WorldWideScience

Sample records for baltimore longitudinal study

  1. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Susan M. Resnick; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration wit...

  2. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–19...

  3. Longitudinal Trajectories in Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey Data: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental trends in personality traits over 42 years were examined using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (N = 2,359, aged 17 to 98), collected from 1958 to 2002. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed cumulative mean-level changes averaging about 0.5 SD across adulthood. Scales related to Extraversion showed distinct developmental patterns: General Activity declined from age 60 to 90; Restraint increased; Ascendance peaked around age 60; and Sociability decline...

  4. Vitamin D deficiency and airflow limitation in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Mia; Elango, Palchamy; Ferrucci, Luigi;

    2015-01-01

    vitamin D supplements were excluded. Airflow limitation was defined as FEV1 /FVC < lower limit of normal. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D < 20 ng/mL) and possible determinants. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency was not specific for......BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has also been linked to comorbidities often present in COPD. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency was related specifically to airflow limitation or...... whether vitamin D deficiency was determined by conditions that frequently coexist with COPD: insulin resistance, hypertension, anaemia, obesity and hypercholesterolaemia. METHODS: For this cross-sectional analysis, we included 897 subjects from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects taking...

  5. Longitudinal Trajectories in Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey Data: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental trends in personality traits over 42 years were examined using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (N = 2,359, aged 17 to 98), collected from 1958 to 2002. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed cumulative mean-level changes averaging about 0.5 SD across adulthood. Scales related to Extraversion showed distinct developmental patterns: General Activity declined from age 60 to 90; Restraint increased; Ascendance peaked around age 60; and Sociability declined slightly. Scales related to Neuroticism showed curvilinear declines up to age 70 and then increased. Scales related to Agreeableness and Openness changed little; Masculinity declined linearly. Significant individual variability in change was found. Although intercepts differed, trajectories were similar for men and women. Attrition and death had no effect on slopes. This study highlights the use of lower-order traits in providing a more nuanced picture of developmental change. PMID:16497954

  6. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of NEO-PI-R Scales In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Brant, Larry J; Costa, Paul T.

    2005-01-01

    We examined age trends in the five factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline up to age 80 in Neuroticism, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase up to ag...

  7. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of NEO-PI-R Scales In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Brant, Larry J.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age trends in the five factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline up to age 80 in Neuroticism, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase up to age 70 in Conscientiousness. Some facets showed different curves from the factor they define. Birth cohort effects were modest, and there were no consistent Gender × Age interactions. Significant non-normative changes were found for all five factors; they were not explained by attrition but might be due to genetic factors, disease, or life experience. PMID:16248708

  8. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  9. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Golden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  10. Impact Studies at Merced College and the Community College of Baltimore County. NCPR Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; Cullinan, Dan; Cerna, Oscar; Safran, Stephanie; Richman, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    The Learning Communities Demonstration is a national research project that is testing the effectiveness of learning communities in six community colleges across the United States: Merced College in California; The Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC) in Baltimore, Maryland; Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida; Houston…

  11. The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project (BAP). Computer aided dispatch and communications system for the Baltimore Fire Department: A case study of urban technology application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    An engineer and a computer expert from Goddard Space Flight Center were assigned to provide technical assistance in the design and installation of a computer assisted system for dispatching and communicating with fire department personnel and equipment in Baltimore City. Primary contributions were in decision making and management processes. The project is analyzed from four perspectives: (1) fire service; (2) technology transfer; (3) public administration; and (5) innovation. The city benefitted substantially from the approach and competence of the NASA personnel. Given the proper conditions, there are distinct advantages in having a nearby Federal laboratory provide assistance to a city on a continuing basis, as is done in the Baltimore Applications Project.

  12. Income, social stratification, class, and private health insurance: a study of the Baltimore metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Parsons, P E

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of inequalities and access to health care have used income as the sole indicator of social stratification. Despite the significance of social theory in health insurance research, there are no empirical studies comparing the ability of different models of social stratification to predict health insurance coverage. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis using a variety of theory-driven indicators of social stratification and assess the relative strength of the association between these indicators and private health insurance. Data were collected in a 1993 telephone interview of a random digit dialing sample of the white population in the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indicators of social stratification included employment status, full-time work, education, occupation, industry, household income, firm size, and three types of assets: ownership, organizational, and skill/credential. The association between social stratification and private health insurance was strongest for those having higher household incomes, having attained at least a bachelor's degree, and working in a firm with more than 50 employees, followed by being an owner or manager, and by being employed. The addition of education and firm size improved the prediction of the household income model. The authors conclude that studies of inequalities in health insurance coverage can benefit from the inclusion of theory-driven indicators of social stratification such as human capital, labor market segmentation, and control over productive assets. PMID:8906444

  13. Legacies of Lead in Charm City’s Soil: Lessons from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kirsten; Pouyat, Richard V.; Yesilonis, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of soil lead has been a focus of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study since its inception in 1997. Through multiple research projects that span spatial scales and use different methodologies, three overarching patterns have been identified: (1) soil lead concentrations often exceed state and federal regulatory limits; (2) the variability of soil lead concentrations is high; and (3) despite multiple sources and the highly heterogeneous and patchy nature of soil lead, discernable patterns do exist. Specifically, housing age, the distance to built structures, and the distance to a major roadway are strong predictors of soil lead concentrations. Understanding what drives the spatial distribution of soil lead can inform the transition of underutilized urban space into gardens and other desirable land uses while protecting human health. A framework for management is proposed that considers three factors: (1) the level of contamination; (2) the desired land use; and (3) the community’s preference in implementing the desired land use. The goal of the framework is to promote dialogue and resultant policy changes that support consistent and clear regulatory guidelines for soil lead, without which urban communities will continue to be subject to the potential for lead exposure. PMID:26861371

  14. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  15. Using Enviro-Pod low altitude imagery to inventory building surface materials for an acid rain study - A Baltimore example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Richard; Coffland, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Low altitude, oblique and vertical color photography taken from EPA's Enviro-Pod Ka 85 camera system has provided the data for taking an inventory of building surface materials in a test area of downtown Baltimore. Photography was acquired from a gridded flight plan to provide views of all sides of buildings. Color, texture, and linear detail are employed in the photo interpretation aided by contextual reference to a classification of building construction type developed in an earlier study. The work could potentially support a materials inventory initiated by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) by scientists from EPA, Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy. Initial results show the method to be viable. Discrete surface materials such as brick, both bare and painted, stone, and metal are identified.

  16. Ethnicity, Education, and the Temporal Stability of Personality Traits In the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Patriciu, Nicholas S.; Nestadt, Gerald; McCrae, Robert R.; Eaton, William W.; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of age, gender, Black vs. White ethnicity, and education on five indices of personality stability and change across an average interval of 8 years in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. In the full sample (n = 505, aged 30-88), examination of structural, rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability, as well as indices of reliable change suggested that NEO-PI-R personality traits showed moderate to high levels of stability over time. There were few age and gender effects on temporal stability but rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability were lower among Blacks and individuals with lower education. Future research should explore additional demographic predictors of temporal plasticity in a diverse range of samples, and employ observer ratings to assess personality. PMID:19122849

  17. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  18. Longitudinal Phase Space Studies at PITZ

    CERN Document Server

    Roensch, J R

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) is to test and to optimize photo injectors for Free-Electron Lasers (FELs). The demands on such a photo injector are small transverse emittances, short bunches and a high bunch charge. A FEL is driven by an accelerator which consists of a rf gun followed by an acceleration section and a magnetic bunch compressor. For the effective bunch compression detailed studies of the longitudinal phase space have to be performed. The correlation between the positions of the particles in the bunch and their longitudinal momenta has to be understood and the non-linearities of the longitudinal phase space have to be analysed. A special apparatus for longitudinal phase space tomography at 5 MeV using a dipole, a Cherenkov radiator, an optical transmission line and a streak camera was developed. Results of longitudinal phase space measurements are presented and compared with simulations.

  19. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  20. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    L Postiglione; Savastano, S; A. Scognamiglio; G. Nutile; Carpinelli, A; Esposito, A.; del Puente, A; Padula, S.; Oriente, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA) and Osteoporosis (OP) is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy). Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2...

  1. A Pedagogy "for" Space: Teaching, Learning, and Studying in the Baltimore Rebellion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    While most educational literature on space has tended to ask what spatial studies can offer education, this article works primarily to "educationalize" theories of space. It does so by homing in on Henri Lefebvre's theorization of the production of space as a potentially revolutionary activity. After spending some time situating…

  2. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238U72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  3. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Soweon; Anil K Jain

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition, which is considered to be a reliable means for human identification, has been used in many applications ranging from law enforcement and forensics to unlocking mobile phones. Despite its successful deployment, the fundamental premise of fingerprint-based identification—persistence and uniqueness of fingerprints—has not yet been well studied, resulting in challenges to the admissibility of friction ridge evidence in courts of law. This study investigates the tendency o...

  4. Aging in Rett syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, N S J; Smeets, E E J; Steinbusch, C; Maaskant, M A; van Waardenburg, D; Curfs, L M G

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the aging process of people with specific syndromes, like Rett syndrome (RTT). Recognition of the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the adult RTT is needed in order to improve future management of the RTT girl and counseling of parents. In association with the Dutch RTT parent association, a 5-year longitudinal study was carried out. The study population consisted of 53 adult women with a clinical diagnosis of RTT. Postal questionnaires were sent, including demographic features, skills, physical and psychiatric morbidity. At the time of the second measurement seven women had died. In 2012, 80% of the questionnaires (37/46) were returned. Mean age of the women was 31.4 years. Molecular confirmation was possible for 83% of the women for whom analyses were carried out. The adult RTT woman has a more or less stable condition. The general disorder profile is that of a slow on-going deterioration of gross motor functioning in contrast to a better preserved cognitive functioning, less autonomic and epileptic features and good general health. This is the first longitudinal cohort study about aging in RTT. Continuing longitudinal studies are needed to gain more insight into the aging process in RTT. PMID:23167724

  5. Longitudinal studies of trauma in police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Marmar

    2012-01-01

    Background : Results will be presented on a prospective longitudinal study of risk and resilience for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 400 police academy recruits, assessed during academy training and followed during the first 7 years of police service. Methods : Utilizing Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) we have established three symptom trajectories, highly resilient, initially distressed with gradual improvement, and increasing distress. Results : We will present find...

  6. Learning Communities for Students in Developmental English: Impact Studies at Merced College and the Community College of Baltimore County. NCPR Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; Cullinan, Dan; Cerna, Oscar; Safran, Stephanie; Richman, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    The Learning Communities Demonstration is a national research project that is testing the effectiveness of learning communities in six community colleges across the United States: Merced College in California; The Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC) in Baltimore, Maryland; Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida; Houston…

  7. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) was designed to study the adaptation process of the immigrant second generation which is defined broadly as United States-born children with at least one foreign-born parent or children born abroad but brought at an early age to the United States. The original survey was conducted with large samples of second-generation immigrant children attending the 8th and 9th grades in public and private schools in the metropolitan areas of Miami/Ft. Laude...

  8. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  9. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G

    2007-12-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary examination of the test scores of 124 twins with a history of reading difficulties and 154 twins with no history of reading difficulties indicates that over the 5- to 6-year interval between assessments, cognitive and reading performance are highly stable. As a group, those subjects with a history of reading difficulties had substantial deficits relative to control subjects on all measures at initial assessment, and significant deficits remained at follow-up. The stability noted for all cognitive and achievement measures was highest for a composite measure of reading, whose average stability correlation across groups was 0.80. Results of preliminary behavior genetic analyses for this measure indicated that shared genetic influences accounted for 86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties, respectively. In addition, genetic correlations reached unity for both groups, suggesting that the same genetic influences are manifested at both time points. PMID:18060583

  10. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  11. TAILOR THE LONGITUDINAL ANAYSIS FOR NIH LONGITUDINAL NORMAL BRAIN DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

    2014-01-01

    There are imminent needs for longitudinal analysis to make physiological inferences on NIH MRI study of normal brain development. But up to date, two critical aspects for longitudinal analysis, namely the selections of mean and covariance structures have not been addressed by the neuroimaging community. For the mean structure, we employed a linear free-knot B-spline regression in combination with quasi-least square estimating equations to approximate a nonlinear growth trajectory with piecewi...

  12. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  13. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  14. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  15. System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaqing; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Lasater, Molly E; Parker, Cindy L; Winch, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Inappropriate waste disposal is a serious issue in many urban neighborhoods, exacerbating environmental, rodent, and public health problems. Governments all over the world have been developing interventions to reduce inappropriate waste disposal. A system dynamics model is proposed to quantify the impacts of interventions on residential waste related behavior. In contrast to other models of municipal solid waste management, the structure of our model is based on sociological and economic studies on how incentives and social norms interactively affect waste disposal behavior, and its parameterization is informed by field work. A case study of low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD, USA is presented. The simulation results show the effects of individual interventions, and also identify positive interactions among some potential interventions, especially information and incentive-based policies, as well as their limitations. The model can help policy analysts identify the most promising intervention packages, and then field test those few, rather than having to pilot test all combinations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate large uncertainties about behavioral responses to some interventions, showing where information from survey research and social experiments would improve policy making. PMID:27260985

  16. Causal Inference from Longitudinal Studies with Baseline Randomization

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We describe analytic approaches for study designs that, like large simple trials, can be better characterized as longitudinal studies with baseline randomization than as either a pure randomized experiment or a purely observational study. We (i) discuss the intention-to-treat effect as an effect measure for randomized studies, (ii) provide a formal definition of causal effect for longitudinal studies, (iii) describe several methods -- based on inverse probability weighting and g-estimation --...

  17. Space Physics Strategy-Implementation Study. Volume 1. Goals, objectives, strategy. Report of Workshop 1. Held in Baltimore, Maryland on January 22-26, 1990 (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of Workshop 1, January 22-26, 1990, Baltimore, Maryland. The document includes the Report of the Cosmic and Heliospheric Panel, Report of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Panel, Report of the Magnetospheric Physics Panel, Report of the Solar Physics Panel, Report of the Theory Panel

  18. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), the...

  19. Allergies and major depression: a longitudinal community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lavorato Dina H; Williams Jeanne VA; Patten Scott B; Eliasziw Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cross-sectional studies have reported associations between allergies and major depression but in the absence of longitudinal data, the implications of this association remain unclear. Our goal was to examine this association from a longitudinal perspective. Methods The data source was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). This study included a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) to assess major depression and al...

  20. Gender differences in postpartum depression. A longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: The course of depression from pregnancy to one year postpartum and their risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. This study has two aims: 1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from third trimester of pregnancy to one year after childbirth and 2) to determine gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carr...

  1. Longitudinal bunch compression study with induction voltage modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama Akira; Sakai Yasuo; Miyazaki Yoshifumi; Kikuchi Takashi; Nakajima Mitsuo; Horioka Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    For the beam driver of inertial confinement fusion, the technology to compress a charged particle beam in longitudinal direction is crucially important. However, the quality of the beam is expected to be deteriorated when the beam is rapidly compressed in longitudinal direction. In order to investigate the beam dynamics during bunch compression, we made a compact beam compression system and carried out beam compression experiments. In this paper, we show the background of our study and recent...

  2. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  3. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  4. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  5. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  6. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  7. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  8. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  9. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  10. Longitudinal bunch compression study with induction voltage modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Akira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the beam driver of inertial confinement fusion, the technology to compress a charged particle beam in longitudinal direction is crucially important. However, the quality of the beam is expected to be deteriorated when the beam is rapidly compressed in longitudinal direction. In order to investigate the beam dynamics during bunch compression, we made a compact beam compression system and carried out beam compression experiments. In this paper, we show the background of our study and recent progress of the beam compression experiments.

  11. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup; Okholm, Anne; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Bandholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of medial longitudinal arch deformation (MLAD) during walking gait is often estimated from static measures of e.g. navicular drop (ND) measured during quiet standing. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability of a new three-dimensional method of measuring the MLAD...

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Principals' Activities and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  14. Pain Perceptions of the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…

  15. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  17. Predictors of career orientation: 50-year longitudinal study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millová, Katarína; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin

    Istanbul: Turkish Psychological Association, 2011. s. 953-953. [European Congress of Psychology /12./. 04.07.2011-08.07.2011, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : career orientation * middle adulthood * longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  18. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  19. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  20. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  2. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  3. The development of polypharmacy. A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veehof, LJG; Stewart, RE; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2000-01-01

    Background. To date, only a few studies have been carried out on the development and progress of polypharmacy in relation to morbidity in general practices in The Netherlands. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an increase in long-term drug use and the incid

  4. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  5. The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship Between Personality and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I. L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In a...

  6. Becoming a mental health nurse: a three year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey Wells; Cathy Bernal; Daniel Bressington

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-struc...

  7. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration......High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors into...

  8. Renovated, repurposed, and still “one sweet library”: a case study on loss of space from the Health Sciences and Human Services Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooey, Mary Joan (M.J.)

    2010-01-01

    Setting: The Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL), University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB), is located in an urban environment on the west side of downtown Baltimore. Founded in 1813, the library opened its current building in 1998 and is one of the largest health sciences libraries in the United States, with 6 floors and over 180,000 gross square and 118,000 net assignable square feet (NASF). Project: The initial discussions in late 2005 involved moving campus offices into the library. Almost immediately, it was recognized that a much larger renovation was needed due to the scope of the work. The vice president for academic affairs, the library executive director, and campus planners agreed that if the renovation was done thoughtfully, multiple needs could be met, including new office spaces, better user spaces, and synergy with the new campus center being built next door. Planning: The planning, design, and construction process was multifaceted and on a fast track. Although the final piece of the renovation was completed in June 2009, the majority of the planning, design, and construction took place between March 2006 and June 2008. All tenants were involved with office design. Library staff were involved in designing the public spaces and planning the strategy for weeding and shifting. Outcomes: Approximately 8,000 NASF was reallocated to new office space from shelving space, amounting to approximately 6.7% of the building NASF and approximately 10.6% of the public space in the building. The majority of new offices in the building report to the same vice president and are student focused and service oriented, with similar missions to that of the library resulting in a very harmonious cohabitation. Additional units with these missions and reporting structure are located in the new campus center, creating a synergy between the two buildings. PMID:20098653

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Uremic Pruritus in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Vandana S.; Lindberg, Jill; Germain, Michael; Block, Geoffrey; Tumlin, James; Smith, Mark; Grewal, Mandeep; McGuire, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Although uremic pruritus (UP) is a highly prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease, it remains poorly characterized. There have been no longitudinal studies of natural history, and no health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) instruments have been developed for UP. The objectives of this study were to describe the natural history of UP, to compare rating scales of itching intensity, and to assess usefulness and validity of HR-QOL instruments for UP.

  10. Marital status and suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kposowa, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of marital status on the risk of suicide, using a large nationally representative sample. A related objective was to investigate the association between marital status and suicide by sex.
METHODS—Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, based on the 1979-1989 follow up. In estimating the effect of marital status, adjustments were made for age, sex, race, educati...

