WorldWideScience

Sample records for baltic unity opening

  1. Long-term development of inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll alpha in the open northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Laamanen, Maria; Kuosa, Harri; Haahti, Hannu; Olsonen, Riitta

    2008-03-01

    Eutrophication is an ongoing process in most parts of the Baltic Sea. This article reports on the changes during recent decades of several eutrophication-related variables in the open sea areas surrounding Finland (wintertime nutrient concentrations, wintertime nutrient ratios, and summer time chlorophyll alpha concentrations at the surface). The sum of nitrate- and nitrite-nitrogen ([NO3+NO2]-N) was observed to increase nearly fourfold in the Northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland and almost double in the Bothnian Sea from the 1960s until the 1980s or 1990s. The increase was followed by a decrease, which was modest in the two former subregions. Phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations followed a similar pattern in the Northern Baltic Proper (threefold increase and subsequent slight decrease) and Bothnian Sea (30% increase and subsequent decrease), but increased throughout the study in the Gulf of Finland, with the present concentration being threefold to the measurements made in the early 1970s. The PO4-P concentration decreased throughout the study in the Bothnian Bay. Silicate-silicon (SiO4-Si) concentrations decreased 30-50% from the early 1970s to the late 1990s and increased 20-40% thereafter in the Northern Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, and the Bothnian Sea. Chlorophyll alpha showed an increase of over 150% in the Northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland from the 1970s until the early 2000s. In the Bothnian Sea the chlorophyll alpha concentration increased more than 180% from the late 1970s until the late 1990s, and decreased thereafter. According to these long-term observations, the Gulf of Finland and Northern Baltic Proper show clear signs of eutrophication, which may be emphasized by hydrographical changes affecting the phytoplankton communities and thus the algal biomass.

  2. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Ricardo T; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2009-03-31

    Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8-10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers.

  3. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautsky Lena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers.

  4. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Ricardo T; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers. PMID:19335884

  5. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vichi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (oversaturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics have shown that the nutrient dynamics are linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic, or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs. The model indicates the

  6. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Baretta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (oversaturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic, or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs. The model indicates the

  7. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinov, Azat M.; Nepomechie, Rafael I.

    2016-08-01

    For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uq sl (2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q =e iπ / p with integer p ≥ 2), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  8. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    CERN Document Server

    Gainutdinov, Azat M

    2016-01-01

    For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the U_q sl(2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=exp(i pi/p) with integer p>1), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  9. Responses of Baltic Sea ice and open-water natural bacterial communities to salinity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Laamanen, Maria; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the responses of Baltic Sea wintertime bacterial communities to changing salinity (5 to 26 practical salinity units), an experimental study was conducted. Bacterial communities of Baltic seawater and sea ice from a coastal site in southwest Finland were used in two batch culture experiments run for 17 or 18 days at 0 degrees C. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, and leucine and thymidine incorporation were measured during the experiments. The bacterial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes with sequencing of DGGE bands from initial communities and communities of day 10 or 13 of the experiment. The sea ice-derived bacterial community was metabolically more active than the open-water community at the start of the experiment. Ice-derived bacterial communities were able to adapt to salinity change with smaller effects on physiology and community structure, whereas in the open-water bacterial communities, the bacterial cell volume evolution, bacterial abundance, and community structure responses indicated the presence of salinity stress. The closest relatives for all eight partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained were either organisms found in polar sea ice and other cold habitats or those found in summertime Baltic seawater. All sequences except one were associated with the alpha- and gamma-proteobacteria or the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The overall physiological and community structure responses were parallel in ice-derived and open-water bacterial assemblages, which points to a linkage between community structure and physiology. These results support previous assumptions of the role of salinity fluctuation as a major selective factor shaping the sea ice bacterial community structure.

  10. Austrian decision strenghtens Baltic Unity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu välisministrite kohtumisel Brüsselis tänas Eesti välisminister Urmas Paet kolleege pantvangide vabastamisel osutatud abi eest ning avaldas toetust Leedule Mihhail Golovatovi vabastamisega vallandunud diplomaatilises konfliktis Austriaga

  11. Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; Höglund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

    2012-09-01

    We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper.

  12. Open-circuit fault diagnosis for a grid-connected NPC inverter with unity Power Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, June-Seok;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an open-circuit fault detection method for a grid-connected Neutral-Point Clamped (NPC) inverter. The open-circuit fault mainly occurs due to bonding wire failures like lift-off and crack in the power module where the thermal stress is major factor among the stresses that can ...

  13. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  14. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  15. Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Wiberg, Karin; Broman, Dag; Arp, Hans Peter H; Persson, Ylva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Per

    2008-12-01

    Aqueous concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the open sea have heretofore been measured by filtering and extracting large amounts of water. Measurement of freely dissolved concentrations with this technique is difficult because of corrections for sorption to dissolved organic matter. In this study we use a novel, more economic technique using equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 17-microm thin polyoxymethylene (POM-17), capable of measuring freely dissolved aqueous concentrations (Cw) in pristine (i.e., background) locations. POM-17 was employed in an extensive field campaign at five stations in the open Baltic sea to obtain Cw at two depths (1 m above the seafloor and 25 m below the surface). Median Cw in the overlying water was 2.3 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3 PCDD/Fs and 15 pg/L sum 7-PCB, with generally less than a factor two variation among sites and depths. Also freely dissolved concentrations of native compounds in the surface sediment porewater (C(PW)) were determined in laboratory batch experiments. The data were used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. It was found that the PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in close equilibrium between the sediment porewater and the overlying water. Comparison of C(PW) with total sediment concentrations indicated that more than 90% of the compounds were sorbed to sedimentary black carbon.

  16. Spatiotemporal assessment of water chemistry in intermittently open/closed coastal lakes of Southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astel, Aleksander M.; Bigus, Katarzyna; Obolewski, Krystian; Glińska-Lewczuk, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Ionic profile, pH, electrolytic conductivity, chemical oxygen demand and concentration of selected heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) were determined in water of 11 intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs) located in Polish coastline. Multidimensional data set was explored by the use of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique to avoid supervised and predictable division for fully isolated, partially and fully connected lakes. Water quality assessment based on single parameter's mean value allowed classification of majority of lakes to first or second class of purity according to regulation presenting classification approach applicable to uniform parts of surface waters. The SOM-based grouping revealed seven clusters comprising water samples of similar physico-chemical profile. Fully connected lakes were characterized by the highest concentration of components characteristic for sea salts (NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4, K2SO4 and MgBr2), however spring samples from Łebsko were shifted to another cluster suggesting that intensive surface run-off and fresh-water inflow through Łupawa river decreases an impact of sea water intrusions. Forecasted characteristic of water collected in Resko Przymorskie lake was disturbed by high contamination by nitrites indicating accidental and local contamination due to usage of sodium nitrite for the curing of meat. Some unexpected sources of contamination was discovered in intermittently open and closed lakes. Presumably Zn contamination is due to use of wood preservatives to protect small wooden playgrounds or camping places spread around one of the lake, while increased concentration of Ni could be connected with grass and vegetation burning. Waters of Jamno lake are under the strongest anthropogenic impact due to inefficient removal of phosphates by waste water treatment plant and contamination by Fe and Mn caused by backwashing of absorption filters. Generally, the quality of ICOLLs' water was diversified, while

  17. Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: process-based analogies open common research avenues for biology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2016-08-20

    complement their studies, trying to identify cross-disciplinary and discipline-specific evolutionary processes. The fact that we found many process-based analogies favoring transfer from biology to linguistics further shows that certain biological methods and models have a broader scope than previously recognized. This opens fruitful paths for collaboration between the two disciplines. This article was reviewed by W. Ford Doolittle and Eugene V. Koonin.

  18. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  19. Mastering Unity scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Mastering Unity Scripting is an advanced book intended for students, educators, and professionals familiar with the Unity basics as well as the basics of scripting. Whether you've been using Unity for a short time or are an experienced user, this book has something important and valuable to offer to help you improve your game development workflow.

  20. Behavioral, ecological and genetic differentiation in an open environment--a study of a mysid population in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Martin; Duberg, Jon; Hansson, Sture; Gorokhova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is often assumed to encompass an entire population. However, bimodal nighttime vertical distributions have been observed in various taxa. Mysid shrimp populations also display this pattern with one group concentrated in the pelagia and the other near the bottom. This may indicate alternative migratory strategies, resembling the seasonal partial migrations seen in birds, fishes and amphibians, where only a subset of the population migrates. To assess the persistence of these alternative strategies, we analyzed the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (as proxies for diet), biochemical indices (as proxies for growth condition), and genetic population divergence in the Baltic mysid Mysis salemaai collected at night in the pelagia and close to the bottom. Stable isotope signatures were significantly different between migrants (pelagic samples) and residents (benthic samples), indicating persistent diet differences, with pelagic mysids having a more uniform and carnivorous diet. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI) gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups. Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones. Different migration strategies did not convey measurable growth benefits as pelagic and benthic mysids had similar growth condition indices. Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

  1. Learning NGUI for unity

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Unity 3D developer who wants to create an effective and user-friendly GUI using NGUI for Unity, then this book is for you. Prior knowledge of C# scripting is expected; however, no knowledge of NGUI is required.

  2. Unity multiplayer games

    CERN Document Server

    Stagner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, tutorial manner that uses the learning-by-example approach.If you are a developer who wants to start making multiplayer games with the Unity game engine, this book is for you. This book assumes you have some basic experience with programming. No prior knowledge of the Unity IDE is required.

  3. NGUI for Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardoff, Charles

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, step-by-step tutorial focusing on practical situations and manipulations, guiding you to create a concrete Graphical User Interface and a simple 2D game.If you are a Unity 3D developer looking forward to learn NGUI for Unity, then this book is for you. Prior knowlege of C# scripting is expected. Additional knowledge of Unity 3D Editor, GameObject and creating/adding scripts to GameObject would be beneficial; however, no prior knowledge of NGUI is required.

  4. MUISTIPELISOVELLUS UNITY-PELIALUSTALLE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö oli omavalintainen Android-pelisovellus. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli opetella Unity-pelialustan käyttöä ja toteuttaa sen avulla 2D-muistipeli Android-ohjelmointialustalle. Samalla oli tarkoitus tutustua mobiiliohjelmointiin ja pelikehitykseen. Peli toteutettiin C#-ohjelmointikielellä Unity-ympäristössä käyttäen Unityn MonoDevelop-editoria sekä tarvittavia grafiikoita varten paint.net-ohjelmaa. Peli sisältää menun, ohjeet ja kolme erilaista peliä. Työ toteutettiin vaiheittai...

  5. Unity 4.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Cookbook. From beginners to advanced users, from artists to coders, this book is for you and everyone in your team! This book is for anyone who wants to explore a wide range of Unity scripting and multimedia features and to find ready to use solutions to many game features. Programmers can explore multimedia features, and multimedia developers can try their hand at scripting.

  6. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  7. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr...

  8. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr...

  9. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  10. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  11. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  12. Unity power factor converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  13. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  14. Unity of Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, R R

    2000-01-01

    The vector representation of the linearized gravitational field (the graviton field) or the so called quantum gravitodynamics which describes the motion of masses in a weak gravitational field is employed to understand the unity of the four known interactions. We propose a gauge group SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1)xU(1) for such a unified field theory. In this paper we study the SU(2)xU(1)xU(1) sector of the theory and in analogy to the electroweak mixing angle we define a gravitoweak mixing angle. The unified gauge field theory predicts the existence of three massive vector bosons, the Y+/- and the X^0. and two massless vector bosons, the photon and the graviton (in its vector representation). We determine the mass spectrum of the Y+/- and the X^0 and predict a modification to the fine structure constant under unified field conditions. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the implications of the extended object formulation for the gauge hierarchy problem.

  15. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (cyanobacterium) populations along a Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamanen, Maria J; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-11-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to a fjord-like extension of the Baltic Sea to the open Baltic Sea. Morphological differences among the populations were negligible. We found that the Baltic Sea was dominated (25 out of 27 sequences) by one ITS1-S (shorter band of ITS 1 [ITS1]) genotype, which also was found in the lakes. The lake populations of A. flos-aquae tended to be genetically more diverse than the Baltic Sea populations. Since the lake ITS1-S genotypes of A. flos-aquae are continuously introduced to the Baltic Sea via inflowing waters, it seems that only one ITS1 genotype is able to persist in the Baltic Sea populations. The results suggest that one of the ITS1-S genotypes found in the lakes is better adapted to the conditions of the Baltic Sea and that natural selection removes most of the lake genotypes from the Baltic Sea A. flos-aquae populations.

  16. The CommUnity Workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Cristóvão; Wermelinger, Michel

    2007-01-01

    CommUnity is a formal approach to Software Architecture with a strict separation of the computation, coordination, and distribution aspects. The approach is based on a parallel design language with state, which facilitates the specification of computations compared to the process calculi used by other formal approaches, and on category theory, which provides an intuitive yet precise graph-based semantics for the configuration of components and connectors.\\ud \\ud The CommUnity Workbench is bei...

  17. Gnosticism, church unity and the Nicene Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.C. Coetzee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gnosticism (derived from the Greek word “gnosis; knowledge” is the well-known phenomenon or movement which dates from the first centuries of church history. The teaching of Gnosticism questioned and/or contradicted the teaching of the church on some of the fundamental truths of Scripture. Apart from Gnosticism, the Early Church also had to deal with the heresy of Arianism. In the Nicene Creed, formulated by the councils of Nicea (325 AD and Constantinople (381 AD the universal or catholic church responded officially to the heresies of both Gnosticism and Arianism. In the final edition of the Nicene Creed we also find an article on the unity, holiness, catholicity and apostolicity of the church. Both Gnosticism and Arianism posed a serious threat to the unity of the church.   In our times we experience a revival of ancient Gnosticism, both pagan and “Christian”. This revival is also called the New Age or the Age of Aquarius. Within the framework of this new worldview, we are witnessing a rediscovery of gnosis. The discovery and publication of certain ancient gnostic texts like the Nag Hammadi Codices, play a significant role in this revival. Consequently the canon of Scripture is questioned or openly rejected and also the creeds based on that Scripture.   The Nicene Creed played a major and decisive role in preserving and maintaining the unity of the church on the basis of the truth of Scripture. This age-old creed is today just as relevant and important in proclaiming and confessing the true faith and preserving the true unity of the church.

  18. Approximation property of partition of unity and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinhe WANG; Zhiyuan LI; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The linear combination of certain partition of unity,subordinate to certain open covering of a compact set,is proved to be capable of approximating to a continuous function at arbitrarily precision.By using proper open covering and partition of unity,the robust nonlinear controllers and adaptive laws are designed for a class of nonlinear systems with uncertainties.The states and parameters of the closed-loop systems can be stabilized in the meaning of UUB (uniformly ultimately bounded) via the robust nonlinear controllers and adaptive laws.Finally,an example shows the validity of method in this paper.

  19. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  20. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  1. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  2. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  3. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  4. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  5. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...... at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the longterm wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting...... for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation...

  6. Unity 5 for Android essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Cogut, Valera

    2015-01-01

    This book is perfect for game developers who want to learn how to develop, optimize, and publish games for Android devices in a quick and easy manner using Unity 5. This book assumes a basic knowledge of game design concepts and/or some experience with other game technologies such as Unreal Engine 4, CryEngine, or GameMaker.

  7. The unity of Luke-Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Verheyden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a summary of contributions delivered at he 47th Colloquium Biblicum Lovaniense (1998 held at the Catholic University, Leuven on the subject: "The unity of Luke-Acts". The opening address was delivered by J Verheyden (Leuven on "The Unity of Luke and Acts: What are we up to?". The contributors were: J Kremer (Vienna - "Die dreifache Wiedergabe des Damaskuserlebnis Pauli in der Apostelgeschichte: Eine Hilfe für das rechte Verständnis der lukanischen Osterevangelien"; D Marguerat (Lausanne -"Jusqu' où faut-il parler d'une "unité". Luc-Actes? Continuity et ruptures dans I'ævre de Luc"; JDelobel (Leuven - "The text of Luke-Acts: A confrontation of recent theories"; R L Brawley (Chicago - "Abrahamic covenant traditions and the characterization of God in Luke-Acts"; F W Horn (Mainz - "Die Haltung des Lukas zum römischen Staat im Evangelium und in der Apostelgeschichte"; J A Fitzmyer (Washington - "The role of theSpirit in Luke-Acts"; M Rese (Munster - "The Jews in Luke-Acts: Some secondthoughts"; J Taylor (Jerusalem - "La fraction du pain en Luc-Actes"; W Radl (Augs-burg - "Die Beziehungen der Vorgeschichte zur Apostelgeschichte, dargestellt an Lk 2:22-39; F Neirynck (Leuven - "Luke 4:16-30 and the unity of Luke-Acts"; C M Tuckett (Oxford - "The Christology of Luke-Acts"; O Mainville (Montreal - "Le messianisme de Jésus: Le rapport announce/accomplissement entre Lc 1,35 et Ac 2,33"; A Lindemann (Bethel-Bielefeld - "Form und Funktion von Reden und Wundererzählungen im Lukas-evangelium und in der Apostelgeschichte", A Denaux - The theme of divine visits and human (inhospitability in Luke-Acts and its Old Testament and Graeco-Roman antecedents.

  8. AFRICAN UNITY, IDENTITY AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    contemporary Igbo poems that address contemporary issues bordering on African unity, ... African unity, identity and development are topical issues that attract the attention of some ...... Literary Criticism. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

  9. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  10. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  11. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility close the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  12. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  13. Finding Unity in Computational Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Dale

    2010-01-01

    International audience; While logic was once developed to serve philosophers and mathematicians, it is increasingly serving the varied needs of computer scientists. In fact, recent decades have witnessed the creation of the new discipline of Computational Logic. While Computation Logic can claim involvement in diverse areas of computing, little has been done to systematize the foundations of this new discipline. Here, we envision a unity for Computational Logic organized around the proof theo...

  14. The Necessary Unity of Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    For Frye, the history of ideas is characterized by sets of opposing views which result in repeated cyclical movements in that history. In this study, Brian Russell Graham argues that Frye's own thinking transcends the ordinary history of ideas and offers what might be thought of as a dialectical ......, The Necessary Unity of Opposites expertly clarifies Frye's dialectical thinking, while drawing attention to its structural connection to Blake, Frye's great preceptor....

  15. Organising Baltic Jazz festival

    OpenAIRE

    Väärä, Emmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify how Baltic Jazz festival is organised in a matter of project based thesis, where the main product was the festival held in 2016. The festival is located on Kemiönsaari in Turku Archipelago and it has been up and running for 30 years next year. The paper includes seven key concepts that are important for understanding the field of event management as well as the main operations according to the literature found about special events and festivals. ...

  16. Baltic nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlys, Gediminas; Adliene, Diana [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    The Authors discuss the Baltic energy policy with respect to new nuclear power plants for Lithuania, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. The construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania would threaten Russian interests in the region. Therefore Lithuania is looking to Russian plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Kaliningrad region as an attempt to subvert Lithuania's foreign partners and potential investors from participating in the Visaginas NPP project. However, the authors conclude, that the Visaginas NPP project is and must be the preferential project for the EU and NATO member states.

  17. Theodor Waitz on psychic unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Gustav

    2014-06-01

    The tolerant stance on 'race' by prominent Enlightenment figures was followed in the 19th century by a powerful wave of biological racism. Many of its proponents took the view that human 'races' constitute separate species, and that most non-white ones are of inferior mentality. An early opponent of this claim was James Cowles Prichard, who used mainly missionary reports in seeking to refute it. Far more extensive work was undertaken by the Herbartian psychologist Theodor Waitz, who collected ethnographic material from all over the world. It was published in six volumes - the last two after his death by his former student Georg Gerland. Waitz aim was to demonstrate the 'psychic unity' of mankind. Initially extracts from the volume on African peoples are presented in order to show how he dealt with his material. The main focus is on his first volume entitled Introduction to Anthropology, in which he elaborates his general thesis. In it Waitz maintains, against the biological racists, that mankind is a single species. Furthermore he discusses the changes from savagery to civilization, attributing them to a combination of geography and history. He was followed by Adolf Bastian who, unlike Waitz, was a great traveller with personal experience of peoples all over the globe. Both firmly believed in the psychic unity of mankind, but Bastian's approach to psychology was very different.

  18. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  19. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  20. Pro Unity game development with C#

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The only professional-level book on Unity development with C# Covers in-depth aspects of C# development using Unity Readers will create a full-featured first person shooter and gain the knowledge to build their own professional-quality games.

  1. Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Rajib

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibilit...

  2. Practical game design with Unity and Playmaker

    CERN Document Server

    Mohov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide packed with examples that helps you to build a full-fledged game with the help of Unity and Playmaker. A few exercises and useful external resources are also provided to improve both the game and your skills.This book is for animation artists and 3D artists, designers, and engineers who want to create interactive content with little or no programming. This book is also for game programmers who want to create a game from scratch in Unity and Playmaker. You are expected to have basic knowledge of game programming and Unity 3D.

  3. Creating e-learning games with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Horachek, David

    2014-01-01

    Unity is a fully integrated development engine providing the required functionality to create games and interactive 3D content, while reducing the time, effort, and cost of developing the content. Nowadays, many people have started to use Unity in an eLearning setting as it allows them to create real-world scenarios, or models, for training purposes. With Unity, one can develop video games that are not only fun, but are also effective teaching and learning tools. When properly designed, an engaging game is an ideal platform for the presentation, testing, and application of learning objectives.

  4. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  5. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...

  6. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis...

