aged Vinegar by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Yang, Yanping; Guo, Yanyun; Han, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The vinegar pei harbors complex bacterial communities. Prior studies revealing the bacterial diversity involved were mainly conducted by culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities in vinegar pei during the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Tianjin Duliu aged vinegar (TDAV). The results showed that there were 7 phyla and 24 families existing in the vinegar pei, with 2 phyla (Firmicutes, Protebacteria) and 4 families (Lactobacillaceae, Acetobacteracae, Enterobacteriaceae, Chloroplast) predominating. The genus-level identification revealed that 9 genera were the relatively stable, consistent components in different stages of AAF, including the most abundant genus Lactobacillus followed by Acetobacter and Serratia. Additionally, the bacterial community in the early fermentation stage was more complex than those in the later stages, indicating that the accumulation of organic acids provided an appropriate environment to filter unwanted bacteria and to accelerate the growth of required ones. This study provided basic information of bacterial patterns in vinegar pei and relevant changes during AAF of TDAV, and could be used as references in the following study on the implementation of starter culture as well as the improvement of AAF process.

  13. Monitoring the microbial community during solid-state acetic acid fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Qi; Lu, Zhenming; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong; Ma, Yanhe

    2011-09-01

    Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional vinegars. In this study, change of the microbial community during its fermentation process was investigated. DGGE results showed that microbial community was comparatively stable, and the diversity has a disciplinary series of changes during the fermentation process. It was suggested that domestication of microbes and unique cycle-inoculation style used in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar were responsible for comparatively stable of the microbial community. Furthermore, two clone libraries were constructed. The results showed that bacteria presented in the fermentation belonged to genus Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Sinorhizobium, while the fungi were genus Saccharomyces. DGGE combined with clone library analysis was an effective and credible technique for analyzing the microbial community during the fermentation process of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Real-time PCR results suggested that the biomass showed a "system microbes self-domestication" process in the first 5 days, then reached a higher level at the 7th day before gradually decreasing until the fermentation ended at the 20th day. This is the first report to study the changes of microbial community during fermentation process of Chinese traditional solid-state fermentation of vinegar.

  14. Characterizing and authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO vinegars using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, María-José; Arias, Mar; Ramírez, Pilar; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2014-02-20

    This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles" wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400-2,500 nm in both cases) and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380-1,700 nm). A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity), and alcohol content), and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars.

  15. Bambusa vulgaris as a roof material : A field study about bamboo age, treatment and the possibility to build with bamboo in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) and to gain a wider knowledge about bamboo as a construction material. A growing problem all over the world is global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions. Bamboo is a giant grass and can absorb more carbon dioxide in comparison to same-sized trees. The majority of bamboo species growing in Ghana is Bambusa vulgaris. The results are based on six qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted in Ghana and five supp...

  16. Elucidating how bamboo salt interacts with supported lipid membranes: influence of alkalinity on membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Min Chul; Park, Jae Hyeon; Herrin, Jason Scott; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Haiwon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-07-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional medicine produced from sea salt. It is widely used in Oriental medicine and is an alkalizing agent with reported antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic properties. Notwithstanding, linking specific molecular mechanisms with these properties has been challenging to establish in biological systems. In part, this issue may be related to bamboo salt eliciting nonspecific effects on components found within these systems. Herein, we investigated the effects of bamboo salt solution on supported lipid bilayers as a model system to characterize the interaction between lipid membranes and bamboo salt. The atomic composition of unprocessed and processed bamboo salts was first analyzed by mass spectrometry, and we identified several elements that have not been previously reported in other bamboo salt preparations. The alkalinity of hydrated samples was also measured and determined to be between pH 10 and 11 for bamboo salts. The effect of processed bamboo salt solutions on the fluidic properties of a supported lipid bilayer on glass was next investigated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. It was demonstrated that, with increasing ionic strength of the bamboo salt solution, the fluidity of a lipid bilayer increased. On the contrary, increasing the ionic strength of near-neutral buffer solutions with sodium chloride salt diminished fluidity. To reconcile these two observations, we identified that solution alkalinity is critical for the effects of bamboo salt on membrane fluidity, as confirmed using three additional commercial bamboo salt preparations. Extended-DLVO model calculations support that the effects of bamboo salt on lipid membranes are due to the alkalinity imparting a stronger hydration force. Collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that processing of bamboo salt strongly affects its atomic composition and that the alkalinity of bamboo salt solutions contributes to its effect on membrane

  17. [Study on detoxication of euphorbia pekinensis radix processed with vinegar on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-Dan; Yan, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Li; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar in the toxicity on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6, and make a preliminary study on the mechanism of detoxication of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar. With rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6 as the study object, the MTT method was adopted to detect the effect of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar on IEC-6 cell activity. The morphology of cells were observed by the inverted microscope. The down-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of enterocytes caused by the vinegar processing was analyzed by using the high content screening. Compared with the negative control group, the proliferation inhibition experiment showed that Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix showed a relatively high intestinal cell toxicity (P IEC-6 cell membrane, so as to provide a basis for further explanation of the detoxication mechanism of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar.

  18. Measurement of the isotope ratio of acetic acid in vinegar by HS-SPME-GC-TC/C-IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Shibata, Hiroki; Hirano, Satoshi; Tajima, Osamu; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2010-06-23

    Acetic acid is the main ingredient of vinegar, and the worth of vinegar often depends on the fermentation of raw materials. In this study, we have developed a simple and rapid method for discriminating the fermentation of the raw materials of vinegar by measuring the hydrogen and carbon isotope ratio of acetic acid using head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-high temperature conversion or combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-TC/C-IRMS). The measurement of acetic acid in vinegar by this method was possible with repeatabilities (1sigma) of +/-5.0 per thousand for hydrogen and +/-0.4 per thousand for carbon, which are sufficient to discriminate the origin of acetic acid. The fermentation of raw materials of several vinegars was evaluated by this method.

  19. International Competitiveness of Main Bamboo and Rattan Commodities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo and Rattan(B&R) resources play a very important role for ecological and economical development as the two most important non-timber forest resources,due to deterioration of global ecological environment and supply pressure of timber resource.B&R industry has always been regarded as one of the green industries with great development potential as B&R can be used as wood substitute. Many countries and regions have their distinct advantages and successful experiences in developing bamboo and rattan in...

  20. NTDC United with Jigan to Promote "TANBOOCEL"Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 27th,the National Textile Development Center and Hebei Jigao Chemical Fibre Co.,Ltd united together in Beijing to announce that the"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber product R&D cooperation system has been started,aiming at promoting the industrial application of"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber markedly.Mr.Sun Reizhe,vice president of China National Textile and Apparel Council,Li Binhong,Director of National Textile Development Center,gave their key speeches during this ceremony.

  1. Hygrothermal effect of bamboo by dynamic mechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Mingjie; ZHANG Qisheng

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic properties of bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens,with moisture content (MC) ranging from -130 to 130℃,were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).The results showed that the hygrothermal effect on dynamic mechanical properties was negative.The storage modulus decreases with increasing temperature and MC,and glass transition temperature decreases with increasing MC.The glass transition temperature and tan delta of bamboo were 30.5℃,0.02 and 10.61℃,0.04,when MC was 10% and 34%,respectively.

  2. Diversity of the microbiota involved in wine and organic apple cider submerged vinegar production as revealed by DHPLC analysis and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trček, Janja; Mahnič, Aleksander; Rupnik, Maja

    2016-04-16

    Unfiltered vinegar samples collected from three oxidation cycles of the submerged industrial production of each, red wine and organic apple cider vinegars, were sampled in a Slovene vinegar producing company. The samples were systematically collected from the beginning to the end of an oxidation cycle and used for culture-independent microbial analyses carried out by denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene variable regions. Both approaches showed a very homogeneous bacterial structure during wine vinegar production but more heterogeneous during organic apple cider vinegar production. In all wine vinegar samples Komagataeibacter oboediens (formerly Gluconacetobacter oboediens) was a predominating species. In apple cider vinegar the acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria were two major groups of bacteria. The acetic acid bacterial consortium was composed of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter with the Komagataeibacter genus outcompeting the Acetobacter in all apple cider vinegar samples at the end of oxidation cycle. Among the lactic acid bacterial consortium two dominating genera were identified, Lactobacillus and Oenococcus, with Oenococcus prevailing with increasing concentration of acetic acid in vinegars. Unexpectedly, a minor genus of the acetic acid bacterial consortium in organic apple cider vinegar was Gluconobacter, suggesting a possible development of the Gluconobacter population with a tolerance against ethanol and acetic acid. Among the accompanying bacteria of the wine vinegar, the genus Rhodococcus was detected, but it decreased substantially by the end of oxidation cycles.

  3. 草莓果醋加工工艺初探%Production of strawberry vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建中; 陶永霞; 武运; 张艳; 何小艳

    2009-01-01

    以草莓为原料,通过破碎、榨汁、酒精发酵、醋酸发酵等生产工艺发酵制成草莓果醋.对其生产工艺进行了探讨,经5 d酒精发酵和醋酸发酵,制得的果醋总酸度为5.87g/100mL,糖度为1.76g/100mL,风味纯正,并带有水果的香气.%Strawberry vinegar was produced after crushing, pressing, alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation. The optimal production conditions of strawberry vinegar were investigated. The acidity and sugar content reached 5. 87g/100 ml and 1. 76g/100 ml after 5d alcohol fermentation and 5 d acetic acid fermentation, respectively. The flavor of strawberry vinegar was greatly improved.

  4. [Anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar in rats subjected to a high fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, H; Kaddouri, H; Kheroua, O; Saidi, D

    2016-06-01

    The search of new anti-obesogenic treatments based on medicinal plants without or with minimal side effects is a challenge. In this context, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) in Wistar rats subjected to a high fat diet. Eighteen male Wistar rats (140±5g) were divided into 3 three equal groups. A witness group submitted to standard laboratory diet and two groups subjected to a high fat diet (cafeteria diet); one receives a daily gavage of apple cider vinegar (7mL/kg/d) for 30 days. Throughout the experiment monitoring the nutritional assessment, anthropometric and biochemical parameters is achieved. In the RCV vs RC group, we observed a highly significant decrease (Pdiet (cafeteria) are thwarted by taking apple cider vinegar which proves to have a satiating effect, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects, and seems prevent the atherogenic risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid microplate, green method for high-throughput evaluation of vinegar acidity using thermal infrared enthalpimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Ferreira, Daniele de Freitas; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Duarte, Fábio Andrei; Wagner, Roger; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2017-01-15

    Infrared thermal imaging was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis using an infrared camera to monitor temperature without contact. The proposed thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was used to determine the total, fixed and volatile acidities of vinegars. Sample preparation and analysis were performed in the same vessel, avoiding excessive sample handling and reducing energy expenditure by more than ten times. The results agreed with those of the conventional method for different kinds of vinegars, with values of 1.7%, and 2.3% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 0.040 to 1.30molL(-1). The proposed method provided rapid results (within 10s) for four samples simultaneously, a sample throughput of up to 480 samples per hour. In addition, the method complies with at least eight of twelve recommendations for green analytical chemistry, making TIE a promising tool for routine vinegar analysis.

  6. Interfering Satellite RNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV, the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of interfering satBaMV and BaMV. Like other satRNAs, satBaMV mimics the secondary structures of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs of BaMV as a molecular pretender. However, a conserved apical hairpin stem loop (AHSL in the 5′-UTR of satBaMV was found as the key determinant for downregulating BaMV replication. In particular, two unique nucleotides (C60 and C83 in the AHSL of satBaMVs determine the satBaMV interference ability by competing for the replication machinery. Thus, transgenic plants expressing interfering satBaMV could confer resistance to BaMV, and interfering satBaMV could be used as biological-control agent. Unlike two major anti-viral mechanisms, RNA silencing and salicylic acid-mediated immunity, our findings in plants by in vivo competition assay and RNA deep sequencing suggested replication competition is involved in this transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. We propose how a single nucleotide of satBaMV can make a great change in BaMV pathogenicity and the underlying mechanism.

  7. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China.

  8. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  9. Crystallization kinetics and thermal resistance of bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumsorn, S.; Srisawat, N.; On, J. Wong; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hamada, H.

    2014-05-01

    Bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites were prepared in this study. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was blended with bamboo fiber in a twin screw extruder with varied bamboo content from 20-0wt%. PBS/bamboo fiber composites were fabricated by compression molding process. The effect of bamboo fiber contents on properties of the composites was investigated. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study of the composites was investigated based on Avrami equation. The kinetic parameters indicated that bamboo fiber acted as heterogeneous nucleation and enhanced crystallinity of the composites. Bamboo fiber was well dispersed on PBS matrix and good adhered with the matrix. Tensile strength of the composites slightly deceased with adding bamboo fiber. However, tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased when increasing bamboo fiber contents. It can be noted that bamboo fiber promoted crystallization and crystallinity of PBS in the composites. Therefore, the composites were better in impact load transferring than neat PBS, which exhibited improving on impact performance of the composites.

  10. Preparation of sea buckthorn vinegar beverage%沙棘果醋饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛广财; 朱丹; 魏文毅; 王欣; 王鹤霖; 杨建

    2012-01-01

    以沙棘汁为主要原料,经酒精发酵、醋酸发酵制成沙棘原醋,再调配成沙棘果醋饮料。以沙棘原醋用量、沙棘果汁用量、蜂蜜用量、蔗糖糖浆用量为实验因素,以感官评分为考察指标,研究了沙棘果醋饮料的配方和加工工艺。经正交实验得出每100mL沙棘果醋饮料的最佳配方为:沙棘原醋8mL,沙棘果汁15mL,蜂蜜3g,蔗糖糖浆10g。经过调配、过滤、灌装后,在100℃下杀菌5rain。生产的沙棘果醋饮料色泽亮丽,酸甜适口,具有浓郁的沙棘果香、醋香和蜂蜜香气。%Sea buckthorn vinegar was made from sea buckthorn juice by alcoholic and acetic fermentations,which was then formulated to a sea buckthorn vinegar beverage.With the dosages of sea buckthorn vinegar,juice, honey and sucrose syrup as the experimental factors and the sensory scores of the sea buckthorn vinegar beverage as the evaluation indexes,the formula and processing technology were researched on.By orthogonal experiment,the optimum formula of the vinegar beverage was determined as follows:sea buckthorn raw vinegar 8mL/100mL, sea buckthorn juice 15mL/100mL, honey 3g/100mL and sucrose syrup lOg/100mL.The optimal sterilization condition of the product was holding on 100℃ for 5min after formulation,filtering and filling.The sea buckthorn vinegar beverage with bright color,sweet and sour taste, had sea buckthorn flavor,vinegar and honey aromas.