  11. Changing Lives: The Baltimore City Community College Life Sciences Partnership with the University of Maryland, Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Vanessa G.; Harris-Bondima, Michelle; Norris, Kathleen Kennedy; Williams, Carolane

    2010-01-01

    Baltimore City Community College (BCCC) leveraged heightened student interest and enrollment in the sciences and allied health with Maryland's world-leading biotechnology industry to build a community college life sciences learning and research center right on the University of Maryland, Baltimore's downtown BioPark campus. The BCCC Life Sciences…

  12. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    OpenAIRE

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males ...

  13. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistent...

  14. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  15. Health behaviors, affect, and academic performance : three longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Lavinia Heidy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health behaviors are a fundamental and highly fluctuating component of everyday life. Evidence capturing these natural daily fluctuations is limited. Therefore, this dissertation investigates how these daily dynamics in health behaviors are associated with other important aspects of young adults’ everyday lives and bridges separate research strands by integrating health behaviors, affect, stress, and academic performance in three intensive longitudinal studies. Method: These three ...

  16. QOLOP: Quality of Life Longitudinal Study of Paediatric Oncology Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blažková, T.; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    Vol. 24. Hoboken: WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015. s. 260-261. ISSN 1057-9249. [World Congress of Psycho - Oncology . 28.07.2015-01.08.2015, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : quality of life * childhood cancer survivors * longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pon.3874/epdf

  17. Phenol Reduces Hypertonia and Enhances Strength: A Longitudinal Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J.; Willms, Rhonda

    2004-01-01

    Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spastici...

  18. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  19. QOLOP: Quality of Life Longitudinal Study of Paediatric Oncology Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blažková, T.; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    Vol. 24. Hoboken : WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015. s. 260-261. ISSN 1057-9249. [World Congress of Psycho-Oncology. 28.07.2015-01.08.2015, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : quality of life * childhood cancer survivors * longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pon.3874/epdf

  20. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C.; Williams, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data ...

  1. Baltimore Eesti Selts - 75 / Vilve Ladon ; fotod: Fred Ise

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ladon, Vilve

    2010-01-01

    Baltimore Eesti Majas tähistati 2. okt. 2010 Baltimore Eesti Seltsi aastapäeva. Eesti suursaatkonna esimene sekretär poliitilistes küsimustes Aap Neljas edastas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese tervituse

  2. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  3. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  4. Cohort profile: the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-12-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  5. Histo-topographic study of the longitudinal anal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Vigato, Enrico; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    The longitudinal anal muscle (LAM) has been described as a vertical layer of muscular tissue interposed between the circular layers of the internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincters. There is, however, no general agreement in the literature on its composition and attachments. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological structure, attachments, and topography of the LAM in order to evaluate its role in continence and defecation, thus enhancing knowledge of the surgical anatomy of this region. After in situ formalin fixation, the pelvic viscera were removed from eight male and eight female cadavers (age range: 52-72 years). Serial macrosections of the bladder base, lower rectum and anal canal, cervix and pelvic floor complex, cut in the transverse (six specimens) and coronal (six specimens) planes, underwent histological and immunohistochemical studies. Four specimens were studied using the E12 sheet plastination technique. The LAM was identified in 10/12 specimens (83%). Transverse and coronal sections made clear that it is a longitudinal layer of muscular tissue, marking the boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters. From the anorectal junction it extends along the anal canal, receives fibers from the innermost part of the puborectalis and the puboanalis muscles, and terminates with seven to nine fibro-elastic septa, which traverse the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter, reaching the perianal dermis. In the transverse plane, the mean thickness of the LAM was 1.68 +/- 0.27 mm. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the LAM consists of predominantly outer striated muscle fibers and smaller numbers of inner smooth muscle fibers, respectively coming from the levator ani muscle and from the longitudinal muscular layer of the rectum. The oblique fibers suggest that the LAM may represent the intermediate longitudinal course of small bridging muscle bundles going reciprocally from the striated EAS to the smooth IAS and

  6. "Old Age and Loneliness: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in the Tampere Longitudinal Study on Aging"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylha, Marja

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether older age is associated with increasing loneliness in people aged 60 and over. Data came from TamELSA, a population-based prospective longitudinal study in Tampere, Finland. The followup time was 20 years. Loneliness was measured by a single question--"Do you feel lonely?"--with the possible answers…

  7. Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta Victor

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD, three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37. The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis.

  8. Trailblazing Teacher Contract Agreement Adopted in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Baltimore City Public Schools made national headlines late last year when the district adopted a new contract designed to take student learning and teacher professionalism to the next level. The three-year deal replaced conventional approaches to compensation--regular pay increases based on years in the system--with a new approach that gives…

  9. A School Voucher Program for Baltimore City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Baltimore City's public school system is in crisis. Academically, the school system fails on any number of measures. The city's graduation rate is barely above 50 percent and students continually lag well behind state averages on standardized tests. Adding to these problems is the school system's current fiscal crisis, created by years of fiscal…

  10. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  11. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  12. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  13. Father involvement in infant care: two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustia, J G; Abbott, D

    1993-12-01

    Data collected from two samples of fathers in separate longitudinal studies were compared. One sample consisted of 53 first-time fathers and the other of 69 multiple-time fathers. A post-test only time-series design was used for both studies, and both employed the same procedures and instruments. The studies examined role enactment of fathers with different child-caring experiences using role-theory concepts. Fathers' normative expectations, personal expectations, and personal learning about parenting were tested to determine if they were predictive of paternal role performance. The findings seem to indicate that the culture of fatherhood has changed more rapidly than the conduct of fatherhood. PMID:8288416

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  15. Impedance studies for the PS Finemet loaded longitudinal damper

    CERN Document Server

    Persichelli, S; Paoluzzi, M; Salvant, B

    2014-01-01

    The impedance of the Finemet® loaded longitudinal damper cavity, installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron straight section 02 during the Long Shutdown 2013-2014, has been evaluated [1]. Time domain simulations with CST Particle Studio have been performed in order to get the longitudinal and transverse impedance of the device and make a comparison with the longitudinal impedance that was measured for a single cell prototype.

  16. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bratveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  17. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau;

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... multi-faceted language training. We conducted two experiments (identification and discrimination) with the two groups of cadets. The cadets were tested at four time points (at the start (T0), after three weeks (T1), after six months (T2), and after 20 months (T3)). We used a phonemic Arabic contrast...

  18. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  19. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  20. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmoniz...

  1. Metalinguistic awareness and early reading: a longitudinal study Metalinguistic awareness and early reading: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Van Damme

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study originates from two 'ecologically valid' educational experiences. First, there is Van Damme's activity as a teacher-researcher in the RUG Laboratory of Education's experimental primary school. Since 1980 she has been responsible for the reading and writing program of the children of the 1st and 2nd grade (aged 6 - 8. Second, there is the preschool reading acquisition experience in which a father (M.Spoelders and his son joined efforts to make the 'miracle of literacy acquisition' happen(Spoelders & Van Damme, 1982. Both experiences convinced the writers of this paper that the phenomenon of developmental metalinguistics should be in the focus of their future educational and scientific endeavours. This study originates from two 'ecologically valid' educational experiences. First, there is Van Damme's activity as a teacher-researcher in the RUG Laboratory of Education's experimental primary school. Since 1980 she has been responsible for the reading and writing program of the children of the 1st and 2nd grade (aged 6 - 8. Second, there is the preschool reading acquisition experience in which a father (M.Spoelders and his son joined efforts to make the 'miracle of literacy acquisition' happen(Spoelders & Van Damme, 1982. Both experiences convinced the writers of this paper that the phenomenon of developmental metalinguistics should be in the focus of their future educational and scientific endeavours.

  2. Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Daru

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors.

  3. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf;

    2002-01-01

    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455...... women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...... habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P <0.001). Placental GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Hedges in Different Moves of EMRAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇英

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolutionary change in the OF (OF) of hedges in different moves of EMRAs (EMRAs). Two corpora are established for longitudinal study, with Corpus A consisting of EMRAs from 1990-1994 and Corpus B from 2005-2009. Generally, no significant change has been found in overall use of hedges. However, apart from move 6, 7 and 10, we have found some interesting changes in the other moves. On the one hand, the OF of hedges in move 1, move 3, move 4 and move 5 shows a significant increase. On the other hand, the OF of hedges in move 2, 8, 9 and move 11 show a significant de⁃crease.

  5. Lagrangian Sampling of 3-D Air Quality Model Results for Regional Transport Contributions to Sulfate Aerosol Concentrations at Baltimore, MD in Summer of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lagrangian method provides estimates of the chemical and physical evolution of air arriving in the daytime boundary layer at Baltimore. Study results indicate a dominant role for regional transport contributions of those days when sulfate air pollution is highest in Baltimor...

  6. Growth trajectories in the children of mothers with eating disorders: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, A.; Howe, L D; Tilling, K; Schmidt, U.; Treasure, J.; Micali, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal patterns of growth trajectories in children of women with eating disorders (ED): anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Design Prospective longitudinal birth cohort; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Setting South West England, UK. Participants The sample consisted of women and their children (n=10 190) from ALSPAC. Patterns of growth among children of women reporting a history of AN (n=137), BN (n=16...

  7. Connections between Learning Experience, Study Behaviour and Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…

  8. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  9. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600

  10. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  11. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  12. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; Pburnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  13. Validation of Maturity Offset in the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, Wm Cameron

    2016-08-01

    Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs. PMID:26757350

  14. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  15. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  16. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  17. Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ahyoung; Surkan, Pamela J.; Coutinho, Anastasia J.; Suratkar, Sonali R.; Campbell, Rebecca K.; Rowan, Megan; Sharma, Sangita; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Karlsen, Micaela; Gass, Anthony; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention in Baltimore City. The study used a clustered randomized design in which 7 recreation centers and 21 corner stores received interventions and 7 additional recreation centers served as comparison. The 8-month intervention aimed to increase availability and…

  18. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  19. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  20. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  1. Functional Status After Injury: A Longitudinal Study of Geriatric Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley-Quon, Lorraine; Min, Lillian; Morley, Eric; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Cryer, Henry; Tillou, Areti

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated self-rated functional status measured longitudinally in the year following injury in a geriatric trauma population. The Longitudinal (L) group included 37 of 60 eligible trauma patients age ≥ 65 years admitted December 2006-November 2007 for > 24 hours who completed a Short Functional Status questionnaire (SFS) at 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. The SFS yields scores of 0-5 (5=independent in all five activities of daily living, ADLs) and has been validated among community-dwell...

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  3. A longitudinal study on the stability over time of school and teacher effects on student outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudin

  4. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  5. High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

  6. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  7. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  8. The Delivery System of Black Private Housing: Speculation in Baltimore in the 1960's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Charles B.

    The involvement of speculative activities in real estate transfers in central cities where racial composition is changing has been the center of controversy in a number of cities. This paper is a statistical description of the scope of the operations and some of the effects as measured by demographic data. The site of the study was Baltimore,…

  9. A Descriptive Look at College Enrollment and Degree Completion of Baltimore City Graduates. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Rachel E.; Westlund, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Earning a college degree improves a person's life outcomes in employment, income, health, and quality of life. Thus, it is important to track Baltimore City Schools graduates success in attending and completing college. In this study, the authors sought to summarize college enrollment and completion trends over the past several years. These data…

  10. Kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Geuze, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Kinaesthetic Sensitivity Test (KST) was used to measure the development of kinaesthetic acuity in adolescent boys. Thirty boys were tested longitudinally, at intervals of 6 months, between the ages of 11 1/2 and 14 years. A second group of 20 boys was tested at the ages of 14 and 16 1/2 years. T

  11. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical framewo

  12. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  13. Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, N A; Matson, R R

    1982-01-01

    This study employs a longitudinal design to analyze the adjustment process of 103 people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in the middle and later stages of their illness careers. The mean age of the sample at Time 2 is 52 years, and mean duration since diagnosis is 17 years. A highly reliable self concept measure is the indicator of adjustment and changes in adjustment from T1 (1974) to T2 (1981). Four sets of variables are analyzed in their relationship to adjustment: (1) socio-demographic; (2) disease-related; (3) medical; and (4) social-psychological. Females are more likely than males to show positive adjustment (improving self concepts). Hours of employment and living arrangement are also related to the adjustment process. The vast majority of respondents show only slight decline in mobility, but among the disease related variables, number of episodes (exacerbations) in past seven years is the strongest predictor of changes in adjustment. Nearly half the respondents seek medical attention for their M.S. once a year or less, and the choice of health care professional is related to changes in the course of the disease. Subjects with an internal locus of control have more positive adjustment scores. Those who say they cope through acceptance of the disease show improvements in self concept while those reporting religion or family as major coping strategies have decreasing self concepts. Results indicate that the majority make satisfactory adjustment as indicated by maintenance of positive self concepts over the 7 year period, although the disease is chronic and progressive. For patients in the middle and later stages of illness careers, the data suggest comprehensive rehabilitation efforts that enhance autonomy and develop the social-psychological resources of the lifestyle. PMID:7157043

  14. 75 FR 3859 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone AGENCY... establishing a temporary safety zone in all navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Baltimore zone....

  15. Maximising retention in a longitudinal study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Birden Hudson; Gurrin Lyle C; Kaldor John; Pirotta Marie; Currie Marian; McNamee Kathleen; Tabrizi Sepehr N; Donovan Basil; Walker Sandra M; Bradshaw Catriona; Chen Marcus Y; Urban Eve; Fairley Christopher K; Walker Jennifer; Harindra Veerakathy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinal study and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS) was a longitudinal study of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary ...

  16. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  17. A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togo, P; Osler, M; Sørensen, T I A;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that specific food intake patterns or changes in food intake patterns were related to future changes in body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study, with clinical and questionnaire examinations at baseline and two...... factor scores, changes in factor scores and subsequent BMI changes or obesity were found. CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal study of a Danish population, food intake factors could not consistently predict changes in BMI or obesity development....

  18. Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahodne, L.B.; Glymour, M.M.; Sparks, C.; Bontempo, D.; Dixon, R A; MacDonald, S.W.S.; Manly, J J

    2011-01-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Few studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognit...

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Qualitative Studies section of the Proceedings contains the following 10 papers: "An Alternative to Alternative Media'" (James Hamilton); "A Critical Assessment of News Coverage of the Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing" (David A. Craig); "Earth First! and the Boundaries of Postmodern Environmental Journalism" (Rick Clifton Moore);…

  20. Operationalizing Consumer Decision Making and Choice in the VR Process. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (21st, Baltimore, Maryland, March 1995). Report from the Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    This document is the product of meetings of the Prime Study Group of the Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, whose mission was to: examine consumer choice and decision making in rehabilitation; review the legislation and consumer movements leading to greater consumer choice; identify the roles and responsibilities of the consumer, the counselor,…

  1. The Longitudinal Case Study: From Schon's Model to Self-Directed Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borduas, Francine; Gagnon, Robert; Laprise, Rejean; Lacoursiere, Yves

    2001-01-01

    An interactive workshop based on longitudinal case studies and using Schon's reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action was presented to 37 physicians. Pre/postworkshop data from eight participants showed significant improvements in their knowledge. (SK)

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating in the...

  3. A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of Individual Characteristics and Classroom Norms in Explaining Bullying Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Kiuru, Noona; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study was set out to examine the interplay between individual characteristics (social standing in the classroom) and descriptive and injunctive classroom norms (behavior and attitudes, respectively) in explaining subsequent bullying behavior, defined as initiating, assis

  4. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  5. The heritability of insomnia from childhood to adolescence: results from a longitudinal twin study

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gehrman, P R; Gregory, Alice M.; Eaves, L. J.; Silberg, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine prevalence and heritability of insomnia during middle/late childhood and adolescence; examine longitudinal associations in insomnia over time; and assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors on insomnia remain stable, or whether new factors come into play, across this developmental period. Design: Longitudinal twin study. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients or Participants: There were 739 complete monozygotic twin pairs (52%) ...

  6. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively. PMID:26950508

  7. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau; Marisa Salanova-Soria

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study (two waves), conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators) as well as personal resources (self-efficacy) on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and se...

  8. Body Dissatisfaction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Findings from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Arikian, Aimee J.; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Given mixed findings regarding the unique trajectories of female and male adolescents’ body dissatisfaction over time, comprehensive longitudinal examinations are needed. This 10-year longitudinal, population-based study, with 1,902 participants from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, examined changes in body dissatisfaction from adolescence to young adulthood. Results revealed that: (a) female and male participants’ body dissati...

  9. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, L; M. Hamer

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television vi...

  10. Motivation mediates the perfectionism–burnout relationship: A three-wave longitudinal study with junior athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the present study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel struct...

  11. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. PMID:26258913

  12. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

  13. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  14. From Ferguson to Baltimore: the fruits of government- sponsored segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Following the death of Freddie Gray in police custody last week, this week has seen rioting in Baltimore and protests across the country decrying police brutality towards the black population. Richard Rothstein argues that while improvements in police quality are needed, the roots of the unrest go deeper, having been shaped by the history of intentional segregation in Baltimore and other cities like it. He writes that without suburban integration to address ghetto conditions, B...

  15. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed. PMID:26818970

  16. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

  17. Perianal injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, J; Voris, J

    1993-02-01

    Four children who incurred perianal injuries as a result of a sexual assault were followed on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes that ensued. The subjects, whose ages ranged from 4 to 8 years, were followed from 1 week to 14 months. They were examined in both supine and prone knee-chest positions and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope was used to record their injuries. At the time of the initial examination, there were a variety of findings including erythema of the tissues, edema of the skin folds, localized venous engorgement, dilation of the external anal sphincter, and lacerations of different depths. Superficial lacerations reepithelized within 1 to 11 days. The second-degree wounds in two of the children were healed by the 1- and 5-week return visits, leaving narrow bands of scar tissue. In the two subjects who were followed the longest, signs of both a second-degree laceration and a surgically repaired third-degree injury had virtually disappeared by 12 to 14 months after the assaults. The wounds in one subject, infected with a herpes simplex type 2 virus, remained erythematous for a longer period of time than did similar injuries in the other children. A skin tag created by the avulsion of the tissues in one subject persisted, although it became less obvious as it retracted into the redundant folds of the perianal tissues over time. PMID:8424016

  18. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam; Langosch Jens M; Figueira Maria; Blasco-Colmenares Elena; Vieta Eduard; Medina Esteban

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD) to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II) and the whole course of the disea...

  19. A MIXTURE DROPOUT MECHANISM IN A LONGITUDINAL STUDY WITH TWO TIME POINTS: A METHADONE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Toghrayee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues that confront statisticians in longitudinal studies is dropouts. A variety of reasons may lead to withdrawal from a study and produce two different missingness mechanisms, namely, missing at random and non-ignorable dropouts. Nevertheless, none of these mechanisms is tenable in most studies. In addition, it may be that not all of dropouts are nonignorable. Many dropout handling methods have been employed by assuming only one of these dropout mechanisms. In this study, the dropout indicator is improved to take into account both dropout mechanisms. In this two-stage approach, a selection model is combined with an imputation method for dropout process in a longitudinal study with two time points. Simulation studies in a variety of situations are conducted to evaluate this approach in estimating the mean of the response variable at the second time point. This parameter is estimated by using maximum likelihood method. The results of the simulation studies indicate the superiority of the proposed method to the existing ones in estimating the mean of the variable with dropouts. In addition, this method is performed on a methadone dataset of 161 patients admitted to an Iranian clinic to estimate the final methadone dose.