  7. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module rests inside the open payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. At the top of bay is the docking mechanism first used with launches to Mir, the Russian space station. Unity is the first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  8. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  9. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  10. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  11. The Danish Perspective on Baltic Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Brundtland & Don M. Snider, Nordic-Baltic Security: An International Perspective (Washington D.C.: the Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1994...Martin’s Press, c1992), p. 24. 180berg, p. 24-25. 19Arne Olav Brundtland & Don M. Snider, Nordic-Baltic Security: An International Perspective...Oznobistchev, "Russia in its Neighboring Environment: New Challenges and New Policy?" in Arne Olav Brundtland and Don M. Snider (eds.), Nordic-Baltic

  12. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  13. AN EXPERIMENT WITH THE USE OF PREDICATE TRANSFORMERS IN UNITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKSTRA, RM

    1995-01-01

    Recent work on UNITY is directed towards replacing the relations from UNITY logic by predicated transformers. In one of his Notes on UNITY. Jayadev Misra uses UNITY logic to prove a theorem about dynamic graphs. In this paper we use predicate transformers to prove the same theorem. We consider the e

  14. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  15. Physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaeranta, Matti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Myrberg, Kai [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance. (orig.)

  16. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

    2014-04-15

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.

  17. AirBaltic says RIX favors Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia lennujaama juht märkis 10. märtsi telesaates, et airBaltic ei saa oma arveid õigeks ajaks makstud. AirBaltic süüditab lennujaama Ryanairi soosimises. Valitsus kaalub airBalticule investorite otsimist

  18. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  19. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  20. BALTIC NATIONAL TRANSMISSION NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Olejnikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of Baltic transmission networks, related to the program of the European Union (EU to improve the security of energy supply, competitiveness and improve the development. Infrastructure projects to meet the needs of electricity in the EU are considered. The highlight issues are plan of Baltic energy markets merging and Latvian energy market development tendency

  1. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... to the Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels...... up the recovery of the Baltic Sea such that the sea could be unaffected by eutrofication sooner than without oxygenation pumping . We undertake a representative primary survey of the populations in Sweden, Finland and Lithuania in order to assess the preferences of the population around the Baltic...

  2. Wang Jinzhen Attended the Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta and Baltic Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On October 17,on behalf of CCPIT,Vice-Chairman Wang Jinzhen attended the opening ceremony of the 3rd Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta Region of China and Baltic Sea Region of Europe,where he delivered a speech.

  3. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea : A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstrom, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Hakan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been s

  4. Microplastics and biogeochemical relationships in sediments from Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    This study is a first attempt in Denmark on assessing the presence of microplastics in our open & coastal waters from Baltic to North Sea. Among the conclusions: - Microplastic particles can be found in sediment in Danish waters and is a potential indicator for MSFD. - Normalisation to %TOC...

  5. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach...... to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. Key...

  6. From Dualism to Unity in Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landé, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    Preface; Introduction; 1. Causality, chance, continuity; 2. States, observables, probabilities; 3. The metric law of probabilities; 4. Quantum dynamics; 5. Quantum fact and fiction; Retrospect. From dualism to unity, from positivism to realism; Appendix 1. Survey of elementary postulates; Appendix 2. Two problems of uniqueness; References; Index.

  7. Religious Education in Syria: Unity and Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Monique C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…

  8. Unity of forces at the preon level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Pati, Jogesh C.

    1993-09-01

    In the context of a viable preon model which serves to provide a unified origin of the diverse scales and an explanation for family replication, it is shown that the unity of forces may well occur at the level of preons near the Planck scale in a manner that is novel compared to the conventional approach of elementary quarks and leptons.

  9. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  10. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  11. Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deutsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether dissolved organic matter (DOM in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as δ13C values of high molecular weight DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM that reaches the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations our results indicate that substantial amounts of DOM (>50% seems to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.3, 2.7, and 4.1 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

  12. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... variety in nitrogen fixing species than usual was observed. Under these conditions nitrogen fixation rates were studied over a three weeks period throughout the upper water column. Moreover, a methods comparison was performed to test the dissolved dinitrogen gas additions against the bubble addition...

  13. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  14. Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Fred; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Humborg, Christoph; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viestur; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Thodsen, Hans; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, wh...

  15. Psychology in the Public Forum : Unity in Service?

    OpenAIRE

    David W., Rackham

    1996-01-01

    While a theoretical and methodological unity is beyond the grasp of contemporary psychology, it could be argued that a unity of purpose might be possible if it is recognized that specialized psychological systems and methods, even if irreconcilable at the moment, have all been tapped to provide some sort of service to the wider community. It might be said, therefore, that a kind of unity in diversity actually exists, this unity being in terms of the public service dimension of the psychologic...

  16. Learn Unity 4 for iOS game development

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The only book on Unity 4 game development The only up-to-date book on Unity for iOS Philip Chu is the author of a very popular online Unity tutorial, frequently recommended on sites like StackOverflow

  17. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Niemisto, L. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research (Finland)

    2001-04-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km{sup 2} of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep

  18. The MMU Implementation of Unity-1 Microprocessor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Chuanhua(宋传华); Cheng Xu; Zhu Dexin

    2003-01-01

    Virtual memory management is always a very essential issue of the modern microprocessor design. A memory management unit (MMU) is designed to implement a virtual machine for user programs, and provides a management mechanism between the operating system and user programs. This paper analyzes the tradeoffs considered in the MMU design of Unity-11 CPU of Peking University, and introduces in detail the solution of pure hardware table walking with two-level page table organization. The implementation takes care of required operations and high performances needed by modern operating systems and low costs needed by embedded systems. This solution has been silicon proven, and successfully porting the Linux 2.4.17 kernel, the Xwindow system, GNOME and most application software onto the Unity platform.

  19. Gymnodinium corollarium sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) - a new cold-water dinoflagellate responsible for cyst sedimentation events in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Annica; Kremp, Anke; Daugbjerg, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    unidentified cyst type commonly found in sediment trap samples collected from the northern and central open Baltic Sea. Based on LSU rDNA comparison, these cysts were assigned to G. corollarium. The cysts have been observed in many parts of the Baltic Sea, indicating the ecologic versatility of the species...... revealed a preference of G. corollarium for low salinities and temperatures, confirming it to be a cold-water species well adapted to the brackish water conditions in the Baltic Sea. At nitrogen-deplete conditions, G. corollarium cultures produced small, slightly oval cysts resembling a previously...

  20. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  1. q--Magnetism at roots of unity

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovich, A; Gómez, C

    1993-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a family of integrable 1D spin chain hamiltonians associated with quantum groups at roots of unity. These hamiltonians depend for each primitive root of unit on a parameter $s$ which plays the role of a continuous spin. The model exhibits ferrimagnetism even though the interaction involved is between nearest neighbors. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as a genuine quantum group effect with no ``classical" analog. The discussion of conformal properties is given.

  2. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit;

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...... the BSAP targets are set as target reductions for each countries.  The comparison reveals what the additional costs of fulfilling a political target for each country are instead pursuing a cost effective solution for the Baltic Sea.  In addition  we simulate cost minimising solutions for obtaining...

  3. Thematic Unity Across a Video Game Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brame

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Koji Kondo’s music is among the most recognized video game music ever written. As the composer for both Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo, 1984 and The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo, 1986, he has received international fame and recognition for his game compositions. With The Legend of Zelda series, Kondo has managed to create new music for each iteration of the series while maintaining a sense of unity across the series as a whole. Through the use of motivic and prolongational analysis, this article demonstrates how Kondo created this unity across the entire Zelda franchise, while making each game’s score unique by examining one musical element, the overworld theme, from each of the main entries in the Zelda series. A Schenkerian-like analysis is used to identify structural and motivic relationships between the various themes. This essay concludes with an examination of semiotic implications of this analysis and its impact on other aspects of the Zelda series and game music analysis as a whole. Using concepts from Barthes Elements of Semiology, I discuss the implication of the musical analysis to show how this approach can provide the basis for an in-depth look at musical signs in video games. In this discussion of thematic unity, I’m exploring both musical theme and a semiological theme.

  4. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  5. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    included around 6,100 troops, includes participants from the Partnership for Peace nations of Finland and Sweden , and focused on maritime interdiction...or combine old ways effectively. One way to change signaling is to include Sweden and Finland into a messaging campaign. Though not members of...If invaded and if Russia has A2/AD in the air and in the Baltic Sea, the Baltics lose resupply routes. Forging strong cooperation with Sweden and

  6. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Unity connecting module to the payload canister for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  7. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers attach the overhead crane that will lift the Unity connecting module from its workstand to move the module to the payload canister. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  8. The psycholinguistic approach to unity and diversity The psycholinguistic approach to unity and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Scliar Cabral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of contemporary communication regarding unity and diversity will be examined as follows. On the one hand, globalization provided mainly by mass media, particularly by Internet and the on line electronic mail, will be scrutinized in relation to its psycholinguistic consequences: What are the differences that appear in human processing and how is the logical distinction between unity and diversity faced? How deep are the changes experienced by children, who are acquiring and learning their oral and written languages, using such media? On the other hand, despite globalization, the geometrical growth of science and technology brings with it a parallel lexical explosion: specific texts undermine the possibility of their comprehension by the outsider as if the text was written in a foreign language, and so, the unity of communication is broken and distortions may appear. Some aspects of contemporary communication regarding unity and diversity will be examined as follows. On the one hand, globalization provided mainly by mass media, particularly by Internet and the on line electronic mail, will be scrutinized in relation to its psycholinguistic consequences: What are the differences that appear in human processing and how is the logical distinction between unity and diversity faced? How deep are the changes experienced by children, who are acquiring and learning their oral and written languages, using such media? On the other hand, despite globalization, the geometrical growth of science and technology brings with it a parallel lexical explosion: specific texts undermine the possibility of their comprehension by the outsider as if the text was written in a foreign language, and so, the unity of communication is broken and distortions may appear.

  9. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  10. Project UNITY: Cross Domain Visualization Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Havig, P.

    UNITY is an International Cooperative Research and Development (ICR&D) project between the United States and Great Britain under the Research and Development Projects (RDP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). UNITYs objectives are to develop and evaluate the operational concepts and requirements for undertaking combined operations: a) pursuant to the interests of mission partners, b) develop, experiment, and demonstrate, transitionable emergent technologies, capabilities, or concepts, which facilitate the sharing of information and products between mission partners, and c) identify and define additional emerging technologies that may need to be developed to support current and future military information sharing. Collaboration between coalition partners is essentially for accurate and timely decision making in the ever increasing nature and tempo of global security. The purpose for this project is to develop engineering solutions in order to further investigate the human factors issues that arise while sharing information in a collaborative environment where security is an issue. The biggest difference between existing available solutions are in the presentation and interaction with the interface on both ends of the collaboration in order to preserve the expressed intent of shared situation awareness while also enabling markups and content on one screen that the other collaborator does not see and vice versa. The UNITY project stresses collaboration differently than all known realtime collaboration software in production, aka groupware, on the market today. The tradition of What You See Is What I See (WYSIWIS) as in typical implementations of shared whiteboards simply do not address the need for local and private information to be displayed in context with shareable data. This paper addresses the concerns, problems, and some solutions for shared 3D visualization and 2D tabular visualizations which are explored and presented within the space situation awareness problem

  11. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate profiles from bottle and CTD taken in the Baltic Sea from 1900-04-04 to 2005-08-06 (NODC Accession 0121681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from April 1900 to August 2005 in the Baltic Sea. Vessels from various countries were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were used...

  12. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  13. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  14. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  15. The meaning of meeting as an existential event in the perspective of the paradigm of unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wąsiński Arkadiusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the key meaning of meeting, understood as an existential event and considered in the perspective of the paradigm of unity. The two mentioned categories: meeting and paradigm of unity are not presented in the literature in the context of their direct relation to each other. Therefore, the main problem presented in the paper is: how far they are cognitively relevant. The starting point for reflections is the recognition of a meeting situation in the perspective of human spiritual development which happens through turning towards the other. This development is experienced in overcoming the tension between the declarative attitude towards the mutual love and the real act expressing the actual openness to this gift. According to Chiara Lubich, the gift of love is the central category of the paradigm of unity. If we follow Thomas Kuhn and define the paradigm as a worldview that unites a community in their holistic vision of the world, then it is the meeting that is an integral and necessary element of this paradigm. Experiencing a meeting, in this context, is the condition for reaching the spiritual unity in a community of people who are led by mutual love and out of that love bear with one another in their otherness.

  16. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is moved toward the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88 . The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  17. Harvest Survive : Game Mechanics of Unity 2D Game

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to learn how to create Games in Unity 2D, to see the work-flow and to test if the new Unity 2D feature of the Unity engine was a good alternative for developing 2D games. A further aspect was to learn the different steps and mechanics of the Unity environment. The goal was to create a survival game, in which the player would have to grow plants in order to get food and money to stay alive in a hostile environment. The player has to survive in six different...

  18. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  19. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  20. 'To preserve unity while almost allowing for chaos': Testing the aesthetic principle of unity-in-variety in product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R A G; Blijlevens, J; Hekkert, P

    2016-01-01

    Unity-in-variety is considered to be one of the oldest-known universal principles of beauty. However, little empirical research exists on how unity and variety together influence aesthetic appreciation. In three studies we investigated how unity and variety predict the aesthetic appreciation of a range of product designs, and further assessed whether perceived visual complexity and individual differences in regulatory focus influence this relationship. Our findings reveal that both unity and variety, while suppressing each other's effect, positively affect aesthetic appreciation. Hence, product designs that exhibit an optimum balance between unity and variety are aesthetically preferred. Furthermore, the research reveals that unity is the dominant factor in this relationship and facilitates the appreciation of variety. We discuss several theoretical and practical implications resulting from these studies.

  1. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  2. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  3. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija;

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  4. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  5. Unity, Disunity and Pluralism in Science

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, David A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the problems of consensus and unity in science. The natural sciences seem to contrast with many other areas of endeavor in that a high level of consensus seems to exist in them. However, a careful analysis of the structure of particular physical theories,such as those concerned with electrons, shows that there is great heterogeneity of both theory and methodology. We argue that the natural science community tends to be tolerant of diversity. We contrast this tolerance among natural scientists with the more overt disagreement occurring in the social sciences and humanities. Our central theme is that many intellectual problems arise from straining too hard to make a successful perspective into a total worldview.

  6. Financial contagion of the 2008 crisis: is there any evidence of financial contagion from the US to the Baltic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Kuusk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the research question whether the US 2008 crisis spilled over contagiously to the Baltic States as small open economies. In order to examine the evidence of financial contagion as a systematic component of financial risks in the case of the Baltic States, we employ several testing methodologies like correlation coefficients based methods adjusting also with possible heteroskedasticity and ARCH-GARCH framework. The results are somewhat mixed. On the one hand, stock returns’ correlations between US and Baltic States increased during crisis times, confirming the financial contagion hypothesis. On the other hand, volatility has not spilled over from US to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, neither have volatility spillovers become stronger after the crisis hit.

  7. Is there unity within the discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger A

    2012-07-01

    This paper will examine a claim that nursing is united by its moral stance. The claim is that there are moral constraints on nurses' actions as people practising nursing (nurses qua nurses) and that they are in some way different from both what for now can be called standard morality and also different from the person's own moral views who also happens to be a nurse, hence the defining and unifying factor for nursing. I will begin by situating the claim within the broader area about the need for a definition to state features that are essential to all and only members of its class. This will highlight the fact that there are two distinct types of definition used by authors seeking to find a unity for nursing. One type of definition has to do with goals or purposes given to nursing and the other with ends discovered as nursing. But even if there are ends waiting to be discovered a particular practical concern is how we can have knowledge of them. I will suggest that knowledge by intuition is plausible but that as things currently stand in moral epistemology it will not provide the unifying ground for nursing. Then I will argue that in the latter approach to definition a certain account of human nature has been advanced in order to provide features that are there to be discovered and so not dependent on human beings for the definition or classification. However, such an attempt to define nursing cannot do what is wanted. Rather than the account of human nature grounding morality and doing so for nursing, the account of human nature itself relies upon a prior account of morality. Because of this it loses its supposed ground of unity for the profession. Nursing is not united by its moral stance especially if this is understood in a strong sense as unique moral stance, but as things currently stand in moral epistemology this is not necessarily a bad thing for practitioners or patients.

  8. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  9. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  10. 基于Unity3D的房间仿真技术%Room simulation technology based on Unity3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩桂明; 周凌; 赵志鹏

    2014-01-01

    随着虚拟现实技术的不断发展,3D软件平台在虚拟现实领域起到了关键的作用。本文主要讨论基于Unity3D平台针对虚拟校园的房间仿真关键技术研究及其实现。其内容主要可分为房间3D建模设计和对房间的基本操作设计两个部分。房间的3D建模利用的是3DMax建模软件实现的,其中包括对房间墙壁、窗户、门及内部设备等模型的创建。对房间的基本操作主要是利用Unity3D平台,实现了碰撞区域触发和射线触发碰撞两种开门方法。%With the development of virtual reality technology,the 3D software platform has played a key role in the virtual reality.This paper mainly discusses the key technology and its realization of room simulation in virtual campuses based on Unity 3D.It includes the 3D modeling and basic operation design of the room.The 3D modeling of the room is realized by 3DMax modeling software,including the modeling of the walls,windows,doors and indoor facilities of the room.The basis operation of the room is performed on the Unity3D platform,which helps to realize the two door-opening methods:collision zone trigger and ray trigger collision.

  11. Rethinking the European Union: From Unity in Diversity to Diversity in Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Placing the current European Union crises (among them being the Euro crisis, the Greek crisis and the economic crisis into a long term perspective and taking into account the characteristics and consequences of the globalisation process, the author presents arguments to support the idea of a new approach regarding the very essence of the European integration model. This new approach is based on an evolutionary perspective of the European Union in which all that has already been achieved is used while the philosophy of the institutions and of the legal framework is reinterpreted by changing the accent of the European Union motto from “Unity in Diversity” to “Diversity in Unity”. The conclusion of the paper is that European Union needs to reconnect to its own realities and that, by accepting diversity in its existing unity rather than enforcing unity upon diversity, it can alleviate existing tensions, reconnect to citizens, restart innovation and creativity and find a better place in the global context.

  12. Honoring Religion as a Source of Diversity and Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Stephen V.

    2005-01-01

    Unity without diversity is, at best, boring, and at worse, totalitarian. Diversity without unity constantly threatens to degenerate, at best, into tensions and failures at cooperation and, at worst, into genocide. The sources of diversity in the United States are many. Racial and ethnic differences as well as differences based on national origins,…

  13. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) Unity is suspended in air as it is moved to a now location in the SSPF. At right, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  14. Unity connecting module lowered to new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is lowered to its new location in the SSPF. In the background, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  15. Unity connecting module placed in new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is placed in a work station in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  16. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  17. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  18. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  19. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  20. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  1. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  2. Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    it is neither exclusivist nor chauvinistic, and cooperation across national lines, particularly with other Baltic groups, is commonplace and effec... exclusivist or chauvinistic. Indeed, one of its trademarks has been an unflagging concern for the rights of other nations and a desire to coperate with

  3. DMI's Baltic Sea Coastal operational forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Berg, Per; Weismann Poulsen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Operational forecasting is challenged with bridging the gap between the large scales of the driving weather systems and the local, human scales of the model applications. The limit of what can be represented by local model has been continuously shifted to higher and higher spatial resolution, with the aim to better resolve the local dynamic and to make it possible to describe processes that could only be parameterised in older versions, with the ultimate goal to improve the quality of the forecast. Current hardware trends demand a str onger focus on the development of efficient, highly parallelised software and require a refactoring of the code with a solid focus on portable performance. The gained performance can be used for running high resolution model with a larger coverage. Together with the development of efficient two-way nesting routines, this has made it possible to approach the near-coastal zone with model applications that can run in a time effective way. Denmarks Meteorological Institute uses the HBM(1) ocean circulation model for applications that covers the entire Baltic Sea and North Sea with an integrated model set-up that spans the range of horizontal resolution from 1nm for the entire Baltic Sea to approx. 200m resolution in local fjords (Limfjord). For the next model generation, the high resolution set-ups are going to be extended and new high resolution domains in coastal zones are either implemented or tested for operational use. For the first time it will be possible to cover large stretches of the Baltic coastal zone with sufficiently high resolution to model the local hydrodynamic adequately. (1) HBM stands for HIROMB-BOOS-Model, whereas HIROMB stands for "High Resolution Model for the Baltic Sea" and BOOS stands for "Baltic Operational Oceanography System".

  4. Decentralized adaptive robust controller design for complex system based on partition of unity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenqing; HAN Chongzhao

    2007-01-01

    A new method for designing decentralized adaptive robust controllers was proposed which focuses on a class of more general uncertain complex systems,using the concept of the partition of unity in differential geometry to deal with system uncertainties.In this method the uncertainty of the system to be controlled was normalized firstly,and then the partition of unity that was subordinated to an open covering of state variables compact set was constructed.Subsequently the approximation was realized by using its property that can approximate nonlinear continuous function with arbitrary precision,and then the decentralized adaptive robust controller of complex systems and adaptive laws of approximate parameter estimation were designed.Compared to existing methods,the proposed algorithm requires simpler assumed conditions and no complicated computations.Simulation result shows that the method is valid.

  5. Unity and diversity in human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-02-12

    Human language is both highly diverse-different languages have different ways of achieving the same functional goals-and easily learnable. Any language allows its users to express virtually any thought they can conceptualize. These traits render human language unique in the biological world. Understanding the biological basis of language is thus both extremely challenging and fundamentally interesting. I review the literature on linguistic diversity and language universals, suggesting that an adequate notion of 'formal universals' provides a promising way to understand the facts of language acquisition, offering order in the face of the diversity of human languages. Formal universals are cross-linguistic generalizations, often of an abstract or implicational nature. They derive from cognitive capacities to perceive and process particular types of structures and biological constraints upon integration of the multiple systems involved in language. Such formal universals can be understood on the model of a general solution to a set of differential equations; each language is one particular solution. An explicit formal conception of human language that embraces both considerable diversity and underlying biological unity is possible, and fully compatible with modern evolutionary theory.

  6. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena abundance in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidat, M.; Gilles, A.; Kock, K. H.; Siebert, U

    2008-01-01

    Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is the only cetacean species resident in the Baltic Sea. At least 2 different subpopulations occur in this area, with a presumed demarcation line in the western Baltic Sea. Aerial surveys were conducted during different seasons in the years 2002 to 2006, to obtain estimates of porpoise abundance for the southwestern Baltic. Within the survey area, 3 strata were defined. In total, 46 surveys were completed for these strata. Abundance estimates and correspondi...