  11. Preparation of Apple Vinegar Beverage%发酵苹果醋饮的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程稚玲; 姚薇; 王钰慧; 张琳; 霍乃蕊; 王如福

    2016-01-01

    通过发酵酿制苹果醋并调配成醋饮,有助于苹果的高值利用并缓解苹果的市场压力。结果表明:经过4天酒精发酵,接种发酵第3天的老陈醋醋醅可使苹果醋醋酸发酵的时间缩短为5天。经过单因素试验:白砂糖替代实验以及感官评价确定苹果醋饮配方为苹果醋18%,蜂蜜3%,浓缩苹果汁6%,白砂糖1%,果葡糖浆1%,高倍甜味剂(阿斯巴甜与安赛蜜1∶1比例混合)0.01%,食盐0.025%。醋饮最终呈淡黄色,清亮透明,无悬浮物及沉淀,具有明显的醋香味、苹果香味,口感酸爽,后味丰富,酸甜柔和,酸而不烈,甜而不腻。%Apple vinegar is brewed into beverage in this study to make a foundation for high-value utilization and relieving the market pressure of overproduced apples.The results show that after 4 days'alcoholic fermentation,the fermentation time of vinegar is shortened to 5 days by inoculating the fermented solid vinegar matrix of Shanxi mature vinegar.The formulation of the apple vinegar beverage is determined by single factor test,sugar replacement test and sensory assessment.It is composed of 18% apple vinegar,3% honey,6% concentrated apple juice,1% white sugar,1%fructose syrup,0.01% high-times sweetener prepared by equal mass of aspartame and acesulfame and 0.025% table salt.The vinegar beverage is transparent and pale yellow,without suspended substance and sediments,with distinct vinegar,apple and honey flavor,sour and clear mouth feel and rich aftertaste,proper sourness and sweetness.

  12. 电子鼻对酿造食醋与配制食醋的区分辨识%Discrimination of Fermented Vinegar and BIended Vinegar by EIectronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何计龙; 卢亭

    2016-01-01

    在前期研究的基础上,应用电子鼻技术快速检测了台州地区生产和销售的酿造食醋与配制食醋。研究表明:以食醋中特征香味物质为参照,对检测结果进行主成分分析后,发现酿造食醋和配制食醋的落点在各自区域内而互不干扰,说明电子鼻能很好地区分台州市场上的酿造食醋和配制食醋。%On the basis of previous research,electronic nose technology is used for the rapid detection of fermented vinegar and blended vinegar produced and sold in Taizhou area.The study shows that with reference to the characteristic aroma compounds in vinegar,after the principal components analysis of the detection results,it is found that the placement of fermented vinegar and blended vinegar is in their respective regions and without interfering with each other,electronic nose can distinguish the fermented vinegar and blended vinegar in Taizhou market.

  13. production of particleboards using polystyrene and bamboo wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    measured after 2 and 24 hours of immersion in water at 25oC temperature. It was found that the physical ..... amounts of wastes and eliminating the pollution occasioned by the burning of ... Properties and utilization of Philippine erect bamboo.

  14. Flexible fabrication of biomimetic bamboo-like hybrid microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Wen, Hui; Ma, Jingyun; Lykkemark, Simon; Xu, Hui; Qin, Jianhua

    2014-04-23

    Biomimetic and flexible bamboo-like hybrid fibers are produced using a novel one-step strategy. By combining a droplet microfluidic technique with a wet-spinning process, biocompatible microfibers are incorporated with polymer spheres or multicellular spheroids. As a result of the controllability of this approach, it has potential applications in materials science and tissue engineering.

  15. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  16. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  17. Preparation and characterization of white bamboo charcoal PET fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Shan Li; Ming Shuang Xu; Guang Ju Zhou; Li Qiu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (BC-PET) has been widely applied in home textiles, functional clothing and hydra-balance material, due to their strong adsorptivity, good resolvability, anti-statics, deodorization, antibacterial, anion releasing and far infrared emitting. But BC-PET is black and difficult to be dyed, and its application is limited. In this article, nitric acid was used to treat the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC) powder, and BC powder was modified by titanium dioxide sol to prepare white bamboo charcoal (white-BC) particle. White bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (white-BC-PET) was obtained by mixing white-BC and polyester (PET) resin in double screw extruder. Performance of fiber was tested referring to national standard GB/TI4464-2008 of common PET fiber and most of its indicators have already exceeded GB the level of excellent product. SEM photographs showed that the white-BC was uniformly distributed inside or on the surface of fiber. The white-BC-PET could absorb some aniline and had at least 90% anti-bacterial rate. The anti-bacterial rate could have almost been kept after it was washed 50 times. It was hopeful to be applied in various fields as functional fiber.

  18. How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In a research project funded by NSFC,Dr.Wei Fuwen of Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,explained how giant pandas thrive on a bamboo diet,and published their research findings in an article "Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome," on PNAS in October 17,2011.

  19. One laminated bamboo-frame house per hectare per year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flander, De K.; Rovers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a quantitative analysis that demonstrates the global potential of bamboo as a "modern" construction material. The underlying goal is to contribute to a real shift in resource management by focussing on renewable resources in general and on the high brow, modern use

  20. 《竹取物语》中的时间意象与日本竹文化%Time Image and Japanese Bamboo Culture in "Bamboo Monogatari"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敬军

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo Monogatari is the Japanese classic "bamboo" story, has become a symbol of Japanese bamboo culture. The close relationship between the time image in the story and bamboo culture bamboo biological characteristics deepens Japanese bamboo culture connoted in Bamboo Monogatari.%《竹取物语》是日本古典"竹"之物语,小说中的时间意象与竹文化、竹子生物特性的密切关联深化了《竹取物语》的日本竹文化内涵。

  1. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  2. Performance and Durability Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Cement Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Singh Mehra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A big part of population in India is still homeless due to raising unaffordability of housing structures. People sleeping on roadsides and living in slums is a common sight in Indian cities. To overcome this problem India today needs millions of houses for their growing population, making concrete as the most widely to be used material in the country. Concrete has found to have excellent compressive strength but poor in tensile strength, to take care of the tensile stresses steel is commonly used as reinforcing material in concrete. Production of steel is a very costly business and its use in concrete as reinforcing material increases the cost of construction by many folds. Also production of steel emits a large amount of green house gases causing considerable deterioration of the environment. The above mentioned socio-economic and environmental factors creates a necessity for finding an appropriate environment friendly and cheap material that can successfully substitute steel as reinforcement in concrete elements of a low cost dwelling for the poor and homeless people of the country. It is here that engineered bamboo can be of great value to Civil Engineers owning to its several net worthy features. Production of every tone of bamboo consumes about a tone of atmospheric CO2 in addition to releasing fresh O2. From structural point of view bamboo has been used as a structural material from the earlier times as it possesses excellent flexure and tensile strength as well as high strength to weight ratio. All this necessitates examining bamboo-reinforced cement concrete in detail for its appropriateness as a structural material for construction of a low cost dwelling unit. The study focuses on evaluating the mechanical and durability properties of cement-concrete beams both singly and doubly reinforced with bamboo splints.

  3. Identification and quantification of the main organic components of vinegars by high resolution {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caligiani, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: augusta.caligiani@unipr.it; Acquotti, D. [Centro Interfacolta Misure, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 23A, 43100-Parma (Italy); Palla, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy); Bocchi, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy)

    2007-02-28

    A detailed analysis of the proton high-field NMR spectra of vinegars (in particular of Italian balsamic vinegars) is reported. A large number of organic substances belonging to different classes, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, organic acids, volatile compounds and amino acids, were assigned. The possibility of quantification of the substances identified in the whole vinegar sample, without extraction or pre-concentration steps, was also tested. The data validity was demonstrated in terms of precision, accuracy, repeatability and inter-day reproducibility. The effects of the most critical experimental parameters (sample concentration, water suppression and relaxation time) on the analysis response were also discussed. {sup 1}H NMR results were compared with those obtained by traditional techniques (GC-MS, titrations), and good correlations were obtained. The results showed that {sup 1}H NMR with water suppression allows a rapid, simultaneous determination of carbohydrates (glucose and fructose), organic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic, citric, succinic and tartaric acids), alcohols and polyols (ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hydroxymethylfurfural), and volatile substances (ethyl acetate) in vinegar samples. On the contrary, the amino acid determination without sample pre-concentration was critical. The {sup 1}H NMR method proposed was applied to different samples of vinegars, allowing, in particular, the discrimination of vinegars and balsamic vinegars.

  4. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group .The malondialdehyde (MDA oxidized-LDL (oxLDL fibrinogen factor VII apolipoprotein A (ApoA and apolipoprotein B (ApoB were measured before the experiment and at the end period (2month. At the end of study using Chekanov method fatty streak formation in aorta artery was determined in all groups. Results: Using both doses of apple cider vinegar significantly decreased fibrinogen oxLDL MDA ApoB ApoB/ApoA VIIlevels in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet (P0.05. Also consumption of apple cider vinegar induced significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in aorta artery compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion: This study suggests that apple cider vinegar (as an antioxidant might have some protective effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis.

  5. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by naturally fermented sugar cane vinegar (kibizu) of Amami Ohshima Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Akio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Toshima, Youhei; Yazaki, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Ui, Sadaharu; Hyodoh, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    Naturally fermented vinegar such as Kibizu (sugar cane vinegar in Amami Ohshima, Japan), Kurozu (black rice vinegar in Kagoshima, Japan), Kouzu (black rice vinegar in China) and red wine vinegar in Italy had potent radical-scavenging activity analyzed by DPPH method. For the elucidation of food factor for cancer prevention contained in naturally fermented vinegar, the induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cell HL-60 was investigated with sugar cane vinegar Kibizu. Fraction eluted by 40% methanol from Amberlite XAD 2 chromatography of sugar cane vinegar showed potent radical scavenging activity. The fraction also showed the activity repressing growth of typical human leukemia cells such as HL-60, THP-1, Molt-4, U-937, Jurkat, Raji and K-562. On the other hand, the fraction did not have any growth inhibition activity against human fetal lung cell TIG-1. The most potent radical-scavenging activity and the growth repression activity of the leukemia cell were observed in the same chromatographic fraction of methanol 40%. From cell sorting FACS analyses, electron microscopic observations and cytochemical staining of chromatin and nuclear segments in human leukemia cell HL-60 treated with the active fraction, it was concluded that apoptosis was induced in the leukemia cell by the fraction of sugar cane vinegar and resulted in the repression of growth of the human leukemia cells. Chromatographic fraction of sugar cane juice eluted by 20% methanol showed potent activities of radical-scavenging and growth repression of HL-60. These results led us the consideration that active components in sugar cane juice could be converted to more lipophilic compounds with activity to induce apoptosis in HL-60 by microbial fermentation with yeast and acetic acid bacteria.

  7. Identification and field evaluation of fermentation volatiles from wine and vinegar that mediate attraction of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Adams, Todd; Rogg, Helmuth; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that olfactory cues from damaged and fermented fruits play important roles in resource recognition of polyphagous spotted wing Drosophila flies (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). They are attracted to fermented sweet materials, such as decomposing fruits but also wines and vinegars, and to ubiquitous fermentation volatiles, such as acetic acid and ethanol. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two-choice laboratory bioassays, and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from wine and vinegar that are involved in SWD attraction. In addition to acetic acid and ethanol, consistent EAD responses were obtained for 13 volatile wine compounds and seven volatile vinegar compounds, with all of the vinegar EAD-active compounds also present in wine. In a field trapping experiment, the 9-component vinegar blend and 15-component wine blend were similarly attractive when compared to an acetic acid plus ethanol mixture, but were not as attractive as the wine plus vinegar mixture. In two-choice laboratory bioassays, 7 EAD-active compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, and ethyl sorbate), when added singly to the mixture at the same concentrations tested in the field, decreased the attraction of SWD to the mixture of acetic acid and ethanol. The blends composed of the remaining EAD-active chemicals, an 8-component wine blend [acetic acid + ethanol + acetoin + grape butyrate + methionol + isoamyl lactate + 2-phenylethanol + diethyl succinate] and a 5-component vinegar blend [acetic acid + ethanol + acetoin + grape butyrate + 2-phenylethanol] were more attractive than the acetic acid plus ethanol mixture, and as attractive as the wine plus vinegar mixture in both laboratory assays and the field trapping experiment. These results indicate that these

  8. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  9. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-07

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1)) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  10. Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai; She, Diao

    2014-11-04

    Bamboo is one of the mostly fast growing natural resources and has great potential to be used as a valuable feedstock for biorefinery. The hemicelluloses, next to cellulose, represent a diverse group of polysaccharides in plant cell wall. Elucidation and understanding of the hemicelluloses from bamboo play an important role in the efficient conversion of bamboo into biofuels and bioproducts. This review summarized the recent reports on hemicelluloses from bamboo, including immunohistochemical localization, focused on extraction and purification methods, chemical components, characterization of structural features, as well as physicochemical properties. In addition, attention was also paid to derivatives prepared from bamboo hemicelluloses and to potential applications of bamboo hemicelluloses in a variety of areas such as biomaterials, biofuel, and food.

  11. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  12. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  13. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  14. Genome size and sequence composition of moso bamboo: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the world's most important bamboo species. It has the largest area of all planted bamboo―over two-thirds of the total bamboo forest area―and the highest economic value in China. Moso bamboo is a tetraploid (4x=48) and a special member of the grasses family. Although several genomes have been sequenced or are being sequenced in the grasses family, we know little about the genome of the bambusoids (bamboos). In this study, the moso bamboo genome size was estimated to be about 2034 Mb by flow cytometry (FCM), using maize (cv. B73) and rice (cv. Nipponbare) as internal references. The rice genome has been sequenced and the maize genome is being sequenced. We found that the size of the moso bamboo genome was similar to that of maize but significantly larger than that of rice. To determine whether the bamboo genome had a high proportion of repeat elements, similar to that of the maize genome, approximately 1000 genome survey sequences (GSS) were generated. Sequence analysis showed that the proportion of repeat elements was 23.3% for the bamboo genome, which is significantly lower than that of the maize genome (65.7%). The bamboo repeat elements were mainly Gypsy/DIRS1 and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (14.7%), with a few DNA transposons. However, more genomic sequences are needed to confirm the above results due to several factors, such as the limitation of our GSS data. This study is the first to investigate sequence composition of the bamboo genome. Our results are valuable for future genome research of moso and other bamboos.

  15. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, ...

  16. Design of Experimentation, Artificial Neural Network Simulation and Optimization for Integrated Bamboo Processing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Mehar; Dr.A.V.Vanalkar

    2015-01-01

    In this research work experimentation on integrated bamboo processing machine for splitting and slicing of bamboo has been carried out. This paper presents the experimental investigation of some parameters of integrated bamboo processing machine. In this research paper simulation of experimental data using artificial neural network is carried out. An attempt of minimum-maximum principle has been made to optimize by range bound process for maximizing production rate of integrated b...