  20. Auditory sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: a longitudinal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanics, Gabor; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Szucs, Denes; Goswami, Usha

    2011-08-01

    The core difficulty in developmental dyslexia across languages is a "phonological deficit", a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the sound structure of words. Recent data across languages suggest that this phonological deficit arises in part from inefficient auditory processing of the rate of change of the amplitude envelope at syllable onset (inefficient sensory processing of rise time). Rise time is a complex percept that also involves changes in duration and perceived intensity. Understanding the neural mechanisms that give rise to the phonological deficit in dyslexia is important for optimising educational interventions. In a three-deviant passive 'oddball' paradigm and a corresponding blocked 'deviant-alone' control condition we recorded ERPs to tones varying in rise time, duration and intensity in children with dyslexia and typically developing children longitudinally. We report here results from test Phases 1 and 2, when participants were aged 8-10 years. We found an MMN to duration, but not to rise time nor intensity deviants, at both time points for both groups. For rise time, duration and intensity we found group effects in both the Oddball and Blocked conditions. There was a slower fronto-central P1 response in the dyslexic group compared to controls. The amplitude of the P1 fronto-centrally to tones with slower rise times and lower intensity was smaller compared to tones with sharper rise times and higher intensity in the Oddball condition, for children with dyslexia only. The latency of this ERP component for all three stimuli was shorter on the right compared to the left hemisphere, only for the dyslexic group in the Blocked condition. Furthermore, we found decreased N1c amplitude to tones with slower rise times compared to tones with sharper rise times for children with dyslexia, only in the Oddball condition. Several other effects of stimulus type, age and laterality were also observed. Our data suggest that neuronal responses

  1. Longitudinal MRI Study of Cortical Development through Early Childhood in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, C.M.; Bloss, C.S.; Barnes, C. Carter; Wideman, G.M.; Carper, R.A.; Akshoomoff, N.; Pierce, K; Hagler, D.; Schork, N; Lord, C; Courchesne, E

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional MRI studies have long hypothesized that the brain in children with autism undergoes an abnormal growth trajectory that includes a period of early overgrowth; however this has never been confirmed by a longitudinal study. We carried out the first longitudinal study of brain growth in toddlers at the time symptoms of autism are becoming clinically apparent utilizing structural MRI scans at multiple time points beginning at 1.5 years up to 5 years of age. We collected 193 scans o...

  2. Re-Examining Exit Exams: New Findings from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Using the nationally representative, cohort-based data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), this study employs multiple regression to examine the effects of exit exams on student achievement and school completion. This study finds that exit exams as a whole do not have substantial effects on student achievement in mathematics,…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

  4. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  5. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  6. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study of Fatigue in Patients With Late-Onset Sequelae of Poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Tersteeg; F.S. Koopman; J.M. Stolwijk-Swüste; A. Beelen; F. Nollet

    2011-01-01

    Tersteeg IM, Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swuste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F, on behalf of the CARPA Study Group. A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011; 92:899-904. Objectives: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in

  7. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…

  8. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten through Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Wayne A.; Miller, Merideth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…

  9. Black-white differences in alcohol use by women: Baltimore survey findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Lillie-Blanton, M; MacKenzie, E; Anthony, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Although black women suffer disproportionately from alcohol-related illnesses and causes of death, little is known about the extent to which poorer outcomes are a function of differences in drinking, the use of health services, or some combination of these factors. This study, using interview data obtained in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area household survey, compares racial differences in alcohol use and abuse among a sample of 2,100 women. After controlling for differences in soci...

  10. Neighborhood Effects on Birthweight: An Exploration of Psychosocial and Behavioral Pathways in Baltimore, 1995–1996

    OpenAIRE

    Schempf, Ashley; Strobino, Donna; O’Campo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been proposed to influence birth outcomes through psychosocial and behavioral pathways, yet empirical evidence is lacking. Using data from an urban, low-income sample, this study examined the impact of the neighborhood environment on birthweight and evaluated mediation by psychosocial and behavioral factors. The sample included 726 women who delivered a live birth at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland USA between 1995 and 1996. Census tract data we...

  11. Longitudinal strain from velocity encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiberg Einar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional myocardial function is typically evaluated by visual assessment by experienced users, or by methods requiring substantial post processing time. Visual assessment is subjective and not quantitative. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate a simple method to derive quantitative measures of regional wall function from velocity encoded Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR, and provide associated normal values for longitudinal strain. Method Both fast field echo (FFE and turbo field echo (TFE velocity encoded CMR images were acquired in three long axis planes in 36 healthy volunteers (13 women, 23 men, age 35±12 years. Strain was also quantified in 10 patients within one week after myocardial infarction. The user manually delineated myocardium in one time frame and strain was calculated as the myocardium was tracked throughout the cardiac cycle using an optimization formulation and mechanical a priori assumptions. A phantom experiment was performed to validate the method with optical tracking of deformation as an independent gold standard. Results There was an excellent agreement between longitudinal strain measured by optical tracking and longitudinal strain measured with TFE velocity encoding. Difference between the two methods was 0.0025 ± 0.085 (ns. Mean global longitudinal strain in the 36 healthy volunteers was −0.18 ± 0.10 (TFE imaging. Intra-observer variability for all segments was 0.00 ± 0.06. Inter-observer variability was −0.02 ± 0.07 (TFE imaging. The intra-observer variability for radial strain was high limiting the applicability of radial strain. Mean longitudinal strain in patients was significantly lower (−0.15± 0.12 compared to healthy volunteers (p Conclusion In conclusion, we have developed and validated a robust and clinically applicable technique that can quantify longitudinal strain and regional myocardial wall function and present the associated normal values

  12. Lara Crofts Daughters? A Longitudinal Study on Female Preadolescents’ Computer Game Play and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Oppl, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study addresses the question about the direction of effects: Does playing (violent) electronic games increase aggressive behavior in girls over time or is it aggressive girls who increasingly seek out (and play) (violent) electronic games? This question was investigated within a longitudinal field study on children (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen = KUHL) in Berlin (Germany). The longitudinal sample of the current study included N = 169 girls who attended in the begin...

  13. Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Koeth, T. W.

    2016-05-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas as they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. The longitudinal physics, for a long beam, can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past five years on the University of Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena over time scales of thousands of plasma periods, illustrating good agreement with simulations.

  14. Monitoring the Growth Dynamics of Somatic Traits Based on a Semi-longitudinal Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlak, P.; Bláha, P.; Brabec, Marek; Vignerová, J.; Janoušek, S.; Riedlová, J.; Stříbrná, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 144-158. ISSN 0018-442X Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semi-longitudinal study * anthropomenty * linear mixed effects model * study design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2011

  15. Peer Contagion of Depressogenic Attributional Styles among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elizabeth A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their friend's depressive symptoms and depressogenic attributional style. Participants included 398 adolescents in grades six through eight at the outset of the study. Adolescents completed peer nominations to identify reciprocated and unreciprocated best friendships as well as…

  16. Making Meaning of Constructivism: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of historical content knowledge and classroom control were major barriers for the…

  17. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  18. Learning Styles and Motivational Styles in Different Academic Contexts: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Rasit; Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    In this study, individual differences among the first year undergraduate students' learning styles and motivational styles were examined in two different academic contexts. Changes in students' learning styles and motivational styles were also investigated through a longitudinal design over one academic year. The results of this study showed that…

  19. Brain structure in bipolar disorder : A longitudinal neuroimaging study in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsman, F

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal twin study, the goal was to ascertain the extent to which BD shows abnormalities in subcortical and cortical brain regions at baseline and over time. Baseline assessments in this study revealed that BD was associated with smaller volumes of the thalamus, putamen and nucleus accu

  20. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  1. Analysis of Apprenticeship Training from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert F.; And Others

    A study investigated effects of on-the-job or "hands-on" vocational training relative to standard classroom vocational instruction on subsequent employment, earnings, wages, and job satisfaction. The data used were from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and five follow-up surveys of this population. An analysis of…

  2. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  3. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  4. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  5. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  7. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  8. Longitudinal Associations between Externalizing Behavior and Dysfunctional Eating Attitudes and Behaviors: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; von Ranson, Kristin M.; Iacono, William G.; Succop, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  10. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  11. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  12. LIFESPAN: A Tool for the Computer-Aided Design of Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M Brandmaier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010, we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power for detecting hypothesized effects, and delineates tradeoff relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner that implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared towards the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model.

  13. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  14. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  16. Longitudinal MRI study of cortical thickness, perfusion, and metabolite levels in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järnum, Hanna; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Steffensen, Elena G.;

    2011-01-01

    disorder (MDD) display morphologic, functional, and metabolic brain abnormalities in limbic-cortical regions at a baseline magnetic resonance (MR) scan and whether these changes are normalized in MDD patients in remission at a follow-up scan. Method:  A longitudinal 3.0-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging......Järnum H, Eskildsen SF, Steffensen EG, Lundbye-Christensen S, Simonsen CW, Thomsen IS, Fründ E-T, Théberge J, Larsson E-M. Longitudinal MRI study of cortical thickness, perfusion, and metabolite levels in major depressive disorder. Objective:  To determine whether patients with major depressive...

  17. Simulation study of the oscillatory longitudinal motion of an airplane at the stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Hybrid simulation of the longitudinal motion of a straight-wing airplane at the stall was studied to investigate the effect of hysteresis in the development of lift and pitching moments on the wing as a function of angle of attack on the occurrence of longitudinal oscillations at the stall. Flight data for the simulated airplane and for various other airplanes are shown for the simulated airplane and for comparison. The results show that oscillations similar to those measured in flight may be obtained by incorporating hysteresis in the lift and pitching-moment curves.

  18. The Influence of Place on Weight Gain during Early Childhood: A Population-Based, Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Megan Ann; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S; Taljaard, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of place factors on weight gain in a contemporary cohort of children while also adjusting for early life and individual/family social factors. Participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development comprised the sample for analysis (n = 1,580). A mixed-effects regression analysis was conducted to determine the longitudinal relationship between these place factors and standardized BMI, from age 4 to 10 years. The average ...

  19. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  20. SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren-Nilsson Åsa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of

  1. Comparing Adult Productivity of American Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics Olympians with Terman's Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James Reed; Feng, Annie Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, Terman summarized the results of his longitudinal study of the gifted and compared the "life success" of the 150 most successful men (Group A) with the 150 least successful men (Group C) at the midpoint of their careers (age 30). The objective of this article is to replicate the original Terman work with a modern sample of the most…

  2. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  3. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  4. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  5. Early-stage cervical carcinoma, radical hysterectomy, and sexual function. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Groenvold, Mogens; Klee, Marianne C;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists concerning the impact of radical hysterectomy (RH) alone on the sexual function of patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma. The authors investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after RH. METHODS: The current study was comprise...

  6. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  7. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  8. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  9. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  10. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  11. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  12. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  13. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Udell; T. Sandfort; E. Reitz; H. Bos; M. Dekovic

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  14. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  15. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  16. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  17. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control childre

  18. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  19. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  20. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  1. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  2. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  3. Emotional Intelligence throughout Portuguese Secondary School: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Performance and Self-Report Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…

  4. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, GS

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged re

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  6. Women, Schooling, and Work in Chile: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Farrell, Joseph P.

    1980-01-01

    In comparison to most developing nations, Chile enjoys a relatively high level of female participation in education and the labor force. This article analyzes this phenomenon by drawing data from an ongoing longitudinal study of Chilean youth. It offers some tentative explanations using both current and historical data. (Author/SJL)

  7. Does the Left Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Play a Role in Language? A Brain Stimulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…

  8. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  9. A micromechanical study of porous composites under longitudinal shear and transverse normal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of porous unidirectional composites under transverse normal and longitudinal shear loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The 3D model includes discrete and random distribution of fibers and voids. The micromechanical failure mechanisms are taken into accoun...

  10. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  11. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  12. Why Intensive Interventions Matter: Longitudinal Studies of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities and Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Michael; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe findings from a series of longitudinal studies utilizing a response to intervention framework implemented over 3 years with students in Grades 6 through 8 with reading disabilities and poor reading comprehension. Students were identified based on reading comprehension scores in Grade 5 (n = 1,083) and then randomized to treatment or…

  13. The Gap between Spanish Speakers' Word Reading and Word Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled growth rates, from ages 4.5 to 11, in English and Spanish oral language and word reading skills among 173 Spanish-speaking children from low-income households. Individual growth modeling was employed using scores from standardized measures of word reading, expressive vocabulary, and verbal short-term language…

  14. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  16. Students' Development in Self-Regulated Learning in Postgraduate Professional Education: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Maaike D.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of postgraduate education is to develop students' conceptions and skills necessary for lifelong learning in their profession. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying students' development in self-regulated learning throughout a postgraduate teacher education programme. A longitudinal design with three measurement…

  17. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  19. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  20. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  1. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  2. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  3. Grandfather Effects: A Longitudinal Case Study of the Phonological Acquisition of Intervocalic Consonants in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I present a longitudinal study of a child's (male, aged 3;0-3;4) acquisition of intervocalic consonants characterized within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). At Stage I, the child presents with unusual error patterns, weakening and labial substitution, and shows evidence of phonologically opaque surface forms. These…

  4. Loss of Credit and Its Impact on High School Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Stephen J.; And Others

    For students in most high schools, graduation is predicated on the successful completion of a specified number of courses or credits. In most cases when these students fail they are not retained in grade but become credit deficient. This report is concerned with a longitudinal study of loss of credit among high school students in the St. Paul…

  5. Longitudinal adaptation in language development: a study of typically-developing children and children with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Fein, Deborah;

    ’s previous behavior. In this study, we tested this model of mutual influence in a longitudinal corpus (6 visits over 2 years), consisting of 30 minutes of controlled playful activities between parents and 66 children (33 ASD and 33 matched typically developing (TD), Goodwin et al. 2012). Methods: We first...

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  7. Timing of Mother and Child Depression in a Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined temporal associations of diagnoses in mothers and children in 3-year longitudinal study of unipolar, bipolar, and comparison women and their 8- to 16-year-old children. Found significant temporal association between mother and child diagnoses, especially in unipolar families, and most children who experienced major depressive episode did…

  8. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  9. Dynamics of the connectome in Huntington's disease: A longitudinal diffusion MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F.F. Odish

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates divergent longitudinal changes to the connectome in (pre HD compared to healthy controls. This provides novel insights into structural correlates associated with clinical and cognitive functions in HD and possible compensatory mechanisms at play in preHD.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  11. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  12. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  13. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  14. Exceptional Rule Learning in a Longitudinal Case Study of Williams Syndrome: Acquisition of Past Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…

  15. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  16. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.; Hogben, J. H.; Bishop, D. M. V.

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that specific language impairment (SLI) is caused by an impairment of auditory processing, but it is unclear whether this problem affects temporal processing, frequency discrimination (FD), or both. Furthermore, there are few longitudinal studies in this area, making it hard to establish whether any deficit represents a…

  17. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  18. Conceptualizing the Role of Early Experience: Lessons from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Coffino, Brianna; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw upon data from a prospective, longitudinal study to evaluate the role of typically occurring variations in early experience on development from birth to adulthood. Such an evaluation is complex for both methodological and conceptual reasons. Methodological issues include the need to control for both later experience and potentially…

  19. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts: Examining Multiple Predictors across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan; Carlson, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes data from a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk children to explore multiple predictors of high school dropouts across development. Results reveal association of early home environment, quality of early caregiving, socioeconomic status, IQ, behavior problems, academic achievement, peer relations, and parent involvement with dropping…

  20. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  2. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  3. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the mediat

  4. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  5. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine Use among Juvenile Arrestees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…

  7. Sustaining Continuous Improvement: A Longitudinal and Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Quesada-Pineda

    2013-09-01

    companies, no changes in perception were found during the period of study for any of the factors. For the other two, however, changes were perceived in at least one of the five constructs in the study. Changes were also found across the regions included. By leveraging the quantitative analysis with qualitative data collected through interviews and visits to the case study companies, we were able to explain the changes in perception and single out the best CI management process to sustain CI in the long term.

  8. Intergenerational transmission of parenting: findings from a UK longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Vaishnavee; Domoney, Jill; Aumayer, Katie; Sethna, Vaheshta; Iles, Jane; Hubbard, Isabelle; Giannakakis, Andreas; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Ramchandani, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quality of parenting is associated with a wide range of child and adult outcomes, and there is evidence to suggest that some aspects of parenting show patterns of intergenerational transmission. This study aimed to determine whether such intergenerational transmission occurs in mothers and fathers in a UK birth cohort. Methods: The study sample consisted of 146 mothers and 146 fathers who were recruited from maternity wards in England and followed up for 24 months [‘Generation...

  9. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  10. Reactivity in Rapidly Collected Hygiene and Toilet Spot Check Measurements: A Cautionary Note for Longitudinal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford Jr., John M.

    2015-01-01

    Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hy...

  11. Can Two Tongues Live in Harmony: Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS88) Longitudinal Data on the Maintenance of Home Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Marsh, Herbert W.; Suliman, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine the relationships among first language (not English), maintenance of that home language, English proficiency, and academic achievement. Results do not support speculation that home language proficiency would have persistent negative effects on English and other academic outcomes…

  12. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation of Junior Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedova, Ekaterina; Goryacheva, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The research studies features of self-regulation of schoolchildren in the age of eight to nine and 11 to 12 years. The sample consisting of 30 students (12 boys and 18 girls) has been divided into two groups--students with good and poor school progress. The school results are compared with the results of neuropsychological tests and the level of…

  13. Goal Setting and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong

    2012-01-01

    The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…

  14. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  15. Childhood and adolescence roots of resilience: Brno Longitudinal Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin

    Edmonton: University of Alberta, 2012. s. 327-327. [International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development 2012: biennial meeting. 08.07.2012-12.07.2012, Edmonton] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * childhood * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  16. Historical Note about Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses a study by L. Terman in which results of the two methods can be compared. Both types of comparisons indicated that CMT (Concept Mastery Test) ability improves considerably with age. This multiple checking of several groups each time versus the same groups over time strengthens the conclusion. (Author/CL)

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Applicants for the Superintendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Raymond W.

    This study documents trends in the number and quality of applicants for superintendency over time and the success rate of female applicants throughout the search process. Substantial data indicate a gender bias in selecting superintendents. Data collected in New York in 1999 were compared to 1995 data to determine if the size and quality of the…

  18. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  19. Mastering Inflectional Suffixes: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning Writers' Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Deacon, S. Helene; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining

    2011-01-01

    This study tracked the order in which ten beginning spellers (M age = 5 ; 05; SD = 0.21 years) mastered the correct spellings of common inflectional suffixes in English. Spellings from children's journals from kindergarten and grade 1 were coded. An inflectional suffix was judged to be mastered when children spelled it accurately in 90 percent of…

  20. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  1. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  2. The adolescent outcomes of adoption: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M; Horwood, L J

    1995-05-01

    The childhood history and adolescent adjustment of children placed in adoptive, biological two parent and single parent families were examined in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years. This study suggested that children who entered adoptive families were advantaged throughout childhood in a number of areas including childhood experiences, standards of health care, family material conditions, family stability and mother/child interaction. However, the environmental advantages experienced by children who entered adoptive families were not directly reflected in the pattern of adolescent adjustment of this group. In particular, children placed in adoptive families had rates of externalising behaviours (including conduct disorders, juvenile offending and substance use behaviours) that were significantly higher than children reared in biological two parent families but somewhat lower than those of children who entered single parent families at birth. PMID:7650085

  3. Recovery from adolescent onset anorexia nervosa : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric illness with peak onset in ages 14-17. Most cases recover within a few years, but the illness can have a fatal outcome or long duration. Multifactor causes of anorexia nervosa include genetics, personality, family, and socio-cultural factors. This study measures mortality, recovery from anorexia nervosa, and psychosocial outcome of patients with adolescent onset anorexia nervosa that were treated in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in northern Sweden from 1980...