  7. Learning C# by developing games with Unity 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This book uses the learning-by-example approach. It takes simple examples from games to introduce all the main concepts of programming in an easy-to-digest and immediately recognizable way.This book is for the total beginner to any type of programming, focusing on the writing of C# code and scripts only. There are many parts that make up the Unity game engine. It is assumed that the reader already knows their way around Unity's user interface. The code editor used in this book is the MonoDevelop editor supplied by Unity.

  8. Mobiilipelin suunnittelu, toteutus ja testaus Unity3D-pelimoottorilla

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on näyttää eri työvaiheet, jotka kuuluvat mobiilipelin suunnittelemiseen, toteuttamiseen ja testaamiseen Unity3D-pelimoottorilla. Työn toimeksiantajana toimi Marimo Games. Työssä keskitytään pääasiassa Kosunin pelin pelattavuuden kehittämiseen ja optimoimiseen. Peli kehitettiin C#-ohjelmointikielellä Unity-ympäristössä. Pilveen tallennettavien tietojen kanssa käytettiin GameSparks-sivuston palveluita. Työn aikana Unity3D-pelimoottori todettiin monipuoliseksi ...

  9. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  10. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  11. Theory of Transcendent unity of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ali Torkamany

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-analytic study by method in the form of a library in the field of Sciences of Quran and Hadith and suggests a new theory on difference of views about the religious judgments. The main problem is in one hand, the Quran's recognition of the plurality of religions in some verses and in other hand,the other verses those can be seen on the negation of religious plurality. In light of certain verses in this issue, some of thinkers have raised under different titles such as Traditionalism or religious pluralism and the unity of religions and religious pluralism and so on. mentioned religions in Quran, are essentially same in the Islam and monotheism. Thus there are the consensus on essential unity of religions and disagreement onhistoric unity of religions that is a source of more disagreements and different issues. Quran has determined the "bestdispute" asa method of dealing with religious laws that requires faith to common elements that is the "Islam" , although the "bestdispute" in light of the transcendental unity. This means that "best dispute" is a line between practical and theoretical pluralism. Instead of denying the "people of the Book", you shouldtake "Astbqa on charity" or overtaking on virtues. The rule stated in the Qur'an can be call"penetration in religion" and through this we can have better understand of the Qur'an's emphasis on reinforcement the Torah and the Gospel. However It should not be as pluralists, we have means Islam as only a religion in other religions.according to the Qur'an, the Prophet is the witness of the Muslims and people of Islam are witnesses of other peoples. total of true and mystical interpretation of the verses with these verses that explain Muslim religious superiorityindicate that the teachings of Islam has started fromthe holy scriptures, but under the prestige and the testimony of the teachings of the Prophet can be searched. In the Quran, the Muslim community have been called "moderate

  12. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren S; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a multifaceted disease associated with several risk factors and a complex clinical presentation. We established the Scandinavian Baltic Pancreatic Club (SBPC) Database to characterise and study the natural history of CP in a Northern European cohort. Here......: The study cohort comprised of 910 patients (608 men: 302 women; median age 58 (IQR: 48-67) years with definite 848 (93%) or probable CP 62 (7%). Nicotine (70%) and alcohol (59%) were the most frequent aetiologies and seen in combination in 44% of patients. A history of recurrent acute pancreatitis was seen......, we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report...

  13. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  14. Spirituality of unity in management - Economy of Communion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grochmal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spirituality of unity in management processes is presented in the paper. The idea of the Economy of Communion (EoC project and its realization in more than 800 businesses worldwide as an example of the striving for the eradication of poverty and new style of management is analysed. As an implementation of spirituality in management process, a new paradigm of unity in management sciences is proposed. On the basis of analysis of literature and discussions with experts and entrepreneurs of EoC businesses, six content dimensions of the paradigm of unity are formulated and the empirical research on the evaluation of these dimensions by testing the entrepreneurs of 110 businesses from 22 countries as well the management experts is considered. This research allowed verifying the hypothesis that the paradigm of unity shapes a new organizational culture by the creation of a suitable organizational climate in the EoC businesses.

  15. US Immigration Policy and the Case for Family Unity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoya Gubernskaya; Joanna Dreby

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper reviews and critically evaluates the principle of family unity, a hallmark of US immigration policy over the past 50 years and the most important mechanism for immigration to the United States...

  16. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  17. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  18. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  19. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  20. Unity Module in the Payload Bay for STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity module inside the shuttle payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Endeavour is scheduled to fly on mission STS-88, the first Space Shuttle flight for the assembly of the International Space Station, on December 3, 1998. The primary payload on the mission is the Unity connecting module, which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya Control Module already in orbit at that time.

  1. Unity connecting module in the Space Station Processing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the end at the right can be seen the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, which provides entry into the module. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  2. The shape of a rapidly rotating polytrope with index unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Jerzy; Mach, Patryk; Odrzywołek, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We show that the solutions obtained in the paper `An exact solution for arbitrarily rotating gaseous polytropes with index unity' by Kong, Zhang, and Schubert represent only approximate solutions of the free-boundary Euler-Poisson system of equations describing uniformly rotating, self-gravitating polytropes with index unity. We discuss the quality of such solutions as approximations to the rigidly rotating equilibrium polytropic configurations.

  3. Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenberger, Sonja; De Giovanni, Renato; Kulawik, Robert; Williams, Alan R; Bourlat, Sarah J; Maggs, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest semi-enclosed brackish water bodies characterized by many special features, including endemic species that may be particularly threatened by climate change. We mapped potential distribution patterns under present and future conditions for a community with three trophic levels. We analysed climate-induced changes in the species' distribution patterns and examined possible consequences for the chosen food web. Baltic Sea and northern Europe. We developed two open-source workflow-based analytical tools: one for ecological niche modelling and another for raster layer comparison to compute the extent and intensity of change in species' potential distributions. Individual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north-eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus,I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa,F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica and I. chelipes into the distribution area of

  4. Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenberger, Sonja; De Giovanni, Renato; Kulawik, Robert; Williams, Alan R; Bourlat, Sarah J; Maggs, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aim The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest semi-enclosed brackish water bodies characterized by many special features, including endemic species that may be particularly threatened by climate change. We mapped potential distribution patterns under present and future conditions for a community with three trophic levels. We analysed climate-induced changes in the species' distribution patterns and examined possible consequences for the chosen food web. Location Baltic Sea and northern Europe. Methods We developed two open-source workflow-based analytical tools: one for ecological niche modelling and another for raster layer comparison to compute the extent and intensity of change in species' potential distributions. Individual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Results Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north-eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. Main conclusions For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus,I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa,F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica

  5. Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John; Ekman, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water bodies, using high throughput sequencing of environmental DNA and RNA. Collectively the data illustrate that Baltic Sea microbes are unique and highly diverse, and well adapted to this brackish-water ecosystem, findings that represent a novel base-line knowledge necessary for monitoring purposes and a sustainable management. More specifically, the data relate to environmental drivers for microbial community composition and function, assessments of the microbial biodiversity, adaptations and role of microbes in the nitrogen cycle, and microbial genome assembly from metagenomic sequences. With these discoveries as background, prospects of using metagenomics for Baltic Sea environmental monitoring are discussed.

  6. Review: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009 Buchbesprechung: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bierschenk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 Seiten.

  7. A new unity for angular measurements in strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The practical advantages of quantifying an angle by a ratio of linear lengths instead of arcs of circles has led to the definition of the prism-diopter, a conventional unity for numbering prisms and measuring strabismic deviations. However, a major inconvenience of using prism-diopter unities to express angular measurements is the non-linearity of the scale, which reaches an infinite value for the angle of 90º, then becomes negative, with decreasing magnitudes for increasing angles between 90º and 180º. As a consequence, arithmetical operations and comparisons of angles measured by such unities present errors of very great magnitudes. In order to retain the advantages of defining an angle by straight line dimensions but to diminish the severe inconveniences of this method, a new definition of the prism-diopter is proposed. Here, instead of defining the prism-diopter by the asymmetrical condition, the conception of this new unity is based on a geometrically symmetrical condition; that of the relationship of an isosceles triangle (where the leg is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle and the bisector itself . The condition of symmetry for the definition of the new unity represents a conceptual advance because it reproduces the already well accepted, conventional criteria for quantifying the value of a prism, that of its minimum deviation. Furthermore, it corresponds to the most commonly observed clinical conditions of binocular balance. The absolute differences between the unitary values of the prism-diopter and that of the new unity are negligible (0.0025%, but the scale of values expressed by the new unity is closer to the ideal scale of angular measurements. (With the new unity, the infinite value is only reached for an angle of 180º and the errors due to arithmetical operations are much smaller. Numerical examples showing the advantages of using the new unity of angular measurements instead of the prism-diopter are presented. A

  8. A new unity for angular measurements in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicas, Harley E A

    2014-10-01

    The practical advantages of quantifying an angle by a ratio of linear lengths instead of arcs of circles has led to the definition of the prism-diopter, a conventional unity for numbering prisms and measuring strabismic deviations. However, a major inconvenience of using prism-diopter unities to express angular measurements is the non-linearity of the scale, which reaches an infinite value for the angle of 90º, then becomes negative, with decreasing magnitudes for increasing angles between 90º and 180º. As a consequence, arithmetical operations and comparisons of angles measured by such unities present errors of very great magnitudes. In order to retain the advantages of defining an angle by straight line dimensions but to diminish the severe inconveniences of this method, a new definition of the prism-diopter is proposed. Here, instead of defining the prism-diopter by the asymmetrical condition, the conception of this new unity is based on a geometrically symmetrical condition; that of the relationship of an isosceles triangle (where the leg is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle and the bisector itself ). The condition of symmetry for the definition of the new unity represents a conceptual advance because it reproduces the already well accepted, conventional criteria for quantifying the value of a prism, that of its minimum deviation. Furthermore, it corresponds to the most commonly observed clinical conditions of binocular balance. The absolute differences between the unitary values of the prism-diopter and that of the new unity are negligible (0.0025%), but the scale of values expressed by the new unity is closer to the ideal scale of angular measurements. (With the new unity, the infinite value is only reached for an angle of 180º and the errors due to arithmetical operations are much smaller.) Numerical examples showing the advantages of using the new unity of angular measurements instead of the prism-diopter are presented. A mathematical

  9. Multimission satellite altimetric data validation in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of altimetric data is crucial for investigating the regional sea level variability. Few works has been performed to validate the altimetric data [1, 2] in the Baltic Sea. The exploring of multi-mission altimetric data in the Baltic Sea has yet to be published. The number of available...

  10. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...

  11. Baltic dimension of the European security and defence policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gladysh

    2015-03-01

    The basic threats and security challenges for the Baltic States nowadays are defined, including possible aggression from Russia, which is broadcasted through the mainstream media as a reaction to the idea of protecting Russian­speaking population of the Baltic States and the establishment of «geopolitical balance through their return to the Russian sphere of influence».

  12. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  13. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  14. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  15. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    For two consecutive days during spring 1997, the wind field over the Baltic Sea has been studied. The strength of the geostrophic wind speed is the major difference in synoptic conditions between these two days. During both days, the mesoscale wind field over most of the Baltic Sea is quite heter...

  16. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  17. airBaltic claims to be subsidizing Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Riia lennujaama väitel võlgneb airBaltic neile 3,5 miljoni euro väärtuses lennujaamatasusid ning annab lennufirma kohtusse. airBaltic on aga lennujaama diskrimineeriva käitumise tõttu pöördunud konkurentsiameti poole

  18. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  19. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  20. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing r...... catchability and thereby the assessment and exploitation patterns of this stock...

  1. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  2. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), Unity (top) is suspended in air as it is moved to a new location (bottom left)in the SSPF. To its left is Leonardo, the Italian-built Multi- Purpose Logistics Module to be launched on STS-100. Above Leonardo, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  3. Investigating Advances in the Acquisition of Systems Based on Open Architecture and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Copyright 2003-2008 Rodrigo B. Oliveira 4. UnityScript, Copyright 2005-2008 Rodrigo B. Oliveira 5. OpenAL cross platform audio library, Copyright...not know. ACM Computing Surveys, (in press). [5] Hauge, O., Ayala , C. and Conradi, R. (2010). Adoption of Open Source Software in Software- Intensive

  4. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  5. The Search for Unity in Early Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Atış

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the influence of two different kinds of the search for unity on the conceptual development of this era of Greek philosophy. The reason for this aim is that the influence of the search for unity continues to shape the concepts in the following stages of Greek philosophy. This influence is seen in philosophy’s aim of putting forward the one and only being. For this reason, this paper is based on the concepts of arche and being in Anaximandros and Parmenides. The reason for limiting this investigation with these two philosophers is that the acceptance of the one and only being as a result of the search for unity has been formed o the basis of the philosophies of these two philosophers.

  6. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  7. Unity-Based Diversity: System Approach to Defining Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What is information? This is the first question that information science should answer clearly. However, the definitions of information have been so diversified that people are questioning if there is any unity among the diversity, leading to a suspicion on whether it is possible to establish a unified theory of information or not. To answer this question, a system approach to defining information is introduced in this paper. It is proved that the unity of information definitions can be maintained with this approach. As a by-product, an important concept, the information eco-system, was also achieved.

  8. Optimization of Field Development Scheduling, East Unity Oil Field, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa A. Musa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reservoir performance in East Unity oil field Sudan, the studies focused on characterization, modeling and simulation of the actual performance and future development. A model was constructed using a three-phase, three dimensional, black oil simulator (ECLIPSE. In this study a data from East Unity oil field Sudan started production at July 1999 was used to perform the optimal oil rate and designing the best location of the new operating wells. Cumulative oil production, oil production rate, Water cut and recovery factor were used as key criteria to see if adding new wells in the area under study are economic risk.

  9. Mobiilipelin kehitys Unity-ympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia Unity-pelinkehitysympäristöä ja sen soveltuvuutta pelien kehittämiseen. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää, mikä Unity on ja miten sen kanssa työskennellään. Työn ohessa kehitettiin mobiilipeli Android-käyttöjärjestelmälle Unityohjelmistoa käyttäen ja valmis peli julkaistiin Google Play -palvelussa. Pelin kehityksen aikana huomattiin Unityn olevan helposti lähestyttävä, mutta silti erittäin monipuolinen pelinkehitysympäristö, joka tarjoaa erilaisen lähestymist...

  10. GALERKIN MESHLESS METHODS BASED ON PARTITION OF UNITY QUADRATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-hong; LU De-tang

    2005-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is an important ingredient of Galerkin meshless methods. A new numerical quadrature technique, partition of unity quadrature (PUQ),for Galerkin meshless methods was presented. The technique is based on finite covering and partition of unity. There is no need to decompose the physical domain into small cell. It possesses remarkable integration accuracy. Using Element-free Galerkin methods as example, Galerkin meshless methods based on PUQ were studied in detail. Meshing is always not required in the procedure of constitution of approximate function or numerical quadrature, so Galerkin meshless methods based on PUQ are "truly"meshless methods.

  11. Unity of Opposite between Harry Potter and Voldemort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋紫珍

    2016-01-01

    Series Harry Potter belongs to novel of magic realism. Although series Harry Potter is divided into children's literary works, it attracts people in all age groups. As hero of Harry Potter, Harry, a boy who mature gradually, has unusual experience of resisting Dark Lord Voldemort. Obviously, Harry and Voldemort, who stand for justice and evil separately, are important roles in novel. J.K Rowling designs many connect and coincidence between Harry and Voldemort to lead the development of plot. In fact, Harry and Voldemort are in a unity of opposite. Therefore, the work presented in this paper will focus on unity of opposite between Harry Potter and Voldemort.

  12. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  13. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  14. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  15. On the unity of International Law Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Martín Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become a truism that international lawyers are, nowadays, facing a sharp disagreement regarding the main methodological foundations of the discipline. The issue cannot be whether or not there is such a division in the IL school of thought, but which its specific features are. In the present paper, it is submitted here that the current situation is not due to the various methodologies at our disposal, but an actual paradigmatic schism with deep repercussions on the main research agenda. This paradigmatic split steers our attention to the incommensurability of the different paradigms at stake, and consequently the mere possibility of a meaningful communicative interaction between them is dismissed. This picture, though, may be not fully convincing. This multi-paradigmatic state and its ongoing reissue could be seen in a different way, once we accept that neither perfect communication ever obtains nor absolute lack of contradiction is such an epistemological premise. Then, the admittedly existing cross-references, links and overlaps between different approaches can be interpreted not as a paradigmatic mistake (a sort of an internally dysfunctional approach, but as an acknowledgement by each paradigm of its inability to fully explain International Law reality and its openness to alterity, i.e., a recognition of other paradigms as legitimate interlocutors. This interparadigmatic dialogue, that is also noticeable in the main debates on IL structure, shows the most appropriate direction for international lawyers to follow, even if a final paradigmatic converging horizon is not conceivable or even possible.

  16. Potential of Iraqi Local Councils to facilitate Iraqi National Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    34 11 said James Miller of the Center for New American Security in Washington. Although achieving national unity is admittedly a daunting task...gain power and build confidence in the people that [reform] would finally come.” 104 Dr. Omar, an anesthesiologist and local council member

  17. q-ultraspherical polynomials for q a root of unity

    CERN Document Server

    Spiridonov, V P

    1996-01-01

    Properties of the q-ultraspherical polynomials for q being a primitive root of unity are derived using a formalism of the so_q(3) algebra. The orthogonality condition for these polynomials provides a new class of trigonometric identities representing discrete finite-dimensional analogs of q-beta integrals of Ramanujan.

  18. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  19. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  20. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  1. Exponential B-splines and the partition of unity property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Massopust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We provide an explicit formula for a large class of exponential B-splines. Also, we characterize the cases where the integer-translates of an exponential B-spline form a partition of unity up to a multiplicative constant. As an application of this result we construct explicitly given pairs of dual...

  2. Unity in Diversity: The View from the (UAE) Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This talk is about finding "unity in diversity". I ask how we can best focus our research efforts and then design our teaching for those of us involved with teaching language for specific business purposes in the Asia Pacific region and the Middle East. In parts 1 and 2 of the presentation I discuss how we need to (i) refer to empirical…

  3. Enabling Unity of Effort in Response Activities during Complex Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water , winddriven water , tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption , landslide...the Insurrection Act, and the Stafford Act. Perhaps the most efficient means to achieve unity of effort would be to consolidate all forces under a...possible under our federalist system of government, where respective authorities are divided between federal, state and local jurisdictions. The most

  4. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  5. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  6. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  7. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  8. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  9. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  10. Biological detectors of radioactive contamination in the Baltic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagge, P; Salo, A

    1967-01-01

    Some bottom and pelagic animals are described, which could be used as indicators of radioactive contamination in Baltic environments, and some preliminary data on their concentrating rates and factors...

  11. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  12. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology......-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...

  13. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  14. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  15. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  17. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  18. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    approval-rating-at- record-levels 22 Robert M. Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), 272. 23 TASS (Russian News...breedlove-explains-implications-of- information-in-hybrid-warfare- 48 Katya Adler , “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article...Unconventional Warfare, Ukraine 2013-2014”, (Fort Bragg, NC), 39. Articles Adler , Katya. “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article, 06

  19. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Arvydas Kregzde; Gediminas Murauskas

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveal...

  20. The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In addition, leaders in the Baltic States share many views that are closer to the Nordic nations and the EU than the United States . The issue for...high-tax and highly regulated social welfare states of Western Europe, which, by the 1990s, had achieved a state of low growth, high unemploy- ment...government in the coup of August 1991, the three Baltic States broke completely with Moscow and were quickly recognized as independent nations by the Nordic

  1. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  2. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  3. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    CERN Document Server

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space astrometry realistic, resulting in the approval by ESA of the first astrometry satellite Hipparcos in 1980 which brought a revolution of high-precision astrometry of positions, motions and distances of stars. The correspondence with ten observatories shows that only one of them has any archive of letters at all from the 1950s, that is in Copenhagen where about 7000 letters on scientific and administrative matters are extant.

  4. Calvin’s view on church discipline and unity: a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Strauss

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The reformer John Calvin, born in 1509, considers discipline and unity as two essential aspects of the Christian church. According to him, the bond of church discipline is a way to unite church members in the truth of the Word and the Christian faith based thereupon. If discipline is exercised with exaggerated strictness and without compassion, tolerance and love, it can break the unity. Because church unity is essentially a unity of faith, or a unity in the truth of the Word, discipline can sever adulterated elements that threaten the unity from the church. Discipline, if correctly ap- plied, builds the unity of the church as a unity in religious truths.

  5. 78 FR 2415 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Family Unity Benefits, Form Number I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... for Family Unity Benefits, Form Number I-817; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30... approved information. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3)...

  6. Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ping; Deinega, Alexei; Hsieh, Mei-Li; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2013-10-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of the effect of parallel-to-interface-refraction (PIR) in a three-dimensional, simple-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic-crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (λ). The consequence is a longer path length of light in the medium and an improved light absorption beyond the Lambertian limit. As an illustration of the effect, we show near-unity total absorption (≥98%) in λ=520-620 nm and an average absorption of ~94% over λ=400-700 nm for our α-Si:H photonic-crystal sample of an equivalent bulk thickness of t˜=450 nm. Furthermore, we have achieved an ultra-wide angular acceptance of light over θ=0°-80°. This demonstration opens up a new door for light trapping and near-unity solar absorption over broad λs and wide angles.

  7. Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Å.; Jönsson, A.; Rahm, L.

    2007-05-01

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension. The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40-60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle.

  8. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  9. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  10. Kas Baltic Talks on oma missiooni täitnud? / Tiit Meren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meren, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    21.-24. septembril toimus Tapal Läänemere-äärsete riikide reservohvitseride traditsiooniline suurfoorum Baltic Talks 2006. 1931. aastal Norra ja Rootsi reservohvitseride algatatud Nording Meeting ning Baltic Talks'i algus

  11. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office action...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... UNDER SECTION 245A OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.37 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service...

  13. Dark Awakening : Creació d'un videojoc en Unity

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Torregrosa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'un videojoc de ciència ficció en Unity per a web i PC. Desarrollo de un videojuego de ciencia ficción en Unity para web y PC. Sci-fi videogame development in Unity for web and PC.