  17. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  18. Production technology of bran vinegar%麸醋生产工艺的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远均

    2011-01-01

    老法麸醋生产工艺较为复杂,且质量较难控制,为简化麸醋生产工艺,提高产出率,该文采用酶法液化、糖化制得糖液.然后在糖液中添加安琪酒精酵母,培养好酵母后,固态酒精发酵,酒化后添加醋化剂进行醋酸发酵.此生产工艺各阶段主发酵的目的较为明确,效果较好,醋醅产酸量达到了4.65g/100mL.%The traditional production technology of bran vinegar is complicated and it is difficult to control the quality of bran vinegar. To simplify the production technology of bran vinegar and to improve the yield of bran vinegar, the enzymatic technology was used in this study for liquefaction and saccharification to produce sugar solution. Then, Angel alcohol yeast was inoculated. After the yeast grew up, the solid-state alcohol fermentation was carried out, followed by acetic acid fermentation with the inoculum of acetificator. In this technology, there was a definite fermentation purpose for each stage. The acetic acid yield reached 4.65g/100ml.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter malorum CECT 7742, a Strain Isolated from Strawberry Vinegar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Florencia; Torija, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The present article reports the draft genome sequence of the strain Acetobacter malorum CECT 7742, an acetic acid bacterium isolated from strawberry vinegar. This species is characterized by the production of d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, which it further metabolizes to keto-d-gluconic acids. PMID:27340078

  20. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Utilization of bee (Apis mellifera) honey for vinegar production at laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, E C; Sant'Anna, E; Torres, R C; Porto, A C; Meinert, E M

    2000-01-01

    Vinegar was obtained from bee (Apis mellifera) honey. The wort was prepared by diluting honey in distilled water to 21% total solids and by adding ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inoculated to the wort (4 g/L). Ethanol production was carried out at room temperature during 84 hours. In this study, 1 Kg of honey yielded about 5 L of wine, containing 8% alcohol (v/v), from a wort with 17.11% total sugars (w/v). The efficiency of the alcoholic fermentation was 81.34%. The acetic fermentation with an inoculum of mixed acetic microorganisms was performed by quick process in a 15 L vertical fermenter. This resulted in a vinegar containing up to 9% of acetic acid (w/v) and about 1% of alcohol (v/v). The acetic fermentation yielded between 91.24 and 97.21%. Approximately 5 L of honey vinegar with 9% acetic acid (w/v) were obtained from 1 Kg of bee honey. All attributes of honey vinegar showed acceptability index over 70%: 95.37% for appearance, 94.81% for color, 79.07% for odor and 75.56% for flavor, indicating it would show good consumer acceptability.

  2. Vinegar production from Togolese local variety Mangovi of Mango mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Y; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Karou, Simplice D; Bouix, M; Sossou, Seyram K; De Souza, C

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed to access for the physiochemical parameters of vinegar production through Togolese local variety Mangovi of mango Mangifera indica juice fermentation. The juice was fermented successively by Saccharomyces cerevisisae and acetic bacteria. The levels of ethanol and acetic acid in the juice during the production of vinegar were monitored by gas chromatography and titrimetry methods, respectively. The physiological state of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2056 was determined by flow cytometry using a dual fluorescent labeling of diacetate carboxy-fluorescein (CFDA) and propidium iodide. The results indicated that 200 mL of mango juice, sugar content 20 Brix, set in alcoholic fermentation with 10(6) yeast cells produced 22.4 g L(-1) ethanol in 72 h. Acetic fermentation transformed 93% of this ethanol to acetic acid in 288 h. Twenty-four hours after the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, 91% of cells were viable, 8.85% were stressed and 0.05% died. After 24 h of acetic fermentation, viable, stressed and dead cells were 45, 12 and 39%, respectively; corresponding to the passage of acetic vinegar level from 0.9 to 2.1 degrees. At the end of the acetic fermentation, dead cells were estimated to 98% at and acetic acid to 4.7 degrees. Using consecutive fermentations is suitable technique for vinegar production from mango juice. The application of the present results may contribute to avoid fruits post harvest losses.

  3. Vinegar (20% acetic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic weed control research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top applications of acetic acid (vinegar) on weed control efficacy, crop injury and onion yields. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes, 2 hand-weeding ...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter malorum CECT 7742, a Strain Isolated from Strawberry Vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Florencia; Mas, Albert; Torija, María Jesús

    2016-06-23

    The present article reports the draft genome sequence of the strain Acetobacter malorum CECT 7742, an acetic acid bacterium isolated from strawberry vinegar. This species is characterized by the production of d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, which it further metabolizes to keto-d-gluconic acids.

  5. Targeting key aromatic substances on the typical aroma of sherry vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Morales, M Lourdes; Troncoso, Ana M; Silva Ferreira, Antonio C

    2008-08-13

    Two gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques were used to screen targeting compounds with an impact on the perceived quality of Sherry vinegar: detection frequency and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The GC-O study revealed the presence of 108 aromatic notes, of which 64 were identified. Diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, acetic acid, and sotolon reached the highest frequency and flavor dilution (FD) factors. Ethyl acetate accounted for the maximum frequency but only a FD factor of 4. To test the sensory impact of these odorants, they were added to a 7% (w/v) acetic acid solution. We determined similarity values (SV) between solutions and the Sherry vinegar. The highest value from the similarity test was observed when diacetyl, ethyl acetate, and sotolon were added simultaneously. The profile of this model solution and a representative Sherry vinegar showed good similarity in the general impression descriptor, which emphasizes the important contribution of these three compounds to the global aroma of this vinegar.

  6. Scale-down of vinegar production into microtiter plates using a custom-made lid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    As an important food preservative and condiment, vinegar is widely produced in industry by submerged acetic acid bacteria cultures. Although vinegar production is established on the large scale, up to now suitable microscale cultivation methods, e.g. using microtiter plates, are missing to enable high-throughput cultivation and to optimize fermentation conditions. In order to minimize evaporation losses of ethanol and acetic acid in a 48-well microtiter plate during vinegar production a new custom-made lid was developed. A diffusion model was used to calculate the dimensions of a hole in the lid to guarantee a suitable oxygen supply and level of ventilation. Reference fermentation was conducted in a 9-L bioreactor to enable the calculation of the proper cultivation conditions in the microtiter plate. The minimum dissolved oxygen tensions in the microtiter plate were between 7.5% and 23% of air saturation and in the same range as in the 9-L bioreactor. Evaporation losses of ethanol and acetic acid were less than 5% after 47 h and considerably reduced compared to those of microtiter plate fermentations with a conventional gas-permeable seal. Furthermore, cultivation times in the microtiter plate were with about 40 h as long as in the 9-L bioreactor. In conclusion, microtiter plate cultivations with the new custom-made lid provide a platform for high-throughput studies on vinegar production. Results are comparable to those in the 9-L bioreactor.

  7. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  8. Comparative Proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 During the High Acidity Rice Vinegar Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zang, Ning; Shi, Jieyan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Ye; Liang, Xinle

    2015-12-01

    As a traditional Asian food for several centuries, vinegar is known to be produced by acetic acid bacteria. The Acetobacter species is the primary starter for vinegar fermentation and has evolutionarily acquired acetic acid resistance, in which Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 is routinely used for industrial production of rice vinegar with a high acidity (9 %, w/v). In contrast to the documented short-term and low acetic acid effects on A. pasteurianus, here we investigated the molecular and cellular signatures of long-term and high acetic acid responses by proteomic profiling with bidimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/MS) analyses. Protein spots of interest were selected based on the threshold ANOVA p value of 0.05 and minimal twofold of differential expression, leading to the identification of 26 proteins that are functionally enriched in oxidoreductase activity, cell membrane, and metabolism. The alterations in protein functioning in respiratory chain and protein denaturation may underlay cellular modifications at the outer membrane. Significantly, we found that at higher acidity fermentation phase, the A. pasteurianus Ab3 cells would adapt to distinct physiological processes from that of an ordinary vinegar fermentation with intermediate acidity, indicating increasing energy requirement and dependency of membrane integrity during the transition of acetic acid production. Together, our study provided new insights into the adaptation mechanisms in A. pasteurianus to high acetic acid environments and yield novel regulators and key pathways during the development of acetic acid resistance.

  9. A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2008-01-01

    This demonstration is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent in a spectacular way. Via a series of experiments where the amount of vinegar is fixed and the amount of NaHCO[subscript 3] is gradually increased, the volume of CO[subscript 2] generated from the reaction varies corresponding to the amount of NaHCO[subscript 3] until it…

  10. Population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria during traditional wine vinegar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Carlos; Mateo, Estibaliz; González, Angel; Jara, Carla; Guillamón, José Manuel; Poblet, Montse; Torija, Ma Jesús; Mas, Albert

    2010-03-31

    The population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria in traditional vinegar production was determined in two independent vinegar plants at both the species and strain level. The effect of barrels made of four different woods upon the population dynamics was also determined. Acetic acid bacteria were isolated on solid media and the species were identified by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA genes and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while strains were typed by ERIC-PCR and (GTG)(5)-rep-PCR. The most widely isolated species was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which accounted for 100% of all the isolates during most of the acetification. Gluconacetobacter europaeus only appeared at any notable level at the end of the process in oak barrels from one vinegar plant. The various A. pasteurianus strains showed a clear succession as the concentration of acetic acid increased. In both vinegar plants the relative dominance of different strains was modified as the concentrations of acetic acid increased, and strain diversity tended to reduce at the end of the process.

  11. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Antioxidant activity of vinegar produced from distilled residues of the Japanese liquor shochu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takahiro; Morimura, Shigeru; Tabata, Sachiko; Tang, Yueqin; Shigematsu, Toru; Kida, Kenji

    2008-05-28

    Rice shochu distilled residue (RSDR) is a byproduct of rice shochu production. RSDR was converted into vinegar by acetate fermentation. In our present study, two major antioxidant compounds, tyrosol and ferulic acid, were identified from the RSDR-derived vinegar. Furthermore, we investigated the antioxidant activity of freeze-dried RSDR-derived vinegar, which was Acetobactor aceti fermentation powder (AFP), in vitro and in vivo. AFP at 0.25 mg/mL or higher concentrations showed an inhibitory effect against lipid peroxidation and cellular GSH depletion in HepG2 cells induced by H(2)O(2) (P activity was evaluated in vivo using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury mouse models. Five consecutive days of oral preadministration of AFP dissolved in PBS at 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation in the liver induced by CCl(4) (P < 0.01). Consequently, treatment with AFP at 200 mg/kg body weight or higher doses suppressed the elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in serum (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that RSDR-derived vinegar can be developed as a health food with an antioxidant effect for the prevention of oxidative injury and cancer.

  13. Research on Air-dried Density and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo from Different Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to further research bamboo cultivation and expand its application field, air-dried density and mechanical properties of Moso bamboo from the 2 plantations under the same site condition were measured and analyzed by using the national standard The Testing Methods for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (GB / T 15780-1995). And the single linear regression analysis was carried out. The results showed that air-dried density and mechanical properties of the 2 kinds of Moso bamboo increase with...

  14. On Structure, production, and market of bamboo-based panels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since bamboo has the advantages of straight grain, beautiful color, high strength and toughness, and excellent abrasion resistance, bamboo-based panels have been widely used in the fields of vehicle, construction, ship building, furniture, and decoration to partly take the place of wood, steel, plastic etc in China. This paper briefly described the basic component units, including strip, sliver, and particle, of bamboo-based panel and pointed out that to design the structure of bamboo-based panels should follow the principle of symmetric structure, surface forming method, and structuring principle of equalizing stress. According to the processing methods and formation of component units, the authors classified the bamboo-based panels in China into 13 types and presented the manufacturing technique and uses of the bamboo products, such as plybamboo, bamboo flooring, and bamboo-wood composite products in detail. In the last part of the paper, much information were offered on the output, market, and selling prospect of each type of bamboo-based panels.

  15. [Study on bamboo treated with gamma rays by X-ray diffraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Bo; Fei, Ben-Hua; Jiang, Ze-Hui; Yu, Zi-Xuan; Tian, Gen-Lin; Yang, Quan-Wen

    2011-06-01

    The microfibril angle and crystallinity of bamboo treated with gamma rays were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result indicated that crystallinity in bamboo increased when irradiation dose was less than 100 kGy, while the irradiation dose was raised to about 100 kGy, crystallinity in bamboo reduced. But during the whole irradiation process, the influence on microfibril angle was not obvious, so it was not the dominant factors on variation in physical-mechanical properties of bamboo during the process of irradiation.

  16. Simultaneous flowering of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae) at its native home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hua; Manfred DENICH; Thomas BORSCH

    2006-01-01

    Flowering pattern and seedling establishment of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae (Gamble) Yi) were studied in its native habitat, Mount Shennongjia in Central China. Here in 1996-2000, over 95% of the bamboo plants simultaneously flowered and died, extending from lower elevations to the higher mountains along the altitude and from southwest to northeast along the mountain settings. following the flowering. After a high mortality throughout the first winter, bamboo seedlings remained a stable density in following 2-4 years (1130-1230 seedlings· m-2). Seedling density positively related to the coverage of parent bamboo, but negatively to the herb layers.

  17. Insights into the Bamboo Genome: Syntenic Relationships to Rice and Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jie Gui; Nai-Xun Ma; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Long-Jiang Fan; Yan Zhou; Yu Wang; Sheng Wang; Sheng-Yue Wang; Yan Hu; Shi-Ping Bo; Huan Chen; Chang-Ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family and plays a significant role in the forest industry.We produced 1.2 Mb of tetraploid moso bamboo(Phyllostachys pubescens E.Mazel ex H.de Leh.)sequences from 13 bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC)clones,and these are the largest genomic sequences available so far from the subfamily Bambusoideae.The content of repetitive elements(36.2%)in bamboo is similar to that in rice.Both rice and sorghum exhibit high genomic synteny with bamboo,which suggests that rice and sorghum may be useful as models for decoding Bambusoideae genomes.

  18. [Fast detection of white vinegar varieties and pH by Vis/NIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2008-04-01

    White vinegar is a condiment indispensable in our life, but our understanding of the white vinegar and evaluation of its quality and function has been gained through routine chemical and physical analysis. It is called for to develop more time- and cost-efficient methodologies for white vinegar detection. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) is a nondestructive, fast and accurate technique for the measurement of chemical components based on overtone and combination bands of specific functional groups. Vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy and chemometrics methods were utilized in classification and pH mensuration of white vinegar in the present study. First, the spectral curves of white vinegar were obtained by handheld Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process the spectral data after pretreatment. Five principal components (PCs) were selected based on accumulative reliabilities (AR), and these selected PCs would be taken as the inputs of the three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). A total of 240 white vinegar samples were divided into calibration set and validation set randomly, the calibration set had 180 samples with 60 samples of each variety, and the validation set had 60 samples with 20 samples of each variety. The BP-ANN was trained using samples in calibration set, the optimal three-layer BP-ANN model with 5 nodes in input layer, 6 nodes in hidden layer, and 2 nodes in output layer would be obtained, and the transfer function of sigmoid was used in each layer. Then, this model was used to predict the samples in the validation set. The result indicated that a 100% recognition ration was achieved with the threshold predictive error +/- 0.1, the bias between predictive value and standard value was lower than 5%. It could be concluded that PCA combined with BP-ANN was an available method for varieties recognition and pH mensuration of white vinegar based on Vis/NIR transmittance

  19. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ferng Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%, and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%, were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15–19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95–3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90–3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed

  20. Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang Li; Zehui Jiang; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Xuejun Pan

    2014-01-01

    The response and behavior of bamboo green, timber, and yellow of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) to three pretreatments, sulfite (SPORL), dilute acid (DA), and alkali (NaOH), were investigated and compared with varied chemical loadings at 180

  1. Study on principles of vinegar nonlinear fingerprint for vinegar adulteration identification%食醋非线性化学指纹图谱掺伪鉴别原理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨代明; 方宣启; 冯敏; 唐小兰; 毛鹏飞; 张泰铭

    2012-01-01

    Vinegar nonlinear fingerprint was studied for the problem of vinegar Adulteration. Optimum conditions of vinegar nonlinear fingerprint construction, and the effects of total acid, salt, Oscillation mechanism of " NaBrOs + MnSO4 + H2 SO4 + CH3 COCH3 " and components of vinegar were analyzed and then vinegar nonlinear fingerprint was studied. Orthogonal experiment was applied to find the preservatives were studied. It shows that salt and sorbic acid has great influence, so the salt in the vinegar must be removed pre experiment. The components of the oscillation system and their concentrations, electrode type, temperature, stirring rate and the amount of vinegar added. Vinegar nonlinear fingerprint is a general characteris-tic of the concentration profiles o f different chemical compounds of vinegar not only one or several components, it can reflect the real quality of vinegar, proving a new method for vinegar adulteration I-dentification and quality evaluation.%针对食醋掺伪问题对食醋非线性化学指纹图谱进行研究.通过对“溴酸钠-硫酸锰-硫酸-丙酮”体系的振荡机理的分析及食醋成分分析探讨食醋非线性化学指纹图谱的原理.通过正交试验考察建立食醋非线性化学指纹图谱的条件,并考察总酸、食盐、防腐剂对食醋非线性化学的影响.结果表明,食盐、山梨酸对食醋非线性化学指纹图谱影响较大,应在试验前去除食醋样品中的盐分;在检测过程中,应严格控制振荡体系中物种及其浓度、电极类型、温度、搅拌速率、食醋用量.食醋非线性化学指纹图谱是食醋众多成分的整体表征,而不是一种或几种物质的体现,能表达食醋的真正质量,为食醋的掺伪鉴别和质量评价提供一种新的方法.