  4. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Perko-MÀkelÀ, PÀivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; HÀnninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conven...

  5. Social support and sleep : Longitudinal relationships from the WOLF study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordin, Maria; Westerholm, Peter; Alfredsson, Lars; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between two social support dimensions (network and emotional support) and sleep quality and between two social support sources (at and outside work) and sleep quality. Methods: The three-wave prospective Work Lipids and Fibrinogen (WOLF) study from Northern Sweden was used including 2420 participants who had filled out a questionnaire on working life, life style and health. Sleep quality was assessed by the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ). Structure a...

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and la...

  7. Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. Objectives To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Methods Participants were ...

  8. Multigene interactions and the prediction of depression in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roetker, Nicholas S.; Yonker, James A.; Lee, Chee; Chang, Vicky; Basson, Jacob J; Roan, Carol L.; Hauser, Taissa S; Hauser, Robert M.; Atwood, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Single genetic loci offer little predictive power for the identification of depression. This study examined whether an analysis of gene–gene (G × G) interactions of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with depression and age-related diseases would identify significant interactions with increased predictive power for depression. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A survey of participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Participants A total of...

  9. Trajectories of psychological distress and Chinese patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wai-Yee; 李蔚宜

    2014-01-01

    Substantial studies have investigated homogeneity of psychological distress level among cancer patients by using cross-sectional and longitudinal study design. Nonetheless, as proposed by Bonnano (2004), heterogeneity characteristics of psychological distress following stressful event could not be neglected and he further suggested that the majority of individuals were resilient in response to stressful events. To test this postulation, recent studies employed growth mixture modelling method ...

  10. Modeling the Distribution of New MRI Cortical Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis Longitudinal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Sormani; Massimiliano Calabrese; Alessio Signori; Antonio Giorgio; Paolo Gallo; Nicola De Stefano

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown the relevance of the cerebral grey matter involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS). The number of new cortical lesions (CLs), detected by specific MRI sequences, has the potential to become a new research outcome in longitudinal MS studies. Aim of this study is to define the statistical model better describing the distribution of new CLs developed over 12 and 24 months in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: Four different models were tested (...

  11. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachel M.; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study ‘Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?’ follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high...

  12. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant decreases for boys during early adolescen...

  13. The Hordaland Womens's Cohort. A longitudinal study on urinary incontinence in middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanlu, David

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent problem among middle-aged women, and many epidemiological studies have investigated this problem. Most of these studies are cross-sectional and only few longitudinal studies have been conducted. Thus, the knowledge about incidence, remission and natural history of UI is scarce. The aim of that present dissertation was to answer major epidemiological questions about incidence, progress and remission of UI in middle-aged women.The Hordalan...

  14. Persistent Neck and Shoulder Pains among Computer Office Workers: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Sadeghian; Mehdi Raei; Mohammad Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Sadeghian F, Raei M, Amiri M. Persistent Neck and Shoulder Pains among Computer Office Workers: A Longitudinal Study. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2):33-40. Background & Aims of the Study: In developing countries, with increasing use of computer systems, millions of computer workers are at high risk of neck and shoulder pains. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between work-related physical and psychosocial factors and persistent neck and shoulder pa...

  15. The physician's self-evaluation of the consultation and patient outcome: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlén, Gerd Carlsson; Gunnarsson, Ronny K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study whether the physician's evaluation of the consultation correlates to patient outcome one month later concerning symptom relief, sick leave, and drug compliance as perceived by the patient. The study also investigated whether the patient's evaluation of the consultation correlated to patient outcome. Design. A longitudinal study using questionnaires. Setting. A county in south-western Sweden. Subjects. Forty-six physicians and 316 primary care patients aged 16 years or more...

  16. Malignancies in Swedish persons with haemophilia: a longitudinal registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdahl, Susanna; Henriksson, Karin M; Baghaei, Fariba; Holmström, Margareta; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, over time, the incidence of and mortality due to malignant diseases among persons with haemophilia, compared to matched controls. Persons with haemophilia A or B were enrolled via registries at each haemophilia centre, as well as from the National Patient Registry, and were compared to five sex and age-matched controls per patient. Data from the national Cancer Registry were linked to the study participants. A total of 1431 persons with haemophilia and 7150 matched controls were enrolled. Between the years 1972 and 2008, 164 malignancies were reported. The most common type of cancer among patients was prostate cancer, followed by haematologic malignancies, including lymphoma and leukaemia, which were significantly more frequent in patients [n = 35 (2.4%) vs. n = 60 (0.8%); P < 0.001]. Malignancies in bladder and other urinary organs were also significantly different [n = 21 (1.5%) vs. n = 46 (0.6%); P < 0.01]. The overall incidence rate ratio of malignancies per 1000 person-years compared to the controls was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.6]. In subgroup analysis, the corresponding incidence rate ratios per 1000 person-years for persons with severe haemophilia was 1.7 (95% CI 0.9, 3.1) and that for mild/moderate haemophilia 1.1 (95% CI 0.8, 1.5). Swedish persons with haemophilia had a significantly higher incidence of malignant diseases than controls. These were primarily haematologic malignancies and cancer in urinary organs, and the difference independent of any co-infections with HIV and/or viral hepatitis. The findings indicate the importance of further studies and close follow-up of malignancies in persons with haemophilia. PMID:26974329

  17. Longitudinal Analyses of Early Lesions by Fluorescence: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Zandoná, A.; Ando, M.; Gomez, G.F.; Garcia-Corretjer, M.; Eckert, G.J.; Santiago, E; Katz, B P; Zero, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous caries experience correlates to future caries risk; thus, early identification of lesions has importance for risk assessment and management. In this study, we aimed to determine if Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) parameters—area (A [mm2]), fluorescence loss (∆F [%]), and ∆Q [%×mm2]—obtained by image analyses can predict lesion progression. We secured consent from 565 children (from 5-13 years old) and their parents/guardians and examined them at baseline and regular int...

  18. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  19. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  20. Implant-supported overdentures: a longitudinal prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergendal, T; Engquist, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical function and long-term prognosis of overdentures retained by a small number of implants in the maxilla and mandible using one of two different attachment systems. Included in the study were all patients referred to specialty clinics in Jönköping and Linköping, Sweden, during the treatment period who needed an overdenture and could be provided with a minimum number of two bilaterally-placed implants. Excluded were patients with bone-grafted jaws, irradiated cancer patients, heavy bruxers, and patients who had lost a fixed prosthesis because of implant losses. The patients were randomly assigned to receive one retentive system, either a round 2-mm-diameter bar with clips or ball attachments (Nobel Biocare). Eighteen overdentures were placed in maxillae and 32 in mandibles, supported by a total of 115 Brånemark implants. Of the implants placed, 86.1% were continuously osseointegrated. The cumulative implant survival rates after 7 years of loading were 75.4% in the maxillae and 100% in the mandibles. There was no difference in implant survival rate between the attachment systems. Patients with implant losses were characterized by severely resorbed maxillary ridges and inferior bone quality, together with unfavorable loading circumstances such as short implants combined with long leverages. Complications and prosthetic adjustments were mostly resolved early and easily. PMID:9581412

  1. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  2. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises. PMID:18725710

  3. Hemimegalencephaly with tuberous sclerosis: a longitudinal imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare cerebral malformation characterized by asymmetry of the hemispheres and cortical dysplasias. We report clinical and imaging findings in a child with hemimegalencephaly involving the right cerebral hemisphere with associated manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex. Gross abnormal myelination pattern and gyral abnormalities were seen in the enlarged hemisphere. Subsequent scans showed atrophy of the frontoparietal region in the enlarged hemisphere and normal growth of the opposite hemisphere exceeding the size of the abnormal hemisphere in the frontoparietal region. A few white-matter lesions that were seen in the normal hemisphere on neonatal scan were difficult to appreciate on subsequent MR studies. The white-matter lesions were better seen in the neonatal period, whereas cortical tubers were better detected at a later age. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Estudo psicológico longitudinal na distrofia miotônica Longitudinal psychologie study in myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Duarte Wigg

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo longitudinal das alterações cognitivas de 12 casos de distrofia miotônica comparando os resultados de dois exames com intervalo de tempo entre eles, pois em uma primeira avaliação detectaram-se alterações vísuo-espaciais e construtivas que poderiam evoluir ou não com o passar do tempo. Foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos de medidas psicológicas: matrizes progressivas de Raven (escala especial forma caderno para as crianças, adolescentes e adultos com dificuldades cognitivas graves e escala geral para adolescentes e adultos sem dificuldades cognitivas graves, Wechsler (escala para crianças, subtestes semelhanças e números, cubos de Kohs e Piaget-Head. A seleção dos testes e respectivas escalas e formas teve como referencial as entrevistas psicológicas realizadas caso a caso. Estes instrumentos com respectivos resultados foram comparados em cada caso através de duas avaliações, com um intervalo de aproximadamente três anos e meio entre a primeira e a segunda avaliações de cada teste. Quanto ao desempenho nos testes, verificamos: (a melhor desempenho estatisticamente significante na segunda avaliação pelo teste dos Cubos de Kohs, porém tanto o primeiro quanto o segundo exame denotaram desempenhos bastante insuficientes; (b leve queda do desempenho no teste de Head 1-3; (c leve melhora nos demais testes.The authors studied in two occasions a group of 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy in a mean interval of three years and a half between the examinations. The neuro - psychological battery included the following tests: Raven's progressive matrices (coloured and general scales , Wechsler children intelligence scale (WISC, Kohs' blocks and Piaget-Head. 50% of the patients had better scores on the second examination on RCPM, 81.89% on WISC-digit span, 63.67% on WISC-numbers, 44.44% on Piaget-Head 2 and 60% on Kohs' blocks. However, on Piaget-Head 1-3, the majority had worse results (87.56% with

  5. A longitudinal study of gene expression in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunteers. Here we defined a normal range of gene expression over 6 months in the blood of four cohorts of healthy men and women who were stratified by age (22–55 years and > 55 years and gender. Methods Eleven immunomodulatory genes likely to play important roles in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and infection in addition to four genes typically used as reference genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, as well as the full genome as represented by Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Results Gene expression levels as assessed by qRT-PCR and microarray were relatively stable over time with ~2% of genes as measured by microarray showing intra-subject differences over time periods longer than one month. Fifteen genes varied by gender. The eleven genes examined by qRT-PCR remained within a limited dynamic range for all individuals. Specifically, for the seven most stably expressed genes (CXCL1, HMOX1, IL1RN, IL1B, IL6R, PTGS2, and TNF, 95% of all samples profiled fell within 1.5–2.5 Ct, the equivalent of a 4- to 6-fold dynamic range. Two subjects who experienced severe adverse events of cancer and anemia, had microarray gene expression profiles that were distinct from normal while subjects who experienced an infection had only slightly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusion This study defines the range and variability of gene expression in healthy men and women over a six-month period. These parameters can be used to estimate the number of subjects needed to observe significant differences from normal gene expression in clinical studies. A set of genes that varied by gender was also identified as were a set of genes with elevated

  6. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  7. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  8. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks. PMID:25851609

  9. Hippocampal abnormalities after prolonged febrile convulsion: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rod C; King, Martin D; Gadian, David G; Neville, Brian G R; Connelly, Alan

    2003-11-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common lesion in patients who require epilepsy surgery, and approximately 50% of patients with MTS have a history of prolonged febrile convulsion (PFC) in childhood. The latter led to the hypothesis that convulsive status epilepticus, including PFC, can cause MTS. Our recently published data on children investigated within 5 days of a PFC showed that children investigated by MRI within 48 h of a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and prolongation of T2 relaxation time. Patients investigated >48 h from a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and normal T2 relaxation time. These data are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema that is resolving within 5 days of a PFC, but do not exclude the possibility of a pre-existing hippocampal lesion. Fourteen children from the original study had follow-up investigations carried out 4-8 months after the acute investigations. Of the 14 patients, four have had further seizures. Two had short febrile convulsions, one had PFC and one had non-febrile seizures. There was a significant reduction in hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation time between the first and second investigations, and there is now no difference in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time in patients compared with a control population. Moreover, there is a significant increase in hippocampal volume asymmetry in patients at follow-up when compared with initial data. Five out of 14 patients had asymmetry outside the 95th percentile for control subjects and, of these, three had one hippocampal volume outside the lower 95% prediction limit for control subjects. A reduction in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time, into or below the normal range between the first and second scans, indicates that the earlier findings are temporary and are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema as the abnormality in the initial investigations. The change in hippocampal symmetry in the patient group is consistent with injury and neuronal loss

  10. Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred

    2012-01-01

    Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate ...

  11. Phonological Awareness Program: A longitudinal study from Preschool to 4th Grade

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Inês; Pocinho Margarida; Pereira Alexandra; Pimenta Antónia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of phonological awareness training program in preschool performance of 256 children in Funchal, Portugal. This is a longitudinal study from preschool (2005) to 4th grade (2011). It has an experimental design. The sample includes an Experimental Group (132 children) and a Control group (124 children). We pretend to answer the following research question: To what degree does training children in phonological awareness as early as preschool have short-term ...

  12. Organizational Commitment, Psychological Contract Fulfillment and Job Performance: A Longitudinal Quanti-qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Gomes Maia; Antonio Virgilio Bittencourt Bastos

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study are to contribute to the understanding of the development of organizational commitment and to explore the relations among psychological contract fulfillment, organizational commitment, and job performance. This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal quanti-qualitative study conducted with newcomers over three years. We identified four trajectories of commitment development: Learning to Love, High Match, Honeymoon Hangover and Learning to Hate. The las...

  13. PATTERN RECOGNITION OF LONGITUDINAL TRIAL DATA WITH NONIGNORABLE MISSINGNESS: AN EMPIRICAL CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    HUA FANG; KIMBERLY ANDREWS ESPY; Rizzo, Maria L.; CHRISTIAN STOPP; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Stroup, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for identifying meaningful growth patterns of longitudinal trial data with both nonignorable intermittent and drop-out missingness are rare. In this study, a combined approach with statistical and data mining techniques is utilized to address the nonignorable missing data issue in growth pattern recognition. First, a parallel mixture model is proposed to model the nonignorable missing information from a real-world patient-oriented study and concurrently to estimate the growth trajecto...

  14. Impact of mixed survey modes on physical activity and fruit/ vegetable consumption : a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W.; Wong, Kristin T.; Yoda, Lisa U.; McCurdy, Dana K.; Paxton, Raheem; Horwath, Caroline C.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2009-01-01

    "It is recommended that researchers who use mixed modal methods for data collection compare their impact on outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fruit/ vegetable consumption behaviors of a multiethnic sample of adults, comparing participants who continued a telephone survey and those who transitioned from a telephone to a web-based survey for a follow-up data collection point. This longitudinal study used a random sample of 700 Hawaii residents ...

  15. Prejudice against and discrimination of asylum seekers: Their antecedents and consequences in a longitudinal field study

    OpenAIRE

    Geschke, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Prejudice towards and discrimination of migrants are serious problems in our modern, globalised world. In the present doctoral thesis it was studied how negative attitudes of citizens towards asylum seekers relate to contact experiences, feelings of threat and acculturation orientations. A longitudinal field study with two measurement points was conducted with the German inhabitants (N = 70) of a neighbourhood where an asylum seekers refuge was soon to be opened. Directly before and six month...

  16. Managing the evolution of coopetition dynamics : a longitudinal case study on the french grain merchants industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hannachi, Mourad; Coleno, Francois-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The coopetition literature argues that coopetition is a dynamic relation that evolves over time but there is a gap when it comes to the understanding of this evolution. The aim of this paper is to investigate, via longitudinal cases studies, the evolution of coopetition relationships and its management at the inter-organizational level. Through multiple cases studies in the same industry (the French grain merchants industry), we reveal the existence of two differing states of the processes...

  17. Diffusion of a collaborative care model in primary care: a longitudinal qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel Isabelle; Ghadi Veronique; De Stampa Matthieu; Routelous Christelle; Bergman Howard; Ankri Joel; Lapointe Liette

    2013-01-01

    Background Although collaborative team models (CTM) improve care processes and health outcomes, their diffusion poses challenges related to difficulties in securing their adoption by primary care clinicians (PCPs). The objectives of this study are to understand: (1) how the perceived characteristics of a CTM influenced clinicians' decision to adopt -or not- the model; and (2) the model's diffusion process. Methods We conducted a longitudinal case study based on the Diffusion of Innovations Th...

  18. Can insomnia in pregnancy predict postpartum depression? A longitudinal, population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Dørheim, Signe K.; Bjørn Bjorvatn; Malin Eberhard-Gran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insomnia and depression are strongly interrelated. This study aimed to describe changes in sleep across childbirth, and to evaluate whether insomnia in pregnancy is a predictor of postpartum depression. Methods: A longitudinal, population-based study was conducted among perinatal women giving birth at Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Women received questionnaires in weeks 17 and 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. This paper presents data from 2,088 of 4,662 women ...

  19. Clustering of serotypes in a longitudinal study of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in three day care centres

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen Antti; Syrjänen Ritva; Hoti Fabian; Leino Tuija; Auranen Kari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) causes a wide range of clinical manifestations that together constitute a major burden of disease worldwide. The main route of pneumococcal transmission is through asymptomatic colonisation of the nasopharynx. Studies of transmission are currently of general interest because of the impact of the new conjugate-polysaccharide vaccines on nasopharyngeal colonisation (carriage). Here we report the first longitudinal study of pneumococcal...

  20. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Beard John R; Galea Sandro; Vlahov David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a...

  1. Comparisons of Prediction Models of Quality of Life after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Hon-Yi; Lee, Hao-Hsien; Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Chieh-Fan; Lee, King-Teh; Chiu, Chong-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) outcome have used longitudinal data for more than two years. Moreover, no studies have considered group differences in factors other than outcome such as age and nonsurgical treatment. Additionally, almost all published articles agree that the essential issue of the internal validity (reproducibility) of the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR) and multiple linear regression...

  2. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne eKristen-Antonow; Beate eSodian; Hannah ePerst; Maria eLicata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR) and delayed self recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular...

  3. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regul...

  4. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Maritha E

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading pr...

  5. Change in students' perception of profession during nursing education in Turkey: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız Denat; Gülşah Gürol Arslan; Muazzez Şahbaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Progress in the nursing is only possible with nursing students who graduate with sufficient information and comprehension about their professions. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate nursing students’ professional perceptions during 4-year undergraduate nursing program and to determine whether changes occur in this time frame Desing and Methods: This study was designed as a longitudinal cohort survey research. Data were collected over a four -year period. The stu...