  14. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  15. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  16. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  17. Literature, Society And The Writer In Tripartite Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nworah Anaso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The proactive unity of purpose between Literature, society and the writer is the main focus of this paper. Writers use Literature to address various important themes or the goings on in the society, with the purpose of edifying its virtues and condemning the vices so as to adulate the good deeds or correct the society where it goes wrong. However, this role often exposes the writer to danger and risks from vested interests. The paper nevertheless recommends both local and international actions that could be explored to enhance Literature, society and the writer’s works. It concludes with the submission that with proper political education, the society would be better placed to choose more responsible leaders so that the lots of the society would be better enhanced. In this way the tripartite unity and the full potentials of Literature and writers in society would be realized.

  18. Biophysical body-brain-mind unity: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisberg, Y

    2000-03-01

    A novel substance-attributed biophysical theory of brain-mind unity is presented. We separate spiritualism and matters of the soul from the medical sphere. Biophysical principles are responsible for the body's operational regimen (BOR) in the homeostatic state which allows for materialization and emergence of the mind; Excitation and/or inhibition modulate 8 BOR stages. There is automatic (somatic) and non-automatic (biophysical and psychological) Circadian cycle control. Computer-analog input and output occurs in wired neuronal electric pathways. Biotechnological devices located in emotional neurons positively signal homeostatic and negatively signal deranged BOR and biophysical mind operations. Macro and/or micro cerebral lesions which affect homeostasis may cause psychopathology, which can be treated with 'instrumental psychotherapy' (IPT) which enables recovery from homeostatic disorder in Phase 1, refining EGO in Phase 2, and social competence in Phase 3. The theory of brain-mind unity and practice of IPT is geared to medical workers and biophysical psychologists.

  19. A "unity assumption" does not promote intersensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misceo, Giovanni F; Taylor, Nathanael J

    2011-01-01

    An account of intersensory integration is premised on knowing that different sensory inputs arise from the same object. Could, however, the combination of the inputs be impaired although the "unity assumption" holds? Forty observers viewed a square through a minifying (50%) lens while they simultaneously touched the square. Half could see and half could not see their haptic explorations of the square. Both groups, however, had reason to believe that they were touching and viewing the same square. Subsequent matches of the inspected square were mutually biased by touch and vision when the exploratory movements were visible. However, the matches were biased in the direction of the square's haptic size when observers could not see their exploratory movements. This impaired integration without the visible haptic explorations suggests that the unity assumption alone is not enough to promote intersensory integration.

  20. The Heidelberg Catechism: A 16th century quest for unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution the view is presented that the Heidelberg Catechism should be regarded as an attempt to promote unity between 16th century reformers and churches in the Palatinate. This, to some extent, determined the content of the Catechism resulting in some controversial issues receiving less attention. This in turn not only made the Catechism acceptable to a wide spectrum of Reformed Christianity, but also resulted in a creative and unique contribution to Reformed theology, almost a ‘third option’. It was soon used in different Reformed territories as a confession and acclaimed for its clarity in formulating the basic Reformed faith. Today the Heidelberg Catechism is regarded as one of the most ‘ecumenical’ documents of the 16th century. As such, it still promotes unity amongst many Reformed churches, including those in South Africa.

  1. Revising Distributed UNITY Programs is NP-Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    construction. Organization. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we present the preliminary concepts. Then, we formally state...Section 5, we present our results on the complexity of addition of Unity progress properties. We also present our symbolic heuristic and experimental...i.e., s can be extended to an infinite computation by stuttering at sl. On the other hand, if there exists a state sd such that an outgoing transition

  2. Timequake: A Unity of Incredulity to Metanarratives and Historiographic Metafiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xiaojin; He Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    A textual analysis of Kurt Vonnegut's Timequake shows that its postmodern features can be illustrated in the light of Francois Lyotard's metanarrative theory and Linda Hutcheon's historiographic metafiction.Even though Timequake has left on readers an impression of fragmentary and chaotic narration and thereby may be accused of being intentionally misleading and meaningless, we can still probe the underlying meaning of the fiction and find it, at least part of it, to be a unity of incredulity to metanarratives and historiographic metafiction.

  3. Unity and inevitability: Classic/Baroque and the universal

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Tim

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion Woelfflin outlines four formal characteristics of Classic Art: • repose, spaciousness, mass and size • simplification and lucidity • complexity • unity and inevitability The final of these (which completes the book) is decisive: if classic art has a certain coldness, then this is surely to do with its respect of the predestined One, as Woelfflin's own comparison of Ghirlandaio's masterpiece with Leonardo's chilly Last Supper illustrates. For Woelfflin, the Cla...

  4. Il nemico ritrovato. Carl Schmitt e gli Stati Uniti

    OpenAIRE

    Mossa, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    La tesi affronta il tema del rapporto tra Carl Schmitt e gli Stati Uniti. Il primo capitolo, dedicato all'America vista da Schmitt, ripercorre i riferimenti presenti nell'opera dell'autore – dall'interpretazione della tradizione politico-giuridica americana in opposizione a quella continentale, al ruolo determinante che ha il Nuovo Mondo nello sviluppo e nella decadenza dell'ordinamento internazionale moderno, fino alle suggestioni teologico-politiche legate alla figura del katéchon – giungen...

  5. (Confessional Lutheran perspectives on the unity of the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter H. Reinstorf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available From personal experience, this article shares to what degree the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria was and continues to be a gateway to the future, challenging among others the divisions that characterise the Church of Christ worldwide. The article argues that for the 16th-century Reformers the unity of the church was a given and that the  (Lutheran confessions were written to establish such a unity through agreement in confession and joint rejection of false doctrines. However, such statements of faith did not overcome the divisions, but institutionalised them, leading to a divided Church of Christ. Political intervention to work unity between Lutherans and Reformers deepened divisions more than ever, leading among others to a break of fellowship at the Lord’s Supper. Applying Luther’s hermeneutical principle of was Christum treibet (what drives Christ, the author seeks to rediscover a way of interpreting Scripture by focusing not on literal differences, but on that which is foundational to Scripture, namely the Christ event. This is applied in particular to the topic of table fellowship and divisions in Corinth with regard to the Lord’s Supper, addressed in 1 Corinthians 11, culminating in a critical deconstruction of past practices in confessional Lutheran churches. In view of doctrinal differences, a hermeneutics of conversation is proposed that can vigorously debate differences of understanding, without threatening the unity that is worked by Christ himself.

  6. Hierarchical Task Network Prototyping In Unity3d

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    in a video game application. Each application has an agent which can be programmed using one of several major pro - gramming languages. The user can...visually debug. Here we present a solution for prototyping HTNs by extending an existing commercial implementation of Behavior Trees within the Unity3D game ...HTN, dynamic behaviors, behavior prototyping, agent-based simulation, entity-level combat model, game engine, discrete event simulation, virtual

  7. The paradigm of unity in science and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grochmal Stanislaw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of unity is a response to the contemporary needs of society; it shows a new way of looking at social and cultural processes, in positive and creative aspects, giving the hope to solve many problems of the modern world. It constitutes a methodological basis for building both the theoretical models and application schemas, also reveals the directions of the empirical research (Biela, 1996.

  8. Baltijskaja Evropa: ot idei k strategii [From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmowski Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the historic prerequisites and forms of international cooperation in the Baltic region (“Baltic cooperation”. According to the author, Baltic Europe is being formed as a single administrative, economic, cultural and infrastructural area, which could become a new economic and cultural center of Europe. Special emphasis is given to policies and strategies of the EU in the Baltic Sea region.

  9. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  10. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  11. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  12. Unity nameplate is attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker checks placement of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  13. Unity nameplate gets final check before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers make a final check of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  14. Unity nameplate added to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers look over the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, after attaching the nameplate. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  15. Unity nameplate examined after being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Joan Higgenbotham, with KSC's Astronaut Office Computer Support, checks placement of the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  16. Unity nameplate examined after being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker checks placement of the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  17. Unity nameplate examined before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, holding the nameplate for the Unity connecting module are (left) Joan Higginbotham, with the Astronaut Office Computer Support Branch, and (right) Nancy Tolliver, with Boeing-Huntsville. Part of the International Space Station, Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  18. US Immigration Policy and the Case for Family Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gubernskaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the Trump administration contemplates immigration reform, it is important to better understand what works and what does not in the current system. This paper reviews and critically evaluates the principle of family unity, a hallmark of US immigration policy over the past 50 years and the most important mechanism for immigration to the United States. Since 1965, the United States has been admitting a relatively high proportion of family-based migrants and allowing for the immigration of a broader range of family members. However, restrictive annual quotas have resulted in a long line of prospective immigrants waiting outside of the United States or within the United States, but without status. Further policy changes have led to an increasing number of undocumented migrants and mixed-status families in the United States. Several policies and practices contribute to prolonged periods of family separation by restricting travel and effectively locking in a large number of people either inside or outside of the United States. On top of that, increasingly aggressive enforcement practices undermine family unity of a large number of undocumented and mixed-status families. Deportations — and even a fear of deportation — cause severe psychological distress and often leave US-born children of undocumented parents without economic and social support. A recent comprehensive report concluded that immigration has overall positive impact on the US economy, suggesting that a predominantly family-based migration system carries net economic benefits. Immigrants rely on family networks for employment, housing, transportation, informal financial services, schooling, childcare, and old age care. In the US context where there is nearly no federal support for immigrants’ integration and limited welfare policies, family unity is critical for promoting immigrant integration, social and economic well-being, and intergenerational mobility. Given the benefits of

  19. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  20. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  1. On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chubarenko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cascades down the coastal slopes and intra-layer convection are considered as the two additional mechanisms contributing to the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer (CIL formation along with conventional seasonal vertical mixing. Field measurements are presented, reporting for the first time the possibility of denser water formation and cascading from the Baltic Sea underwater slopes, which take place under fall and winter cooling conditions and deliver waters into intermediate layer of salinity stratified deep-sea area. The presence in spring within the CIL of water with temperature below that of maximum density (Tmd and that at the local surface in winter time allows tracing its formation: it is argued that the source of the coldest waters of the Baltic CIL is early spring (March–April cascading, arising due to heating of water before reaching the Tmd. Fast increase of the open water heat content during further spring heating indicates that horizontal exchange rather than direct solar heating is responsible for that. When the surface is covered with water, heated above the Tmd, the conditions within the CIL become favorable for intralayer convection due to the presence of waters of Tmd in intermediate layer, which can explain its well-known features – the observed increase of its salinity and deepening with time.

  2. On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Yulia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cooperation between the constituent entities of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation and the Baltic countries (Finland, Estonia, and Norway in the field of innovations at national and regional levels, as well as at the level of corporate cooperation. The author reviews successful implementation of innovation projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes. The most significant projects focus on the development of information and communications technologies in healthcare, the development of networks uniting innovation centres in the Baltic Sea region, and the transnational network of business incubators in the Baltic Sea region. The author identifies promising areas of cooperation between North-West Russia, Finland, Norway, and Estonia in the field of innovations, including telecommunications, information and, space; biological, environmental and nanotechnologies; software, medicine, education, culture, energy efficiency and ecological construction, as well as the development of creative industries. The article pays attention to large-scale national projects, such as “St. Petersburg Corridor — Two Model Open Innovation Platform” and “Partnership in commercialization of Russian innovations”.

  3. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  4. The Baltic Sea Virome: Diversity and Transcriptional Activity of DNA and RNA Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, John P.; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Hoffman, Jeffery M.; Ekman, Martin; Allen, Andrew E.; Bergman, Birgitta; Venter, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were generated from size-fractionated samples from 11 sites within the Baltic Sea and adjacent marine waters of Kattegat and freshwater Lake Torneträsk in order to investigate the diversity, distribution, and transcriptional activity of virioplankton. Such a transect, spanning a salinity gradient from freshwater to the open sea, facilitated a broad genome-enabled investigation of natural as well as impacted aspects of Baltic Sea viral communities. Taxonomic signatures representative of phages within the widely distributed order Caudovirales were identified with enrichments in lesser-known families such as Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. The distribution of phage reported to infect diverse and ubiquitous heterotrophic bacteria (SAR11 clades) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) displayed population-level shifts in diversity. Samples from higher-salinity conditions (>14 practical salinity units [PSU]) had increased abundances of viruses for picoeukaryotes, i.e., Ostreococcus. These data, combined with host diversity estimates, suggest viral modulation of diversity on the whole-community scale, as well as in specific prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages. RNA libraries revealed single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and RNA viral populations throughout the Baltic Sea, with ssDNA phage highly represented in Lake Torneträsk. Further, our data suggest relatively high transcriptional activity of fish viruses within diverse families known to have broad host ranges, such as Nodoviridae (RNA), Iridoviridae (DNA), and predicted zoonotic viruses that can cause ecological and economic damage as well as impact human health. IMPORTANCE Inferred virus-host relationships, community structures of ubiquitous ecologically relevant groups, and identification of transcriptionally active populations have been achieved with our Baltic Sea study. Further, these data, highlighting the transcriptional activity of viruses, represent one of the more

  5. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  6. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    that despite low slope, sandy soils and forest vegetation, the catchment's hydrology is dominated by quick discharge components, for which the near-surface groundwater and the reaction for open water surfaces are the main cause. The seasonality of the area's discharge is characterized by the formation of quick discharge components mainly during the winter half-year, and by the retention effect of the lowland/fen. This retention is especially high in summer, when the surface and ground water levels have decreased due to high evaporation rates and the discharge out of the area may cease. The magnitude of the area's outflow thus generally depends on the catchment's water level. Due to the possible backlog of surface water caused by high water levels of the Baltic Sea, the direction of flow may reverse episodically. In the subareas between the trenches of the lowland, vertical exchange processes from precipitation and evaporation dominate. The lateral sub-surface interaction from/to the Baltic Sea is rather small due to the particular low local subsurface hydraulic conductivity and the very small hydraulic gradient. In summary, it can be said that this coastal low-lying wetland in the restoration phase shows rather heterogeneous hydrological processes and water balance. Characteristic are the high relevance of the subsurface processes and a strong seasonal variation, i.e. very low discharge rates in summer (except for summer convective rain storms) and considerable discharge rates in winter. The anthropogenic interventions in those coastal areas during the last two centuries have changed their water balance exceedingly. The interaction with the Baltic Sea via groundwater exchange under the dunes is very small.

  7. Ship-of-opportunity based phycocyanin fluorescence monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacteria bloom dynamics in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, J.; Ylöstalo, P.; Kaitala, S.; Hällfors, S.; Raateoja, M.; Maunula, P.

    2007-07-01

    Distribution of cyanobacteria cannot be evaluated using chlorophyll a (Chl a) in vivo fluorescence, as most of their Chl a is located in non-fluorescing photosystem I. Phycobilin fluorescence, in turn, is noted as a useful tool in the detection of cyanobacterial blooms. We applied phycocyanin (PC) fluorometer in the monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. For the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, PC fluorescence maximum was identified using the excitation-emission fluorescence matrix. Consequently, the optical setup of our instrument was noted to be appropriate for the detection of PC, and with minor or no interference from Chl a and phycoerythrin fluorescence, respectively. During summer 2005, the instrument was installed on a ferryboat commuting between Helsinki (Finland) and Travemünde (Germany), and data were collected during 32 transects providing altogether 200 000 fluorescence records. PC in vivo fluorescence was compared with Chl ain vivo fluorescence and turbidity measured simultaneously, and with Chl a concentration and biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria determined from discrete water samples. PC fluorescence showed a linear relation to the biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria, and the other sources of PC fluorescence are considered minor in the open Baltic Sea. Estimated by PC fluorescence, cyanobacterial bloom initiated late June at the Northern Baltic Proper, rapidly extended to the central Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, and peaked in the mid-July with values up to 10 mg l -1 (fresh weight). In late July, bloom vanished in most areas. During single transects, or for the whole summer, the variability in Chl a concentrations was explained more by PC fluorescence than by Chl a fluorescence. Thus, filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the overall variability in phytoplankton biomass. Consequently, we show that during the

  8. Testing the performance of empirical remote sensing algorithms in the Baltic Sea waters with modelled and in situ reflectance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ligi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing studies published up to now show that the performance of empirical (band-ratio type algorithms in different parts of the Baltic Sea is highly variable. Best performing algorithms are different in the different regions of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, there is indication that the algorithms have to be seasonal as the optical properties of phytoplankton assemblages dominating in spring and summer are different. We modelled 15,600 reflectance spectra using HydroLight radiative transfer model to test 58 previously published empirical algorithms. 7200 of the spectra were modelled using specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs of the open parts of the Baltic Sea in summer and 8400 with SIOPs of spring season. Concentration range of chlorophyll-a, coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM and suspended matter used in the model simulations were based on the actually measured values available in literature. For each optically active constituent we added one concentration below actually measured minimum and one concentration above the actually measured maximum value in order to test the performance of the algorithms in wider range. 77 in situ reflectance spectra from rocky (Sweden and sandy (Estonia, Latvia coastal areas were used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms also in coastal waters. Seasonal differences in the algorithm performance were confirmed but we found also algorithms that can be used in both spring and summer conditions. The algorithms that use bands available on OLCI, launched in February 2016, are highlighted as this sensor will be available for Baltic Sea monitoring for coming decades.

  9. Seasonal and spatial variability of light absorption by suspended particles in the southern Baltic: A mathematical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meler, Justyna; Ostrowska, Mirosława; Stoń-Egiert, Joanna; Zabłocka., Monika

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between the light absorption coefficients at 440 nm ap(440) for particles suspended in the surface waters of the southern Baltic Sea and the concentrations of some optically significant constituents in these waters. The analysis covers two main groups of particles: phytoplankton and non-algal. For this purpose we use the extensive database of optical measurements acquired from 2006 to 2013 during 40 cruises of r/v Oceania in various regions of the southern Baltic: open waters, coastal waters, the Gulf of Gdańsk, the Pomeranian Bay and river mouths. Expressions are derived for each of these regions to describe the seasonal variations of the dependence of the light absorption coefficients for phytoplankton aph(440) and non-algal particles aNAP(440) on concentrations of chlorophyll a (Tchla) and suspended particulate matter in sea water (SPM). With a knowledge of these dependences, one can determine the overall absorption coefficient for all suspended particles in any part of the Baltic Sea in particular seasons from known Tchla and SPM concentrations using the relationship ap(440) = aph(440) + aNAP(440) = f(Tchla, SPM). These dependences reflect the characteristics of a study area and season, and their application increases the accuracy of determination of the overall absorption properties of suspended particles and their main constituents as confirmed by statistical error reduction, e.g. standard error factor falls from 1.46 to 1.38. The relationships derived in this work can be applied in the local remote sensing algorithms used for monitoring the southern Baltic.

  10. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  11. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  12. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, 1999-2006 HELCOM thematic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Kanisch, G.; Luning, M.; Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Outola, I.

    2009-07-01

    The report describes work carried out by HELCOM's (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Commission) project on the Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea (MORS-PRO) during the period 1999-2006. The main topics include: sources of man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; levels of man-made radionuclides in seawater, sediments and biota; work on modelling and evaluations of the riks to man caused by radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; comparison of man-made radionuclides in the Baltic Sea with levels in other sea regions. The concequent recommendations and work on data quality are presented in the Appendix

  13. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  14. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones from Baltic amber (Palaeogene: Eocene; ca. 44–49 Ma is described as Piankhi steineri n. gen., n. sp. This enigmatic fossil expresses long, slender pedipalps without a tarsal claw, which is characteristic for the suborder Dyspnoi. The chelicerae are notably enlarged and the dorsal body surface is formed from a carapace with a separate prosomatic tergite (metapeltidium, plus a large opisthosomal scute (or scutum parvum. However these characters, combined with the distinctly spiny limbs and further rows of spines across the fossil's opisthosoma, have no parallel among the modern dyspnoid harvestmen that we are aware of. The fossil resolves features reminiscent of modern members of the dyspnoid families Ceratolasmatidae, Nipponopsalididae, Ischyropsalididae and Sabaconidae, but does not show unequivocal apomorphies of any one particular family. We must entertain the possibility that this is an extinct body plan from the Eocene of north-central Europe, and we tentatively refer the fossil to a new genus in an unresolved position among the Ischyropsalidoidea (Dyspnoi. An amorphous triangular structure behind the anal region is assumed to be faecal matter, rather than part of the original anatomy. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200007

  15. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  16. The Baltic Sea region and increasing international tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolei Konstantin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the Baltic Sea region stood out for its remarkable stability. The dramatic changes following the end of the Cold War did not have a profound effect on the territory. However, Russia's cooperation with other states in the Baltic Sea region began to lose momentum. This paper discusses the negative effects of the Ukrainian and Syrian crises and the increasing tension between Russia and other countries in the Baltic Sea region. In the short term, these trends are unlikely to re¬verse. Of the two possible scenarios — suspending relations until a solution to the political and military problems is found or trying to make use of every opportunity in economy, culture, science, education, etc., — the latter is preferable. A breakdown in regional cooperation will weaken Russia’s position. However, gaining positive momentum may prove instrumental in overcoming the confrontation between Russia and the West in the future.

  17. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  18. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  19. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  20. The concentrations of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was 241Pu activities determination in different components (water, plankton and fish of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. The determination of 241Pu in the samples was done indirectly by activity measuring the increment in 241Am from the decay of β-emitting 241Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed between the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of 241Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of 241Pu with Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small.