  2. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  3. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  4. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.1010 Section 29.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a...

  5. Characterization of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Daniel; Escala, Marina [Institute of Natural Resource Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Facility Management, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Supawittayayothin, Kawin; Tippayawong, Nakorn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Ching Mai (Thailand)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation on producing biochar from bamboo using a technique of hydrothermal carbonization. Laboratory scale experimentation to produce carbonaceous materials was carried out. The suspended biomass samples in water were subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 220 C, 2.2 MPa in a closed vessel for six hours. The resulting products were in solid and liquid phase. The coal-like biochar was found to have rough surface and porous structure. The aqueous solution was found to contain a high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The study shows that bamboo is an interesting and adequate biomass for the production of biochar with several applications including carbon sequestration.

  6. Characterization of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schneider, Marina Escala, Kawin Supawittayayothin, Nakorn Tippayawong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary investigation on producing biochar from bamboo using a technique of hydrothermal carbonization. Laboratory scale experimentation to produce carbonaceous materials was carried out. The suspended biomass samples in water were subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 220 C, 2.2 MPa in a closed vessel for six hours. The resulting products were in solid and liquid phase. The coal-like biochar was found to have rough surface and porous structure. The aqueous solution was found to contain a high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The study shows that bamboo is an interesting and adequate biomass for the production of biochar with several applications including carbon sequestration.

  7. Carbonization of Bamboo and Japanese Cedar under Soft Hydrothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Kana; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Inamaru, Hiroshi; Mori, Yuki; Li, Zhixia; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2010-11-01

    Carbons formed from biomass have many potential applications including as absorbents for environmental contaminants, catalysts, and constituents of various medicines. Bamboo and Japanese cedar leaves were used as the starting materials for carbonization at temperatures up to 200° C using dry steam below the saturated vapor pressure which has the ability to dehydrate hydrocarbons. These carbonization processes were studied using a continuous pipe line autoclave under non-equilibrium conditions. The effect of various reaction conditions on carbonization were examined by thermal analysis, extraction components, and surface observation. The bamboo carbonization product exhibited the ability to highly adsorb chlorinated organic compounds such as chloroform in aqueous solution compared with a commercial activated carbon.

  8. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  10. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric e...

  11. Effct of Apple Vinegar on Spermatogenesis and Serum Total Antioxidant Status in Rats Under High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Rudkhaneei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD has side effcts on male fertility. Th aim of this study was to evaluate the effct of apple vinegar on spermatogenesis and serum total antioxidant status (TAS in rats under HFD. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided to three groups, including (n = 8: control, HFD, HFD + apple vinegar. Th control group received 16.6 kcal/day and the other two groups received HFD containing 51.6 kcal/day. Aftr 16 weeks, group 3 received %5 apple vinegar in drinking water orally for six weeks. At the end of the experiment, epididymis sperm parameters including: count, morphology and motility, were measured. Serum level of TAS, testosterone and estradiol was assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Testicular apoptosis was assayed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL and spermatogenesis was studied with quantitative histologic method. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Apple vinegar increased count and forward motility of sperms, when compared with HFD (P < 0.05. However, it was not effctive on morphology. Numbers of apoptotic cells reduced in the vinegar-treated group (P < 0.001. Vinegar increased serum levels of testosterone and TAS compared with HFD (P < 0.05. However, estradiol level was not changed. Vinegar reduced the lee index, when compared with HFD (P < 0.001. Th numbers of spermatogonia, primary pachytene and leptotene spermatocyte, and round spermatids were not changed. However, the numbers of elongated spermatids were increased compared with HFD (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Ths study indicated that daily use of apple vinegar in rats under HFD for six weeks improved spermatogenesis through reduction of testis apoptosis, increasing serum TAS and testosterone.

  12. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-ling; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii) plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1) control (CK, without N added), (2) low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), (3) medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), and (4) high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+), NO3(-), microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease) and phosphorus (acid phosphatase) and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) activities. Results suggest that (1) this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2) the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  13. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  14. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  15. [Sediment content and nitrogen and phosphorus load characteristics of surface runoff on bamboo forest slopes: a simulation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2012-04-01

    To understand the load characteristics and related mechanisms of surface runoff on two management types of bamboo forests (bamboo timber forest and bamboo shoot forest) slopes (gradient 20 degrees) in Zhejiang Province, this study measured the runoff volume, sediment yield, its total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of runoff under six artificial simulated rainfall intensity (31.8-114.0 mm x h(-1)). In bamboo timber forest, the total runoff volume and runoff coefficient were higher, but the runoff sediment content and the total sediment yield were far lower, as compared with those in bamboo shoot forest. The runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. Under the same rainfall intensity, the runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest was 5-6 times of that in bamboo timber forest. The runoff TP concentration was higher in bamboo timber forest than in bamboo shoot forest, but the TP loss from the sediment runoff in bamboo shoot forest was hundreds times of that in bamboo timber forest. During the processes of the TN and TP losses from the sediment runoff, the TN and TP concentrations at the prophase of runoff yield played a cardinal role, while the runoff volume and sediment yield at the anaphase played a decisive role.

  16. Record of Tylonycteris pachypus (Lesser Bamboo Bat from Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Aul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There was very limited and fragmented information on the bat fauna in the Andaman Islands before the study initiated in the Islands (2003-2007 and during this survey 25 species of bats were recorded along with the roosts and habitats. Our survey reconfirmed the presence of the bamboo bat after almost 3 decades from its last report by Hill in 1967. Bamboo bats are a group of small bats with unique skull and morphology. This species has been recorded from southern and northeastern South Asia, southern China, and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is widely distributed and is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions and India (Andaman Islands, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and West Bengal (Bates et al., 2008. They roost inside hollow bamboo stems. During survey, we examined 8 specimens of Tylonycteris from Andaman Islands of which six were caught by local inhabitants and 2 were mist netted across fresh water pond in Webi (North Andaman Island. The earlier record of this specimen from this zone was without any proper information regarding its proper distribution and habitats.

  17. Elevation gradient of soil bacterial communities in bamboo plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Elevation trends of macro organisms have long been well studied. However, whether microbes also exhibit such patterns of elevation change is unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in bamboo forest soil bacterial communities along six elevation gradients, from 600 to 1800 m a.s.l. in Mt. Da-an, a subtropical montane area in Nantou county at central Taiwan. Data from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that more than 70 % of the six communities contained Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria, although the relative abundance differed. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of the distribution of operational taxonomic units showed differences in bamboo soil bacterial communities across gradients. The bacterial communities at 1000 and 1200 m showed greater diversity than the communities at both lower (600 and 800 m) and higher (1400 and 1800 m) elevations. In contrast to the bacterial community trend, soil C and N and microbial biomass properties increased linearly with elevation. The bamboo soil bacterial community could interact with multiple factors such as soil organic matter content and temperature, for differences in composition and diversity with change in elevation.

  18. Pretreatment of moso bamboo with dilute phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of moso bamboo materials was studied for producing high quality dissolving pulp for textile applications. The dynamics of dilute acid pretreatment were considered. The Saeman model was found to describe well the acid hydrolysis of moso bamboo hemicelluloses to their monomers under different temperatures and different dilute phosphoric acid concentrations. The initial degradation rate of hemicelluloses was much higher than its subsequent degradation rate, and the xylose generation rate increased with increasing temperature. The change rule of the pentose extraction rate was considered along with the pretreatment factor (P factor. Optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions were 170 °C and 45 minutes. Based on the optimum conditions and a mass balance of sugars, a weight loss of 26.5% of the solid and liquid fractions combined was observed after the pretreatment. SEM results revealed that the moso bamboo fibers surfaces and cell wall were damaged. With the surface area increasing, the accessible pore areas also increased. At the same time, the crystallinity of the cellulose was reduced, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment.

  19. Elastic Buckling of Bionic Cylindrical Shells Based on Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-feng Ma; Wu-yi Chen; Ling Zhao; Da-hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    High load-bearing efficiency is one of the advantages of biological structures after the evolution of billions of years.Biomimicking from nature may offer the potential for lightweight design. In the viewpoint of mechanics properties, the culm of bamboo comprises of two types of cells and the number of the vascular bundles takes a gradient of distribution. A three-point bending test was carried out to measure the elastic modulus. Results show that the elastic modulus of bamboo decreases gradually from the periphery towards the centre. Based on the structural characteristics of bamboo, a bionic cylindrical structure was designed to mimic the gradient distribution of vascular bundles and parenchyma cells. The buckling resistance of the bionic structure was compared with that of a traditional shell of equal mass under axial pressure by finite element simulations. Results show that the load-bearing capacity of bionic shell is increased by 124.8%. The buckling mode of bionic structure is global buckling while that of the conventional shell is local buckling.

  20. Production technology of vinegar with high concentration%高浓度醋的生产工艺概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高素国; 钱锋

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the healthy function of vinegar received more attention. The vinegar is very important for the production of vinegar beans and vinegar egg, in which, rice vinegar (with 9g/100ml acid) is good choice. In this paper, the production process of vinegar (with 9g/100ml acid) was in detailed introduced.%近年来,食醋的保健功能日益受到重视.在醋豆、醋蛋液等保健品的制作过程中食醋的选择非常重要,对功效的影响很大,最好使用发酵食品——9g/100mL米醋.文中从发酵技术的角度对高浓度食醋的生产工艺进行了简述,对每一工序的工作都进行了要点说明.

  1. 食醋香气感õ评定研究%Study on Sensory EvaIuation of Vinegar Aroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 张东升

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,fuzzy mathematical integrated evaluation method is adopted for sensory evaluation of aroma of four kinds of vinegar.The results show that the comprehensive evaluation level of vinegar aroma of the sample 529 and 211 is between very strong and strong,the vinegar aroma of the sample 529 is better than that of sample 211,the vinegar aroma of the sample 985 and 306 is strong,the vinegar aroma of the sample 985 is better than that of sample 306,the sensory evaluation of aroma of four kinds of vinegar is ranked as 529>211>985>306.%文章采用模糊数学综合评判法对四种食醋香气进行了综合感官评定,结果表明:529和211样品食醋香气的综合评定级别为很浓和浓之间,529样品的食醋香气优于211样品,985和306样品食醋香气的综合评定级别为浓,985样品的食醋香气优于306样品,即四种食醋香气的感官评定从高到低为529>211>985>306。

  2. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1, or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2. The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495.

  3. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495. PMID:18093343

  4. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  5. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  6. High-Throughput Sequencing of Six Bamboo Chloroplast Genomes: Phylogenetic Implications for Temperate Woody Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Background Bambusoideae is the only subfamily that contains woody members in the grass family, Poaceae. In phylogenetic analyses, Bambusoideae, Pooideae and Ehrhartoideae formed the BEP clade, yet the internal relationships of this clade are controversial. The distinctive life history (infrequent flowering and predominance of asexual reproduction) of woody bamboos makes them an interesting but taxonomically difficult group. Phylogenetic analyses based on large DNA fragments could only provide a moderate resolution of woody bamboo relationships, although a robust phylogenetic tree is needed to elucidate their evolutionary history. Phylogenomics is an alternative choice for resolving difficult phylogenies. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the complete nucleotide sequences of six woody bamboo chloroplast (cp) genomes using Illumina sequencing. These genomes are similar to those of other grasses and rather conservative in evolution. We constructed a phylogeny of Poaceae from 24 complete cp genomes including 21 grass species. Within the BEP clade, we found strong support for a sister relationship between Bambusoideae and Pooideae. In a substantial improvement over prior studies, all six nodes within Bambusoideae were supported with ≥0.95 posterior probability from Bayesian inference and 5/6 nodes resolved with 100% bootstrap support in maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. We found that repeats in the cp genome could provide phylogenetic information, while caution is needed when using indels in phylogenetic analyses based on few selected genes. We also identified relatively rapidly evolving cp genome regions that have the potential to be used for further phylogenetic study in Bambusoideae. Conclusions/Significance The cp genome of Bambusoideae evolved slowly, and phylogenomics based on whole cp genome could be used to resolve major relationships within the subfamily. The difficulty in resolving the diversification among three clades of

  7. High-throughput sequencing of six bamboo chloroplast genomes: phylogenetic implications for temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bambusoideae is the only subfamily that contains woody members in the grass family, Poaceae. In phylogenetic analyses, Bambusoideae, Pooideae and Ehrhartoideae formed the BEP clade, yet the internal relationships of this clade are controversial. The distinctive life history (infrequent flowering and predominance of asexual reproduction of woody bamboos makes them an interesting but taxonomically difficult group. Phylogenetic analyses based on large DNA fragments could only provide a moderate resolution of woody bamboo relationships, although a robust phylogenetic tree is needed to elucidate their evolutionary history. Phylogenomics is an alternative choice for resolving difficult phylogenies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the complete nucleotide sequences of six woody bamboo chloroplast (cp genomes using Illumina sequencing. These genomes are similar to those of other grasses and rather conservative in evolution. We constructed a phylogeny of Poaceae from 24 complete cp genomes including 21 grass species. Within the BEP clade, we found strong support for a sister relationship between Bambusoideae and Pooideae. In a substantial improvement over prior studies, all six nodes within Bambusoideae were supported with ≥0.95 posterior probability from Bayesian inference and 5/6 nodes resolved with 100% bootstrap support in maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. We found that repeats in the cp genome could provide phylogenetic information, while caution is needed when using indels in phylogenetic analyses based on few selected genes. We also identified relatively rapidly evolving cp genome regions that have the potential to be used for further phylogenetic study in Bambusoideae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The cp genome of Bambusoideae evolved slowly, and phylogenomics based on whole cp genome could be used to resolve major relationships within the subfamily. The difficulty in resolving the diversification among

  8. Withered on the stem: is bamboo a seasonally limiting resource for giant pandas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youxu; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wei, Wei; Nie, Yonggang; Hu, Yibo; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun

    2017-04-01

    In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality. Giant pandas in late winter and early spring consumed a less optimal diet in Foping Nature Reserve, as the availability of the most nutritious and preferred components and age classes of Bashania fargesii declined, suggesting that bamboo may be a seasonally limiting resource. Most panda mortalities and rescues occurred during the same period of seasonal food limitation. Our findings raised the possibility that while total bamboo biomass may not be a limiting factor, carrying capacity may be influenced by subtle seasonal variation in bamboo quality. We recommend that managers and policy-makers should consider more than just the quantity of bamboo in the understory and that carrying capacity estimates should be revised downward to reflect the fact that all bamboos are not equal.