  6. The academic career : a longitudinal study of motivational and pscyhosocial predictors of persistence and performance

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether motivational and psychosocial factors could predict persistence and performance longitudinally. Questionnaire data from the HELT (Helse- og trivsel blant studenter ved Universitetet i Oslo) study, a survey of students health and well-being at the University of Oslo in 2003, was used to predict the academic careers of 646 students over the course of two and a half years (from 2003 to 2005). Logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investig...

  7. Social inequalities in antidepressant treatment and mortality: a longitudinal register study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M; Gunnell, D.; D.A. Lawlor; Davey Smith, G.; Pentti, J.; Virtanen, M; Elovainio, M; Klaukka, T; Vahtera, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an increased prevalence of depression among people of low socio-economic position, it remains unclear whether their treatment with antidepressants appropriately matches their increased need compared with people from more affluent backgrounds. This study examined socio-economic differences in antidepressant prescriptions and mortality related to depressive disorders. METHOD: A longitudinal register study of 17947 male and 47458 female local government employees with linked ...

  8. A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Hypermedia on Learning Dimensions, Culture and Teaching Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yuk Wing; Sudweeks, Fay

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have found the effectiveness of hypermedia systems as learning tools heavily depend on their compatibility with the cognitive processes by which students perceive, understand and learn from complex information sources. Hence, a learner’s cognitive style plays a significant role in determining how much is learned from a hypermedia learning system. A longitudinal study of Australian and Malaysian students was conducted over two semesters in 2008. Five types of predictor varia...

  9. Acting up and acting out: encountering children in a longitudinal study of mothering

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Rachel; Hadfield, Lucy; Kehily, Mary Jane; Sharpe, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Despite a proliferation of research exploring children’s lives and relationships over the past two decades, there is a notable absence of research which explores family relationships from the perspective of very young children (age 0-3). This paper reports on data emerging from a study of new mothering with a particular focus on very young children’s active engagement with wider family narratives. The study employs a qualitative longitudinal design, and women have been followed from pregnancy...

  10. International students’ friendship network evolving course at the University of Oslo : a quasi-longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to trace out the development process of international students’ friendship networks in Norway and identify the main factors contributing to this development. This study distinguishes between good friends and close friends within one’s friendship network. A qualitative research strategy was adopted. Data was collected by use of a quasi-longitudinal design and by use of the role-model approach and the affective approach. Twelve international students (six from each ...

  11. Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the firs...

  12. The participation of women in urban regeneration : a longitudinal study in Sheffield

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Zoe Brigitte Sophie

    1999-01-01

    The growing trend towards community based urban regeneration schemes has prompted a number of studies examining the participation of local residents within these initiatives. This thesis is one such study, but takes a different perspective from most others, in that it specifically examines the participation of women in urban regeneration. The research adopts a longitudinal, qualitative approach in order to examine the level and depth of participation over a twelve month period...

  13. Venous Thromboembolism following Elective Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Longitudinal Prospective Study in 1254 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Souto Valente; Lauro Aita Carvalho; Rafaela Koehler Zanella; Sibelie Valente

    2014-01-01

    Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disorder with short-term mortality and long-term morbidity. Healthy patients submitted to elective aesthetic plastic surgeries (EAPS) have risk factors to develop VTE not well established yet. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors for VTE in these patients. Methods. Longitudinal, prospective (minimum follow-up of 3 months), observational study. Comprehensive information on patient characteristics and surgeries p...

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E.; Adams, Swann A; Hébert, James R; Hardin, James W.; Timothy S Church; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men aged 20−88 years and who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) during 1974−2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974−2003...

  15. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  16. Sugar and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity changes: National longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Laverty, Anthony A; Magee, Lucia; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Saxena, Sonia; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background In response to increasing policy action and public concern about the negative health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), there is increased promotion of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). These have been linked with obesity and diabetes in recent experimental work. This study examined associations between SSB and ASB consumption and changes in adiposity in a nationally representative sample of UK children. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of 13,170 children ...

  17. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard Egil; Heir Trond

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify whic...

  18. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd (NCT01062607 aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales, adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio, quality of life (EQ-5D scale, healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale

  19. Spousal Interrelations in Happiness in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Considerable Similarities in Levels and Change over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Gerstorf, Denis; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Development does not take place in isolation and is often interrelated with close others such as marital partners. To examine interrelations in spousal happiness across midlife and old age, we used 35-year longitudinal data from both members of 178 married couples in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Latent growth curve models revealed sizeable…

  20. [Treatment of cognitive impairments in oncology: a review of longitudinal controlled studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghgraef, Cindy; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Reynaert, Christine; Razavi, Darius

    2014-09-01

    Various studies highlight cognitive impairments in cancer patients. This paper proposes a review of longitudinal controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of interventions aiming to reduce these cognitive impairments. Longitudinal controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of interventions aiming to reduce cognitive impairments in adult cancer patients and published between 1993 and 2013 were identified, with the exception of studies that implied patients suffering from CNS tumor or metastasis. Pharmacological interventions (n = 11) suggested the positive impact of modafinil on memory and executive functions. Non-pharmacological interventions (n = 10) suggested the positive impact of cognitive revalidation and stimulation programs, psycho-education and meditation on several memory, attentional and executive objective as well as subjective functions. Non-pharmacological interventions show more significant cognitive benefits than pharmacological interventions. Some longitudinal controlled studies support the usefulness of interventions aiming to reduce cognitive impairments in cancer patients. Further studies should evaluate the effectiveness of programs combining technics aiming to reduce cognitive impairments and psychotherapeutic technics aiming to support patients' coping with illness. PMID:25062497

  1. SOURCE EMISSION TESTS AT THE BALTIMORE DEMONSTRATION PYROLYSIS FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRW was retained by EPA/IERL Cincinnati in May of 1976 to conduct source emission tests at a solid waste treatment plant in Baltimore, Maryland. The plant is designed to recover low-grade fossil fuel from non-toxic solid waste by the use of a process known as pyrolysis. When plan...

  2. Civic Engagement and Gentrification Issues in Metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durington, Matthew; Maddox, Camee; Ruhf, Adrienne; Gass, Shana; Schwermer, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the fall of 2006 a number of Towson University students concentrating in the discipline of anthropology have been part of a civic engagement and service-learning project focusing on an historic African-American community in Baltimore. While the focus of the research project concentrates on the processes of gentrification, individual student…

  3. Investigating stakeholders' perceptions of the link between high STD rates and the current Baltimore City Public Schools' sex education curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Shenell L. T.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  4. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is...

  5. Practice and drop-out effects during a 17-year longitudinal study of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Diggle, Peter; Holland, Fiona; McInnes, Lynn

    2004-03-01

    Interpretations of longitudinal studies of cognitive aging are misleading unless effects of practice and selective drop-out are considered. A random effects model taking practice and drop-out into account analyzed data from four successive presentations of each of two intelligence tests, two vocabulary tests, and two verbal memory tests during a 17-year longitudinal study of 5,899 community residents whose ages ranged from 49 to 92 years. On intelligence tests, substantial practice effects counteracted true declines observed over 3 to 5 years of aging and remained significant even with intervals of 7 years between successive assessments. Adjustment for practice and drop-out revealed accelerating declines in fluid intelligence and cumulative learning, linear declines in verbal free recall, and no substantial change in vocabulary. Socioeconomic status and basal levels of general fluid ability did not affect rates of decline. After further adjustment for demographics, variability between individuals was seen to increase as the sample aged. PMID:15014091

  6. Longitudinal Beam Dynamics Studies at CTF3 And Pulse Compressor Controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, S H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the CLIC Test Facility CTF3, built at CERN by an international collaboration, is to address the main feasibility issues of the CLIC electron-positron linear collider technology by 2010. One key-issue studied at CTF3 is the generation of the very high current drive beam, used in CLIC as the RF power source. It is particularly important to simulate and control the drive beam longitudinal dynamics in the drive beam generation complex, since it directly affects the efficiency and stability of the RF power production process. In this thesis how to use pulse compressors to achieve a high RF power in the drive beam accelerator is discussed. We also describe the ongoing effort in modelling the longitudinal evolution of the CTF3 drive beam and compare the simulations with experimental results. Our study is based on the single bunch simulation.

  7. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritha E. Snyman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading promotion project was responsible for positive changes in the lives of the beneficiaries of the intervention. It especially points to the positive role access to appropriate reading material and prolonged and enthusiastic reading motivation can play in the lives of a developing community with little means.Keywords: reading; reading promotion; reader development; longitudinal

  8. Who Adolescents Trust May Impact Their Health: Findings from Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Marshall, Beth; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-06-01

    This study is one of the first to explore the relevance of trust to the health of adolescents living in a disadvantaged urban setting. The primary objectives were to determine the differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between adolescents who do and do not trust and to examine the associations between trust and health. Data were drawn from the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, which is a cross-sectional global study of adolescents in very low-income urban settings conducted in 2011-2013. This paper focused on 446 adolescents in Baltimore as it was the primary site where trust was explicitly measured. For the main analyses, six health outcomes were examined: (1) self-rated health; (2) violence victimization; (3) binge drinking; (4) marijuana use; (5) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (6) condom use at last sex. Independent variables included sociodemographic variables (age, gender, current school enrolment, perceived relative wealth, and family structure) and two dimensions of trust: community trust (trust in individuals/groups within neighborhood) and institutional trust (trust in authorities). The results show that more than half the sample had no trust in police, and a high proportion had no trust in other types of authority. Among girls, those with higher levels of community trust were less likely to be victimized and involved in binge drinking. Meanwhile, girls with higher levels of institutional trust were more likely to use a condom and less likely to have used marijuana. Among boys, those with higher levels of community trust were more likely to use a condom, while those with higher levels of institutional trust were less likely to use marijuana, but more likely binge drink. Overall, this study highlights the importance of trust for adolescent health. Most surprising were the differences in the associations between boys and girls with regard to the type of trust and specific health outcome that was

  9. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, A. B.; W. B. Schaufeli; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; van Dierendonck, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient relationship, which, in turn, depletes GPs' emotional resources and initiates the burnout syndrome. More specifically, structural equation analyses confirmed that - both at T1 and T2 - lack of reciprocit...

  10. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptoc...

  11. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills – a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Karin eLanderl

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a two-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7;6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of nume...

  12. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    OpenAIRE

    Thurber, Katherine A.; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC c...

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4…

  14. The effects of gaming on working memory, inattention, reading and math : A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöwall, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown both positive and negative effects of gaming on academic and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gaming on development of working memory (WM), inattention, reading and math ability using a longitudinal design. A randomly chosen sample of 335 (168 girls) 6–25 year olds performed tests of visuo-spatial and verbal WM, reading and math ability twice, with a two year interval. Gaming and inattention were assed with questionnaires...

  15. The relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S T; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an el...

  16. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    OpenAIRE

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken p...

  17. Modeling of multivariate longitudinal phenotypes in family genetic studies with Bayesian multiplicity adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lili; Kurowski, Brad G.; He, Hua; Alexander, Eileen S.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Fardo, David W.; Zhang, Xue; Pilipenko, Valentina V; Kottyan, Leah; Martin, Lisa J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies often collect data on multiple traits. Most genetic association analyses, however, consider traits separately and ignore potential correlation among traits, partially because of difficulties in statistical modeling of multivariate outcomes. When multiple traits are measured in a pedigree longitudinally, additional challenges arise because in addition to correlation between traits, a trait is often correlated with its own measures over time and with measurements of other family...

  18. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelli Maria Souza Santos; Manoel Luiz de Cerqueira Neto; Vitor Oliveira Carvalho; Valter Joviniano Santana Filho; Walderi Monteiro da Silva Junior; Amaro Afrânio Araújo Filho; Telma Cristina Fontes Cerqueira; Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods: This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M...

  19. Self-Selection, Earnings, and Out-Migration: A Longitudinal Study of Immigrants to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Amelie F. Constant; Massey, Douglas S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we seek to deepen understanding of out-migration as a social and economic process and to investigate whether cross-sectional earnings assimilation results suffer from selection bias. To model the process of out-migration we conduct a detailed event history analysis of men and women immigrants in Germany. Our 14-year longitudinal study reveals that emigrants are negatively selected with respect to occupational prestige and to stable full time employment. Our results show no selec...

  20. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA; Suzane PAIXÃO-GONÇALVES; Paiva, Saul Martins; Isabela Almeida PORDEUS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried o...

  1. The validity of critical thinking tests for predicting degree performance: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Liam; McGuinness, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the validity of using critical thinking tests to predict final psychology degree marks over and above that already predicted by traditional admission exams (A-levels). Participants were a longitudinal sample of 109 psychology students from a university in the United Kingdom. The outcome measures were: total degree marks; and end of year marks. The predictor measures were: university admission exam results (A-levels); critical thinking test scores (skills & dispositions...

  2. The Relationship Between Early Sexual Debut and Psychosocial Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Dutch Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and externalizing problems at Wave 1 to predict to early transition at Wave 2. However, there was no differential change in these psychosocial factors over time for early initiators of sexual intercou...

  3. A Longitudinal Study of ISP Reactions to Australian Internet Content Regulation Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Sigi Goode

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a longitudinal study which surveys a targeted selection of Australian ISPs to determine both initial and subsequent effects of and attitudes towards the legislation. The paper observes that, initially, ISPs were generally opposed to the legislation, offering stiff opposition to its introduction. The initial results suggested dissatisfaction with the legislation on the part of ISPs, and foreshadowed adverse effects on the online industry. Concerns were also raised that the...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Glorifying Video Games and Behavioral Deviance

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Jay G.; Brunelle, Timothy J.; Prescott, Anna T.; Sargent, James D

    2014-01-01

    Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment, they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcoho...

  5. Grow first, gain fat in the meantime. Longitudinal study of anthropometric changes around menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Ziomkiewicz Anna; Kozieł Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    There is a long dispute among anthropologist over which factor is more important – skeletal maturation or energy accumulation – for menarche occurrence. Here we report results of longitudinal study conducted on the sample of 178 girls followed for the period from 2 years before to 2 years after the age of menarche. Each year during this period anthropometric measures of waist and hip circumference, pelvis breadth, subscapular, triceps and abdominal skinfold thickness were taken to document gi...

  6. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  7. Personality and Eating Disorders: A Longitudinal Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...

  8. Early risk indicators of internalizing problems in late childhood: A 9-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford, J.; Smit, H.F.E.; Van, Lier, G; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods: Standardized assessments of 294 children’s internalizing problems at the age of 2–3 years (parent report), 4–5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years (parent and teacher) were available in addition to risk indicators from the child, family and contextual domain. Results: Low socioeconomic status, family...

  9. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Ro-Ting; Chen Ya-Mei; Chien Lung-Chang; Chan Chang-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the ad...

  10. Open Access Article Processing Charges (OA APC) Longitudinal Study 2015 Preliminary Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Mondésir, Guinsly; Salhab, Jihane; Villamizar, César; Calvé-Genest, Alexis; Desautels, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article documents Open access article processing charges (OA APC) longitudinal study 2015 preliminary dataset available for download from the OA APC dataverse [1]. This dataset was gathered as part of Sustaining the Knowledge Commons (SKC), a research program funded by Canada’s Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. The overall goal of SKC is to advance our collective knowledge about how to transition scholarly publishing from a system dependent on subscriptions and purchase to...

  11. The predictive power of personality traits on insomnia symptoms: a longitudinal study among shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Larsgård, Borgar

    2015-01-01

    Shift work can have adverse effects on employees' health, including symptoms of insomnia. This may cause severe problems both for employee and employer. The personality variables morningness, neuroticism and extraversion, along with some demographic variables (e.g. gender, age) have been found to correlate with insomnia symptoms, but predictive data have been scarce. This study sought to discover whether personality variables could predict insomnia. A hierarchical longitudinal (six months)...

  12. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru

    2015-08-30

    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. PMID:26099658

  13. Longitudinal study of stress, self-care, and professional identity among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Laux, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes the factors associated with the acquisition of a professional identity over the course of prelicensure education among 45 baccalaureate nursing students. At every time point, personal spiritual growth practices and the students' perceptions of their caring abilities predicted sense of fit with the profession. Even as there is a growing emphasis of quality and safety education, caring and spirituality remain central to nurses' professional identities on entry to practice. PMID:24867076

  14. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed. PMID:24813939

  15. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer’s disease: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Torres; Raquel Luiza Santos; Maria Fernanda Barroso de Sousa; José Pedro Simões Neto; Marcela Moreira Lima Nogueira; Tatiana T. Belfort; Rachel Dias; Marcia Cristina Nascimento Dourado

    2015-01-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational...

  16. Work characteristics, personal resources, and employee well-being: A longitudinal study among Finnish firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Airila, Auli

    2015-01-01

    In todayÂŽs work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential. This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoreti...

  17. Anxiety mediates the relationship between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Umair; Ellis, Jason; Barclay, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Individuals with insomnia often report aspects of perfectionism and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Investigation of these factors together has been limited. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the association between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms was mediated by anxiety and depression, concurrently and longitudinally. Methods Seventy-six members from the general-population participated at baseline. Data from 57 participant...

  18. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study: A Collaborative Multisite Approach to Prodromal Schizophrenia Research

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Heinssen, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the rationale, design, and preliminary findings of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), a collaborative, multisite investigation into the earliest phase of psychotic illness. We describe how 8 independently conceived research projects were integrated methodologically, how diagnostic reliability was achieved across sites on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, and how baseline and follow-up data were aggregated for 888 at risk and compariso...

  19. Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Yoon-Hwan; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Chul Gab; Kang, Dongmug; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children’s brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. Methods A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Par...

  20. Cohort Profile: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, A; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Tilling, K; Boyd, A.; J. Golding; Davey Smith, G.; Henderson, J.; Macleod, J; Molloy, L.; Ness, A; Ring, S.; Nelson, S M; D.A. Lawlor

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13 761 women (contributing 13 867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years...

  1. How different an emotional competence profile can be, when we became slim? – longitudinal case study

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    This case study focuses on Emotional Competence (Saarni, 2000; Veiga Branco, 2004, 2007), the concept redefined from the initial Emotional Intelligence (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), here applied, to perceive the behavioral differences when someone lost 43Kg of body weight, without pathology associated. The longitudinal research compares, the behavior profile, before (obese) and after (non obese) a weight loss, through Self-conscience, Self-motivation, Emotions ...

  2. Mobilising community-based research on zoonotic infections: A case study of longitudinal cohorts in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Saylors; Tue Ngo Tri; Toan Tran Khanh; Kiet Bach Tuan; Heiman FL Wertheim; Stephen Baker; Hoa Ngo Thi; Bryant, Juliet E

    2015-01-01

    We initiated the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) research program to better understand the epidemiology of disease transmission at the human–animal interface in Vietnamese rural communities and to integrate One Health approaches to disease surveillance. We established a longitudinal community cohort study of individuals with occupational exposure to animals, which involves concurrent targeted sampling from domestic livestock species and follow-up monitoring of human clinic...

  3. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; Chawla, H S.; Goyal, A.; Gauba, K.; Mohanty, U.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  4. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  5. Interpersonal and Genetic Origins of Adult Attachment Styles: A Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals’ developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attac...

  6. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Michael P. Carey

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heavies...

  7. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso Mikael; Björk Bo-Christer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure t...