  1. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past, primarily driven by atmospheric changes over the North Atlantic region. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested by model simulations and the potential climate forcing mechanism(s) behind the reconstructed long

  2. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stålnacke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (% and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily. The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP, as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  3. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  4. IBN ‘ARABI AND THE TRANSCENDENTAL UNITY OF RELIGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Zainul Bahri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes Ibn ‘Arabi’s comprehensive views, captured in his important Futuhat and Fusus, on the concept of wahdat al-adyan, the discrepancy of beliefs, and the Shari’ah as well as its juncture and its unity. Elaborated explanation in this paper is expected to result in a true understanding of this crucial issue, particularly the concept of religious pluralism in the discourse of Islamic studies. Ibn Arabi’ extensively  discusses religion in the sense of the “ideal” versus “historical” or “esoteric” versus “the exoteric”. Ibn ‘Arabi concludes that the absolute unity of religions may only occur within spiritual, ideal, or transcendental realm (or “esoteric”, which is beyond the formal form of religions. Hence, the transcendental unity of religions cannot be found in the formal form of religions nor in the shari’ah.[Artikel ini mengulas pandangan Ibn ‘Arabi’ mengenai wahdat al-adyan seperti dijelaskan dalam dua bukunya; Futuhat dan Fusus, dan perbedaan dan kesamaan antara iman dan shariah. Diharapkan diskusi artikel ini berkontribusi dalam kajian pluralisme, utamanya dalam disiplin studi Islam. Dalam diskusinya, Ibn Arabi’  menjelaskan perbedaan ‘ideal’ dan ‘historikal’ atau antara ‘esoterik’ dan ‘eksoterik’. Ibn ‘Arabi berpendapat bahwa kemanunggalan agama-agama dapat dicapai melalui spiritualitas, ideal, atau dimensi transcendental (esoterik yang ada di luar tampilan formal agama-agama. Dengan kata lain, kemanunggalan tersebut tidak akan ditemukan pada shari’ah.

  5. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...... the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management unit...

  6. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change.

  7. Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the Unity of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other "vegetable" organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria).

  8. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  9. Unity and Integration in Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an argument for Atlas Shrugged as a highly unified and integrated novel. All of the sections of the paper explain how integration and unity are embodied in Atlas Shrugged. Part one discusses the philosophical and literary structure of Rand’s masterpiece. The next section is concerned with issues of political economy. Section three then examines Rand’s techniques of characterization and character development as demonstrated in Atlas Shrugged. The following part analyzes the philosophical speeches. The final major part considers Atlas Shrugged as a means for social change. The conclusion then discusses Atlas Shrugged as the manifestation of a fully-integrated philosophical novel.

  10. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  11. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  12. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...... to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis....

  13. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.;

    to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis.......The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...

  14. Causes of different impact of Major Baltic Inflows on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E. M.; Zezera, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of 1976, 1993, and 2003 on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea is considered based on calculations of the eastern Baltic cod egg abundance and offspring survival indices. The reproductive success (1976-1977) was defined by the elevation of the 11 psu isohaline and deepening of the 2 mL/L isooxygene surface, which provided the formation of a water layer suitable for cod spawning at a depth of 90-130 m. Prerequisites of the appearance of the reproductive layer in 1976-1977 were a previously high salinity level and penetrating two successive MBIs in one year. The cause of the weak MBI impact in 1993 was the previous salinity minimum; in 2003 it was rapid oxygen depletion due to an increase in temperature. As a result of their weaker influence, small and fragmented cod spawning biotopes appeared in the Gotland Basin.

  15. Effects of the 2014 Major Baltic Inflow on methane dynamics in the water column of the Central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Hietanen, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a brackish water body which exhibits strong salinity stratification between its almost fresh surface and the comparatively high salinity deep waters. Due to this stratification, the sub-halocline deep waters are insulated from the surface and are typically anoxic and contain large amounts of methane. Deep water renewal occurs predominantly by irregular inflow phenomena, during which specific meteorological conditions cause large amounts of oxic and highly saline North Sea water to enter the Baltic via the Danish straits. In late 2014, the third largest inflow ever recorded entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in the southern and central Baltic water column oxygen conditions and consequently also in the deep-water methane pool. We studied these changes during 2015 on six cruises spanning between March and December. Following the inflow, methane that had previously accumulated in the stagnant deep waters was largely removed over a period of several months. Based on methane oxidation rate measurements, stable isotope data and comparisons to changes in corresponding phosphate inventories, we show strong evidence that most of the methane removal observed was due microbial oxidation. The intruding water masses interacted with the old stagnant water masses, creating complex redox environments, which seemed ideal for microbial oxidation of methane. However, a considerable amount of methane was also removed by physical displacement to other parts of the Baltic Sea, the relative importance of these two process changing over time. By the end of 2015, the deep waters were turning anoxic again and methane started accumulating, indicating that the ability of the inflow to ventilate the Baltic Sea was relatively short-lived.

  16. Organic unity theory: the mind-body problem revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this essay is to delineate the conceptual framework for psychiatry as an integrated and integrative science that unites the mental and the physical. Four basic philosophical perspectives concerning the relationship between mind and body are introduced. The biopsychosocial model, at this time the preeminent model in medical science that addresses this relationship, is examined and found to be flawed. Mental-physical identity theory is presented as the most valid philosophical approach to understanding the relationship between mind and body. Organic unity theory is then proposed as a synthesis of the biopsychosocial model and mental-physical identity theory in which the difficulties of the biopsychosocial model are resolved. Finally, some implications of organic unity theory for psychiatry are considered. 1) The conventional dichotomy between physical (organic) and mental (functional) is linguistic/conceptual rather than inherent in nature, and all events and processes involved in the etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatic manifestation, and treatment of psychiatric disorders are simultaneously biological and psychological. 2) Neuroscience requires new conceptual models to comprehend the integrated and emergent physiological processes to which psychological phenomena correspond. 3) Introspective awareness provides data that are valid for scientific inquiry and is the most direct method of knowing psychophysical events. 4) Energy currently being expended in disputes between biological and psychological psychiatry would be more productively invested in attempting to formulate the conditions under which each approach is maximally effective.

  17. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  18. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 dual carbon pools contributing to organic matter enrichment in marine aerosol, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016. Masalaite, A., Remeikis, V., Garbaras, A., Dudoitis, V., Ulevicius, V., and Ceburnis, D.: Elucidating carbonaceous aerosol sources by the stable carbon δ13C TC ratio in size-segregated particles, Atmospheric Research, 158, 1-12, 2015.

  19. Environmental reconstructions of Eemian Stage interglacial marine records in the Lower Vistula area, southern Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karen Luise; Jiang, Hui; Gibbard, Philip L

    2012-01-01

    the rapid relative sea-level rise in the area, which proceeded through ∼3000 years. A major salinity increase c. 1100 years after the beginning of the Eemian (early pollen zone E4) at both sites may be related to the opening of the Danish Straits. The Obrzynowo site became isolated from the sea at c. 3500...... the Vistula into the southern Baltic Sea. Correlation of the sediments with the Eemian is based on pollen analysis of the Obrzynowo record, showing the presence of regional pollen zones (RPAZ) E2–E6, combined with previously published pollen analyses from Licze (RPAZ E1–E7). A floating chronology...... the sea at c. 7000 years....

  20. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  1. [risks To Health Of Intensive Care Unity Nursing Staff: Proposal Of Integral Approach Of Health].

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda,Erique José Peixoto de; Stancato,Kátia

    2015-01-01

    In this study we discuss about risks to health of intensive care unity staff and suggest a proposal of integral approach of health. Literature review, from 1997 to 2007, at Bireme database about health education, intensive care unity, nursing and occupational health, regardless of design of study. All studies show that the environment of intensive care unity is unhealthy, which is also due to habits and attitudes of ICU health professionals. An approach to health education would be beneficial...

  2. Characterisations of Partition of Unities Generated by Entire Functions in Cd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2017-01-01

    Collections of functions forming a partition of unity play an important role in analysis. In this paper we characterise for any N∈N the entire functions P for which the partition of unity condition ∑n∈ZdP(x+n)χ[0,N]d(x+n)=1 holds for all x∈Rd. The general characterisation leads to various easy ways...... such that the functions in the partition of unity belong to the Feichtinger algebra....

  3. Method and apparatus for lead-unity-lag electric power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganev, Evgeni (Inventor); Warr, William (Inventor); Salam, Mohamed (Arif) (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method employing a lead-unity-lag adjustment on a power generation system is disclosed. The method may include calculating a unity power factor point and adjusting system parameters to shift a power factor angle to substantially match an operating power angle creating a new unity power factor point. The method may then define operation parameters for a high reactance permanent magnet machine based on the adjusted power level.

  4. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  5. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...

  6. Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It comprises the coastal areas of Russia, Germany, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation develop in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain differences in the areas and the intensity of international cooperation. The article sets out to identify structural characteristics of the Baltic Sea region. This requires studying practices of transnational and transboundary cooperation and possibilities for their adoption in other regions of the world. An important characteristic of the Baltic Sea region is a considerable difference between its coastal territories, the fact that affects the development of multilateral relations. This article examines the most pronounced socioeconomic differences that should be taken into account when forecasting cooperation trends in t he region, including those between the Baltic territories of Russia and their international partners.

  7. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    . Comparing the level of concern towards oxygenation pumping with impacts of other human activities in and around the Baltic Sea, we find that for 50% of the populations, pumping does not figure as one of the very concerning ac-tivities. Medium- and small-scale pumping is considered by 50% of the pop...

  8. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  9. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  10. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  11. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  12. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  13. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  14. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...

  15. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season.

  16. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    requirement for neutral buoyancy. Superimposed on this, oxygen content and temperature have a significant effect on fertilization, egg/larva development, and survival. Within the Baltic Sea ecosystem, mixing of stocks may be anticipated and is particularly pronounced in the Arkona Basin because of its use...

  17. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  18. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  19. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  20. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  1. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  2. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat, the comme...

  3. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. The first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  4. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  5. Eco-physiological Baltic picoplankton analysis and its implementation in Synechoccocus species life cycle numerical algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Śliwińska-Wilczewska, Sylwia

    2017-04-01

    Picocyanobacteria strain of the genus Synechococcus are extremely important organisms in the world's oceans. Synechococcus sp. is distributed widely in the oceans and freshwater ecosystems. However, the presence of picoplankton and its account for marine biomass were ignored in environmental studies before 1970. This was probably connected with too low accuracy of research equipment for examining such small organisms. In 1979 the picoplankton assemblages were defined to be present en masse in marine environments. Despite its association with open ocean systems, it is becoming increasingly evident in recent years that Synechococcus sp. is a significant contributor to cyanobacterial blooms. Moreover, bloom of picocyanobacteria, accompanied by a drastic ecological crisis was a new phenomenon in Europe, which needed careful investigation. In the Baltic Sea, picocyanobacteria belongs mainly to the genus Synechococcus. Depending on pigment content, they are classified as red strains with phycoerythrin, green strains rich in phycocyanin, and the phycourobilin (brown strains) containing cyanobacteria rich in phycoerythrin. So far, picocyanobacteria in the area of interest have been being studied insufficiently. The knowledge of picocyanobacteria life cycle needs to be improved as these microorganisms can comprise even about 98% of marine biomass and are able to excrete many toxic and harmful substances. Different eco-physiological conditions influence growth of Baltic picocyanobacteria. In this study, three strains of Synechococcus sp. (red: BA-120, green: BA-124 and brown: BA-132) were isolated from the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea) and analyzed in laboratory under previously determined eco-physiological conditions. These conditions were as follows: temperature from 15 to 25°C, salinity from 3 to 13 and insolation in Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) spectrum from 10 to 190 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Scenarios reflecting all possible

  6. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  7. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  8. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  9. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  10. Usability and user driven innovation - unity or clash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To present different understandings of the concepts ‗usability‘ and ‗user driven innovation‘ and discuss if and how the built environment can benefit from these concepts and the unity of them. Approach and methodology: The paper is based on literature reviews of scientific journals and other...... influential publications within the academic fields of Facilities Management, Architecture and Engineering, Participatory Design and Software design. Outline: The paper will discuss different understandings of the concept ‗usability‘ and its relation to ‗user driven innovation‘, which depends on the academic...... field and area of professional application. The concept of usability has its roots in evaluations of consumer products and user interfaces of computer software. During the last 5-10 years there has been a new development of research in usability of buildings and workplaces. Recently researchers have...

  11. Unity of CP and T Violation in Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, Martin; Blom, Martin; Minakata, Hisakazu

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work a simultaneous P- CP[P] and P- T[P] bi-probability plot was proposed as a useful tool for unified graphical description of CP and T violation in neutrino oscillation. The ``baseball diamond'' structure of the plot is understood as a consequence of the approximate CP-CP and the T-CP relations obeyed by the oscillation probabilities. In this paper, we make a step forward toward deeper understanding of the unified graphical representation by showing that these two relations are identical in its content, suggesting a truly unifying view of CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations. We suspect that the unity reflects the underlying CPT theorem. We also present calculation of corrections to the CP-CP and the T-CP relations to leading order in Delta m^2_{21} / Delta m^2_{31} and s^2_{13}.

  12. Unity and Detachment: A Discourse Analysis of Doctoral Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bradbury-Jones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors report on an approach that they used to enhance their understanding of the complex nature of doctoral supervision by analyzing e-mail communication within a supervisory relationship. Although some scholars have discussed research supervision, empirical research on the subject is limited, and the authors found no published attempts to explore doctoral supervision through the analysis of e-mail communication. The authors analyze correspondence between one doctoral student and two supervisors using discourse analysis influenced by the Foucauldian notion of disciplinary power. The findings revealed the discourses of unity and detachment operating throughout the course of the doctoral relationship. The authors suggest that research students might be no less detached from their supervisors on completion of their studies than at the beginning of their relationship and argue that understanding the discourses of doctoral supervision can enhance the quality and successful outcome of the experience.

  13. Unity-Efficiency Parametric Down-Conversion via Amplitude Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Sanders, Barry C.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-03-01

    We propose an optical scheme, employing optical parametric down-converters interlaced with nonlinear sign gates (NSGs), that completely converts an n -photon Fock-state pump to n signal-idler photon pairs when the down-converters' crystal lengths are chosen appropriately. The proof of this assertion relies on amplitude amplification, analogous to that employed in Grover search, applied to the full quantum dynamics of single-mode parametric down-conversion. When we require that all Grover iterations use the same crystal, and account for potential experimental limitations on crystal-length precision, our optimized conversion efficiencies reach unity for 1 ≤n ≤5 , after which they decrease monotonically for n values up to 50, which is the upper limit of our numerical dynamics evaluations. Nevertheless, our conversion efficiencies remain higher than those for a conventional (no NSGs) down-converter.

  14. Supersymmetric models with tan$\\beta$ close to unity

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthanarayan, B; Shafi, Qaisar

    1994-01-01

    Within the framework of supersymmetric grand unification, estimates of the $b$ quark mass based on the asymptotic relation $m_b \\simeq m_\\tau$ single out the region with $\\tan\\beta$ close to unity, particularly if $m_t(m_t) \\stackrel{_<}{_\\sim} 170\\ GeV$. We explore the radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry and the associated sparticle and higgs spectroscopy in models with $1 < \\tan\\beta \\stackrel{_<}{_\\sim} 1.6$. The lightest scalar higgs is expected to have a mass below $100\\ GeV$, while the remaining four higgs masses exceed $300\\ GeV$. The lower bounds on some of the sparticle masses are within the range of LEP 200.

  15. 3D Terrain Based on Unity 3D%基于Unity 3D的三维地形建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2014-01-01

    Unity 3D是跨平台的虚拟现实创作工具,具有直观的虚拟现实编辑功能,是一个全面整合的专业3D引擎。本文探讨了采用Unity 3D的Terrain工具制作三维地形的详细过程,为三维场景建模提供了快速智能的生成方案。%Unity 3D is a cross-platform virtual reality authoring tool, with a function of visually virtual reality editor and a fully integrated engine. This paper discusses the detailed process to make 3D terrain by using Unity 3D of Terrain tool, and provides a solution of Fast and intelligent for the 3D Scene modeling.

  16. Collaborative Research of Open Star Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alisher S. Hojaev

    2005-06-01

    Preliminary results on observations of open clusters are presented. The project has been initiated in the framework of the Uzbek–Taiwan and Taiwan–Baltic collaboration, mainly to upgrade and make use of facilities at Maidanak Observatory. We present detailed, multiwavelength studies of the young cluster NGC 6823 and the associated complex nebulosity, to diagnose the young stellar population and star formation history in the region. In addition, 7 compact open clusters have been monitored for stellar variability. We show how observations like these could feasibly be used to look for exoplanet transit events. We also expect to join the Whole-Earth Telescope effort in future campaigns for asteroseismology.

  17. Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, E.; Andrén, T.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14...... with a decrease in organic carbon, interpreted as representing a deterioration in the climate, correlates with the start of the 'Little Ice Age' about 850-700 cal. yr BP. A change dated to ad 1950-1960 is probably an effect of increased nutrient availability in the open Baltic Sea. This effect of eutrophication...... was probably caused by increased discharge of nutrients deriving from fertilizers, as the responding diatom species partly indicate a cold climate rather than a warm one, as would have been expected if this had been only a response to the warmer climate documented during the last 100 years or so....

  18. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  19. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  20. Sankt-Peterburg v Baltijskom regione [Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudoley Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the place of St Petersburg in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of the Baltic region as one of the priorities of the international relations of the city. The authors show continual attention of Saint-Petersburg to developing international relations in the Baltic Sea region. The article indicates one of the most important areas of international cooperation – the participation of the city in the renewed Northern Dimension policy.

  1. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International... application shall relate to one invention only or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a single...

  2. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.476 Section 1.476 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.476 Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) Before establishing the international search...

  3. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.488 Section 1.488 Patents, Trademarks... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary Examining...

  4. The influence of unity-in-variety on aesthetic appreciation of car interiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.A.G.; Blijlevens, J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Product designers can use a wide range of design principles to influence the appearance of new product designs. One of these principles, ‘unity-in-variety’, states that product designs combining a maximum of unity or order with as much variety as possible are the most aesthetically pleasing. Even th

  5. The European Union from Maastricht to Lisbon: institutional and legal unity out of the shadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.M.; Dekker, I.F.; Craig, P.; de Búrca, G.

    2011-01-01

    The EU was originally established in the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 as a formal legal construct not entailing legal unity with the pre-existing EC. Almost 20 years later the Treaty of Lisbon explicitly ordains legal unity, thus catching up with legal and institutional practices, social reality and

  6. The European Union from Maastricht to Lisbon. Institutional and Legal Unity out of the Shadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Dekker, I.

    2010-01-01

    The EU was originally established in the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 as a formal legal construct not entailing legal unity with the pre-existing EC. Almost 20 years later the Treaty of Lisbon explicitly ordains legal unity, thus catching up with legal and institutional practices, social reality and

  7. Evaluating Multiple Polylogarithm Values at Sixth Roots of Unity up to Weight Six

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M; Smirnov, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate multiple polylogarithm values at sixth roots of unity up to weight six, i.e. of the form $G(a_1,\\ldots,a_w;1)$ where the indices $a_i$ are equal to zero or a sixth root of unity, with $a_1\

  8. The Design of High-Q Sallen-Key Biquads with Unity-Gain Buffer Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Guldbrandsen, Birthe

    1997-01-01

    and to implement the Sallen- Key biquad even in the high-Q case with reasonable sensitivities. The method is based on the unity gain version of the biquad and as unity gain buffer amplifiers are readily manufactured in integrated circuit technology the results may be very useful in the fabrication of integrated...

  9. Aesthetic appreciation of tactile unity-in-variety in product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.A.G.; Blijlevens, J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of unity-in-variety has recently been shown to affect visual aesthetic appreciation of product designs. We investigated whether this principle can also account for tactile aesthetic appreciation of products. Design students rated nine car keys on unity, variety and aesthetic appreciati

  10. The influence of unity-in-variety on aesthetic appreciation of car interiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.A.G.; Blijlevens, J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Product designers can use a wide range of design principles to influence the appearance of new product designs. One of these principles, ‘unity-in-variety’, states that product designs combining a maximum of unity or order with as much variety as possible are the most aesthetically pleasing. Even

  11. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  12. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies......, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern...

  13. Reinventing the Baltic Sea Region: From the Hansa to the Eu-Strategy of 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael North

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The political changes of 1989 stimulated a new perception and perspective of the Baltic Sea Region. And this gained momentum with the Eastern Enlargement of the EU. The new situation encouraged research as well. In this context the “Baltic Sea” is not an unchangeable physical setting, but also a construction of different actors or protagonists. People and powers continuously reinvent the Baltic Sea Region. That is why; the following paper focuses on the different notions of the Baltic Sea Region from the Middle Ages up to now and also examines the recent EU-Strategy of this region.

  14. Unity nameplate examined before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Examining the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, in the Space Station Processing Facility, are (left to right) Joe Schweiger and Tommy Annis, of Boeing-KSC, and Nancy Tolliver, of Boeing-Huntsville. An unidentified worker behind them looks on. Part of the International Space Station, Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  15. Unity connecting module prepared for move to new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) attach a frame to lift the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, for its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  16. Unity connecting module before being moved to new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, sits on a workstand before its move to a new location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  17. Unity connecting module lifted from workstand before move to new site in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) oversee the lifting of the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, for its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  18. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  19. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  20. Universal Jurisdiction between Unity and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculli Maria Antonella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the outcome of research fellowship Marie Curie at the Universiteit Leiden -Campud Den Haag Grotius, Centre for International Legal Studies (prof. C. Stahn and prof. Larissa van den Herik, supervisors on the topic "The Fragmentation and the Diversification of International Criminal Law in a Global Society”.In my paper I will examine the question of whether Universal Jurisdiction (UJ leads to unity or fragmentation within International Criminal Law (ICL. Given that there is already quite a lot of literature on UJ, it is important to focus the research on the issue of fragmentation and/or unity rather than to deal with the issue of UJ more generally. I will focus on this topic in sections 1 and 2, explaining some cursory remarks to these issues in my analysis on fragmentation. In the introduction, I will briefly introduce UJ as a controversial form of jurisdiction, but still necessary given that territorial jurisdiction does not always function well in the case of international crime. I will demonstrate that many state parties to the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute have vested or reconfirmed UJ for the core crimes when implementing the ICC Statute. The leading question of my research is whether this practice has led or has the potential to lead to unity or rather to fragmentation within ICL. In the research I will approach this question from different perspectives.In section 1 I will examine how State parties have may actually enacted universal jurisdiction for the core crimes, with a view to determining whether there is indeed some unity on this front or whether the practice on this matter is actually rather diverse (or fragmented. Subsequently, I will analyse which conditions States have formulated for the exercise of UJ, and whether this practice is consistent (unity or again rather diverse (fragmentation. It might also be interesting to see whether States have different conditions for UJ over core crimes than

  1. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  2. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  3. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  4. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants......, and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  5. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.;

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort analysis....... Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning decreased...