  9. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided in this...

  10. Improvement in the biochemical and chemical properties of badland soils by thorny bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chen, Tsai-Huei; Jien, Shih-Hau; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Badland soils—which have high silt and clay contents, bulk density, and soil electric conductivity— cover a large area of Southern Taiwan. This study evaluated the amelioration of these poor soils by thorny bamboo, one of the few plant species that grows in badland soils. Soil physiochemical and biological parameters were measured from three thorny bamboo plantations and nearby bare lands. Results show that bamboo increased microbial C and N, soil acid-hydrolysable C, recalcitrant C, and soluble organic C of badland soils. High microbial biomass C to total organic C ratio indicates that soil organic matter was used more efficiently by microbes colonizing bamboo plantations than in bare land soils. High microbial respiration to biomass C ratio in bare land soils confirmed environmentally induced stress. Soil microbes in bare land soils also faced soil organic matter with the high ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C. The high soil acid-hydrolysable C to total organic C ratio at bamboo plantations supported the hypothesis that decomposition of bamboo litter increased soil C in labile fractions. Overall, thorny bamboo improved soil quality, thus, this study demonstrates that planting thorny bamboo is a successful practice for the amelioration of badland soils.

  11. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, flexural modulus, and pressure in bagasse fiber was apparently different from that of bamboo due to the differences in the cross-sectional structure. In bagasse, the flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with the increase in pressure, whereas in bamboo those properties decreased. In bagasse, an increase in pressure made the fibers into a more compressed structure, increasing their flexural properties. In rigid bamboo, an increase in pressure caused the resin to extrude between fibers, and this resulted in lower flexural properties. At temperatures above 170 oC, the resin depolymerized thermally and the degree of polymerization decreased. Thus, the flexural modulus and strength decreased gradually with increase in holding temperature in both bagasse and bamboo composites. Furthermore, a maximum fiber volume fraction existed for both bagasse and bamboo plastic composites in the approximate range of 75% to 80%.

  12. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linghui; Guo, Ronghui; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Lin, Shaojian

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  13. Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, William P; Clark, Lynn G; Attigala, Lakshmi; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-03-18

    Bambusoideae (Poaceae) comprise three distinct and well-supported lineages: tropical woody bamboos (Bambuseae), temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) and herbaceous bamboos (Olyreae). Phylogenetic studies using chloroplast markers have generally supported a sister relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. This suggests either at least two origins of the woody bamboo syndrome in this subfamily or its loss in Olyreae. Here a full chloroplast genome (plastome) phylogenomic study is presented using the coding and noncoding regions of 13 complete plastomes from the Bambuseae, eight from Olyreae and 10 from Arundinarieae. Trees generated using full plastome sequences support the previously recovered monophyletic relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. In addition to these relationships, several unique plastome features are uncovered including the first mitogenome-to-plastome horizontal gene transfer observed in monocots. Phylogenomic agreement with previous published phylogenies reinforces the validity of these studies. Additionally, this study presents the first published plastomes from Neotropical woody bamboos and the first full plastome phylogenomic study performed within the herbaceous bamboos. Although the phylogenomic tree presented in this study is largely robust, additional studies using nuclear genes support monophyly in woody bamboos as well as hybridization among previous woody bamboo lineages. The evolutionary history of the Bambusoideae could be further clarified using transcriptomic techniques to increase sampling among nuclear orthologues and investigate the molecular genetics underlying the development of woody and floral tissues.

  14. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental

  15. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental im

  16. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  17. Detection of understory bamboo in giant panda habitats using an indirect remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Wang, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is the exclusive food of the wild giant pandas. Detection of the bamboo forest in giant panda habitat will help scientists further understand the spatial distribution pattern of giant pandas and their habitats. Moreover, it provides crucial scientific evidence for estimating habitat suita

  18. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  19. Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-08-01

    Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo.

  20. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental im

  1. Improvement in the biochemical and chemical properties of badland soils by thorny bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chen, Tsai-Huei; Jien, Shih-Hau; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Badland soils—which have high silt and clay contents, bulk density, and soil electric conductivity— cover a large area of Southern Taiwan. This study evaluated the amelioration of these poor soils by thorny bamboo, one of the few plant species that grows in badland soils. Soil physiochemical and biological parameters were measured from three thorny bamboo plantations and nearby bare lands. Results show that bamboo increased microbial C and N, soil acid-hydrolysable C, recalcitrant C, and soluble organic C of badland soils. High microbial biomass C to total organic C ratio indicates that soil organic matter was used more efficiently by microbes colonizing bamboo plantations than in bare land soils. High microbial respiration to biomass C ratio in bare land soils confirmed environmentally induced stress. Soil microbes in bare land soils also faced soil organic matter with the high ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C. The high soil acid-hydrolysable C to total organic C ratio at bamboo plantations supported the hypothesis that decomposition of bamboo litter increased soil C in labile fractions. Overall, thorny bamboo improved soil quality, thus, this study demonstrates that planting thorny bamboo is a successful practice for the amelioration of badland soils. PMID:28102291

  2. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  3. Shade Tolerance of Temperate Asian Bamboos: a Harbinger of their Naturalization in Pacific Northwest Coniferous Forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboos native to temperate East Asian forests may be pre-adapted to floristically related coniferous forests in western North America that conspicuously lack large, rhizomatous grasses. Given the increasing opportunity for Asian bamboos to enter North America through horticulture, such pre-adaptat...

  4. Profiling the Chemical Composition and Growth Strain of Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ting Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the wax layer and green epidermis at the surface of giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro culms were conveniently analyzed through the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT with Si-Carb sampling technique. Results from the radial lignin content profiling of giant bamboo showed that the lignin content in the middle layer was lower than the layers either from the inner or outer culms. As for the longitudinal depth profiling, the lignin contents of bamboo culms increased gradually from the top toward base portion. The distribution of growth strains in the radial direction of giant bamboo culm was investigated by the kerf method with strain gauges. The longitudinal tensile strains in various positions of giant bamboo culm were found to decrease in the order of the middle layer, the outer layer, and the inner layer. The tensile strains of different layers in the radial direction of giant bamboo culm correlate with their lignin content. The highest tensile strain on the middle layer of the bamboo culm was associated with the lowest lignin content. These results provided experimental evidence in the relationship between longitudinal tensile strain and lignin content of bamboo culm.

  5. Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which confirmed the existence of GO and ZnO in the composites. Antibacterial performances of bamboo samples were evaluated by the bacteriostatic circle method. The introduction of ZnO/GO nanocomposites into bamboo yielded ZnO/GO/bamboo materials which exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Gram-negative and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, Gram-positive bacteria and high thermal stability. The antimicrobial bamboo would be expected to be a promising material for the application in the furniture, decoration, and construction industry.

  6. Clarification of Buckwheat Vinegar%荞麦醋的澄清研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 翟小艳

    2015-01-01

    以壳聚糖、β-环糊精、明胶、硅藻土作为澄清剂对荞麦醋进行澄清处理,结果表明壳聚糖的澄清效果最佳。研究了壳聚糖对荞麦醋的澄清效果,测定了荞麦醋澄清前后主要成分的变化,经过单因素试验和正交试验,确定了壳聚糖澄清荞麦醋的最佳工艺条件:壳聚糖用量3 g/L、澄清处理pH 3.5、澄清处理时间8 h、澄清处理温度35℃。在此最佳工艺条件下,壳聚糖对荞麦醋有良好的澄清效果,可以较好地降低荞麦醋中蛋白质的含量,从而有效地改善其贮藏稳定性。%Take chitosan,β-cyclodextrin,gelatin,diatomite as clarifying agents to clarify buckwheat vinegar.The result shows that the clarification effect of chitosan is the best.Study the clarification effect of chitosan on buckwheat vinegar;detect the change of main components of buckwheat vinegar before and after clarification. Determine the optimum process conditions of chitosan clarifying buckwheat vinegar through the single factor test and orthogonal test.The optimum process conditions are as follows:dosage of chitosan of 3 g/L,clarifying treatment pH of 3.5,clarifying treatment time of 8 h,clarifying treatment temperature of 35 ℃.Under the optimum process conditions,chitosan has good clarification effect on buckwheat vinegar,can reduce the content of protein in buckwheat vinegar and effectively improve its storage stability.

  7. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  8. PREPARATION OF BAMBOO DISSOLVING PULP FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION; PART 1. STUDY ON PREHYDROLYSIS OF GREEN BAMBOO FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prehydrolysis was used as the first treatment of bamboo materials for producing high dissolving pulp for textile applications. In this paper, green bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami was hydrolyzed in water, and the hydrolysis process was optimized. The morphology and super-molecular structures of the raw material and prehydrolyzed material were studied by SEM and XRD, respectively. Based on the optimum conditions, a study of the kinetics and mechanism showed that pentosan dissolution during the hydrolysis process was a first order reaction. When cooking temperature was 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC, and 180 oC, the corresponding reaction rate constants were 0.00411h-1, 0.00495h-1, 0.00730h-1, and 0.00925h-1, respectively. The activation energy was 44.94 kJ/mol based on the Arrhenius empirical equation. SEM results revealed that after the pre-hydrolysis process, the bamboo structure became loose because of hemicellulose dissolution, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment. Furthermore, the degree of crystallinity was increased from 45.43% to 57.06% during the prehydrolysis. Both the treated and the untreated fibers were assumed to be cellulose I.

  9. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  11. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  12. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.

  13. Bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)-based thin film, a novel biomass material with high performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Chen; Bao, Wen-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-30

    Exploration of biomass based materials to replace conventional petroleum based ones has been a trend in recent decades. In this work, bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with abundant resources was used for the first time to prepare films in the presence of cellulose. The effects of weight ratio of bamboo/cellulose on the appearances and properties of the films were investigated. It was confirmed there existed strong interactions between bamboo and cellulose, which were favorable to formation of homogeneous structure of blend films. Particularly, the presence of bamboo could improve the surface hydrophobicity, water resistance and thermal stability of blend films, and the films possessed an excellent oxygen barrier property, compared with generally used commercial packaging films. The bamboo biomass, therefore, is successfully used to create a new film material with a good application prospect in the fields of packaging, coating, and food industry.

  14. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  15. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  16. Export Market Change of Boiled Bamboo Shoot and Developmental Prospects of Bamboo Shoot Industry in China%我国水煮笋出口市场变化及竹笋产业发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宗胜

    2012-01-01

    研究了2003 ~ 2011年水煮笋出口增长与出口市场结构变化,分析了竹笋产业的发展前景,并提出了开发中小径竹、强化资源培育、扶持竹笋加工业和市场网络建设等建议,以期进一步提高竹笋产业的市场竞争力.%The author studied the export increase and export market structure changes of boiled bamboo shoots in China during 2003 -2011, analyzed the developmental prospects of bamboo shoot industry, and put forward the suggestions of exploiting the medium - diameter and small - diameter bamboo, strengthening the breeding of bamboo resources, supporting the bamboo shoot processing industry, and constructing bamboo shoot, market network, in order to further improve the market competitiveness of bamboo shoot industry.

  17. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  18. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  19. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM.

  20. Chemical, strength and microstructure characterization of Balinese bamboos as activated carbon source for adsorbed natural gas application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra Negara, D. N. K.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.; Surata, I. W.; Sucipta, M.

    2017-05-01

    Bamboo is one of promising biomass raw materials that has been widely researched, developed, manufactured as activated carbon (AC) and applied in many fields of life. However, there were only a few references associated to the use of bamboo AC as an adsorbent for Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) application. The purpose of this study was to characterize chemical, strength and microstructure of two types of local Balinese bamboo that were Tabah bamboo (Gigantochloc Nigrociliata) and Tamblang bamboo (Schizostachyum Brachycladum) as AC source. Characterization was carried out by undertaking proximate, ultimate, tensile tests, Van Soest analysis and microstructure observation. The results have showed that Tabah bamboo has 22.9151 % lignin, 44.9456 % cellulose, 84.56 % volatile and 44.47 % carbon, which were those characteristics higher than Tamblang bamboo. Furthermore, Tabah bamboo also has higher bond density vascular bundles, higher tensile strength (240.85 ± 17.53 Nmm-2) and fracture strength (182.39 ± 17.46 Nmm-2), lower ash (2.92 %), silica (1.84 %) and nitrogen (0.95 %) compared to Tamblang bamboo. Due to such characteristics, Tabah bamboo has greater potential as an AC precursor than Tamblang bamboo.

  1. Preparation of Health Food Sea Buckthern Vinegar%沙棘保健醋的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢伟

    2009-01-01

    Shanxi has very rich seabuckthom resources, but its exploitation and comprehensive utilization rate is very low. The fruit vinegar production from the juice of sea backthern was studied by liquid-state alcohol fermentation and solid-state acetic acid fermentation processing.The fruit vinegar has very high value of health and nutrition and could be developed as a health drink.%山西拥有非常丰富的沙棘资源,开发沙棘产业,建立沙棘产业链,可以为山西经济发展提供一条很好的途径.利用沙棘果汁通过液态酒精发酵、固态醋酸发酵工艺研制了沙棘果醋,其营养及保健价值高,可以作为保健饮品开发.

  2. [Determination of underivatized glycine and proline in vinegar turtle shell by HPLC-ELSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Tan, Xiaomei; Gao, Mingze; Peng, Jinlong

    2011-08-01

    To establish a method to determine the underivatized glycine (Gly) and proline (Pro) in vinegar turtle shell. An HPLC-ELSD method was conducted on a Prevail C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.7% trifluoroacetic acid solution (containing 5.0 mmol x L(-1) heptafluorobutyric acid), and elution time was 15 min. The calibration curves were showed good linearity within the concentration range of 0.14-0.6 g x L(-1). The average recoveries were 101.2% and 102.5%, and RSD were 1.9% and 2.5%, respectively. Since this method needs neither the special amino acid analyzer nor derivation of amino acid., it is efficient, simple and accurate., which could be used for quality control of vinegar turtle shell.