  8. Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Central Auditory Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Dahlquist, Martin; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Central auditory function can be studied to monitor the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Our aim was to address this issue in a prospective longitudinal setting. Methods Tests of central hearing function were performed on 70 subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment, and in controls with subjective memory complaints but normal cognition. The time span until follow-up was 1.5 years. Results The dichotic digit free recall tes...

  9. Cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise programs with different intensity: 20 weeks longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip Meghnad Hulke; Phatak, Mrunal S.; Yuganti P Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Context: participation in regular intensive exercise is associated with a modest increase in left ventricular wall thickness and cavity size. The magnitude of improvement depends on frequency, intensity, type, and duration of exercise program. Aims: to determine the effect of sports training on LV morphology and function, lung function, and to know the intensity of the exercise program enough for these changes. Settings and design: this was a longitudinal study (20 weeks duration) done on the...

  10. Prenatal stress and risk of febrile seizures in children: a nationwide longitudinal study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten;

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a...... timing of bereavement. Our data do not suggest any causal link between exposure to prenatal stress and febrile seizures in childhood....

  11. Alcohol use in adolescence : A longitudinal study of its effect on cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Boelema, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol because significant maturation of brain structure and corresponding cognitive control function takes place over the course of adolescence. However, research on this subject has remained inconclusive thus far due to numerous methodological pitfalls. Therefore, there is a need for a large longitudinal study on the precursors and outcomes of alcohol use related to cognitive and behavio...

  12. Longitudinal study of sports injuries in practitioners of aerobic gymnastics competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Abalo Núñez; Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez; Mercedes Vernetta Santana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Aerobic gymnastics, since its membership in the International Gymnastics Federation, has undergone changes in its regulations.Objective:To analyze the injuries found in Spanish aerobic gymnastics athletes during different editions of the Code of Points.Methods:A descriptive, longitudinal and compara-tive study was carried out on the epidemiology of injuries in aerobic gymnastics published during different editions of the Code of Points.Results:It highlights that the numbe...

  13. A longitudinal study of alcohol use and antisocial behaviour in young people

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To examine the direction of causation between young people's antisocial behaviour and alcohol (mis)use in the longer and shorter term, together with their joint effects on alcohol-related trouble. Methods: A longitudinal study (2586 pupils) supplied data, allowing exploration of the causal effects of alcohol (mis)use and antisocial behaviour between ages 11 and 15, using structural equation models of longer and shorter-term relationships and joint-effects models in respect of alcohol-re...

  14. Video Gaming Disorder and Sport and Exercise in Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Henchoz Y.; Studer J.; Deline S.; N'Goran A.A.; Baggio S.; Gmel G.

    2016-01-01

    Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the Game Addiction Scale were used to construct a latent variable represent...

  15. A Protocol for the Longitudinal Study of Psychological Resilience in the Australian Defence Force

    OpenAIRE

    Monique F. Crane; Virginia Lewis; Andrew Cohn; Hodson, Stephanie E.; Ruth Parslow; Bryant, Richard A; Cate Chesney; David Forbes

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades there has been increasing attention directed at the analysis of psychological resilience. The number of modern-day veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan has sparked great interest in identifying mechanisms that can either erode or facilitate psychological resilience. In November 2009, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) in collaboration with the Australian Centre for Post-traumatic Mental Health (ACPMH) launched a longitudinal study of psychological resilience du...

  16. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting fo...

  17. Anxiety disorders in mothers and their children: prospective longitudinal community study

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Andrea; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between DSM-IV anxiety disorders and their clinical characteristics in mothers and anxiety in offspring was examined in 933 mother-child pairs from a longitudinal community study. Offspring of mothers with an anxiety disorder had an elevated risk of developing any anxiety disorder, compared with offspring of mothers with no anxiety disorder. Increased risk of anxiety in the offspring was especially associated with maternal social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder, and w...

  18. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Brakel, Anna; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms...

  19. Does a quality management system improve quality in primary care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design: Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting: Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants: In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes: The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed ...

  20. Does a quality management system improve quality in primary care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quali...

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Decomposition Odour in Soil Using Sorbent Tubes and Solid Phase Microextraction

    OpenAIRE

    Perrault, Katelynn A.; Barbara H. Stuart; Shari L. Forbes

    2014-01-01

    Odour profiling of decomposed remains is important for understanding the mechanisms that cadaver dogs and forensically-relevant insects use to locate decomposed remains. The decomposition odour profile is complex and has been documented in outdoor terrestrial environments. The purpose of this study was to perform longitudinal analysis of the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile in soils associated with decomposed remains across all stages of decomposition. Two VOC collection techniques (so...

  2. Conceptualizing the Role of Early Experience: Lessons from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Coffino, Brianna; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw upon data from a prospective, longitudinal study to evaluate the role of typically occurring variations in early experience on development from birth to adulthood. Such an evaluation is complex for both methodological and conceptual reasons. Methodological issues include the need to control for both later experience and potentially confounding third variables, such as IQ or temperament. Conceptual complexity derives from the fact that the effects of early experience can be both direct...

  3. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth to age 32. Results indicated that supportive parenting during adulthood was predicted by observed maternal sensitivity during the first three years...

  4. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children’s level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms, and a numb...

  5. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: A 3-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, F. E.; Harris, M

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7–8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability wa...

  6. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  7. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B. B.; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  8. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  9. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. PMID:25900399

  10. Towards personalized diagnostics via longitudinal study of the human plasma N-glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, René; Cajic, Samanta; Borowiak, Matthias; Hoffmann, Marcus; Kottler, Robert; Reichl, Udo; Rapp, Erdmann

    2016-08-01

    Facilitated by substantial advances in analytical methods, plasma N-glycans have emerged as potential candidates for biomarkers. In the recent years, several investigations could link aberrant plasma N-glycosylation to numerous diseases. However, due to often limited specificity and sensitivity, only a very limited number of glycan biomarkers were approved by the authorities up to now. The inter-individual heterogeneity of the plasma N-glycomes might mask disease related changes in conventional large cross-sectional cohort studies, with a one-time sampling approach. But, a possible benefit of longitudinal sampling in biomarker discovery could be, that already small changes during disease progression are revealed, by monitoring the plasma N-glycome of individuals over time. To evaluate this, we collected blood plasma samples of five healthy donors over a time period of up to six years (min. 1.5years). The plasma N-glycome was analyzed by xCGE-LIF, to investigate the intra-individual N-glycome variability over time. It is shown, that the plasma N-glycome of an individual is remarkably stable over a period of several years, and that observed small longitudinal changes are independent from seasons, but significantly correlated with lifestyle and environmental factors. Thus, the potential of future longitudinal biomarker discovery studies could be demonstrated, which is a further step towards personalized diagnostics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. PMID:27038647

  11. A Study of the Birth Weight–Obesity Relation Using a Longitudinal Cohort and Sibling and Twin Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    The, Natalie S.; Adair, Linda S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994–2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11–21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. ...

  12. The Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Difficulties and ADHD: Etiologies of Comorbidity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Willcutt, Erik G; Pennington, Bruce F; Olson, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 60% of children with reading difficulties (RD) meet criteria for at least one co-occurring disorder. The most common of these, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), occurs in 20-40% of individuals with RD. Recent studies have suggested that genetic influences are responsible. To assess the genetic etiologies of RD and the comorbidity of RD and two ADHD symptom dimensions -- inattention (IN) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) -- we are conducting the first longitudinal twin study of RD and ADHD. Data from twin pairs in which at least one member of the pair met criteria for proband status for RD at initial assessment, and were reassessed 5 years later, were subjected to DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis. Analyses of reading composite data indicated that over 60% of the proband deficit at initial assessment was due to genetic influences, and that reading deficits at follow-up were due substantially to the same genetic influences. When a bivariate DF model was fitted to reading performance and IN data, genetic influences accounted for 60% of contemporaneous comorbidity and over 60% of the longitudinal relationship. In contrast, analysis of the comorbidity between reading performance and H/I indicated that common genetic influences accounted for only about 20% of the contemporaneous and about 10% of the longitudinal relationships. Results indicate that (1) genetic influences on RD are substantial and highly stable; (2) the comorbidity between RD and IN is due largely to genetic influences, both contemporaneously and longitudinally; and (3) genetic influences contribute significantly less to the comorbidity between RD and H/I. PMID:26537134

  13. Use of Longitudinal Data in Genetic Studies in the Genome-wide Association Studies Era: Summary of Group 14

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Berit; North, Kari E; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Participants analyzed actual and simulated longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study for various metabolic and cardiovascular traits. The genetic information incorporated into these investigations ranged from selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genome-wide association arrays. Genotypes were incorporated using a broad range of methodological approaches including conditional logistic regression, linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, linear growth curve estimatio...

  14. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  15. Diet assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: Development of a food frequency questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present the development of the Food Frequency Questionaire used in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil and analyze how diet exposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil dietary assessment instrument is based on a previously validated Food Frequency Questionaire and the final list of items took into consideration a study done in the six Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil investigation centers. RESULTS: New foods/preparations were included in the Food Frequency Questionaire with their respective portions, totaling 114 items. The perspectives of dietary analysis and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are presented in Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil. CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to cover the regional particularities of the study population.

  16. Receptor modeling for multiple time resolved species: The Baltimore supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulei, David; Hopke, Philip K.; Zhou, Liming; Paatero, Pentti; Park, Seung Shik; Ondov, John M.

    A number of advances have been made toward solving receptor modeling problems using advanced factor analysis methods. Most recently, a factor analysis method has been developed for source apportionment utilizing aerosol compositional data with varying temporal resolution. The data used in that study had time resolutions ranged from 10 min to 1 h. In this work, this expanded model is tested using a data set from the Ponca Street site of the Baltimore supersite with time resolutions ranging from 30 min to 24 h. The nature of this data set implies that traditional eigenvalue-based methods cannot adequately resolve source factors for the atmospheric situation under consideration. Also, valuable temporal information is lost if one averaged or interpolated data in an attempt to produce a data set of the identical time resolution. Each data point has been used in its original time schedule and the source contributions were averaged to correspond to the specific sampling time interval. A weighting coefficient, w24, was incorporated in the modeling equations in order to improve data fitting for the 24-h data in the model. A total of nine sources were resolved: oil-fired power plant (2%), diesel emissions (1%), secondary sulfate (23%), coal-fired power plant (3%), incinerator (9%), steel plant (12%), aged sea salt (1%), secondary nitrate (23%), and spark-ignition emissions (26%). The results showed the very strong influence of the adjacent interstate highways I-95 and I-895 as well as the tunnel toll booths located to the south of the sampling site. Most of the sulfate observed was found to be associated with distant coal-fired power plants situated in the heavily industrialized midwestern parts of the United States. The contribution of the steel plant (<10 miles, 141°SE) to the observed PM concentrations (12%) was also significant.

  17. Middle longitudinal fasciculus delineation within language pathways: A diffusion tensor imaging study in human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolasdechampfleur@orange.fr [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Team “Plasticity of Central Nervous System, Stem Cells and Glial Tumors,” Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1051, Institut of Neurosciences of Montpellier, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier (France); Lima Maldonado, Igor [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Team “Plasticity of Central Nervous System, Stem Cells and Glial Tumors,” Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1051, Institut of Neurosciences of Montpellier, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier (France); Divisão de Neurologia e Epidemiologia (CPPHO), Complexo Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil); Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Machi, Paolo [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); and others

    2013-01-15

    Introduction: The existence in the human brain of the middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF), initially described in the macaque monkey, is supported by diffusion tensor imaging studies. In the present work, we aim (1) to confirm that this fascicle is found constantly in control subjects with the use of DTI techniques and (2) to delineate the MdLF from the other fiber bundles that constitute the language pathways. Materials and methods: Tractography was realized in four right-handed healthy volunteers for the arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and the middle longitudinal fascicle. The fiber tracts were characterized for their size, mean fractional anisotropy (FA), for their length, number of streamlines, and lateralization indices were calculated. Results: The MdLF is found constantly and it is clearly delineated from the other fascicles that constitute the language pathways, especially the ventral pathway. It runs within the superior temporal gyrus white matter from the temporal pole, then it extends caudally in the upper part of the sagittal stratum and the posterior part of the corona radiata, to reach the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus). We found a leftward asymmetry for all fiber tracts when considering the mean FA. Discussion: Using DTI methods, we confirm that the MdLF connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. On the basis of these findings, the role of the MdLF is discussed. Conclusion: The middle longitudinal fasciculus, connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus and its course can be systematically differenciated from those of other fascicles composing both ventral and dorsal routes (IFOF, IFL, AF and UF)

  18. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B.; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the ‘ROOTS study’, and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. Methods We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for ...

  19. Low Back Pain in Athletes Is Associated with General and Sport Specific Risk Factors: A Comprehensive Review of Longitudinal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Moradi; Amir-Hossein Memari; Monir ShayestehFar; Ramin Kordi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine systematically the available evidence on risk factors of low back pain (LBP) in athletes. We performed search without language restriction in PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scopus, and CINAHL. Longitudinal studies that examined possible risk factors of LBP in athletes were included in this systematic review. Based on methodological quality of studies, a best-evidence synthesis was conducted. Seven longitudinal studies were included, four of which had high methodological qua...

  20. Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Schwinger, Catherine; Chhagan, Meera; Mapatano, Mala; Van den Broeck, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthropometrically are rare. Our aim was to address incidence and course of malnutrition among pre-schoolers and to compare patterns and course of clinically and anthropometrically defined malnutrition.Methods: Using a historical, longitudinal study from Bwamanda, DR Congo...

  1. Why Missing Data Matter in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Development: Using the 4-H Study to Understand the Uses of Different Missing Data Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of adolescent development rests on methodologically appropriate collection and interpretation of longitudinal data. While all longitudinal studies of adolescent development involve missing data, the methods to treat missingness that have been recommended most often focus on missing data from cross-sectional studies. The problems of…

  2. Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition. PMID:24961428

  3. Longitudinal study of reproductive performance of female cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Polejaeva

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether or not reproductive performance in cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is significantly different from that of their genetic donors. To address this question, we directed two longitudinal studies using different embryo production procedures: (1 superovulation followed by artificial insemination (AI and embryo collection and (2 ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro fertilization (OPU-IVF. Collectively, these two studies represent the largest data set available for any species on the reproductive performance of female clones and their genetic donors as measured by their embryo production outcomes in commercial embryo production program. The large-scale study described herein was conducted over a six-year period of time and provides a unique comparison of 96 clones to the 40 corresponding genetic donors. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study on the reproductive performance of cattle clones using OPU-IVF. With nearly 2,000 reproductive procedures performed and more than 9,200 transferable embryos produced, our observations show that the reproductive performance of cattle produced by SCNT is not different compared to their genetic donors for the production of transferable embryos after either AI followed by embryo collection (P = 0.77 or OPU-IVF (P = 0.97. These data are in agreement with previous reports showing that the reproductive capabilities of cloned cattle are equal to that of conventionally produced cattle. In conclusion, results of this longitudinal study once again demonstrate that cloning technology, in combination with superovulation, AI and embryo collection or OPU-IVF, provides a valuable tool for faster dissemination of superior maternal genetics.

  4. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  5. Childhood Precursors of Adult Borderline Personality Disorder Features: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2016-07-01

    This study identifies childhood personality traits that are precursors of adult Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features. In a longitudinal study, childhood personality traits were assessed at age 11 (N = 100) using the California Child Q-set (CCQ: Block and Block, 1980). A number of these Q-items were found to be significantly correlated (p personality dimensions: Impulsivity and Nonconformity/Aggression. The findings thus provide evidence that childhood personality traits predict adult BPD features. Identifying such childhood precursors provides an opportunity for early intervention. PMID:27027659

  6. Changes in Physical Activity over Time in Young Children: A Longitudinal Study Using Accelerometers

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M.; Victoria L Farmer; Taylor, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that marked declines in physical activity occur during the preschool years, and across the transition into school. However, longitudinal studies using objective measures of activity have been limited by sample size and length of follow-up. The aims of this study were to determine how overall activity and time in different intensities of activity change in children followed from 3 to 7 years. Children (n = 242) wore Actical accelerometers at 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6.5 an...

  7. Longitudinal study on work related and individual risk factors affecting radiating neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    Viikari-Juntura, E.; Martikainen, R; Luukkonen, R; Mutanen, P; Takala, E; Riihimaki, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the effects of work related and individual factors affecting radiating neck pain.
METHODS—A longitudinal study was carried out with repeated measurements. A total of 5180 Finnish forest industry workers replied to a questionnaire survey in 1992 (response rate 75%). Response rates to follow up questionnaires in 1993, 1994, and 1995 were 83%, 77%, and 90%, respectively. The outcome variable was the number of days with radiating neck pain during the preceding 12 months with t...

  8. Relationship between Small Business Line of Business and Survival: A Longitudinal Study in Cancun Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Hernandez von Wobeser; Francisco J. May Hernandez; Mario Gabriel Martinez Casas

    2015-01-01

    Micro-sized Enterprise is the most common path for undertaking a business in Mexico and a fundamental part of the economic structure of the country. Previous studies reported high mortality rates in this kind of business. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the survival behavior of Micro-Enterprises categorized by kind of business in Region 101, a particular area in Cancun, México. The paper is the result of a longitudinal study that contemplates 4 years of observation of the business uni...

  9. The Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST)-an integrative view of social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinun, Reut; Knafo, Ariel

    2013-02-01

    The Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST) is a social developmental study, which implements social-developmental, molecular genetic, epigenetic, and behavioral genetic methods to advance knowledge on the development of individual differences in social behavior. Twins are followed from the age of three and both observational and parental-questionnaire data are collected on their empathy, temperament, and pro-social behavior. The parenting styles of parents are also evaluated using self-reports and observations and DNA samples are collected from parents and twins. In the current paper, we provide a review of our recent work and discuss the future aims of the LIST. PMID:23394191

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Malaria Episodes in Bangladesh: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Gregory E Glass; Bomblies, Arne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Mitra, Dipak Kumar; Noman, Nawajish Sayeed; Haque, Waziul; Kabir, M. Moktadir; Yamamoto, Taro; Overgaard, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is endemic to Bangladesh. In this longitudinal study, we used hydrologic, topographic, and socioeconomic risk factors to explain single and multiple malaria infections at individual and household levels. Malaria incidence was determined for 1,634 households in 54 villages in 2009 and 2010. During the entire study period 21.8% of households accounted for all (n = 497) malaria cases detected; 15.4% of households had 1 case and 6.4% had ≥2 cases. The greatest risk factors for malaria inf...

  11. Zen Shiatsu: A Longitudinal Case Study Measuring Stress Reduction in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that manifests as impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if Zen Shiatsu can reduce short- and long-term stress levels in a child with ASD. Methods This is a longitudinal case study of a seven-year-old male with a diagnosis of autism who was given 20-min Zen Shiatsu sessions weekly for six consecutive weeks. Using a five-point stress scale des...