  6. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations.

  7. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  8. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic–anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (may produce View the Math......ML source and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When...

  9. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  10. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  11. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  12. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  13. Modelling of river plume dynamics in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-3D hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume dynamics a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - 3D is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume dynamics. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

  14. THE GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR OF INVESTORS FROM BALTIC STOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The inve...

  15. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  16. Emission Permits trade between the Nordic and Baltic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-05-01

    A bottom-up technology oriented model of the energy systems in the Nordic and Baltic countries have been constructed and used for analysing an optimal set of energy and emission trading within the region. The model used is MARKAL, which has been developed within the IEA-ETSAP. The analyses are based on national emission levels agreed on in the Kyoto protocol (and the following burden sharing negotiations within the European Union), and with an additional strengthening after 2010. Only energy related CO{sub 2} emissions are explicitly considered. Nuclear power in Sweden is assumed to be phased out. The results show that especially Norway and Sweden have large abatement costs when acting alone, whale the Baltic countries will probably not need to take domestic actions due to the Kyoto protocol if they act alone, as the restructuring of their economies in the beginning of the 1990ties cut emissions (and their economies) dramatically. It is shown that emission trading among the Nordic and Baltic countries can reduce abatement costs among the Nordic countries significantly, possibly down to a level equivalent to a world market (Annex I) permit price. Extending the Nordic common electricity market to Balticum will have minor influence on overall energy system costs. There is no pronounced direction for net electricity flow between the Nordic and Baltic countries. High marginal costs during peak hours in Balticum indicate that imports of Nordic hydro power during peak-hours could be a cost-effective option. This possibility could be implemented with a subsea AC/DC connection between Sweden and Latvia. It is politically viable to develop more hydropower in Norway, this country will be the major electricity exporter in the region, while Sweden will be the main importer. Changing scenario assumptions, i.e. no more Norwegian hydropower, but life extension of Swedish nuclear power, could change this picture. (author)

  17. The Formularies of Unity and the Dutch Reformed Church: A preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Britz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available This article undertakes a survey of the application of the Formularies of Unity by the Dutch Reformed Church, covering its history from the 18th century to approximately 1935. Although these Formularies were the accepted confessional basis of the church, it did not prevent additional theological accommodation during the 18th century. During the first part of the 19th century an institutional concept of the church put forward a subscribing formula. The confession became important. In principle the way was opened for an institutional and contractual enforcement of the Formu­laries. This happened when the church was involved in the wide-ranging li­beral struggle during the sixth decade. Even before the 20th century a new approach in which the role of the Formularies was seen more dogmatically and confessionalistically came to the fore. And, when the church was once again entangled in a struggle (viz. the well-known 'Du Plessis case' of the 1930's the dogmatic point of departure played into the hands of a con­fessional fundamentalism. In the history of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Formularies thus gained in ecclesiological emphasis and value and its application was conditioned by the context and theological influence. Most importantly, the underlying problem of its historicity on the one hand, and its scriptural context and intent on the other hand, remained an unpaid account.

  18. Near-unity transparency of a continuous metal film via cooperative effects of double plasmonic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-qi; Liu, Gui-qiang; Zhou, Hai-qing; Liu, Xiao-shan; Huang, Kuan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Fu, Guo-lan

    2013-04-19

    Metal structures with high optical transparency and conductivity are of great importance for practical applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we investigate the transparency response of a continuous metal film sandwiched by double plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. The upper nanoparticle array shows efficient light trapping of the incident field, acting as a light input coupler, and the lower nanoparticle array shows a light release gate opening at the other side, acting as the light output coupler. The strong near-field light-matter interactions of the nano-scale separated plasmonic nanoparticles, the excitation of surface plasmon waves of the metal film, and their cooperative coupling effects result in broadband scattering cancellation and near-unity transparency (up to 96%) in the optical regime. The transparency response in such a structure can be efficiently modified by varying the gap distance of adjacent nanoparticles, dielectric environments, and the distance between the plasmonic array and the metal film. This motif may provide a new alternative approach to obtain transparent and highly conducting metal structures with potential applications in transparent conductors, plasmonic filters, and highly integrated light input and output components.

  19. Near-Unity Emitting Copper-Doped Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Wells for Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Gungor, Kivanc; Yeltik, Aydan; Olutas, Murat; Guzelturk, Burak; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Erdem, Talha; Delikanli, Savas; McBride, James R; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2017-08-01

    Doping of bulk semiconductors has revealed widespread success in optoelectronic applications. In the past few decades, substantial effort has been engaged for doping at the nanoscale. Recently, doped colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have been demonstrated to be promising materials for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) as they can be engineered for providing highly tunable and Stokes-shifted emission in the solar spectrum. However, existing doped CQDs that are aimed for full solar spectrum LSCs suffer from moderately low quantum efficiency, intrinsically small absorption cross-section, and gradually increasing absorption profiles coinciding with the emission spectrum, which together fundamentally limit their effective usage. Here, the authors show the first account of copper doping into atomically flat colloidal quantum wells (CQWs). In addition to Stokes-shifted and tunable dopant-induced photoluminescence emission, the copper doping into CQWs enables near-unity quantum efficiencies (up to ≈97%), accompanied by substantially high absorption cross-section and inherently step-like absorption profile, compared to those of the doped CQDs. Based on these exceptional properties, the authors have demonstrated by both experimental analysis and numerical modeling that these newly synthesized doped CQWs are excellent candidates for LSCs. These findings may open new directions for deployment of doped CQWs in LSCs for advanced solar light harvesting technologies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Towards an improved mechanistic understanding of major saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Katharina; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed water body connected to the North Sea only via the shallow and narrow Danish Straits. Of special importance to the salinity and oxygen dynamics of the Baltic Sea are major Baltic inflows (or highly saline barotropic inflows), that are the only process to effectively ventilate water masses below the permanent halocline. Their occurrence is typically explained by a sequence of easterly winds over a period of several weeks followed by westerly gales during which the highly saline Kattegat water is pushed over the entrance sills. While this explanation is accurate in a descriptive sense, it does not necessarily serve as sufficient explanation for the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. Recently, attempts were made to understand major Baltic inflows in the context of large barotropic inflows and it was found that a sequence of easterly and westerly circulation types forces not only major Baltic inflows but large barotropic inflows in general. Thus, clarification on the factors that are exclusive to the formation of major Baltic inflows is needed. Based on a realistic numerical ocean model setup of the Baltic Sea system and for the period 1979-2015 we investigate on the important ingredients to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. The analysis is based on the complete set of large barotropic inflows, and both atmospheric and oceanic factors are covered. We find that both, the salinity in the transition area between the North Sea and Baltic Sea, as well as details in the atmospheric circulation during the event, are of importance to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. Even though excess river runoff is often held responsible for the occurrence of stagnation periods (i.e. extended periods without the occurrence of major Baltic inflows), attempts to classify its role were not made. Therefore, sensitivity experiments with the strong major Baltic inflow of December 2014 were performed, where river runoff and salinity in the transition

  1. Monthly Ensembles in Algal Bloom Predictions on the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiha, Petra; Westerlund, Antti; Stipa, Tapani

    2010-05-01

    In this work we explore the statistical features of monthly ensembles and their capability to predict biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea. Operational marine environmental modelling has been considered hard, and consequently there are very few operational ecological models. Operational modelling of harmful algal blooms is harder still, since it is difficult to separate the algal species in models, and in general, very little is known of HAB properties. We present results of an ensemble approach to HAB forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of the forecasting method to biochemical modelling. It turns out that HABs are indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy. For modelling the algal blooms in Baltic Sea we used FMI operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model to produce seasonal ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria nodularia spumigena and aphanizomenon flos-aquae. In this work we concentrate to the latter two. Ensembles were produced by running the biogeochemical model several times and forcing it on every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for estimating the probable amounts of algae. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the final results against available and valid in-situ HAB data.

  2. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in the Baltic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõokene, Margus; Kisuro, Aigars; Mačiulis, Valentinas; Banaitis, Valdas; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    While the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been investigated worldwide, nothing is known about its use in the Baltic states. The purpose of this study was thus to explore ECT practice in the three Baltic countries. A 21-item, semi-structured questionnaire was sent out to all psychiatric inpatient settings that provided ECT in 2010. In Lithuania, four services provided ECT in 2010. Only modified ECT with anaesthesia and muscle relaxation is performed in the country. In 2010, approximately 120 patients received ECT, i.e., 0.375 patients/10,000 population. Only two centres offer ECT in Latvia. The first centre treated only three patients with ECT in 2010, while the second centre six patients. In both centres outdated Soviet machines are used. The main indication for ECT was severe, malignant catatonia. ECT is practiced in five psychiatric facilities in Estonia. In 2010, it was used in the treatment of 362 patients (17% women) nationwide, i.e., 2.78 patients/10,000 population. Only a senior psychiatrist may indicate ECT in Estonia and pregnancy is no contraindication. In 2010, the main indication for ECT was schizophrenia (47.8%). This 2010 survey revealed significant differences in the use and availability of ECT between the Baltic countries.

  3. Wave climate in the Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Soomere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic features of the wave climate in the Southwestern Baltic Sea (such as the average and typical wave conditions, frequency of occurrence of different wave parameters, variations in wave heights from weekly to decadal scales are established based on waverider measurements at the Darss Sill in 1991–2010. The measured climate is compared with two numerical simulations with the WAM wave model driven by downscaled reanalysis of wind fields for 1958–2002 and by adjusted geostrophic winds for 1970–2007. The wave climate in this region is typical for semi-enclosed basins of the Baltic Sea. The maximum wave heights are about half of those in the Baltic Proper. The maximum recorded significant wave height HS =4.46 m occurred on 3 November 1995. The wave height exhibits no long-term trend but reveals modest interannual (about 12 % of the long-term mean of 0.76 m and substantial seasonal variation. The wave periods are mostly concentrated in a narrow range of 2.6–4 s. Their distribution is almost constant over decades. The role of remote swell is very small.

  4. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals.

  5. UNITY IN DIVERSITY. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MULTILINGUALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the European Union represents the most ambitious legal and linguistic project, integrating 28 Member States and 24 official languages. What we undertook with this study was to explore the importance of multilingualism in the European Union and the problems that unity in diversity involves. This study tried to touch upon both theoretical aspects (i.e., what the multilingualism of EU law implies and practical issues (i.e., the interaction between legal languages at national and at EU level, problems emerging from multilingualism, illustrated by the relevant case law of the European Court of Justice. In many ECJ cases, it was underlined that multilingualism is essential to the EU legal order. The meaning of EU law cannot be derived from one version of the official languages and the ECJ regularly heads for a uniform interpretation of the contradictory versions. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of my PhD thesis. A first part of this research on multilingualism has already been published.

  6. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA; BHIM SINGH

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage UPF based electronic ballast, boost PFC converter and a half bridge series resonant inverter (HBSRI) share a common power switch. Thus one power switch is reduced as compared to the conventional two-stage approach. The design, modeling, analysis and implementation of this topology were carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment for a T8 36 W, 220 V, 50 Hz fluorescent lamp. The switching frequency was kept morethan the resonant frequency of the inverter, to ensure the zero voltage switching (ZVS) operation of both power switches. This resulted in reduction of high frequency switching losses. The power quality parameters such as displacement power factor (DPF), distortion factor (DF), power factor (PF), crest factor (CF) and total harmonicdistortion of ac mains current (THDi) were evaluated to analyze the performance of proposed electronic ballast. Test results on a developed prototype of PFC electronic ballast were included to validate the design and simulated results.

  7. Pembuatan Aplikasi Permainan “Jakarta Bersih” Berbasis Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhiim Catur Hanggoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebersihan merupakan salah satu syarat hidup sehat yang diimpikan oleh masyarakat luas. Namun pada kenyataannya, tidak semua masyarakat memiliki sikap menjaga kebersihan dan kesehatan lingkungan. Zaman sekarang, sudah ada smartphone atau bisa disebut dengan telpon pintar yang sudah menjadi kebutuhan bagi sekian banyak orang di dunia ini. Banyak aplikasi pada smartphone yang mampu menunjang produktivitas masyarakat luas, bahkan sekalipun dengan permainan. Permainan merupakan sebuah sistem dimana pemainnya terlibat dalam suatu konflik buatan, ditentukan oleh aturan, yang menghasilkan keluaran atau hasil yang dapat diukur. Dengan adanya permainan yang interaktif mampu membuat pengguna memahami isi konten yang ada didalam permainan. Maka dari itu dibutuhkanlah aplikasi permainan pada smartphone yang mampu mengenalkan tentang kebersihan di lingkungan sekitar. Aplikasi permainan 'Jakarta Bersih' dibuat menggunakan perangkat lunak Unity versi 5. Pengembangan multimedia yang digunakan adalah Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC yang memiliki enam tahap, yaitu tahap konsep (Concept, tahap perancangan (Design, tahap pengumpulan materi (Material Collecting, tahap pembuatan (Assembly, tahap pengujian (testing, dan tahap distribusi (Distribution. Pengujian black-box juga digunakan pada aplikasi ini. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian menggunakan metode black-box, fungsi dan tampilan aplikasi permainan Jakarta Bersih sudah berhasil dengan baik dan dapat disebarkan ke masyarakat luas. Aplikasi ini bisa dijadikan cara alternatif untuk dapat memperkenalkan dan mengingatkan akan kepentingan kebersihan dan kesehatan lingkungan pada masyarakat luas.

  8. Factorization of colored knot polynomials at roots of unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.

    2015-07-01

    HOMFLY polynomials are the Wilson-loop averages in Chern-Simons theory and depend on four variables: the closed line (knot) in 3d space-time, representation R of the gauge group SU (N) and exponentiated coupling constant q. From analysis of a big variety of different knots we conclude that at q, which is a 2m-th root of unity, q2m = 1, HOMFLY polynomials in symmetric representations [ r ] satisfy recursion identity: Hr+m =Hr ṡHm for any A =qN, which is a generalization of the property Hr = H1r for special polynomials at m = 1. We conjecture a further generalization to arbitrary representation R, which, however, is checked only for torus knots. Next, Kashaev polynomial, which arises from HR at q2 = e 2 πi / | R |, turns equal to the special polynomial with A substituted by A| R |, provided R is a single-hook representations (including arbitrary symmetric) - what provides a q - A dual to the similar property of Alexander polynomial. All this implies non-trivial relations for the coefficients of the differential expansions, which are believed to provide reasonable coordinates in the space of knots - existence of such universal relations means that these variables are still not unconstrained.

  9. Factorization of colored knot polynomials at roots of unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. Kononov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available HOMFLY polynomials are the Wilson-loop averages in Chern–Simons theory and depend on four variables: the closed line (knot in 3d space–time, representation R of the gauge group SU(N and exponentiated coupling constant q. From analysis of a big variety of different knots we conclude that at q, which is a 2m-th root of unity, q2m=1, HOMFLY polynomials in symmetric representations [r] satisfy recursion identity: Hr+m=Hr⋅Hm for any A=qN, which is a generalization of the property Hr=H1r for special polynomials at m=1. We conjecture a further generalization to arbitrary representation R, which, however, is checked only for torus knots. Next, Kashaev polynomial, which arises from HR at q2=e2πi/|R|, turns equal to the special polynomial with A substituted by A|R|, provided R is a single-hook representations (including arbitrary symmetric – what provides a q−A dual to the similar property of Alexander polynomial. All this implies non-trivial relations for the coefficients of the differential expansions, which are believed to provide reasonable coordinates in the space of knots – existence of such universal relations means that these variables are still not unconstrained.

  10. The Paradigm of Unity in Prenatal Education and Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornas-Biela Dorota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to the relation between parents and their prenatal child presents the child as a fetus, a mainly passive recipient of the mother’s vital biological resources. Contemporary prenatal psychology and pedagogy recognizes this relationship in a quite different perspective: the prenatal child is a member of the family and may be seen as an active member of the wider family as a community, extended to grandparents and other relatives. Between parents and their child in the womb exists a reciprocal relationship at a physiological (hormonal, psychological and spiritual level. The prenatal child communicates with the parents in different ways and reacts to their stimulation (acoustic, tactile, loco-motoric, chemo-receptive, thermo-receptive, and emotional. This dialogue of the parents and their prenatal child enriches each member of the family community. In this sense, the prenatal child is a gift and a challenge for the parents to develop their personality, social competences and spiritual life. The reflections presented in this paper fit the conception of the paradigm of unity applied into the area of prenatal education and prenatal pedagogy as a new pedagogical subdisciline.

  11. Unity and universe: understanding pilgrimage to Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Having found the specific universal unity of pilgrimages, namely that pilgrimages are journeys of spiritual transformation, the author began to look more closely at the uniqueness of the content of beliefs embodied in pilgrimages to Mount Athos, particularly with the aim of unfolding the universe of beliefs concealed in the word proskýnima, which is the Greek word for ‘pilgrimage’. Therefore, he shifted his focus from the concept to the word ‘pilgrimage’, denoting the human phenomena of visiting holy and sacred places, persons, mountains, wells and so forth. This article illustrates how our preconceptions of the word ‘pilgrimage’ determine our conception of the concept or category of ‘pilgrimage’, which again determines our interpretation and understanding of the content of beliefs of this form of human phenomenon. As a by-product this article also displays the process of how our limited horizon of conceiving the concepts and words is extended in parallel with the process of research. The article shows how this horizon determines our leaving out fundamental elements of ‘pilgrimages’ which, in this case, are characteristic of visits to the Holy Mountain of Greece.

  12. RAZVOJ RAČUNALNIŠKIH IGER S POMOČJO GRAFIČNEGA POGONA UNITY

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    V tej diplomski nalogi bomo pregledali grafični pogon Unity, ki služi kot orodje za razvoj računalniških iger. Spoznali bomo orodja, ki jih grafični pogon Unity uporablja pri izdelovanju iger. To zajema: urejevalnik okolja Unity, materiale in njihove senčnike, delo s fizikalnimi lastnostmi objektov, zvok in orodje za osvetlitev znotraj igre. Vse naštete komponente bomo praktično uporabili in predstavili ob gradnji realno časovne strateške igre Varovanje terena za internetni brskalnik. O...

  13. 基于Unity 3D的web游戏的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2014-01-01

    Unity 3D是一款3D跨平台的游戏引擎,本文在介绍Unity 3D引擎的基础上,以一款《接球游戏》为例,给出了一种基于Unity 3D的web开发游戏的方法。在此基础上,开发人员可以利用Unity开发多平台的游戏。

  14. 基于Unity 3D的游戏的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2014-01-01

    Unity 3D是一款基于3D的跨多平台的游戏引擎,本文在介绍Unity 3D引擎的基础上,以一款《保龄球游戏》为例,介绍了Unity 3D创建材质、预置物体、脚本的方法,详细分析了保龄球击落保龄球瓶的发射、消失、按钮、开始等JavaScript脚本的编写方法与技巧。

  15. PARTITION OF UNITY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SHORT WAVE PROPAGATION IN SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-kui; ZHOU Hao-yang

    2005-01-01

    A partition of unity finite element method for numerical simulation of short wave propagation in solids is presented. The finite element spaces were constructed by multiplying the standard isoparametric finite element shape functions, which form a partition of unity, with the local subspaces defined on the corresponding shape functions, which include a priori knowledge about the wave motion equation in trial spaces and approximately reproduce the highly oscillatory properties within a single element. Numerical examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed partition of unity finite element in both computational accuracy and efficiency.

  16. Center of the universal Askey-Wilson algebra at roots of unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hau-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by a profound observation on the Racah-Wigner coefficients of Uq (sl2), the Askey-Wilson algebras were introduced in the early 1990s. A universal analog △q of the Askey-Wilson algebras was recently studied. For q not a root of unity, it is known that Z (△q) is isomorphic to the polynomial ring of four variables. A presentation for Z (△q) at q a root of unity is displayed in this paper. As an application, a presentation for the center of the double affine Hecke algebra of type (C1∨ ,C1) at roots of unity is obtained.

  17. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Titelman, Josefin; Hansson, Lars Johan

    2011-01-01

    Since its invasion in to the Baltic Sea in 2006, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi has been suspected of seriouspredation on the early life stages of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) due to a temporal and spatial overlap inthe most important cod spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin. We conduc...

  18. Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, K.; Moros, M.; Porsche, C.; Neumann, T.; Adolphi, F.; Andersen, T.J.; Siegel, H.; Gerth, M.; Leipe, T.; Jansen, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas(1) such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the

  19. On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemeshev Andrey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the research and innovation potential of Russia in general, the Northwestern federal district and the Baltics (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and explores the opportunities for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Baltics in the field of innovations. The authors identify possible areas of cooperation and describe its mechanisms.

  20. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  1. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  2. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören

    2012-01-01

    Featured as research highlight in Nature. The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1...

  3. Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov.: the first described species of Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I; Mckellar, Ryan C

    2016-07-26

    Based on two relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first formally described species of Passandridae from Baltic amber, and the first known European representative of the family. The global distribution of extant Passandra Dalman is mapped, and the historical distribution of the group is briefly discussed.

  4. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  5. A Hundred Years Later. Streetcars are still rattling in Baltic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika V. Polanska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A young geographer by the name of Sten De Geer mapped the cities around the Baltic Sea in an article published in 1912. As an attempt to capture the urban structure of Baltic region cities, his paper is unique. In this article, we comment on his meticulous descriptions of these cities, with a century-long perspective.

  6. Sedimentary alkenone distributions reflect salinity changes in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warden, L.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Moros, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Baltic Sea has had a complex salinity history since the last deglaciation. Here we show how distributions of alkenones and their δD values varied with past fluctuations in salinity in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene by examining a Holocene record (11.2–0.1 cal kyr BP) from the Arkona Basin.