  3. The use of the vinegar as a chemical auxiliary in Endodontics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Duarte IRALA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the root canal instrumentation with the use of files, there is the formation of a layer called “smear layer”, which may hide among other elements microorganisms capable of perpetuating an endodontic infection, what can lead to endodontic treatment failure. Objective: To present a literature review of apple vinegar and its chemical properties as an auxiliary alternative substance in the permeability in dentin. Literature review: In the attempt to remove the smear layer, auxiliary substances that allow a better action of instruments are used, which also permit the permeability of the system of canals and the removal of organic remains and possible contaminants. Conclusion: The results had indicated that the use of the apple vinegar can be a viable alternative to assist chemistry in Endodontics.

  4. Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Cai, Zhiyong; Pan, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    The response and behavior of bamboo green, timber, and yellow of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) to three pretreatments, sulfite (SPORL), dilute acid (DA), and alkali (NaOH), were investigated and compared with varied chemical loadings at 180°C for 30 min with a 6.25:1 (v/w) liquor-to-bamboo ratio. All the pretreatments improved the enzymatic digestibility of bamboo substrates. Under the investigated conditions, the DA pretreatment achieved better enzymatic digestibility, but had lower sugar recovery yield, and formed more fermentation inhibitors. The results suggested that the SPORL pretreatment be able to generate more readily digestible bamboo substrate with higher sugar yield and fewer fermentation inhibitors than the corresponding DA pretreatment if hemicelluloses are sufficiently removed by adding more acid to bring down the pretreatment pH. Bamboo timber had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility and therefore was a better feedstock for bioconversion than bamboo green and yellow.

  5. Chemical Bum from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    “Natural home remedies” for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar.

  6. Chemical Burn from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2015-06-01

    "Natural home remedies" for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar.

  7. Chemical Bum from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    “Natural home remedies” for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar. PMID:26155328

  8. Behavior of parathion in apple juice processed into cider and vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, A A; Kawar, N S

    1982-01-01

    Apple juice, fortified with 25 ppm (ug/g) of parathion, was processed into cider and vinegar. After the initial fermentation period of 12 days, the supernatant cider contained 7.4 ppm of parathion while the level in the sedimented lees was 88 ppm. Sorption to the sedimented matter was the main pathway for parathion residue reduction in the cider. Levels of aminoparathion and 4-nitrophenol, the only metabolites of parathion detected as confirmed by thin-layer chromatography, were 0.19 and 1.2 ppm, respectively, in the cider. The 56-day-old finished cider prior to bottling contained 2.2 ppm parathion, 0.15 ppm aminoparathion and 1.3 ppm 4-nitrophenol. Storage of the cider at 24, 12, 4 and -20 degrees C resulted in further reduction in the parathion levels. After one year, samples stored at 24 degrees C contained only 2.5% of the initial level added to the juice. Samples stored at the three other temperatures contained about 5% of the original level. Vinegar formed after 57 days of fermentation contained 5.1 ppm parathion, while the residue level in the lees was 76 ppm. Aminoparathion and 4-nitrophenol levels were 0.23 and 1.2 ppm, respectively in the vinegar. Storage of the vinegar at 24 degrees C for one year resulted in a gradual decline in the parathion level and at the end of the storage period, the remaining residue represented about 6% of the initial 24 ppm added to the juice.

  9. Vinegar as a disinfectant of extracted human teeth for dental educational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Tijare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Extracted human teeth are routinely used in dentistry to learn technical and preclinical skills. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has adopted guidelines for infection control of extracted teeth used for research and teaching, requiring that teeth be sterilized before use. Many of the proposed disinfection methods starting from use of formalin, sodium hypochlorite and to autoclaving have their own drawbacks and may not be practical. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of vinegar for disinfection/sterilization of extracted human teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 extracted non-carious human teeth were kept in seven disinfectant media-10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, vinegar, neem extract and normal saline. Ten samples were placed in each disinfectant individually for a period of 7 days, at room temperature. In all, 10 teeth were treated with microwave irradiation at 650 W for 3 min. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10 ml of tryptic soy broth at 37°C for 48 h to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Semiquantitative analysis of all the samples was done in Clade agar at 37°C for 48 h. Statistical Analysis Used: The number of teeth disinfected in each group was compared using Chi square test. Results: 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide and vinegar were totally effective. The result was statistically significant with a Chi square value of 61.414 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: Vinegar can be used as an effective disinfectant medium for extracted human teeth.

  10. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS.

  11. Evaluation of Vinegar as a Disinfectant for Extracted Human Teeth - An in-Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganipineni, Kiranmai; Babburi, Suresh; Venigalla, Aparna; Pinnisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Benarji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In dentistry, extracted human teeth are routinely used to learn technical and preclinical skills. Since human teeth harbour many pathogens these should be disinfected before use to minimize the risk of infections. Some commonly used disinfectants in laboratories are 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), 70% alcohol and normal saline which have their own disadvantages like carcinogenicity, toxicity, cost effectiveness etc. Many studies have been conducted using these solutions but there is no evidence to suggest a suitable alternative for disinfecting extracted teeth. Vinegar is a sour liquid comprised mainly of acetic acid. It is cheap and commercially available shown to be effective in the prevention and control of microbial contamination. Aim The present study was conducted for evaluation of vinegar as a disinfectant for extracted teeth. Materials and Methods In this study a total of 40 (n=40) extracted non carious teeth were taken which were disinfected with various physical methods such as sterilization, autoclaving and chemical methods by using Vinegar, 70% Alcohol, 10% Formalin, 3% Hydrogen peroxide and 5.25% NaOCL. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10ml of brain heart infusion broth at 37°C for 48 hrs to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Results Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Vinegar, 10% Formalin and 3% Hydrogen peroxide were effective. The results were statistically significant with Kruskal-Wallis test value 28.053 and p-value was disinfectant for extracted human teeth. PMID:27630953

  12. Utilization of buffered vinegar to increase the shelf life of chicken retail cuts packaged in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Monil A; Kurve, Vikram; Smith, Brian S; Campano, Stephen G; Soni, Kamlesh; Schilling, M Wes

    2014-07-01

    Poultry processors commonly place whole parts of broilers in plastic packages and seal them in an atmosphere of 100% carbon dioxide before shipping them to food service and retail customers. This practice extends the shelf life of retail cuts to approximately 12 d under refrigerated conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of vinegar for growth inhibition of mesophilic and lactic acid bacterial counts and enhancement of shelf life in CO2-packaged refrigerated chicken thigh samples. Meat quality, sensory differences, and microbial enumeration were evaluated for chicken thighs that were sprayed with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% vinegar. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) among treatments (control vs. 0.5 and 1.0% vinegar-treated chicken thighs) with respect to pH and Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b*for both chicken skin and the meat tissue. The difference from the control test indicated that trained panelists were not able to detect a difference (P > 0.05) in flavor between the chicken thigh treatments. The mesophilic and Lactobacillus bacterial counts were enumerated after 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage. The mesophilic bacterial load for the 1.0% vinegar treatment was less than all other treatments after 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage, whereas the 0.5% vinegar treatment had lower bacterial counts at d 12 than both controls and had an approximate shelf life of 16 d. For lactic acid bacteria, the vinegar 1.0% treatment had lower counts than the control treatments at d 12 and 16. The results from the study indicate that a combination of 1.0% vinegar with CO2 packaging can extend the shelf life from 12 to 20 d for chicken retail cuts without negatively affecting the quality and sensory properties of the broiler meat.

  13. In vitro data support the investigation of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for PD-associated Pseudomonas exit site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Ash, Oliver; Chakera, Aron

    2017-02-01

    Peritoneal dialysis exit site infections caused by Pseudomonas spp. are difficult to treat and can lead to peritonitis and/or modality failure. Effective alternative or adjunct non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents could improve treatment as well as reduce the use of antibiotics and contribute to a reduction in antibiotic selection pressure and the further development of antibiotic resistance. Vinegar is popularly promoted as a topical antimicrobial agent and has been recommended as an adjunct treatment for Pseudomonas exit site infections in PD patients. Systematic empirical data on the susceptibility of pseudomonads to vinegar are lacking. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility to vinegar of 57 isolates of Pseudomonas. The MICs and MBCs of four vinegars were determined for clinical, environmental and/or reference isolates of P. aeruginosa (n = 34), P. fluorescens (n = 11) and P. putida (n = 12) using a broth microdilution method. The MIC90 and MBC90 were also determined for each species. The MIC90 of all four vinegars against P. aeruginosa was 2% (vol/vol). The MBC90 was 8%. The MIC90 s for P. fluorescens and P. putida were also 2%. The MIC90 s were 4%. Dilutions of vinegar recommended for the treatment of Pseudomonas exit site infections have in vitro activity against these notoriously resistant bacteria. In light of increasing rates of antibiotic resistance and the need to reduce antibiotic selection pressure as part of good antibiotic stewardship, the efficacy of vinegar, or its active constituent acetic acid, for the treatment of Pseudomonas exit site infections should be investigated further.

  14. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  15. Chiral MEKC-LIF of amino acids in foods: analysis of vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlavilla, Davinia; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Fanali, Salvatore; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2006-07-01

    The formation of D-amino acids (D-aa's) in many fermented foods depends, among other factors, on the particular fermentation conditions, the action and autolysis of the microorganisms involved. In this sense, the analysis of chiral amino acids is an interesting analytical strategy for food scientists, since these compounds can be used as bacterial markers and can help, e.g., to detect adulterations, microbiological contaminations, etc. In this work, a fast and sensitive method based on MEKC-LIF has been developed to analyze and quantitate L-amino acid (L-aa) and D-aa in vinegars. The chiral MEKC-LIF procedure uses 100 mM sodium tetraborate, 30 mM SDS, and 20 mM beta-CD at pH 9.7 as running buffer, obtaining a good separation of the main vinegar L-/D-aa previously derivatized with fluorescein isothiocianate. Namely, L/D proline, alanine, arginine, glutamic, and aspartic acid, plus the nonchiral amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid are separated in less than 20 min with high efficiency (up to 720,000 plates/m) and good sensitivity (LODs lower than 16.6 nM were achieved). Several D-aa's were detected and quantified in balsamic, sherry, white wine, and cider vinegars using this MEKC-LIF procedure, observing interesting differences in their L-aa and D-aa profiles and contents.

  16. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-05-31

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

  18. Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Victor; Valcárcel, Manuel; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2002-07-17

    The work described here concerns a study of the chemical and biochemical transformations in sherry vinegar during the different aging stages. The main factors that contribute to the nature and special characteristics of sherry vinegar are the raw sherry wine, the traditional process of acetic acid fermentation in butts (the solera system), and the physicochemical activity during the aging process in the solera system. A number of chemical and biochemical changes that occur during sherry vinegar aging are similar to those that take place in sherry wine during its biological activity process (where the wine types obtained are fino and manzanilla) or physicochemical activity process (to give oloroso wines). Significant increase in acetic acid levels was observed during the biological activity phase. In addition, the concentrations of tartaric, gluconic, succinic, and citric acids increased during the aging, as did levels of amino acids and acetoin. A color change was also produced during this stage. Glycerol was not consumed by acetic acid bacteria, and levels of higher alcohols decreased because of the synthesis of acetates. On the other hand, in the physicochemical phase the microbiological activity was lower. Concentrations of some cations increased because of evaporation of water through the wood. A color change was also produced in this stage. Concentrations of different amino acids decreased because of reaction with carbonyl compounds. A precipitation of potassium with tartaric acid was also observed.

  19. Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kaoru; Kushibiki, Toshisada; Matsue, Hajime; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Motomura, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    The physiologically active substances in apple vinegar have not yet been chemically characterized. We studied the biological functions of apple vinegar produced from crushed apples, and found that the constituent neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan (NMalphaG) acts as an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumors. NMalphaG is a homoglycan composed of glucose having a molecular weight of about 10,000 and a branched structure bearing alpha (1-4,6) linkages. In this study, we clarified the origin of NMalphaG in apple vinegar by examination of its content in alcohol and acetic acid fermentation products sequentially. We found that NMalphaG appeared in acetic acid fermentation, but not in alcohol fermentation. Furthermore we investigated NMalphaG origin using acetic acid fermentation from alcohol fortifiied apple without alcohol fermentation and from raw material with varying amounts of pomace. The results indicate that NMalphaG originated in the apple fruit body and that its production requires both fermentation processes.

  20. Dynamics and diversity of microbial community succession in traditional fermentation of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yu; Du, Hongfu; Xie, Sankuan; Wang, Min

    2015-05-01

    The traditional fermentation of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV), a well-known traditional Chinese vinegar, generally involves the preparation of starter daqu, starch saccharification, alcoholic fermentation (AF) and acetic acid fermentation (AAF). Dynamics and diversity of microbial community succession in daqu and other fermentation stages were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that eight bacterial genera and four fungal genera were found in daqu. However, Staphylococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Bacillus, Oceanobacillus, Enterobacter, Streptomyces, Eurotium, Monascus and Pichia in daqu were eradicated during AF. Four bacterial genera and three fungal genera were found in this stage. Weissella, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, and Saccharomycopsis were the dominant microorganisms in the late stage of AF. During AAF, four bacterial genera and four fungal genera were found. Weissella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Cladosporium gradually disappeared; the dominant microorganisms were Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Saccharomycopsis, and Alternaria in the late stage of AAF. Alpha diversity metrics showed that fungal diversity in daqu was greater than that in AF and AAF. By contrast, bacterial diversity decreased from daqu to AF and increased in the first three days of AAF and then decreased. Hence, these results could help understand dynamics of microbial community succession in continuous fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegars.

  1. Stability of monacolin K and citrinin and biochemical characterization of red-koji vinegar during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Lu, Yi-Ru; Lin, Shu-Mei; Lai, Tzu-Yuan; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2013-07-31

    Red-koji vinegar is a Monascus -involved and acetic acid fermentation-derived traditional product, in which the presence of monacolin K and citrinin has attracted public attention. In this study, red-koji wine was prepared as the substrate and artificially supplemented with monacolin K and citrinin and subjected to vinegar fermentation with Acetobacter starter. After 30 days of fermentation, 43.0 and 98.1% of the initial supplements of monacolin K and citrinin were decreased, respectively. During fermentation, acetic acid contents increased, accompanied by decreases of ethanol and lactic acid contents and pH values. The contents of free amino acids increased while the contents of other organic acids, including fumaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, changed limitedly. Besides, increased levels of total phenolics in accordance with increased antioxidative potency, α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activities were detected. It is of merit that most citrinin was eliminated and >50% of the monacolin K was retained; contents of free amino acids and total phenolics along with antioxidant and XOI activities of the red-koji vinegar were increased after fermentation.

  2. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  3. Stable isotope ratio analysis for verifying the authenticity of balsamic and wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, M; Paolini, M; Simoni, M; Bontempo, L; Vrhovsek, U; Sacco, M; Thomas, F; Jamin, E; Hermann, A; Camin, F

    2014-08-13

    In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and ¹³C/¹²C in ethanol and acetic acid and of ¹⁸O/¹⁶O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the ¹³C/¹²C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM.