  12. Rethinking the effects of stressors: a longitudinal study on personal initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Doris; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between stressors at work and personal initiative (PI), one proactive concept of extra-role performance. Using a control theory framework to describe the stress process, the authors hypothesized that stressors should be positively related to PI. This departs from findings of negative relationships between stressors and other types of performance. Furthermore, curvilinear relationships were tested. The analyses, based on 4 measurement waves of a longitudinal field study with 172 to 193 participants, showed that stressors were positively related to subsequent changes in PI; there was no support for a curvilinear relationship. PMID:12148954

  13. Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors by Weight History: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in adults with a history of weight loss to levels in adults who did not lose weight, after both groups subsequently experienced an approximate 1-year interval of weight maintenance. Extant data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) were used to identify 5,151 adults who were weight maintainers (maintained weight within ±3.0% over two consecutive periods of ~1 year) or weight-loss maintainer...

  14. Family and Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Trajectories of BMI and Overweight: Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pauline; Mensah, Fane; Nicholson, Jan; Wake, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Socioeconomic inequalities in longitudinal patterning of childhood overweight could cause marked differentials in total burden by adulthood. This study aims to determine timing and strength of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and children's body mass index (BMI) in the pre- and primary school years, and to examine socioeconomic differences in overweight trajectories across childhood.Methods:Participants were 4949 children from the Longitudinal Study of...

  15. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Leenke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required.

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Dieckmann, Marlowe Gates; Gottlieb, Laura; Chow, Jessica; Fernald, Lia C H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Ch...

  17. The IAIMS initiative at the University of Maryland at Baltimore.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M. P.; Ball, M J; Zimmerman, J L; Douglas, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    With support from the National Library of Medicine, the University of Maryland at Baltimore is creating an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) that will serve as a prototype for academic health centers. A campus-wide undertaking, the IAIMS initiative at Maryland is characterized by its functional comprehensiveness and its planning model. The resulting strategic plan is serving as a guide in the ongoing model development within an interdisciplinary Hypertension Center.

  18. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that

  19. Visualizing and Understanding Socio-Environmental Dynamics in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Omeara, K.; Guikema, S.; Scott, A.; Bessho, A.; Logan, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Baltimore, like any city, is the sum of its component neighborhoods, institutions, businesses, cultures, and, ultimately, its people. It is also an organism in its own right, with distinct geography, history, infrastructure, and environments that shape its residents even as it is shaped by them. Sometimes these interactions are obvious but often they are not; while basic economic patterns are widely documented, the distribution of socio-spatial and environmental connections often hides below the surface, as does the potential that those connections hold. Here we present results of a collaborative initiative on the geography, design, and policy of socio-environmental dynamics of Baltimore. Geospatial data derived from satellite imagery, demographic databases, social media feeds, infrastructure plans, and in situ environmental networks, among other sources, are applied to generate an interactive portrait of Baltimore City's social, health, and well-being dynamics. The layering of data serves as a platform for visualizing the interconnectedness of the City and as a database for modeling risk interactions, vulnerabilities, and strengths within and between communities. This presentation will provide an overview of project findings and highlight linkages to education and policy.

  20. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.

  1. Weight restoration therapy rapidly reverses cortical thinning in anorexia nervosa: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Fabio; King, Joseph A; Geisler, Daniel; Stein, Elisa; Jaite, Charlotte; Nätsch, Dagmar; Tam, Friederike I; Boehm, Ilka; Seidel, Maria; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have documented reduced gray matter in acutely ill patients with anorexia nervosa to be at least partially reversible following weight restoration. However, few longitudinal studies exist and the underlying mechanisms of these structural changes are elusive. In particular, the relative speed and completeness of brain structure normalization during realimentation remain unknown. Here we report from a structural neuroimaging study including a sample of adolescent/young adult female patients with acute anorexia nervosa (n=47), long-term recovered patients (n=34), and healthy controls (n=75). The majority of acutely ill patients were scanned longitudinally (n=35): at the beginning of standardized weight restoration therapy and again after partial weight normalization (>10% body mass index increase). High-resolution structural images were processed and analyzed with the longitudinal stream of FreeSurfer software to test for changes in cortical thickness and volumes of select subcortical regions of interest. We found globally reduced cortical thickness in acutely ill patients to increase rapidly (0.06 mm/month) during brief weight restoration therapy (≈3 months). This significant increase was predicted by weight restoration alone and could not be ascribed to potentially mediating factors such as duration of illness, hydration status, or symptom improvements. By comparing cortical thickness in partially weight-restored patients with that measured in healthy controls, we confirmed that cortical thickness had normalized already at follow-up. This pattern of thinning in illness and rapid normalization during weight rehabilitation was largely mirrored in subcortical volumes. Together, our findings indicate that structural brain insults inflicted by starvation in anorexia nervosa may be reversed at a rate much faster than previously thought if interventions are successful before the disorder becomes chronic. This provides

  2. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  3. Effects of deployment on mental health in modern military forces: A review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nasveld

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Earlier studies presenting evidence that operational deployment negatively affects mental health outcomes among military personnel and veterans generally have lacked conclusiveness, largely because of cross-sectional or retrospective design. Purpose. To review longitudinal studies investigating mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed in recent conflicts. Methods. MEDLINE database was searched using relevant keywords and MESH terms. The US Millennium Cohort study website was used to obtain the list of relevant publications. Only prospective longitudinal cohort studies investigating mental health outcomes in deployed post Vietnam era military or veteran populations of developed countries were included. Results. Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Adverse effects included the increased incidence of post-deployment PTSD and depression. Individuals with the lowest functional scores and those exposed to previous traumatic assault were particularly vulnerable to a new onset of PTSD after combat exposure. Factors influencing the incidence of post-deployment PTSD included depression symptoms present during deployment, the presence of stress reaction during combat exposure and reception of associated frontline treatment, and the number of negative life events experienced after the traumatic event. More mental health problems were reported in soldiers returning from Iraq on the second screening conducted several months after their return, compared with the first screening immediately upon their return. Some mental health symptoms (anxiety and depression improved between deployments, while others (PTSD and panic attacks did not improve. CONCLUSION. The results indicate that combat exposure, not deployment in general , had an adverse effect on mental health.

  4. Use of longitudinal data in genetic studies in the genome-wide association studies era: summary of Group 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Berit; North, Kari E; Fallin, M Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Participants analyzed actual and simulated longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study for various metabolic and cardiovascular traits. The genetic information incorporated into these investigations ranged from selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genome-wide association arrays. Genotypes were incorporated using a broad range of methodological approaches including conditional logistic regression, linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, linear growth curve estimation, growth modeling, growth mixture modeling, population attributable risk fraction based on survival functions under the proportional hazards models, and multivariate adaptive splines for the analysis of longitudinal data. The specific scientific questions addressed by these different approaches also varied, ranging from a more precise definition of the phenotype, bias reduction in control selection, estimation of effect sizes and genotype associated risk, to direct incorporation of genetic data into longitudinal modeling approaches and the exploration of population heterogeneity with regard to longitudinal trajectories. The group reached several overall conclusions: (1) The additional information provided by longitudinal data may be useful in genetic analyses. (2) The precision of the phenotype definition as well as control selection in nested designs may be improved, especially if traits demonstrate a trend over time or have strong age-of-onset effects. (3) Analyzing genetic data stratified for high-risk subgroups defined by a unique development over time could be useful for the detection of rare mutations in common multifactorial diseases. (4) Estimation of the population impact of genomic risk variants could be more precise. The challenges and computational complexity demanded by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were also discussed. PMID:19924713

  5. Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luoni

    2015-01-01

    naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

  6. Transverse Ising antiferromagnetic in a longitudinal magnetic field: study of the ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model in a transverse magnetic field (Ω) and uniform longitudinal field is studied for the first time (H). Using the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlation in one-site cluster calculation the ground-state phase diagram in the Ω-H plane is determined for the honeycomb (z=3) and square (z=4) lattices. It is shown that there is an order-disordered transition line (second-order phase transition) qualitatively in agreement with rigorous results of renormalization group in d=1. The critical curve in the classical approach is also obtained and the results are compared

  7. Changes in astigmatism between the ages of 1 and 4 years: a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, M; Fabian, G.; Sjöstrand, J

    1988-01-01

    Changes in astigmatism during development were studied in 299 infants with astigmatism as they grew from 1 to 4 years of age. All consecutive cases of 1-year-old infants with an astigmatism of 1.0 D or more in at least one eye found at an ophthalmic screening survey were selected for follow-up. The cycloplegic refraction was longitudinally followed at yearly intervals. During development there was no decrease in the degree of hypermetropia, but there was a significant decrease in the incidenc...

  8. Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ and survival up to age 76

    OpenAIRE

    Whalley, L.J.; Deary, I J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To test the association between childhood IQ and mortality over the normal human lifespan.Design Longitudinal cohort study.Setting Aberdeen.Subjects All 2792 children in Aberdeen born in 1921 and attending school on 1 June 1932 who sat a mental ability test as part of the Scottish mental survey 1932.Main outcome measure Survival at 1 January 1997.Results 79.9% (2230) of the sample was traced. Childhood mental ability was positively related to survival to age 76 years in women (0.97...

  9. Conflicts and conflict management styles as precursors of workplace bullying: A two-wave longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Baillien, Elfi; Bollen, Katalien; Euwema, Martin; De Witte, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships between conflicts in the work unit, the employee’s conflict management style and workplace bullying in a full panel two-wave longitudinal design with a 6 months’ time lag (n¼277). We assumed that conflicts as well as the conflict management styles of ‘‘problem solving’’ and ‘‘forcing’’ at T1 would predict being a target or a perpetrator of bullying at T2. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) showed that a normal causation model fitted our data best....

  10. Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Discrimination of Young Bulgarians in the Period 2004-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2013-01-01

    Ethnically based discrimination and its relation to ethnic stereotypes have been discussed. Comparative analysis of the main characteristics of the “old”, “biological” or “traditional” with the “new”, “modern” or “symbolic” prejudice (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) has been made. The results of a longitudinal study of discriminatory behaviour of young people of Bulgarian origin (n = 942; 347 men and 595 women, mean age 21.3 years) in 5 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, towards ...

  11. Evaluation of pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J;

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain were compared in a longitudinal study in nine patients undergoing drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Pressure measurements were performed percutaneously before the operation, intraoperatively before and after the drainage procedure, and...... duration of the pain-free period was significantly related to the size of the intraoperative pressure decrease (R = 0.79, p less than 0.03). These results further suggest that there is a causal relationship between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis and that the success of...... the drainage procedure may be predicted by intraoperative pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements....

  12. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    OpenAIRE

    Hafstad, Gertrud S; von Soest, Tilmann; Torgersen, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal community study investigated the role of individual risk factors in early childhood (before age five) for the development of eating problems in adolescence. Nine hundred twenty-one mothers completed the first questionnaire when their child was 1.5 years old, and again when their child was 2.5 (n = 784) and 4.5 (n = 737) years old. Three hundred seventy-three of these children completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) when they were 16 years old....

  13. Learned helplessness in children: a longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1986-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, the depressive symptoms, life events, and explanatory styles of 168 school children were measured five times during the course of 1 year. Measures of school achievement were obtained once during the year. Depressive symptoms and explanatory styles were found to be quite stable over the year. As predicted by the reformulated learned helplessness theory, explanatory style both correlated with concurrent levels of depression and school achievement and predicted later changes in depression during the year. Depression also predicted later explanatory styles. The implications of these results for intervention with children with depressive symptoms or school achievement problems are discussed. PMID:3746624

  14. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  15. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselman Borg, Johanna; Westerståhl, Maria; Lundell, Sara; Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support.

  16. Longitudinal Study of Performance on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    OpenAIRE

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a cognitive test to measure executive function. Longitudinal studies have shown that repeated testing improves performance on the RFFT. Such a practice effect may hinder the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal performance on the RFFT in persons aged 35–82 years. Performance on the RFFT was measured three times over an average follow-up period of six years in 2,515 participants of the Preventi...

  17. How Serious of a Problem is Staff Turnover in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual Turnover1

    OpenAIRE

    Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.

    2010-01-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnove...

  18. Effect of method of administration on longitudinal assessment of quality of life in gynecologic cancer: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins Michael P; Frasure Heidi E; Gil Karen M; Jenison Eric L; von Gruenigen Vivian E

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Longitudinal assessments of quality of life are needed to measure changes over the course of a disease and treatment. Computer versions of quality of life instruments have increased the feasibility of obtaining longitudinal measurements. However, there remain occasions when patients are not able to complete these questionnaires. This study examined whether changes measured using a computer version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General (FACT-G) on two occ...

  19. Explaining the Increasing Heritability of Cognitive Ability Across Development: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Twin and Adoption Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Briley, Daniel A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2013-01-01

    Genes account for increasing proportions of variation in cognitive ability across development, but the mechanisms underlying these increases remain unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of longitudinal behavioral genetic studies spanning infancy to adolescence. We identified relevant data from 16 articles with 11 unique samples containing a total of 11,500 twin and sibling pairs who were all reared together and measured at least twice between the ages of 6 months and 18 years. Longitudinal be...

  20. Strategies for Longitudinal Analysis of the Career Paths of Beginning Teachers: Results from the First through Fourth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Research and Development Report. NCES 2013-336

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lucinda; Brauen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    To learn more about the early career patterns of beginning teachers, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences within the U.S. Department of Education undertook the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS). The ultimate purpose of this report is to develop a strategy for the longitudinal analysis…

  1. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. With the exception of Working Memory, these relations were not attenuated with statistical control for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses revealed no association between cognitive function and chocolate intake measured up to 18 years later. Further intervention trials and longitudinal studies are needed to explore relations between chocolate, cocoa flavanols and cognition, and the underlying causal mechanisms. PMID:26873453

  2. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  3. Computer-assisted interventions targeting reading skills of children with reading disabilities - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fälth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1 year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second focused on word and sentence levels and the third was a combination of these two training programmes. A fourth group received ordinary special instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group with age-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group that received combined training showed greater improvement than the one with ordinary special instruction and the group of typical readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additional positive results for the group that received the combined training, the majority of students from that group being no longer judged to be needing special education 1 year after the intervention. PMID:23338977

  4. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  5. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. PMID:26854132

  6. Longitudinal study of arteriogenesis with swept source optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kristin M.; Patil, Chetan A.; Nelson, Christopher E.; McCormack, Devin R.; Madonna, Megan C.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease of the extremities that leads to high rates of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. PAD is especially prevalent in diabetic patients, and is commonly modeled by hind limb ischemia in mice to study collateral vessel development and test novel therapies. Current techniques used to assess recovery cannot obtain quantitative, physiological data non-invasively. Here, we have applied hyperspectral imaging and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study longitudinal changes in blood oxygenation and vascular morphology, respectively, intravitally in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model. Additionally, recommended ranges for controlling physiological variability in blood oxygenation with respect to respiration rate and body core temperature were determined from a control animal experiment. In the longitudinal study with diabetic mice, hyperspectral imaging data revealed the dynamics of blood oxygenation recovery distally in the ischemic footpad. In diabetic mice, there is an early increase in oxygenation that is not sustained in the long term. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology obtained from Hessian-filtered speckle variance OCT volumes revealed temporal dynamics in vascular density, total vessel length, and vessel diameter distribution in the adductor muscle of the ischemic limb. The combination of hyperspectral imaging and speckle variance OCT enabled acquisition of novel functional and morphological endpoints from individual animals, and provides a more robust platform for future preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for PAD.

  7. The Relationships Between Internal and External Threats and Right-Wing Attitudes: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onraet, Emma; Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain

    2014-02-25

    The interplay between threat and right-wing attitudes has received much research attention, but its longitudinal relationship has hardly been investigated. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal relationships between internal and external threats and right-wing attitudes using a cross-lagged design at three different time points in a large nationally representative sample (N = 800). We found evidence for bidirectional relationships. Higher levels of external threat were related to higher levels of Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and to both the egalitarianism and dominance dimensions of Social Dominance Orientation at a later point in time. Conversely, higher levels of RWA were also related to increased perception of external threat later in time. Internal threat did not yield significant direct or indirect longitudinal relationships with right-wing attitudes. Theoretical and practical implications of these longitudinal effects are discussed. PMID:24570118

  8. Maximising retention in a longitudinal study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birden Hudson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinal study and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS was a longitudinal study of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary health care clinics. They were followed up via the post at three-monthly intervals and required to return questionnaires and self collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. The protocol was designed to maximise retention in the study and included using recruiting staff independent of the clinic staff, recruiting in private, regular communication with study staff, making the follow up as straightforward as possible and providing incentives and small gifts to engender good will. Results The study recruited 66% of eligible women. Despite the nature of the study (sexual health and the mobility of the women (35% moved address at least once, 79% of the women completed the final stage of the study after 12 months. Loss to follow up bias was associated with lower education level [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR: 0.7 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.5, 1.0], recruitment from a sexual health centre as opposed to a general practice clinic [AHR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.7] and previously testing positive for chlamydia [AHR: 0.8 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0]. No other factors such as age, numbers of sexual partners were associated with loss to follow up. Conclusions The methods used were considered effective for recruiting and retaining women in the study. Further research is needed to improve participation from less well-educated women.

  9. Predicting Risk of Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P B Gracitelli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of longitudinal Useful Field of View (UFOV and simulated driving measurements to predict future occurrence of motor vehicle collision (MVC in drivers with glaucoma.Prospective observational cohort study.117 drivers with glaucoma followed for an average of 2.1 ± 0.5 years.All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP, UFOV, driving simulator, and cognitive assessment obtained at baseline and every 6 months during follow-up. The driving simulator evaluated reaction times to high and low contrast peripheral divided attention stimuli presented while negotiating a winding country road, with central driving task performance assessed as "curve coherence". Drivers with MVC during follow-up were identified from Department of Motor Vehicle records.Survival models were used to evaluate the ability of driving simulator and UFOV to predict MVC over time, adjusting for potential confounding factors.Mean age at baseline was 64.5 ± 12.6 years. 11 of 117 (9.4% drivers had a MVC during follow-up. In the multivariable models, low contrast reaction time was significantly predictive of MVC, with a hazard ratio (HR of 2.19 per 1 SD slower reaction time (95% CI, 1.30 to 3.69; P = 0.003. UFOV divided attention was also significantly predictive of MVC with a HR of 1.98 per 1 SD worse (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.57; P = 0.022. Global SAP visual field indices in the better or worse eye were not predictive of MVC. The longitudinal model including driving simulator performance was a better predictor of MVC compared to UFOV (R2 = 0.41 vs R2 = 0.18.Longitudinal divided attention metrics on the UFOV test and during simulated driving were significantly predictive of risk of MVC in glaucoma patients. These findings may help improve the understanding of factors associated with driving impairment related to glaucoma.

  10. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms. PMID:26994398

  11. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, Glenn B; Anderson, Janet E; Burnett, Susan J;

    2011-01-01

    Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how......, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical...... policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis...