  7. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  8. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  9. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  10. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  11. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    scientists, is used to identify the most cost-effective configuration of abatement measures. BALTCOST utilises detailed regional and spatial data down to 10 x 10km grid cell level for all Baltic littoral countries. Modelling results suggest that it should be possible to achieve the BSAP load reduction......In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins....... This paper investigates the costeffective distribution of nutrient abatement measures between drainage basins and Baltic Sea regions, where the aim is to achieve the BSAP nutrient load reduction targets. The cost-minimisation model BALTCOST, an interdisciplinary development involving economists and natural...

  12. Artistic Alliances and Revolutionary Rivalries in the Baltic Art World, 1890-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Pushaw

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the areas now known as Estonia and Latvia, art remained a matter for the Baltic German minority throughout the nineteenth century. When ethnic Estonian and Latvian artists gained prominence in the late 1890s, their presence threatened Baltic German hegemony over the region’s culture. In 1905, revolution in the Russian Empire spilled into the Baltic Provinces, sparking widespread anti-German violence. The revolution also galvanized Latvian and Estonian artists towards greater cultural autonomy and independence from Baltic German artistic institutions. This paper argues that the situation for artists before and after the 1905 revolution was not simply divisive along ethnic lines, as some nationalist historians have suggested. Instead, this paper examines how Baltic German, Estonian and Latvian artists oscillated between common interests, inspiring rivalries, and politicized conflicts, questioning the legitimacy of art as a universalizing language in multicultural societies.

  13. Economic Development of the Baltic and Nordic Countries: Characteristics of Еconomic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Maksimtsev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic development models are crucial for understanding historical pro­gress of countries and in forecasting their future economic prospects. The Nordic countries are connected with the Baltics through culture, history, politics, and econ­omy. These states have a common interest of ensuring stability, security, and welfare in the Baltic region. This article strives to answer the question as to why the Nordic model of economic development is acclaimed internationally for the effective use of national and external resources, which is not the case in the Baltics. The Nordic and Baltic national models demonstrate that similar financial and economic performance does not translate into similar economic development re­sults. The article tracks ten years of economic performance of the Nordic and Baltic countries and analyses economic models from the perspective of new institutional­ism. The authors offer a definition of a ‘successful economic development model’.

  14. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  15. Relevance, textual unity, and politeness in writing about science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreml, N.M.P.

    1992-01-01

    The question of whether there are social implications of linguistic choices in unifying a text is investigated empirically by this study which accounts for the interpretation of implicatures in conversation and written texts. It considers Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson 1988, Blakemore 1987, Blass 1990) to be the explanation of the unity of the text, as opposed to semantic theories of cohesion (Halliday and Hasan 1976) or pragmatic theories of coherence (van Dijk 1977). This study presents a model of three types of textual unifiers: overt (referring specifically to the text), embedded (referring to intra- and extra-textual information), and inference (not referring to the text at all). It hypothesizes that different genres are characterized by the predominance of different types of textual unifiers, and that readers will prefer those texts that rely on inferential unifiers which emphasize the reader's ability to participate in creating the meaning of the text. Eighteen texts of 275 words each are selected from three genres: scientific magazines, introductory science textbooks, and essays on science. The texts are found to vary significantly by genre in the type of textual unifier used. An Overtness Index expresses the ratio of the marked forms: science textbooks have more Overt unifiers (such as connective phrases) and thus a high Overtness Index; essays rely more on Inference unifiers (not represented by words) and thus have a low Overtness Index. The texts are submitted to 188 readers, and a significantly high number of all types of readers prefer the texts with the lower Overtness Indices-the essays. Thus a low Overtness Index is one feature of texts preferred by readers, supporting the hypotheses that genres of texts vary in the type of unifier used and that readers prefer texts that allow them to participate in constructing the meaning of the text.

  16. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  17. Research on the Version Control in the Development Unity 3D Game%Unity3D游戏开发中的版本控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙艳军; 俞佳曦

    2012-01-01

    在软件开发过程中,为让不同的角色与开发的成员共同协作,使整体的开发更有效率,出现了版本控制技术.介绍了在Unity3D游戏开发环境下分别构建SVN和AssetServer两种版本控制系统的方法,并总结各自优点和不足,为Unity3D游戏开发者提供参考.

  18. The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Uni on was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse sel ection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  19. On entire functions restricted to intervals, partition of unities, and dual Gabor frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    Partition of unities appears in many places in analysis. Typically it is generated by compactly supported functions with a certain regularity. In this paper we consider partition of unities obtained as integer-translates of entire functions restricted to finite intervals. We characterize the entire...... functions that lead to a partition of unity in this way, and we provide characterizations of the “cut-off” entire functions, considered as functions of a real variable, to have desired regularity. In particular we obtain partition of unities generated by functions with small support and desired regularity....... Applied to Gabor analysis this leads to constructions of dual pairs of Gabor frames with low redundancy, generated by trigonometric polynomials with small support and desired regularity....

  20. Control synthesis for a class of nonlinear systems based on partition of unity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfang HAN; Yinhe WANG; Siying ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    A partition-of-unity-based approach is proposed to derive an approximate model for a class of nonlinear systems. The precision of the approximate model is analyzed by using the modulus of continuity of continuous functions.The system stability of the approximate model is analyzed by using Lyapunov stability theory. A design algorithm for constructing tracking controllers with tracking performance related to tracking error is given based on the approximate model and the partition of unity method.

  1. [Philosophers, physicists and physicians in defense of the unity of the scientific method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiseri, D

    1998-01-01

    The falsifiability of scientific knowledge is an acquired result of contemporary philosophy of science and yet there is not a universal consensus upon the idea of the unity of scientific method. Albeit there are differences in techniques of testing (methodics) hypotheses in the vast field of research, the author, following the critical rationalism of Karl Popper, favors the perspective of the unity of method in natural as well in social and philological sciences.

  2. Unity connecting module viewed from above in the Space Station Processing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is viewed from above while it awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the side can be seen the connecting hatch. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  3. Maintaining Unity - Relatives in older patient's fast-track treatment programmes. A Grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. FINDINGS: Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved...... to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. CONCLUSION: The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes....

  4. Facilitation of multisensory integration by the "unity effect" reveals that speech is special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Ghazanfar, Asif A; Spence, Charles

    2008-07-29

    Whenever two or more sensory inputs are highly consistent in one or more dimension(s), observers will be more likely to perceive them as a single multisensory event rather than as separate unimodal events. For audiovisual speech, but not for other noncommunicative events, participants exhibit a "unity effect," whereby they are less sensitive to temporal asynchrony (i.e., that are more likely to bind the multisensory signals together) for matched (than for mismatched) speech events. This finding suggests that the modulation of multisensory integration by the unity effect in humans may be specific to speech. To test this hypothesis directly, we investigated whether the unity effect would also influence the multisensory integration of vocalizations from another primate species, the rhesus monkey. Human participants made temporal order judgments for both matched and mismatched audiovisual stimuli presented at a range of stimulus-onset asynchronies. The unity effect was examined with (1) a single call-type across two different monkeys, (2) two different call-types from the same monkey, (3) human versus monkey "cooing," and (4) speech sounds produced by a male and a female human. The results show that the unity effect only influenced participants' performance for the speech stimuli; no effect was observed for monkey vocalizations or for the human imitations of monkey calls. These findings suggest that the facilitation of multisensory integration by the unity effect is specific to human speech signals.

  5. The interdependence of public witness and institutional unity in the Dutch Reformed family of churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E de Villiers

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Belhar Confession of the then Dutch Reformed Mission Church officially approved in 1986 confesses that the unity of the church should be made visible. Very little has since then come of this visible unity in the family of Dutch Reformed churches. Since 1996, however, new impetus has been given to the effort to bring about institutional unity. It has especially been in their ministries of public witness and service that these churches succeeded to a large extent to give visible and institutional expression to their unity. This would hopefully enable the churches of the Dutch Reformed family to play a more effective public role in the present South African society. They, however, face two serious restrictions in this regard: the limited scope for churches to play a public role within the new liberal democratic dispensation in South Africa and the limited motivation to play a transforming public role in the churches of the Dutch Reformed family. In the article a few pre-conditions for playing an effective public role the churches of the Dutch Reformed family have to meet are discussed. The most important one is that these churches should achieve full institutional unity as soon as possible. The conclusion of the article is therefore that the interdependence of institutional unity and public witness is a reality they will have to deal with effectively if they want to move forward.

  6. Unity and catholicity in the Korean Presbyterian Church: An ecumenical Reformed assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegeon Ha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I attempt to find the main causes of the serious disunity in the Presbyterian Church in Korea (PCK, which started as one church but is now divided into more than 100 denominations, as well as a solution to promote the unity of the PCK. This attempt starts with an exegesis of Ephesians, with special reference to Ephesians 4:1�16, to understand the biblical principle on this matter. This article draws on a mature ecclesiology and a mature sense of unity as key concepts. After that, the history of the PCK disunity is briefly described, dealing with four major schisms. Based on this historical investigation, the disunity in the PCK is assessed. In addition, the weak sense of unity and weak ecclesiology of the PCK, which played a role in its disunity, are discussed in view of the confessions of faith, the ministry of the word and the Lord�s Supper, and ecumenical efforts in relation to national and international ecumenical organisations. Lastly, contributory suggestions based on the mature sense of unity are offered to the PCK in particular and the Reformed family and all Christian churches in general.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In my ecumenical Reformed intradisciplinary assessment of unity and catholicity in the PCK, which started as one church but is now divided into more than 100 denominations, I identify the main causes of serious disunity in the PCK, namely a weak sense of unity, immaturity and secularisation.

  7. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro et Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Un nouveau cours pratique sur les environnements Premium et Quantum de Schneider est proposé aux automaticiens concepteurs ou installateurs, et aux techniciens de bureau d'études, pour découvrir l'outil de programmation Unity. La prochaine session aura lieu du 24 au 28 janvier 2005. Le cours est ouvert aux personnes capables de développer sous PL7-Pro ou Concept. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; programmer en Unity-Pro sur Base Premium et Quantum. Programme : Environnement Quantum et Coupleur Profibus (1 journée) : configuration d'un automate sous Unity Pro et d'un coupleur Profibus DP. Conversion à Unity sur base Quantum et Premium (3,5 jours) : l'offre globale Unity, evolution par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; conversion d'application depuis PL7 Pro ; outils de mise au point ; manipulation des variables structurées ; utilisation des fonctions ; gestion des DF...

  8. Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Viktorsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010 in August–September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (−0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m−2 d−1, hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m−2 d−1 and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m−2 d−1. The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5–10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a

  9. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  10. Drought identification in the eastern Baltic region using NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Egidijus; Stonevicius, Edvinas; Kilpys, Justinas; Maciulyte, Viktorija; Valiukas, Donatas

    2017-07-01

    Droughts are phenomena that affect large areas. Remote sensing data covering large territories can be used to assess the impact and extent of droughts. Drought effect on vegetation was determined using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) in the eastern Baltic Sea region located between 53-60° N and 20-30° E. The effect of precipitation deficit on vegetation in arable land and broadleaved and coniferous forest was analysed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated for 1- to 9-month timescales. Vegetation has strong seasonality in the analysed area. The beginning and the end of the vegetation season depends on the distance from the Baltic Sea, which affects temperature and precipitation patterns. The vegetation season in the southeastern part of the region is 5-6 weeks longer than in the northwestern part. The early spring air temperature, snowmelt water storage in the soil and precipitation have the largest influence on the NDVI values in the first half of the active growing season. Precipitation deficit in the first part of the vegetation season only has a significant impact on the vegetation on arable land. The vegetation in the forests is less sensitive to the moisture deficit. Correlation between VCI and the same month SPI1 is usually negative in the study area. It means that wetter conditions lead to lower VCI values, while the correlation is usually positive between the VCI and the SPI of the previous month. With a longer SPI scale the correlation gradually shifts towards the positive coefficients. The positive correlation between 3- and 6-month SPI and VCI was observed on the arable land and in both types of forests in the second half of vegetation season. The precipitation deficit is only one of the vegetation condition drivers and NDVI cannot be used universally to identify droughts, but it may be applied to better assess the effect of droughts on vegetation in the eastern Baltic Sea

  11. Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.L. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States) Luleaa Univ. (Sweden)); Wright, J.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  13. UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Annual report 2011/2012; UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report presents the organisational structure and activities of the UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Above all, topical issues on business in the mineral oil and lubricant sector are discussed. There is an appendix containing data on the production and sales of petroleum products in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  14. Realization of Scenic Wandering System Based on Unity 3D%基于Unity 3D的景点漫游系统制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况扬

    2014-01-01

    Unity 3D是跨平台的虚拟现实创作工具,具有直观的虚拟现实编辑功能,是一个全面整合的专业引擎。本文探讨了采用Unity 3D作为虚拟现实的开发平台,完成制作景点漫游系统的详细过程和注意事项,大大降低了开发景点漫游系统的难度,提高了制作效率。%Unity 3D is a cross-platform virtual reality authoring tool, with a function of visually virtual reality editor and a fully integrated engine. By using Unity 3D as the platform, this paper discusses the detailed process and the announcements to make the scenic wandering system. It greatly reduces the difficulty of the exploitation, and improves the production efficiency.

  15. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area....... Multispecies predictions suggest that the cod stock in the Baltic should be reduced to a very low level of biomass in order to benefit from the higher productivity of herring and sprat, its major prey. Such a result stresses the need for incorporating socio-economic considerations in the definition of target...

  16. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  17. SAR-based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo;

    2011-01-01

    Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps...... deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images...

  18. Measurements of Scattering Function of sea water in Southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, W.; Król1, T.; Martynov, O. V.; Shybanov, E. B.; Hapter, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Volume Scattering Functions (VSF) were measured in Southern Baltic area. The instrument used to this aim allow to measure in full range of angles and for four wavelengths. Obtained characteristics create the set of data which is need to solve the radiative transfer equation. Measured functions were compared with Petzold Average-Particle Phase Function. Spectral variations of measured scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients are presented. Furthermore the instability of measured scattering ratios is discussed in this paper. Such instability have not been mentioned in the literature before.

  19. Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed are characterised by a low stationary phase of the demographic transition model (DTM. The situation proves to be unfavourable in the Polish regions under consideration and highly unfavourable in the remaining area.

  20. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  1. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2016-01-01

    and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... and oxygen. Other important factors include prey availability for first-feeding larvae, egg predation by sprat and herring and cannibalism on juveniles, all in one way or the other related to the prevailing hydrographic conditions. These factors cannot explain increased reproductive success in the last...

  2. The Transformation of Energy Risk in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonavičius Vylius

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the process of energy risk transformation, which creates concrete hazards for citizens of the Baltic States. The article analyzes two sides of the same problem - district heating (DH and the renovation of multi-apartment houses. The article will show that the transformation of energy risk is affected by the legacy of a specific constellation of technological, economic and social elements of Soviet infrastructure that appears in a specific and particularly precarious shape under conditions of liberal market capitalism as regards energy security.

  3. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  4. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat...... of data that recruitment depends on temperature conditions during the months when sprat gonads, eggs, and larvae are developing. We also show that recruitment can be predicted before adults spawn (and fully 15 months earlier than using present technology) by using linkages between recruitment, large...

  5. Mechanisms of Region Construction: the Case of International Projects in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sologub Anastasiya Petrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the processes of regional construction and their specific features in the Baltic Sea region. The article provides insights into main approaches to defining the notion of the Baltic Sea Region, its geography, rationales and preconditions of the Baltic Sea Region construction. The author makes conclusion that currently the construction process is being continued, and it involves a wide range of actors: NGOs, local and regional authorities, scientific organizations, higher education institutions, business structures, international organizations. All these actors use different tools and act in different spheres. Although there is no clear answer to the question “Who and how constructs the Baltic Sea Region?”, it is concluded that the cooperation played a significant role in this process, for example, by determining the geography of the region and creating communication networks. Projects, in turn, become a widespread form of cooperation which are used by large Baltic interregional organizations, such as the Northern Dimension, Interregional programmes, the Council of the Baltic Sea States. International project activity of the described above actors, being the point of pooled resources application and also narratives on the regional issues, became one of the mechanisms of the region construction. The article proves that a wide variety of projects in various fields with the participation of different actors creates a picture of the Baltic Sea region building some of its features and providing common identity and responsibility ideas.

  6. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  8. SatBałtyk - a project for satellite remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Ostrowska, M.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    The main aim of the five-year SatBałtyk (2010-2014) research project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) is to prepare the technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic environment. This system is to characterize on a routine basis the structural and functional properties of this sea on the basis of data supplied by the relevant satellites. The characterization and large-scale dissemination of the following properties of the Baltic is anticipated: the solar radiation influx to the sea's waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic water, distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary organic matter production and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water. It is also intended to develop and, where feasible, to implement satellite techniques for detecting slicks of petroleum derivatives and other compounds, evaluating the state of the sea's ice cover, and forecasting the hazards from current and future storms and providing evidence of their effects in the Baltic coastal zone. The ultimate objective of the project is to implement an operational system for the routine determination and dissemination on the Internet of the above-mentioned features of the Baltic in the form of distribution maps as well as plots, tables and descriptions characterizing the state of the various elements of the Baltic environment

  9. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  10. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years...... into the interglacial). This sea-level rise might therefore have a basinwide extent, and has been attributed to an opening of the Danish Belts. Whereas dinoflagellate cysts reflect sustained high salinites within the upper water column, a concomitant increase in abundance of the chlorococcalean alga Pediastrum within......A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  11. Using an independent geochronology based on palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and atmospheric Pb deposition to date Baltic Sea sediments and infer 14C reservoir age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Bryan C.; Snowball, Ian; Moros, Matthias; Kabel, Karoline; Muscheler, Raimund; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Wacker, Lukas

    2012-05-01

    Dating of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea has proven to be difficult due to uncertainties surrounding the 14C reservoir age and a scarcity of macrofossils suitable for dating. Here we present the results of multiple dating methods carried out on cores in the Gotland Deep area of the Baltic Sea. Particular emphasis is placed on the Littorina stage (8 ka ago to the present) of the Baltic Sea and possible changes in the 14C reservoir age of our dated samples. Three geochronological methods are used. Firstly, palaeomagnetic secular variations (PSV) are reconstructed, whereby ages are transferred to PSV features through comparison with varved lake sediment based PSV records. Secondly, lead (Pb) content and stable isotope analysis are used to identify past peaks in anthropogenic atmospheric Pb pollution. Lastly, 14C determinations were carried out on benthic foraminifera (Elphidium spec.) samples from the brackish Littorina stage of the Baltic Sea. Determinations carried out on smaller samples (as low as 4 μg C) employed an experimental, state-of-the-art method involving the direct measurement of CO2 from samples by a gas ion source without the need for a graphitisation step - the first time this method has been performed on foraminifera in an applied study. The PSV chronology, based on the uppermost Littorina stage sediments, produced ten age constraints between 6.29 and 1.29 cal ka BP, and the Pb depositional analysis produced two age constraints associated with the Medieval pollution peak. Analysis of PSV data shows that adequate directional data can be derived from both the present Littorina saline phase muds and Baltic Ice Lake stage varved glacial sediments. Ferrimagnetic iron sulphides, most likely authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), present in the intermediate Ancylus Lake freshwater stage sediments acquire a gyroremanent magnetisation during static alternating field (AF) demagnetisation, preventing the identification of a primary natural remanent magnetisation for

  12. Trends in confidence in public institutions: A comparative analysis of the Baltic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudžinskas Liutauras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the variation of institutional confidence in the Baltic countries. Within of framework of qualitative comparative framework, it employs a historical approach to detect causes of divergence of trust in rule of law institutions between Estonia vis-à-vis other two Baltic states. While it observes a range of variables that could affect the differences, it emphasises the role of political leadership during critical junctures, which might explain both why Estonia forged ahead at the outset of the post-communist transformation and most recent positive developments in the Baltic countries since the financial crisis in 2008–2010.

  13. A summary and revision of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoan biozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viiu Nestor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biostratigraphical data on the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans are summarized. Based on the study of nine East Baltic drill cores, 28 regional chitinozoan zonal units, including 26 biozones and 2 interzones, are briefly characterized. In comparison with earlier publications, the Silurian chitinozoan biozonation chart is essentially updated, some biozonal units are added, some renamed and several previous subdivisions have been abolished or replaced. The ranges of the stratigraphically most important chitinozoan species throughout the East Baltic Silurian are discussed. Regional chitinozoan biozones are correlated with the global chitinozoan biozones and graptolite biozones, as well as with the regional stratigraphical units of Estonia, Latvia and the Kaliningrad district.

  14. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thøgersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological and economic consequences under the current cod management plan and that the negative effects on the economic performance of the fishermen as well as on the abundance of cod can be mitigated by reducing the target fishing mortality rate of cod. These results are obtained by simulating three management scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.

  15. Is the Proterozoic Ladoga Rift (SE Baltic Shield) a rift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The southern part of the Baltic Shield hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpre......The southern part of the Baltic Shield hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally...... interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). We provide a complete list of tectonic, magmatic......, and geophysical characteristics typical of continental rifts in general and demonstrate that, except for magmatic and, perhaps, some gravity signature, the Lake Ladoga region lacks any other rift features. We also compare the geophysical data from the Lake Ladoga region with similar in age Midcontinent and Valday...

  16. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  17. Fostering Employee Engagement Through Gamification: AirBaltic Forecaster Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiga Ergle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Next to the employee productivity or indicators for staff turnover and absenteeism in organizations, Employee Engagement stands out as one of the most significant measurements for Human Resource Management efficiency. With younger generation representatives joining the workforce companies are bound to investigate and pursue some of the new tools and techniques that respond more effectively to engagement triggers of generations Y and Z. At AirBaltic Corporation in Riga, Latvia, management has been trying to foster engagement of the workforce through introduction of a business game, called Forecaster. According to management belief, in addition to improved internal communication, Forecaster has potential to save up to 1 million eur annually due to the resulting better quality management decisions. Within the article author looks at the theory and research related to application and effects of gamification within corporate settings, as well as reviews workplace environment at AirBaltic Corporation. Further in the article, Forecaster game is described in more detail and its impact on employee engagement and organizational performance is analysed. Finally, recommendations are drawn for organizations to consider when gamifying people management processes in their organizations.

  18. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R MacKenzie

    Full Text Available Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment.