  4. [Study on brand traceability of vinegar based on near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiao; Liu, Jing; Gu, Fang-Qing; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, 152 vinegar samples with four different brands were chosen as research targets, and their near infrared spectra were collected by diffusion reflection mode and transmission mode, respectively. Furthermore, the brand traceability models for edible vinegar were constructed. The effects of the collection mode and pretreatment methods of spectrum on the precision of traceability models were investigated intensively. The models constructed by PLS1-DA modeling method using spectrum data of 114 training samples were applied to predict 38 test samples, and R2, RMSEC and RMSEP of the model based on transmission mode data were 0.92, 0.113 and 0.127, respectively, with recognition rate of 76.32%, and those based on diffusion reflection mode data were 0.97, 0.102 and 0.119, with recognition rate of 86.84%. The results demonstrated that the near infrared spectrum combined with PLS1-DA can be used to establish the brand traceability models for edible vinegar, and diffuse reflection mode is more beneficial for predictive ability of the model.

  5. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  6. Metaproteomics and ultrastructure characterization of Komagataeibacter spp. involved in high-acid spirit vinegar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Cabello Ferrete, Elena; Bravo, Daniel; Chappuis, Marie-Luise; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Junier, Pilar; Perret, Xavier; Barja, François

    2016-05-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widespread microorganisms in nature, extensively used in food industry to transform alcohols and sugar alcohols into their corresponding organic acids. Specialized strains are used in the production of vinegar through the oxidative transformation of ethanol into acetic acid. The main AAB involved in the production of high-acid vinegars using the submerged fermentation method belong to the genus Komagataeibacter, characterized by their higher ADH stability and activity, and higher acetic acid resistance (15-20%), compared to other AAB. In this work, the bacteria involved in the production of high-acid spirit vinegar through a spontaneous acetic acid fermentation process was studied. The analysis using a culture-independent approach revealed a homogeneous bacterial population involved in the process, identified as Komagataeibacter spp. Differentially expressed proteins during acetic acid fermentation were investigated by using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. Most of these proteins were functionally related to stress response, the TCA cycle and different metabolic processes. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and specific staining of polysaccharide SDS-PAGE gels confirmed that Komagataeibacter spp. lacked the characteristic polysaccharide layer surrounding the outer membrane that has been previously reported to have an important role in acetic acid resistance in the genus Acetobacter.

  7. {sup 2}H NMR and {sup 13}C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, {sup 18}O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Freddy [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France); Jamin, Eric, E-mail: ericjamin@eurofins.com [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France)

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 13}C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 18}O were found to be similar

  8. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)

    2004-12-01

    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  9. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures.

  10. Detection of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingrong; Ge, Yinghua; Cheng, Dandan; Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing

    2016-09-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26 to 31-nt small non-coding RNAs that have been reported mostly in germ-line cells and cancer cells. However, the presence of piRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark liver has not yet been reported. In a previous study of microRNAs in shark liver, some piRNAs were detected from small RNAs sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 4857 piRNAs were predicted and found in shark liver. We further selected 17 piRNAs with high and significantly differential expression between normal and regenerative liver tissues for subsequent verification by Northern blotting. Ten piRNAs were further identified, and six of these were matched to known piRNAs in piRNABank. The actual expression of six known and four novel piRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 401 target genes of the 10 piRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Through GO and pathway function analyses, only five piRNAs could be annotated with eighteen GO annotations. The results indicated that the identified piRNAs are involved in many important biological responses, including immune inflammation, cell-specific differentiation and development, and angiogenesis. This manuscript provides the first identification of piRNAs in the liver of whitespotted bamboo shark using Solexa technology as well as further elucidation of the regulatory role of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver. These findings may provide a useful resource and may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against liver damage.

  11. Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo, pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06% than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%. At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.

  12. Amido a partir de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Em colmos de bambu da espécie tida como Guadua flabellata, determinaram-se os teores de amido e das frações fibrosa, parenquimatosa e solúvel em água. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos colmos processados foram também determinados. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de amido extraído foi 8,53% (base seca, representando cerca de 59% da fração solúvel em água e 32% do total de amido existente no colmo. Os teores médios das frações fibrosa, parenquimatosa e solúvel em água foram, respectivamente, 61,76%, 23,05% e 15,18%, Quanto às dimensões do colmo, a espécie em estudo pode ser considerada de porte mediano, em comparação com as espécies mais difundidas em nossas condições.In bamboo culms of the species reported as Guadua flabellata were determined the contents of starch, fibrous fraction, parenchymatous fractions and water soluble fractions. The height and diameter of the bamboo culms were also determined. The results showed that the average content of extracted starch was 8.53% (over dry material. This content corresponds to about 59% of the fractions and 32% of the total starch present in the bamboo culm. The fibrous fractions and water soluble fractions were, respectively 61.76% and 23.05%. Regarding to culm dimensions, this species can be considered as a middle sized culm.

  13. Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively.

  14. Viability of Listeria monocytogenes on uncured turkey breast commercially-prepared with and without buffered vinegar during extended storage at 4 degrees and 10 degrees C

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the viability of Listeria monocytogenes on uncured turkey breast containing buffered vinegar (BV) and surface treated with a stabilized solution of sodium chlorite in vinegar (VSC). Commercially-produced, uncured, deli-style turkey breast was formulated with BV (0.0, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0%)...

  15. Using Mole Ratios of Electrolytic Products of Water for Analysis of Household Vinegar: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu

    2012-01-01

    A simple 3-h physical chemistry undergraduate experiment for the quantitative analysis of acetic acid in household vinegar is presented. The laboratory experiment combines titration concept with electrolysis and an application of the gas laws. A vinegar sample was placed in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell. Electrolysis of water…

  16. Trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine, and acetic acid and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations for monitoring spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii, (Matsumura) are to use either vinegar or wine as a bait for traps. Traps baited with vinegar and traps baited with wine, in field tests in northern Oregon, captured large numbers of male and female SWD flies. Numbers of...

  17. Inhibition of clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by buffered vinegar and lemon juice concentrate during chilling.....of ground turkey road containing minimal ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey roast containing minimal ingredients (salt and sugar), by buffered vinegar (MoStatin V) and a blend (buffered) of lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) was evaluated. Ground turkey roast was formulat...

  18. Fuel properties and combustion kinetics of hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Meng; Zhu, Jiayu; Zhou, Jie; Wu, Shengji

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization, an environmental friendly treatment method was employed to pretreat bamboo for hydrochar preparation in the present study. Hydrothermal carbonization could elevate the fuel properties and combustion behavior of bamboo. The combustion kinetic parameters of raw bamboo and hydrochars were calculated by a simple Arrhenius equation based on the thermogravimetric curves. Two distinct zones were observed for raw bamboo and hydrochars. The activation energies of raw bamboo in zone 1 and zone 2 were 109.5kJ/mol and 46.6kJ/mol, respectively, in the heating rate of 20°C/min. The activation energy of hydrochar in zone 1 increased at the hydrothermal carbonization temperature under 220°C and then decreased at higher hydrothermal carbonization temperature, due to the decomposition of relative reactive compounds in bamboo, and destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose structures, respectively. The activation energies of hydrochars in zone 2 were among 52.3-57.5kJ/mol, lower than that of lignin extracted from bamboo.

  19. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akinobu; Zhu, Qinchang; Tan, Hui; Horiba, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Mori, Yasuhiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Iwamoto, Akira; Kawahara, Hiroharu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-06-18

    Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  20. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the potential of sodium silicate modification on moso bamboo particles as reinforcements for thermoplastic. Moso bamboo particles were modified with sodium silicate aqueous solutions (of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% concentrations). The mechanical properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites (BPPC) were calculated and compared with raw bamboo particles filled samples. The thermal characteristics of the BPPC were studied to investigate the feasibility of sodium silicate treatment on moso bamboo particles. The particle morphology and BPPC microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the BPPC increased before the concentration of sodium silicate solution reached 5% and got their maximum values of 15.72 MPa and 2956.80 MPa, respectively at 5% concentration. The modulus of rupture obtained the maximum value of 27.73 MPa at 2% concentration. The mechanical curve decreased as the concentration of solution went higher. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis illustrated that the sodium silicate solution treated BPPC possesses a better compatibility. More uniform dispersion of moso bamboo particles in PVC matrix was obtained after the sodium silicate treatment. Hence, the sodium silicate was a feasible and competitive agent of creating moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites.

  2. BENZYLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD NAOH/UREA PRE-SWELLED BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo was pre-swelled with a cold aqueous solution of NaOH and urea, and then reacted directly with benzyl chloride to synthesize benzylated bamboo. The effects of the molar ratio of benzyl chloride to OH groups in the bamboo (1 to 4, the reaction temperature (70 to 110 °C, and the reaction time (2 to 8 h on both the product yield and the degree of substitution (DS were evaluated. Yields between 67.6 and 94.0% and DS between 0.31 and 0.74 of the benzylated bamboo were obtained under such conditions. The incorporation of benzyl groups was evidenced by FT-IR and CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the crystalline structure of the native ball-milled bamboo was markedly damaged after modification. In addition, the benzylated bamboo was subjected to thermal degradation at a high temperature with an increase in substitution. It was suggested that the benzylated bamboo with a low crystallinity as well as large non-polar groups is promising as a filler for use in the composite material industry.

  3. Fuel properties and combustion characteristics of some promising bamboo species in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Kumar; N.Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fuel characteristics of five important bamboo species viz., Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, D. stocksii, Bambusa bambos and B. balcooa. The selected species cover more than 85%of the total growing stock of bamboo in India. Basic density varied from 0.48 to 0.78 g⋅cm-3 among the bamboo species studied. Ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content ranged between 1.4%-3.0%, 77.2%-80.8%and 17.6%-21.1%, respectively. Variation in calorific value (18.7-19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) was marginal. Fuel value index var-ied widely (586-2120) among bamboo species. The highest calorific value (19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) and fuel value index (2120) were found in B. bal-cooa. Ash elemental analysis revealed that silica and potassium are the major ash forming minerals in bamboo biomass. Silica content ranged from 8.7%to 49.0%, while potassium ranged from 20.6%to 69.8%. We studied combustion characteristics under oxidizing atmosphere. Burning profiles of the samples were derived by applying the derivative thermo-gravimetric technique which is discussed in detail. The five bamboo species were different in their combustion behaviour, mainly due to differences in physical and chemical properties. We compare fuel prop-erties, ash elemental analysis and combustion characteristics of bamboo biomass with wood biomass of Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus tereticor-nis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

  4. Study on the Mould-Resistant Properties of Moso Bamboo Treated with High Pressure and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo’s products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for six different treatment durations. The results showed that reducing sugar content was decreased dramatically from 0.92 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L and the starch content decreased from 1.18% to 0.96% when the pressure was increased from 0 psi to 100 psi. Regression analysis showed that the effects of an individual amylase reaction and individual pressure treatment on the starch or reducing sugar content were significant with a high correlation coefficient. Three traditional types of moso bamboo moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Trichoderma viride were then used for mould resistance testing. The results revealed that the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo blocks could be greatly improved by the combined effect of enzyme activity and pressure treatment. Mould resistance was enhanced by increasing the pressure or prolonging the treatment time. This research could provide a new method for the protection of bamboo from mould attack.

  5. Assessment of L/D Ratio of Eco Fibre - Bamboo as a Reinforcement Material in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha.s

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fibres are commonly used in concrete to control the cracks, shrinkage and to improve the strength and performance of the concrete. Generally various types of fibres are used like natural and artificial fibres in the concrete mix to produce the expected strength and crack resistance. an attempt is made to innovate a natural, eco friendly fibre which is available to the common man. In this paper, tests are carryout on bamboo fibre reinforced concrete to evaluate aspect ratio (l/d of bamboo fibres. Different ages of bamboo is collected, the extraction of fibres is done by mechanical method. Once the bamboo fibres are extracted the various lengths and diameters are selected and SEM analysis is carried out to find out the microstructure of bamboo fibres to know the failure analysis .these selected bamboo fibres add at the fixed rate of 0.1% to 1.5%(0.5,0.75,1,1.25,1.5 by the cement weight to the concrete mix. Then the samples of cubes, beams and cylinders are casted from the concrete mix and curing will be done for required period. Experimental investigations are carried out using most commonly used tests in laboratory, which includes concrete workability test, compressive test, split tensile test, and test for flexure from the various test results the aspect ratio (l/d ratio and also the effectiveness of bamboo fibres usage in concrete has been evaluated.

  6. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  7. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  8. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  9. SPECTROSCOPIC, THERMAL, AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTIVATED BAMBOO (GIGANTOCHLOA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad ul Haq Bhat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spectroscopic, thermal, and morphological properties of two bamboo species viz. Gigantochloa brang and Gigantochloa wrayi. The nature of cell wall structure and distribution of vascular bundles in G. brang and G. wrayi were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Gigantochloa spp. at various positions and locations showed identical thermal stability and are stable up to 200 °C. The decomposition of cellulose and hemicelluloses component of the culm occurred between 220 °C and 390 °C, while the degradation of lignin takes place above 400 °C.

  10. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  11. 醋蛋液研究的最新进展%Resent research progress of vinegar-egg juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安冬梅; 孟长军

    2012-01-01

    Vinegar egg-juice is a traditional food,which has rehabilitation,prevention,treatment with three way integration function.In this paper vinegar soaking process, soaking conditions, general nutritional composition and free amino acids and inorganic element analysis of Vinegar egg-juice, the vinegar egg-juice health and pharmacological functions were reviewed, points out the problems in the development of vinegar egg-juice, and gives suggestions.%醋蛋液是传统的食疗保健品,具有康复、治疗、预防三效合一的功能.对近年来醋蛋的浸泡工艺流程、浸泡条件、醋蛋液的一般营养成分、游离氨基酸组成、无机元素分析及醋蛋液的保健及药理功能进行了综述,指出醋蛋液开发存在的问题,并给出了建议.

  12. PARIWISATA KREATIF DAN KEGIATAN EKSTRAKURIKULER BERBASIS BAMBU DALAM PENGEMBANGAN MODEL BISNIS CV SURATIN BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu Tenara Kardinia Cidhy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a prototype of a future business model which would be adopted to achieve balance between the aspects of new business opportunities and competitive advantages of CV Suratin Bamboo. The analytical method utilized in the study was the business model canvas approach (BMC supported by the blue ocean strategy and SWOT.  The results revealed that through this business model development, bamboo workshop is expected to provide information regarding bamboo derived products, raise awareness of preserving the indigenous bamboo culture, increase sense of belonging to domestic products, as well as become the primary support of innovation and ideas in constructing Indonesia as a nation. Meanwhile, for businesses actors, besides increasing revenue, conducting bamboo workshops is expected to increase the company growths for the long term. The opportunity to maneuver in the development of bamboo-based business model demonstrates that bamboo business with high quality products has both tangible and intangible potentials to be developed further.Keywords: bamboo, blue ocean strategy, business model canvas, creative tourism, extracurricularABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang prototype model bisnis masa depan yang akan digunakan untuk menemukan keseimbangan antara aspek peluang bisnis yang baru dan aspek keuntungan kompetitif CV Suratin Bamboo. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan kanvas model bisnis (BMC dilengkapi dengan blue ocean strategy serta SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan melalui pengembangan model bisnis ini, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu memberikan informasi tentang produk turunan bambu, meningkatkan kesadaran melestarikan kearifan lokal budaya bambu, meningkatkan rasa cinta produk dalam negeri, serta menjadi pendorong lahirnya inovasi dan gagasan yang membangun bangsa Indonesia. Sementara bagi pelaku usaha, selain peningkatan revenue, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu meningkatkan

  13. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  14. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  15. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  16. Study on Brewing Technology of Vinegar with High Amino Acid%高氨基酸食醋酿造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春杰; 张茜; 李丽华; 宋春雪

    2014-01-01

    通过原料创新和工艺创新,融合国内知名食醋酿造工艺,靶向调控食醋中氨基酸含量,研制出鲜香浓郁的高氨基酸醋。该技术增加了中国醋类新品种,提升了食醋品质和营养保健价值。%With innovation of raw materials and process,the brewing process of famous vinegar is fused in the fermentation for target regulating the amino acids in vinegar and a kind of delicious full-bodied vinegar with high amino acid is developed.This technology has increased new varieties of Chi-nese vinegar and enhanced the quality and nutritional value of vinegar.