  12. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  13. Brief Intervention Impact on Truant Youth Attitudes to School and School Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James

    2014-01-01

    Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths' substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths' attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths' attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027

  14. The link between nonsuicidal self-injury and acquired capability for suicide: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Heffer, Taylor; Hamza, Chloe A

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent findings that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a strong predictor of suicide attempts, little empirical attention has been given to the mechanism through which NSSI increases suicide risk. The present 2-wave longitudinal study represents the first critical test of Joiner's (2005) hypothesis that NSSI is linked to lower pain sensitivity and fear of death over time (i.e., NSSI leads to acquired capability for suicide). Undergraduate students (N = 782) at a midsized Canadian university completed measures of NSSI and acquired capability for suicide at 2 time points (1 year apart). Path analyses revealed that higher frequency of NSSI engagement in the past year was associated with greater acquired capability for suicide 1 year later, and that this link was unidirectional. This study provides the first longitudinal evidence that a potential mechanism for the link between NSSI and suicide attempts may be acquired capability for suicide, and suggests that targeting NSSI engagement could help to prevent individuals from acquiring the ability to enact more lethal forms of self-injury. PMID:26372006

  15. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service. PMID:26642595

  16. Pregnancy diet and associated outcomes in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Golding, Jean

    2015-10-01

    All publications covering diet during pregnancy that stemmed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were reviewed. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic background, maternal mental health, and the health and development of the offspring were assessed using a variety of methods, such as direct measurement, self-completion questionnaires, and assays of biological samples. Differences in diet, including specific food and nutrient intakes and dietary patterns, were associated with maternal educational attainment, smoking habits, and financial difficulty. There were marginal intakes, compared with recommendations, of the key nutrients iron, magnesium, potassium, and folate. Maternal diet during pregnancy was predictive of offspring diet during childhood. There were independent associations between prenatal fish consumption and lower frequency of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as lower frequency of intrauterine growth retardation. Consistent evidence that fish consumption during pregnancy benefited the neurocognitive development of the child was also found. Two constituents of fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and iodine, were associated with these benefits in children. The findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children strengthen the recommendation to eat fish regularly during pregnancy. PMID:26395341

  17. A longitudinal MRI study of cervical cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsasina, Paola; Rocca, Maria A; Horsfield, Mark A; Copetti, Massimiliano; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    There is an urgent need of fast and accurate methods for the longitudinal quantification of cervical cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). Aim of this study was to compare a new semi-automatic method [the active surface (AS) method] with an existing cord segmentation method (the Losseff method) to measure cervical cord atrophy progression in MS patients. Using the AS and Losseff methods, normalized cervical cord cross-sectional area (CSA) was compared between 35 MS patients and 9 healthy controls (HC) at baseline and after 2.3 years of follow-up. Correlations with clinical/conventional MRI variables and a power calculation study were also performed. At follow-up, the Losseff method detected a 1 % CSA increase in HC and a 3.5 % decrease in MS patients (p = 0.01), while the AS method detected a 0.1 % decrease in HC and 3 % decrease in MS patients (p = 0.02). The AS method was more sensitive to associations with disability/conventional MRI variables and also provided lower numbers of subjects per arm compared to the Losseff method in a putative clinical trial scenario. Cord AS CSA measurements were more sensitive to longitudinal changes in MS patients than Losseff measurements. Cord AS CSA might be a valuable surrogate outcome measure for monitoring neuroprotection in MS. PMID:25929665

  18. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  19. Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostenbroek, Janine; Suddendorf, Thomas; Nielsen, Mark; Redshaw, Jonathan; Kennedy-Costantini, Siobhan; Davis, Jacqueline; Clark, Sally; Slaughter, Virginia

    2016-05-23

    Human children copy others' actions with high fidelity, supporting early cultural learning and assisting in the development and maintenance of behavioral traditions [1]. Imitation has long been assumed to occur from birth [2-4], with influential theories (e.g., [5-7]) placing an innate imitation module at the foundation of social cognition (potentially underpinned by a mirror neuron system [8, 9]). Yet, the very phenomenon of neonatal imitation has remained controversial. Empirical support is mixed and interpretations are varied [10-16], potentially because previous investigations have relied heavily on cross-sectional designs with relatively small samples and with limited controls [17, 18]. Here, we report surprising results from the most comprehensive longitudinal study of neonatal imitation to date. We presented infants (n = 106) with nine social and two non-social models and scored their responses at 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of age. Longitudinal analyses indicated that the infants did not imitate any of the models, as they were just as likely to produce the gestures in response to control models as they were to matching models. Previous positive findings were replicated in limited cross-sections of the data, but the overall analyses confirmed these findings to be mere artifacts of restricted comparison conditions. Our results undermine the idea of an innate imitation module and suggest that earlier studies reporting neonatal imitation were methodologically limited. PMID:27161497

  20. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: A longitudinal comparison study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel; Kimenai, F.F.P.; Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The "LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation" (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmu...

  1. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: a longitudinal comparison study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel W. J.; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods The “LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation” (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmus University M...

  2. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: a longitudinal comparison study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel W. J.; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The “LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation” (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmus University...

  3. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  4. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present longitudinal study (two waves, conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators as well as personal resources (self-efficacy on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and self-efficacy over time. Four questions are addressed: (1 Are obstacles positively related to burnout and work self-efficacy over time? (2 Are facilitators positively related to engagement and self-efficacy over time? (3 Is work self-efficacy negatively related to burnout and obstacles over time? and (4 Is work self-efficacy positively related to engagement and facilitators over time? The results of a hard-copy survey carried out at two waves (8 months between the two times, which were computed on Structural Equation Modeling show that obstacles are positively related to burnout, which in turn is positively related to self-efficacy over time. Likewise, facilitators are positively related to engagement and self-efficacy, which in turn is positively related to facilitators over time. These findings suggest a positive gain cycle in which self-efficacy plays a central role.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDINAL DISPERSIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Özgenç AKSOY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the safest and most important source of available freshwater. However, it is threatened by pollution arising from various activities. In this study the contaminant transport in homogeneous medium is investigated by means of an experimental set-up designed for the hydrologic cycle available in Hydraulics Laboratory. The experiments are carried out in the physical aquiferchamber 2 m long, 1 m wide and 0.10 m high. The piezometer tubes and observation wells are placed at the bottom of the chamber longitudinally and transversally. NaCl solution which represents contaminant is injected from a well instantaneously, as a point source. Electrical Conductivity (EC values of the water are measured by using probes placed in the observation wells. Measurements are taken at specific time interval. The NaCl concentrations of the samples are determined indirectly by converting these measured EC values to concentration values by means of the calibration curve generated at the beginning of the experiments. Consequently, the longitudinal dispersivity of the porous medium was determined by solving the one dimensional advective-dispersive equation.

  6. Need for longitudinal studies of Asian wildlife in the face of crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shermin de Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biology is conceived as a discipline that must balance the short-term aim of gathering data on pressing conservation issues with the long-term vision of protecting populations, species, and functional ecosystems. Asian wildlife face imminent threats ranging from hunting to loss of critical habitats, but there are few examples of detailed longitudinal wildlife research in the region. Longitudinal research is essential for protecting populations especially in light of the high volumes of legal and illegal trade, understanding basic population dynamics, notably with respect to long-lived species, as well as accommodating the spatial needs of animals. It is also critical for evaluating the success of conservation or management interventions and adaptively improving outcomes. Such studies, particularly when requiring sustained field work, are impeded by mismatches between needs on the ground vs. the priorities of different stakeholders, the ephemeral and inefficient nature of funding mechanisms, and by the logistics of maintaining sites and personnel. Yet we cannot adequately protect biodiversity in Asia unless the magnitude of human impacts on its species is quantitatively understood and used to inform management.

  7. Quality of life among prostate cancer patients: A prospective longitudinal population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the course of quality of life (QoL) among prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy and to compare the results with QoL of a normal age-matched reference population. Patients and methods: The study population was composed of 227 prostate cancer patients, treated with radiotherapy. The EORTC QLQ-C30 was used to assess QoL before radiotherapy and six months, one year, two years and three years after completion of radiotherapy. Mixed model analyses were used to investigate longitudinal changes in QoL. QoL of prostate cancer patients was compared to that of a normative cohort using a multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: A significant decline in QoL was observed after radiotherapy (p < 0.001). The addition of hormonal therapy to radiotherapy was associated with a lower level of role functioning. Patients with coronary heart disease and or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma had a significantly worse course in QoL. Although statistically significant, all differences were classified as small or trivial. Conclusion: Prostate cancer patients experience a small worsening of QoL as compared with baseline and as compared with a normal reference population. As co-morbidity modulates patients’ post-treatment QoL, a proper assessment of co-morbidity should be included in future longitudinal analyses on QoL

  8. A study of cortisol reactivity and recovery among young adolescents: Heterogeneity and longitudinal stability and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juye; Negriff, Sonya; Kim, Hansung; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    The dominance of reactivity-based theories of the cortisol response and lack of attention to cortisol recovery makes it difficult to compile an integrated theory of the stress response. This report examined a reactivity and recovery model of the cortisol response using variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Age and sex differences and heterogeneity in the pattern of cortisol response were examined. Participants were 135 healthy young adolescents participating in a three-wave longitudinal study of puberty and psychological development. At each wave, five saliva-cortisol samples were collected prior to and following a modified Trier Social Stressor Test for Children. Linear, quadratic, and piece-wise models of latent growth curve analyses and latent class analyses were conducted. Age differences in cortisol reactivity and recovery were found at wave 1 and sex differences in cortisol reactivity emerged at wave 3. Meaningful heterogeneity in the pattern of cortisol response was found cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The implications of heterogeneity in the cortisol response during early adolescence for developmental science are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 283-302, 2016. PMID:26517401

  9. Identity Formation in Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study from Age 27 to 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Longitudinal patterns of identity formation were analyzed in a representative cohort group of Finnish men and women born in 1959 across ages 27, 36, 42, and 50. The data were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality. Identity status (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed, achieved) from all four ages was available for 172 participants (54% females). Marcia’s Identity Status Interview used in this research included five domains: religious beliefs, political identity, occupational career, intimate relationships, and lifestyle. The findings indicated great variability in identity status across domains at each age level, and the identity trajectories fluctuated from age 27 to 50. The developmental trend from age 27 to 50 was moderately progressive (toward achievement) for the five domains and for overall identity, with the exception of a slightly regressive trend in male religious identity. Remaining stable in the same status category across the four measurements was rare and emerged only for diffusion in the ideological domains. Women generally outnumbered men in identity achievement at earlier ages, but the gender differences diminished in most domains at age 50, except in religious identity. In women overall diffusion decreased over time, but in men it remained at about 20% at ages 42 and 50. PMID:27019650

  10. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; van Brakel, Anna M L; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2011-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms, and a number of other vulnerability factors such as insecure attachment, negative parenting styles, adverse life events, and parental anxiety. Results obtained with Structural Equation Modeling indicated that behavioral inhibition primarily acted as a specific risk factor for the development of social anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, the longitudinal model showed additive as well as interactive effects for various vulnerability factors on the development of anxiety symptoms. That is, main effects of anxious rearing and parental trait anxiety were found, whereas behavioral inhibition and attachment had an interactive effect on anxiety symptomatology. Moreover, behavioral inhibition itself was also influenced by some of the vulnerability factors. These results provide support for dynamic, multifactorial models for the etiology of child anxiety problems. PMID:21475710

  11. Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188

  12. Segmentation of microcystic macular edema in Cirrus OCT scans with an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Emily K.; Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Al-Louzi, Omar; Saidha, Shiv; Prince, Jerry L.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2015-03-01

    Microcystic macular edema (MME) is a term used to describe pseudocystic spaces in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the human retina. It has been noted in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as a variety of other diseases. The processes that lead to MME formation and their change over time have yet to be explained sufficiently. The low rate at which MME occurs within such diverse patient groups makes the identification and consistent quantification of this pathology important for developing patient-specific prognoses. MME is observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the retina as changes in light reflectivity in a pattern suggestive of fluid accumulations called pseudocysts. Pseudocysts can be readily identified in higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images, however pseudocysts can be indistinguishable from noise in lower SNR scans. In this work, we expand upon our earlier MME identification methods on Spectralis OCT scans to handle lower quality Cirrus OCT scans. Our approach uses a random forest classifier, trained on manual segmentation of ten subjects, to automatically detect MME. The algorithm has a true positive rate for MME identification of 0.95 and a Dice score of 0.79. We include a preliminary longitudinal study of three patients over four to five years to explore the longitudinal changes of MME. The patients with relapsing-remitting MS and neuromyelitis optica appear to have dynamic pseudocyst volumes, while the MME volume appears stable in the one patient with primary progressive MS.

  13. Study of longitudinal phase space distribution measurement via a linear focal Cherenkov ring camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Tohoku University, a study of generation of intense coherent THz radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches has been developing. Initial electron distribution in the longitudinal phase space produced by an electron gun is crucial for extreme short electron bunch production. For relatively lower energy electrons, a novel method for measurement of electron kinetic energy employing velocity dependence of the opening angle of Cherenkov radiation was proposed. Combined use of a streak camera and a “turtle-back” mirror that confines the Cherenkov light on to a linear focal line may allow us to observe the longitudinal phase space distribution directly. An experimental setup was examined with numerical ray tracing, and a radiator placed outside the vacuum chamber was designed to achieve the highest energy resolution. To extract the electron beam from the vacuum, a beryllium thin film was proposed as a beam window. However, a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation showed that multiple scatterings of the electron beam in the beryllium window significantly affects the resolution of the Cherenkov angle. Detail of examination will be presented in this conference. (author)

  14. Electromyographic evaluation of the upper lip according to the breathing mode: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrieli Regina Ambrosio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at analyzing and comparing longitudinally the EMG (electromyographic activity of the superior orbicularis oris muscle according to the breathing mode. The sample, 38 adolescents with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion with predominantly nose (PNB or mouth (PMB breathing, was evaluated at two different periods, with a two-year interval between them. For that purpose, a 16channel electromyography machine was employed, which was properly calibrated in a PC equipped with an analogue-digital converter, with utilization of surface, passive and bipolar electrodes. The RMS data (root mean square were collected at rest and in 12 movements and normalized according to time and amplitude, by the peak value of EMG, in order to allow comparisons between subjects and between periods. Comparison of the muscle function of PNB and PMB subjects at period 1 (P1, period 2 (P2 and the variation between periods (Δ did not reveal statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.05. However, longitudinal evaluation of the muscle function in PNB and PMB subjects demonstrated different evolutions in the percentage of required EMG for accomplishment of the movements investigated. It was possible to conclude that there are differences in the percentage of electric activity of the upper lip with the growth of the subjects according to the breathing mode.

  15. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager;

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without...

  16. Mapping longitudinal studies to risk factors in an ontology for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roantree, Mark; O' Donoghue, Jim; O' Kelly, Noel; Pierce, Maria; Irving, Kate; Van Boxtel, Martin; Köhler, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    A common activity carried out by healthcare professionals is to test various hypotheses on longitudinal study data in an effort to develop new and more reliable algorithms that might determine the possibility of developing certain illnesses. The INnovative, Midlife INtervention for Dementia Deterrence project provides input from a number of European dementia experts to identify the most accurate model of inter-related risk factors which can yield a personalized dementia-risk quotient and profile. This model is then validated against the large population-based prospective Maastricht Aging Study dataset. As part of this overall goal, the research presented in this article demonstrates how we can automate the process of mapping modifiable risk factors against large sections of the aging study and thus use information technology to provide more powerful query interfaces. PMID:25564493

  17. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S; Paulson, Olaf B.; Sørensen, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    longitudinal studies of MS patients, but little is known about the associated changes in cerebral neural function. METHODS: The authors studied 10 patients with clinically definite MS who underwent serial measurements of CMRglc, MRI T2-weighted total lesion area (TLA), and clinical evaluation of disability......OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression in...... (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) over a period of approximately 2 years (three examinations). CMRglc was calculated using PET and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: The global cortical CMRglc decreased with time (p<0.001) and the most pronounced reductions of CMRglc were detected in frontal and...

  18. Longitudinal cognitive decline in subcortical ischemic vascular disease--the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), as defined according to imaging criteria, is associated with a specific clinical and cognitive profile. Much less is known about the long-term cognitive consequences of SIVD. The aim of the study...... was to investigate the longitudinal cognitive performance and incident dementia in subjects with and without SIVD in a sample of older adults with white matter lesions. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study, 639 participants were examined with annual clinical and......-up independently of age, sex, education and medial temporal lobe atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: SIVD, as a manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease, is related to progressive cognitive impairment and a considerable risk of developing dementia. SIVD seems to specifically contribute to the deterioration of psychomotor...

  19. The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS)--an Asian UHR perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimmy; Rekhi, Gurpreet; Mitter, Natasha; Bong, Yioe Ling; Kraus, Michael S; Lam, Max; Rapisarda, Attilio; Lee, Tih-Shih; Subramaniam, Mythily; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the psychosis prodrome and have explored a wide array of its many aspects. However, the set of risk factors identified by these various efforts is not homogenous across studies. This could be due to unique population factors or relatively small sample sizes. Only few studies were conducted on Asian populations, whose socio-cultural characteristics differ - in some cases remarkably - from those in western populations. Singapore is a highly dense city-state in South-east Asia, with low rates of substance abuse. The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) commenced in Singapore in 2008, designed to comprehensively assess a group of ultra high risk (UHR) individuals and identify clinical, social, neuropsychological and biological risk factors unique to the local population. 173 UHR individuals were recruited from this single-site study over 4 years. Here, we detail aspects of the study methodology and report on the baseline social and clinical characteristics of the sample population. 78% of the UHR sample suffered from a psychiatric disorder, with Major Depressive Disorder present in more than half of the sample. The mean Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score was 57.4, which indicated a moderate level of impairment. Although the recruited sample did not differ significantly by social and clinical characteristics when compared to previously published reports, the conversion rate to psychosis was 3.5% (n=6) at 6 months. Follow-up measures are currently underway to assess longitudinal incidence of psychosis and impact of risk factors on cognition, functioning and remission. PMID:24139196

  20. Terapia de linguagem de irmãos com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento: estudo longitudinal Language therapy of brothers with pervasive developmental disorders: longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Regina Nunes Misquiatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de intervenção fonoaudiológica de dois irmãos com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento, por meio de um estudo longitudinal de caso clínico. Participaram dois irmãos, um de nove e outro de 11 anos de idade, ambos do gênero masculino, com autismo (Caso 1 e transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação (Caso 2. Como procedimento de coleta e análise de dados foi realizado um estudo longitudinal, por meio de acompanhamento dos casos ao longo de quatro anos de intervenção fonoaudiológica. Foram realizadas filmagens durante as sessões de terapia, análise documental de informações dos prontuários referentes à anamnese, avaliação e relatórios terapêuticos fonoaudiológicos, exames e avaliações multidisciplinares. Em ambos os casos houve melhora no contato visual, na interação social, no vocabulário e na brincadeira simbólica. No Caso 1 ocorreu aumento de 2,0 para 6,2 atos comunicativos por minuto, no Caso 2 de 3,5 para 8,0 atos e ambos demonstraram predominância do meio verbal e maior variedade de funções comunicativas. Outros fatores influenciaram estes resultados, como a deficiência intelectual, a dinâmica familiar, os conflitos no relacionamento entre os irmãos e o ambiente escolar em que estavam inseridos. Confirmou-se a relevância do fonoaudiólogo em intervenções nos transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento, junto a equipes multidisciplinares, para a discussão diagnóstica e de condutas mais adequadas. Estudos longitudinais podem contribuir para uma análise mais detalhada e fidedigna de intervenções terapêuticas nesses casos, para esclarecer lacunas existentes na literatura e subsidiar a atuação do fonoaudiólogo clínico.The aim of this research was to describe the language intervention process of two brothers with pervasive developmental disorders, through a longitudinal clinical case study. Two brothers - one nine and the other 11