  19. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  20. Spectroscopic measurements of the surface waters for evaluating the fresh-water transport to marine environments in the Southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowska, Violetta; Markuszewski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Jakub; Makuch, Przemysław; Pakszyc, Paulina; Strzałkowska, Agata; Piskozub, Jacek; Petelski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Tymon; Gutowska, Dorota

    2014-05-01

    To asses concentration and spatial distribution of surface-active molecules (surfactants) the spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric measurements of water samples taken from a surface film and a depth 0.5 m were carried out during three cruises of r/v Oceania in Springs' 2010-2011 and Autumn' 2012. Measurements were conducted along the transects from the river outlets to the open waters of the Southern Baltic Sea. Surfactants consist of polar molecules of marine dissolved organic matter and are chemically not entirely classified. However, fractions of dissolved organic matter having chromophores or fluorophores (CDOM or FDOM) are recognized through their specific absorption and fluorescence spectra. The sea surface is a layer of transition between the atmosphere and the sea, where there is a variety of biological, physical and chemical processes which contribute to the accumulation and exchange of surfactants, the chemical species concentrated in the surface layer (surface active agents). The main source of marine surfactants are remains of phytoplankton and its degradation products, created by bacterial activity, and as a result of condensation of molecules of low molecular weight to form of surface-active macromolecules. The presence of surfactants in the surface layers can significantly affect the access of solar energy into the sea as well as the air-sea interaction processes. The main objective of the research was to investigate the luminescent properties of surfactants, sampled in different regions of the Southern Baltic, and to find the differences between a surface film and a subsurface layer (of 50 cm). The next aim was to combine the differences in optical properties with the different dynamics for various river outlets. The results of spectrophotometric studies show the differences in the intensity of spectral bands, particularly between coastal (estuaries) and the open sea zones. Also, analysis of the spectra shows differences between areas of the

  1. Amount of aliphatic double carbon-carbon bonds in the kerogen of the Baltic shale kuckersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshko, I.D.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Yakovlev, V.I.; Sendyurev, M.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In conclusion, among the questions of the chemical structure of the kerogen of combustible shales, one of the most important is that of the presence of multiple carbon-carbon bonds in the organic matter of these combustible minerals. In spite of a series of studies that have been performed this question has long remained open because of the contradictory opinions expressed. In the present paper, in order to evaluate the quantitative content of aliphatic bonds C-C in kerogen the authors analyze the results obtained by previous researchers in the study of the ozonization and chlorination of kuckersite, figures from balance experiments on chlorination, and the results of the use of ESR spectroscopy for these purposes and certain literature information on the halogenation of kuckersite kerogen. The presence in the kerogen of the Baltic combustible shale kuckersite of from 6 to 8 aliphatic double carbon-carbon bonds per 100 C atoms has been shown by the methods of chlorination, ozonization, and ESR spectroscopy, and this agrees with the figures calculated from certain results on the bromination of kuckersite. 18 refs.

  2. Plant movements caused by differential growth--unity or diversity of mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, R D; Myers, A B

    1989-01-01

    A very wide range of plant organ movements have been described and yet it is not clear how each of them is related to the others. This uncertainty has had two undesirable consequences. Firstly, some workers have accepted the idea of a vague unity in the area and have subsequently been misled by information obtained in one system and applied without adequate justification to a study of a quite different system. Secondly, some researchers have evoked a possible diversity to explain why a particular mechanistic explanation may continue to be valid even when the model fails to explain events of a very similar nature in a slightly different system. We argue that this confusion has resulted from a classification of organ movements which has been based on functional rather than on mechanistic considerations. Mechanistic unity is to be expected on evolutionary grounds. This unity, however, may apply only to certain elements of the stimulus-response chain, at certain levels of organization. It follows from this that in seeking this unity, comparisons should be made between equivalent elements of the stimulus-response chain at the same level of organization in different systems. Only when this is done will theories built around the concept of unity provoke meaningful discussion.

  3. Projected impact of climate change in the North and Baltic Sea. Results from dynamical downscaling of global CMIP climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Sein, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    Climate models have predicted strongest climate change impact for the mid/high lattiude areas. Despite their importance, shelves seas (which are supposed to account for more than 20% of global marine primary production and for up to 50% of total marine carbon uptake) are not adequately resolved in climate models. In this study, the global ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model MPIOM/HAMOCC has been setup with an enhanced resolution over the NW European shelf (~10 km in the southern North Sea). For a realistic representation of atmosphere-ocean interactions the regional model REMO has been implemented. Thus, this model configuration allows a physically consistent simulation of climate signal propagation from the North Atlantic over the North Sea into the Baltic Sea since it interactively simulates mass and energy fluxes between the three basins. The results indicate substantial changes in hydrographic and biological conditions for the end of the 21st Century. A freshening by about 0.75 psu together with a surface warming of ~2.0 K and associated circulation changes in and outside the North Sea reduce biological production on the NW European shelf by ~35%. This reduction is twice as strong as the reduction in the open ocean. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the shelf break and the continental slope which reduces the winter mixed layer by locally more than 200 m compared to current conditions. As a consequence winter nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic declines between 40 and 50%. In addition to this, the volume transport of water and salt into the North Sea will slightly reduce (~10%) during summer. At the end of the 21st Century the North Sea appears nearly decoupled from the deep Atlantic. The projected decline in biological productivity and subsequent decrease of phytoplankton (by averaged 25%) will probably negatively affect the local fish stock in the North Sea. In the Baltic Sea the climate

  4. Baltic Graduate School for Social Sciences and Humanities founded in Tallinn / Maiki Voore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voore, Maiki, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Oktoobris 2008 allkirjastasid Tallinna Ülikooli, Läti Ülikooli ja Kaunase Vytautas Magnuse Ülikooli rektorid Baltimaade sotsiaal- ja humanitaarteaduste doktorikooli (Baltic Graduate School) asutamislepingu

  5. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  6. [Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections] / Konrad Maier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maier, Konrad, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections (Proceedings of the Art Museum of estonia, 1 (6)). Hrsg. von Anu Allikvee und Tiina-Mall Kreem. (Tallinn, 2011)

  7. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.;

    2013-01-01

    is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y...... from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). Crown......The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow...

  8. High viral abundance as a consequence of low viral decay in the Baltic Sea redoxcline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köstner, N.; Scharnreitner; Jürgens; Labrenz; Herndl, G.J.; Winter

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the Baltic Sea redoxcline, virus production and the frequency of lytically-infected prokaryotic cells were estimated from parallel incubations of undiluted seawater and seawater that contained prokaryotes with substantially reduced numbers of viruses (virus dilution approach), effectively

  9. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    .... In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species...

  10. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  11. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  12. Economic Development of the Baltic and Nordic Countries: Characteristics of Еconomic Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor A. Maksimtsev; Nikolai M. Mezhevich; Anastasiya V. Koroleva

    2017-01-01

    .... This article strives to answer the question as to why the Nordic model of economic development is acclaimed internationally for the effective use of national and external resources, which is not the case in the Baltics...

  13. Real Estate Price Bubble and Its Impact in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tupėnaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of the real estate price bubble in the Baltic States. The definition of the real estate price bubble is discussed, the main reasons as well as bubble influencing fundamental and irrational factors and price bubble burst sequences to national economics are analysed. Based on the research model and developed by the authors, the practical research of the real estate market in the Baltic States was performed.Trends towards the real estate prices were researched and the influence of fundamental and irrational factors on the growth of the real estate prices was discussed. Research results proved the existence of the price bubble in the Baltic States real estate market during the period from 2004 to 2006. The influence of the real estate price bubble burst on the national economy of the Baltic States is discussed at the end of this article. Article in Lithuanian

  14. Time changes in fishing power in the Danish cod fisheries of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Hovgård, Holger

    2001-01-01

    is that their fishing power has not varied much over time. IFP is calculated for some of the Danish cod fisheries in the Baltic Sea. IFP appeared to be independent of the vessel composition of the reference sub- fleet and for the fleets fishing in the Eastern Baltic Sea. but less so for the Western Baltic Sea fleets....... Variations in IFP are analysed by a GLM (General Linear Model). Results suggest that fishing power has developed in the Eastern Baltic Sea cod fishery at an annual rate of 2% and 6% for trawlers and gillnetters respectively. Mechanisms of fishing power creeping may include increased technical efficiency......Using nominal fishing effort to control fishing mortality and using cpue data from commercial fisheries as abundance indices require ability to correct fishing power for temporal development. It is often assumed in ICES stock assessments that fishing power Is constant over time. However, experience...

  15. Future changes in the Baltic Sea acid–base (pH) and oxygen balances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omstedt, ANDERS; Edman, Moa; Claremar, BJörn; Frodin, Peter; Gustafsson, ERIK; Humborg, CHRISTOPH; Hägg, HANNA; Mörth, MAGNUS; Rutgersson, ANNA; Schurgers, GUY; Smith, BENJAMIN; Wällstedt, TERESIA; Yurova, ALLA

    2012-01-01

    Possible future changes in Baltic Sea acid-base (pH) and oxygen balances were studied using a catchment-sea coupled model system and numerical experiments based on meteorological and hydrological forcing datasets and scenarios...

  16. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics...

  17. Baltic Listed Companies´ disclosure quality – far ahead or lagging behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbi Karmo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the level of average quality of disclosures made in English by biggest companies listed on Baltic stock exchanges and to analyse it in the context of biggest companies listed on other Central and Eastern European (CEE and three developed European (EU stock exchanges. Content analysis reveals that the disclosure quality level of Baltic listed companies outperforms that of other CEE peers by at least 30% and in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures 50 to 80%. Compared to companies listed on developed EU stock exchanges, the disclosure quality of Baltic listed companies is slightly lower in the company home page category, however, it outperforms in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures. This result raises concerns about possibly too restrictive stock exchange web page disclosure regulations which may have a negative impact on the future outlook of Baltic stock exchanges.

  18. Baltic Graduate School for Social Sciences and Humanities founded in Tallinn / Maiki Voore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voore, Maiki, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Oktoobris 2008 allkirjastasid Tallinna Ülikooli, Läti Ülikooli ja Kaunase Vytautas Magnuse Ülikooli rektorid Baltimaade sotsiaal- ja humanitaarteaduste doktorikooli (Baltic Graduate School) asutamislepingu

  19. [Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections] / Konrad Maier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maier, Konrad, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections (Proceedings of the Art Museum of estonia, 1 (6)). Hrsg. von Anu Allikvee und Tiina-Mall Kreem. (Tallinn, 2011)

  20. How behaviour of sprat and herring in the central Baltic Sea depends on physical factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stepputtis, D

    2003-01-01

    ... environmental situations. The effect of stratification of physical factors on the behaviour of herring and sprat was investigated with hydroacoustic methods in combination with towed CTD-measurements in the central Baltic Sea...

  1. What we know about the Baltic Sea: a summary of BSSC 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Uścinowicz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction    The Baltic Sea, an internal sea of the European Community, isone of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. It isquite unique in many respects, particularly in its natural featuresand in the cultural, political and socio-economic patterns ofthe countries bordering it.    After nearly 40 years, during which Baltic marine physicists,chemists, biologists and geologists had been holding separatescientific meetings, it was decided the time was ripe to arrangejoint scientific conferences with the purpose of getting togetherto discuss general and specific aspects of the Baltic Sea, toexchange information, to integrate efforts, and to get to knowand understand each other better. The Sopot 2005 Congress, precededby the Baltic Sea Science Congresses in Rønne (1997, Warnemünde(1999, Stockholm (2001 and Helsinki (2003, was the fifth jointmeeting of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers (CBO, BalticMarine Biologists (BMB and Baltic Sea Geologists (BSG. Likeall the previous congresses, the one held in Sopot bore witnessto the idea that we all, members of CBO, BMB and BSG, shouldcontinue to work together even more closely.    The meeting in Sopot instigated discussion on a broad spectrumof problems, from large-scale climate change-related processesto local, small-scale specific Baltic Sea features. Further subjectsfor deliberation included modelling as a research tool and asa way of providing services and forecasting certain phenomena,operational oceanography, and man's impact on the Baltic Seaenvironment and its resources.    We are indebted to our Scientific Committee for their work duringthe past months to sort out and select interesting contributionsto all the oral and poster sessions, and thus for making theCongress an attractive and quality event. We also thank the PolishAcademy of Sciences and the City of Sopot for their financialsupport.    We hope that the joint Congress and fruitful scientific

  2. Organic unity theory: an integrative mind-body theory for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1997-12-01

    The potential of psychiatry as an integrative science has been impeded by an internal schism that derives from the duality of mental and physical. Organic unity theory is proposed as a conceptual framework that brings together the terms of the mind-body duality in one coherent perspective. Organic unity theory is braided of three strands: identity, which describes the relationship between mentally described events and corresponding physically described events; continuity, which describes the linguistic-conceptual system that contains both mental and physical terms; and dialectic, which describes the relationship between the empirical way of knowing that is associated with the physical domain of the linguistic-conceptual system and the hermeneutic way of knowing that is associated with the mental domain. Each strand represents an integrative formulation that resolves an aspect of mental-physical dualism into an underlying unity. After the theory is presented, its implications for psychiatry are briefly considered.

  3. Does John 17:11b, 21−23 refer to church unity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Malan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In ecumenical circles, John 17:11b, 21–23 has been understood as Jesus’ prayer for church unity, be it confessional or structural. This article questioned such readings and conclusions from historical, literary and sosio-cultural viewpoints. The Fourth Gospel’s language is identified as ’antilanguage’ typical of an ’antisociety’, like that of the Hermetic, Mandean and Qumran sects. Such a society is a separate entity within society at large, but opposes it. Read as a text of an antisociety, John 17:11b, 21–23 legitimises the unity of the separatist Johannine community, which could have comprised several such communities. This community opposed the Judean religion, Gnosticism, the followers of John the Baptist and three major groups in early Christianity. As text from the canon, this Johannine text legitimates tolerance of diversity rather than the confessional or structural unity of the church.

  4. The Unity Council at 40: a pioneering community development and service organization (1967-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Gabriel; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Speaking Unity Council (Unity Council) is a community development nonprofit organization that was established in 1964, during the civil rights movement, by a group of community members who wanted to ensure the political representation of the Latino community. Over its 45-year history, the Unity Council has grown into a $12 million community development organization that delivers a range of programming, including social services and employment training as well as facilitating the development and support of local businesses, low-income housing, and neighborhood improvement activities. The history of the agency presents the multiple challenges and rewards associated with development in an underserved community and an example of the important role that leadership plays in the growth of a nonprofit.

  5. Near-unity broadband absorption designs for semiconducting nanowire arrays via localized radial mode excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountaine, Katherine T; Kendall, Christian G; Atwater, Harry A

    2014-05-05

    We report design methods for achieving near-unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays, illustrated by results for visible absorption in GaAs nanowires on Si substrates. Sparse (unity absorption at wire resonant wavelengths due to coupling into 'leaky' radial waveguide modes of individual wires and wire-wire scattering processes. From a detailed conceptual development of radial mode resonant absorption, we demonstrate two specific geometric design approaches to achieve near unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays: (i) introducing multiple wire radii within a small unit cell array to increase the number of resonant wavelengths, yielding a 15% absorption enhancement relative to a uniform nanowire array and (ii) tapering of nanowires to introduce a continuum of diameters and thus resonant wavelengths excited within a single wire, yielding an 18% absorption enhancement over a uniform nanowire array.

  6. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate distinct changes in otolith increment width observed in demersal juveniles b......, performed vertical migrations during the second interval, and stayed in association with the seafloor in the subsequent interval, corresponding to the time after the breakdown of the thermocline....

  7. Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Farnelid, Hanna; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Andersson, Anders F.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Jost, Günter; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus; Riemann, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N2 fixation was measured at the surface (5 m) and in anoxic water (200 m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and

  8. President of the Republic at the U. S.-Baltic Foundation Awards Dinner / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi kõne Ameerika-Balti Fondi auhindade üleandmise pidulikul õhtusöögil, 19. aprillil 2008 Washingtonis. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  9. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  10. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  11. President of the Republic at the U. S.-Baltic Foundation Awards Dinner / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi kõne Ameerika-Balti Fondi auhindade üleandmise pidulikul õhtusöögil, 19. aprillil 2008 Washingtonis. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  12. Occurrence of Plasmids in the Aromatic Degrading Bacterioplankton of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ain Heinaru; Jaanis Juhanson; Eve Vedler; Eeva Heinaru; Jekaterina Jutkina

    2011-01-01

    Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that provide their hosts with many beneficial traits including in some cases the ability to degrade different aromatic compounds. To fulfill the knowledge gap regarding catabolic plasmids of the Baltic Sea water, a total of 209 biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated and screened for the presence of these mobile genetic elements. We found that both large and small plasmids are common in the cultivable Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and are particularly p...

  13. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Nuclear Safety Research Department, NUK-114, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bengtson, P. [National Radiation Protection Institute, S-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Bojanowsky, R. [Institute of Oceanology, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81 712 Sopot (Poland); Hagel, P. [Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research, P.O. Box 68, NL-1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Herrmann, J. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, P.O. Box 301220, D-20305 Hamburg (Germany); Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Jakobson, E. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Kopli 76, EE-0004 Tallinn (Estonia); Motiejunas, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection, A. Juozapaviciaus 9, LT-2602 Vilnius (Lithuania); Panteleev, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskij Av. 28, 194 021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Skujina, A. [Lielriga Regional Environmental Board, Rupniecibas St. 25, LV-1045 Riga (Latvia); Suplinska, M. [Central Laboratory for Radiation Protection, Ul. Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year{sup -1}. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  14. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis. In the Ea......Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis....... In the Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower...... in the Western Baltic. On average, 19% of the 0-group and 9% of the 1-group are consumed per year, i.e. 24% of the initial cohort is eaten before reaching age 2. Predation was most intense in 1978-1984, a period with high juvenile abundance and large adult stock sizes in both areas. Subsequently, stock...

  15. New genus and species of broad-nosed weevils from Baltic amber and notes on fossils of the subfamily Entiminae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Yunakov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Arostropsis groehni gen. et sp. n. is described from Baltic amber and temporarily placed in the tribe Naupactini. It differs from all recent Naupactini genera with open corbels by very short and flattened scape, distinct lateral carina of the pronotum and elytra, and the rostrum distinctly narrower than the head capsule. The shape of head in the extinct genus is somewhat similar to that of the extant Naupactini genera with enclosed corbels (Platyomus Sahlberg, 1823 and Aptolemus Schoenherr, 1842, but differs in the slender body, open corbels, very short antennal scape and epifrons without a median sulcus (only a longitudinal depression is slightly visible. It is also similar to the Tanymecine genus Pandeleteius Schoenherr, 1834 in general appearance, but distinct by the straight anterior edge of the pronotum, lack of postocular spurs, lobes, and vibrissae, a slightly sloping elytral declivity, lateral ridges on the pronotum, subflattened antennal scape, elongate rostrum, and sparsely setose epistome. A new synonymy of the generic names Protonaupactus Zherikhin, 1971 and Sucinophyllobius Wanat & Borowiec, 1986, syn. n., is established. The Madagascan genus Corecaulus Fairmaire, 1903 is transferred from the tribe Naupactini to the Brachyderini because of its connate claws and the similarity in chaetotaxy of the epistomal area with African and Madagascar Brachyderini genera. A key to the identification of known Baltic amber genera of Entiminae is proposed. A checklist of the prepleistocene fossil Entiminae, based on V.V. Zherikhin’s data, with remarks and corrections, is presented.

  16. OPTIMAL ERROR ESTIMATES OF THE PARTITION OF UNITY METHOD WITH LOCAL POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-qing Huang; Wei Li; Fang Su

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a theoretical analysis of the partition of unity finite element method(PUFEM), which belongs to the family of meshfree methods. The usual error analysis only shows the order of error estimate to the same as the local approximations[12].Using standard linear finite element base functions as partition of unity and polynomials as local approximation space, in 1-d case, we derive optimal order error estimates for PUFEM interpolants. Our analysis show that the error estimate is of one order higher than the local approximations. The interpolation error estimates yield optimal error estimates for PUFEM solutions of elliptic boundary value problems.

  17. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  18. Diagram categories for Uq-tilting modules at roots of unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    In this paper we give a diagrammatic category (inspired by Elias' dihedral cathedral) that is a diagrammatic presentation of the category of Uq(sl2)-tilting modules T for q being an l-th root of unity. Moreover, we, following an approach of Soergel and Stroppel, introduce a grading turning T...... into a graded category Tgr. This grading is a purely "root of unity" phenomena and might lead to new insights about the link, tangle and 3-manifold invariants deduced from T. In addition, we also give a diagrammatic category for the (now graded) projective endofunctors pEnd(Tgr), indicate how our results could...

  19. Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Deep; Davoyan, Artur R; Tagliabue, Giulia; Sherrott, Michelle C; Wong, Joeson; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate near-unity, broadband absorbing optoelectronic devices using sub-15 nm thick transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of molybdenum and tungsten as van der Waals semiconductor active layers. Specifically, we report that near-unity light absorption is possible in extremely thin (<15 nm) van der Waals semiconductor structures by coupling to strongly damped optical modes of semiconductor/metal heterostructures. We further fabricate Schottky junction devices using these highly absorbing heterostructures and characterize their optoelectronic performance. Our work addresses one of the key criteria to enable TMDCs as potential candidates to achieve high optoelectronic efficiency.

  20. Experimental Evidence for Hydrogen Tunneling when the Isotopic Arrhenius Prefactor (AH/AD) is Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhir C.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is one of the major tools used for the investigation of hydrogen tunneling in condensed phase. Hydrogen transfer reactions displaying isotopic Arrhenius prefactor ratios (AH/AD) of unity are generally ascribed to a semi-classical mechanism. Here, we have identified a double mutant of soybean lipoxygenase (SLO-1, an enzyme previously shown to follow quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling), that displays an AH/AD of unity and highly elevated (non-classical) KIEs. This observation highlights the shortcoming of assigning a hydrogen transfer reaction to a semi-classical model based solely on an Arrhenius prefactor ratio. PMID:19061319