  17. Guadua chacoensis in Bolivia : - an investigation of mechanical properties of a bamboo species

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Maria; Palm, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis has been performed at CTD- the Centre for Wood Technology and Design at the University of Linköping and has been carried out in Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia. The objective of this thesis is to study the mechanical properties and uses of Guadua chacoensis, a bamboo native to Bolivia. Throughout history, bamboo has been used in many countries for a variety of purposes. In Asia bamboo is an important raw-material for buildings and furniture. It is also used for making pa...

  18. Super strong nanoindentors for biomedical applications based on bamboo-like nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kolesnikova, A. S.; Kossovich, E. L.; Zhnichkov, R. Y.

    2012-03-01

    The results of quantum-chemical analysis of elastic and strength properties of the bamboo-like tube are presented in this paper. For the first time the configuration of the thinnest stable bamboo-like tube was established. The bamboo-like nanotube breaking point is established to be under compression of 11GPa. Configuration of the nanoindentor based on symmetric and streamlined tip of the tube (15,15), presented in this work, provides perfect interaction between the nanoindentor tip and the tissue because tip has no sharp protruding pieces.

  19. Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 吴义强

    2008-01-01

    Green composites made from bamboo fibers and biodegradable resins were fabricated with press molding.On the basis of the Weibull distribution and the weakest-link theory,the statistical strength and distribution of bamboo fiber were analyzed,and the tensile strength of green composites was also investigated.The result confirms that the tensile statistical strength of fiber fits well with two-parameter Weibull distribution.In addition,the tensile strength of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is about 330 MPa with the fiber volume fraction of 70%.This value is close to or higher than that of other natural fiber reinforced green composites.

  20. Research on Breeding Traits of Turf Bamboo by ~(137)Cs γ-radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of breeding new and fine varieties of turf bamboo, 5 turf bamboo species (Sasa pygmaea, Indocalamus decorus, I. latifolius, Shibataea chinensis, and S. fortune) were radiated through 137Cs γ-ray in tissue cultures at different radiation dose. It was shown that: 1) Four species of turf bamboo were sensitive to radiation, low dose radiation had no effect on bud germination, high dose radiation delayed bud germination; 2) Radiation at 5 and 10 Gy had not impact on shoot emergence, but radiation...

  1. Research and Compare the Antioxidant Active Ingredients of Pomegranate Vinegar,MuIberry Vinegar and BIueberry Vinegar%蓝莓醋、石榴醋、桑葚醋抗氧化活性成分的研究与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽娟; 何思鲁; 赵翡; 王颉

    2016-01-01

    以市售蓝莓醋、石榴醋、桑葚醋为试验原料,对三种水果醋进行抗氧化活性成分分析和测定,研究其主要活性成分含量与清除 DPPH 自由基之间的相关性,并对其抗氧化性能进行对比。试验结果表明:三种水果醋都具有一定的抗氧化活性,其中石榴醋的抗氧化能力最强,总酚、总黄酮、抗坏血酸含量达到110.03,480.47,110 mg/kg;当加入400 mg/kg 三种水果醋时,其 DPPH 自由基清除率分别达到57.58%,63.66%,54.10%;其抗氧化活性成分与 DPPH 自由基的清除能力成正相关。水果醋具有良好的抗氧化活性,是目前较为优质的调味品,该试验为水果醋产品的进一步开发奠定了坚实的理论基础。%Take pomegranate vinegar,mulberry vinegar and blueberry vinegar as the test materials, analyze and determine the antioxidant active ingredients of the three kinds of fruit vinegar,research the correlation between the content of antioxidant active ingredients and clearing DPPH radical,and compare the antioxidation performance with one another.The results show that three kinds of fruit vinegar has a certain antioxidant activity,among them,the antioxidant capacity of pomegranate vinegar is the strongest.The content of total phenols,total flavonoids and ascorbic acid is about 110.03,480.47,110 mg/kg.When adding the three kinds of fruit vinegar with 400 mg/kg,the DPPH radical scavenging is 57.58%, 63.66%, 54.10%. It is positively correlated between antioxidant active ingredients and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Fruit vinegar has a good antioxidant activity and it is high-quality condiment.It will lay a solid theoretical foundation for the further development of fruit vinegar products.

  2. 7 CFR 29.6009 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.6009 Section 29.6009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6009 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. (See Rule 15.)...

  3. Simultaneous determination of 12 coumarins in bamboo leaves by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuying; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde; Yao, Xi; Wei, Qi; Yu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive HPLC-UV method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 12 coumarin compounds (skimin, scopolin, scopoletin, umbelliferone, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, coumarin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, pimpinellin, imperatorin, and osthole) in bamboo leaves. The samples were extracted with ethanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) by ultrasonication and purified by Florisil SPE. The method was validated for linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and recovery. The standard curves in the corresponding ranges had good linearity. LOD was at the range of 0.19 to 0.85 mglkg and LOQ 0.64 to 2.82 mg/kg. The values of RSD for accuracy and intraday and interday precision were less than 3%, except for 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin. Recoveries from spiked samples at 30, 20, and 10 mg/kg in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were higher than 70%, except for scopoletin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and coumarin. The method was validated using field-collected samples taken from Beijing and Changning Counties, SiChuan, China. Six coumarins, namely, skimin, scopolin, scopoletin, umbelliferone, coumarin, and pimpinellin, were found in the extracts of 11 species of bamboo leaves. The concentrations of total coumarins were in the range of 8.67 to 99.2 mg/kg. The maximum concentration of total coumarins was found in Bambusa pervariabilis, and the minimum was in

  4. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  5. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat Nguyen, Huu; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Bich Nguyen, Ngoc; Duy Dang, Thanh; Loan Phung Le, My; Dang, Tan Tai; Tran, Van Man

    2013-03-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A & J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase.

  6. REFINING BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBER FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres,there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefiner under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp.Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  7. Effects of surface performance on bamboo by microwave plasma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanben DU; Zhaobin SUN; Linrong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Surface treatment of bamboo was carried out by microwave plasma (MWP), surface contact angle of the sample was measured using glycerin and urea-form-aldehyde resin (UFR) liquid, and the effects on the surface performance of the bamboo sample was evaluated. The results show that the surface contact angle of the sample presented a generally decreasing trend when prolonging the MWP treatment time and shortening the distance between the sample and the resonance cavity. The surface contact angle of the sample decreased by 49%-59% under the following conditions: MWP treatment for 30 s, the distance between the sample and resonance cavity at 40 mm, and measurement at 15 s after dripping with gly-cerin. The surface contact angle of the sample measured with the glycerin was lower than that with UFR. No mat-ter whether we used glycerin or UFR, the contact angle of the sample at 15 s after dripping was lower than that at 5 s after dripping. The grinding treatment had little effect on the surface contact angle of the sample after MWP treat-ment, and the modification effect of MWP treatment after grinding was better than that of sole MWP treatment.

  8. Fractionation of bamboo hemicelluloses by graded saturated ammonium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Xian-Ming; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-09-20

    The hemicelluloses were isolated with 10% KOH at 25°C from dewaxed and delignified bamboo powder. The alkali-soluble hemicelluloses from Sinocalamus affinis were fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The bamboo alkali-soluble hemicelluloses yielded seven hemicellulosic fractions obtained at 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 55, and 70% saturation with ammonium sulphate. It was found that the more branched hemicelluloses were precipitated at higher ammonium sulphate concentrations (55 and 70%), the more linear hemicelluloses were precipitated at lower ammonium sulphate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, and 40%). The molecular weights of hemicellulosic fractions become lower from 35,270 (H0) to 18,680 (H70)gmol(-1) with the increasing concentrations of saturated ammonium sulphate from 0 to 70%. Based on the FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and 2D HSQC NMR studies, the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans composed of the (1→4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-3 of α-L-arabinofuranosyl or at O-2 of 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid.

  9. REFINING BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBRE FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishiK.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres, there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefmer under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp. Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  10. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  11. Research Overview on Traditional Chinese Medicine Processed With Vinegar%中药醋制研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新梅; 徐溢明

    2016-01-01

    本文对中药醋制的研究新进展进行综述。对中药醋制的历史、分类、方法、醋制前后化学成分的变化、药理变化等方面进行介绍。中药醋制对于中药的临床应用具有极其重要的意义。%The latest progress on traditional Chinese medicine processed with vinegar was reviewed .History, classification , technology , chemical constituents changes before and after processed with vinegar were introduced .The process with vinegar was of vital importance for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine .

  12. Study on Brewing Procession of Tomato Vinegar%番茄果醋酿制工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 谢晶; 金晨钟; 高晴晴; 高芬

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes were used as the main raw material,the production technology of tomato vinegar were studied.The conditions of acetic fermentation of tomato vinegar were optimized.The optimal conditions were as followsinoculums of 8%,temperature of 34℃,initial pH value of 3,after ageing and cleaning,the tomato fruit vinegar drink of admirable quality could be obtained.%以番茄为主原料,对番茄果醋的酿制工艺进行研究。对番茄果醋醋酸发酵最适条件进行了优化,确定适宜的条件为接种量8%,温度34℃,初始pH值为3,经过澄清调配最后得到品质优良的番茄果醋饮料。

  13. Research on the Formula of Reproduced Pear Vinegar%再制梨醋配方的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉玲

    2014-01-01

    利用优质的梨为原料,经固态发酵获得梨醋,在此基础上,用梨汁、蜂蜜、糖调配成再制梨醋。再制梨醋与单纯的梨醋相比较,在口味上更柔和,更具水果的清香;营养更全面,是良好的佐餐调味品。主要研究了再制梨醋的加工技术与配方,由实验结果可以得到再制梨醋的最优配方组合:总酸度4 g/L,主要配料添加量:梨汁110 mL/L,蜂蜜2 g/L,糖7 g/L。%Take high-quality pears as raw materials,pear vinegar is obtained by solid state fermenta-tion,on this basis,blend pear j uice,honey and sugar to make pear vinegar.Compared to pure pear vinegar,the reproduced pear vinegar is with softer taste,more fruity fragrance,more comprehensive nutrition and it is a kind of good table seasoning.The processing technology and recipe of reproduced pear vinegar are studied in this paper.The experimental results show that the optimal formula of reproduced pear vinegar is:total acidity of 4 g/L,pear juice of 110 mL/L,honey of 2 g/L,sugar of 7 g/L.

  14. The original bamboo (bamboo) building structure node applied research%原竹(毛竹)建筑构造节点的应用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高传; 徐建三

    2015-01-01

    以原竹(毛竹)作为建筑建造的基础材料为切入点,从原竹本身性能和实际施工工艺实践中提炼出一些通性和一般规律,试图探寻原竹竹材作为一种新的基础建筑材料来代替传统建筑材料(钢筋混凝土),从而为新形式下,原竹建筑的推广普及与发展提供借鉴经验。%based on the original bamboo (bamboo) as the basis of building materials as the breakthrough point, from the original bamboo itself performance and the actual construction process in the practice of extracting some connectivity and the general rules, trying to explore bamboo as a foundation for a new building materials to replace traditional building materials (reinforced concrete), to the new form, the popularity of bamboo building development to provide reference experience.

  15. Synthesis of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes by ethanol catalytic combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin; ZOU Xiao-ping; LI Fei; ZHANG Hong-dan; REN Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Bamboo-like carbon nanotubes were synthesized by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) technique with combustion method. Copper plate was employed as substrate,ethanol as carbon source,and iron chloride as catalyst precursor. The as-grown black powder was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the thinner bamboo-like carbon nanotubes have a relatively good structure that the compartment layers are more regular,while the thicker carbon nanotubes have a relatively irregular bamboo-like structure:the proposed method is simple to synthesize bamboo-like carbon nanotubes and has some advantages,such as flexible synthesis conditions,simple setup,and environment-friendly.

  16. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  17. Self-adaptive formation of uneven node spacings in wild bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Motohiro; Inoue, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Bamboo has a distinctive structure wherein a long cavity inside a cylindrical woody section is divided into many chambers by stiff diaphragms. The diaphragms are inserted at nodes and thought to serve as ring stiffeners for bamboo culms against the external load; if this is the case, the separation between adjacent nodes should be configured optimally in order to enhance the mechanical stability of the culms. Here, we reveal the hitherto unknown blueprint of the optimal node spacings used in the growth of wild bamboo. Measurement data analysis together with theoretical formulations suggest that wild bamboos effectively control their node spacings as well as other geometric parameters in accord with the lightweight and high-strength design concept.

  18. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure.

  19. Acoustic monitoring using bamboo set net in the Southern Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Kyounghoon; La, Hyoung Sul; Yang, Yongsu; Kim, Pyungkwan

    2017-01-01

    High-temporal resolution profiles of acoustic backscatter were collected from a traditional bamboo set net along the coast of the Southern Sea, Korea, using sideward-looking multi-beam imaging sonar. These data were used to examine the impact of variations in tidal cycles and current speeds on the bamboo set net. The relatively high influx of fish during the nighttime compared to the low influx and high outflux of fish during the daytime suggests visual avoidance of the net by the fish during the daytime. The observed diel variation in the captured fish flux was significantly correlated with the current speed (day: r = 0.35, p = 0.002, night: r = 0.60, p bamboo set nets appears to be greatly influenced by day-night differences and current speed. The present study enhances understanding of fish behavior via utilization of a bamboo set net in the coastal zone.

  20. Investigating pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of torrefied bamboo, torrefied wood and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia; Hu, Wanhe; Wei, Penglian; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo and masson pine was torrefied with 300°C of temperature for 2.0h of residence time using GSL 1600X tube furnace in the argon atmosphere. Torrefied bamboo and masson pine particles were uniform mixed with different weight ratios. Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated through thermogravimetry (TGA). The results showed that pyrolysis and combustion process of all samples included three steps even though their characteristics were different. Torrefied biomass had a higher pyrolysis and combustion temperature, due to moisture and volatile removal and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin during torrefaction process. Torrefaction also increased high heating value, ash content and C/H and C/O ratio of biomass. The synergy of torrefied bamboo and torrefied mason pine was not found during pyrolysis and combustion process of blends. The results from this research will be very important and helpful to develop and utilize the wastes of masson pine and bamboo for energy products.