WorldWideScience

Sample records for baltic states

  1. Russia's European agenda and the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Šleivytė, J.

    2009-01-01

    Russia has always been a primary factor in the development of the Baltic States. It is impossible to analyse Baltic security without looking into the processes inside Russia and the prevailing trends vis-a-vis the Baltic States. However, the changes in the Baltic security landscape in the 21st century lack a comprehensive analysis. This thesis seeks to bridge the gap. Two key aims are being pursued in this thesis. The first is to present an analysis of Russia's European agen...

  2. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  3. Energy Security in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Valciukaite, Silvestra; Nissen, Mark; Gulbinaite, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of energy security issue in the Baltic States. The research to date has tended to focus on the energy dependency on Russian energy resources. Despite the vast of studies being made upon energy security this study aims to analyze how energy security has been securitized in Lithuania. This paper is based on Regional Security Complex and speech act theory in terms of securitization framework. Two securitization sectors (economic, politics) and the area of...

  4. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    industrial customers to participate in the Joint Baltic electricity Market but the aim is a step-by-step opening of the market to comprise a larger number of customer groups. This will in its turn pave the way for a rapid EU adjustment of the Baltic electricity market and a more practical connection to the neighbouring markets, for example the Nordic Electricity Market. The Nordic Electricity Market is one good example of a successful way for regional market integration, which is used as a model and source of positive experiences in other regions, both within the EU and in the candidate countries. The Baltic authorities are interested to make further use of the Nordic experiences and to introduce an electricity market, which in its construction is very similar to the Nordic model. This will make it even more interesting for the Nordic authorities and actors to follow the development in the Baltic States and to finds ways and means for more practical co-operation and partnership. It shall also be noted that the support from the Nordic Countries, including through the Nordic Council of Ministers for Energy, to the reform and adjustment to the EU policies and requirement of the energy sector in the Baltic States has increased in recent years. In this context the co-operation established within BASREC - the Baltic Sea Region Energy Co-operation - where electricity market issues constitutes one of four main areas shall be observed

  5. Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capital markets and financial intermediation in the Baltic States. It provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and level of development of the financial system, discussing some of the unique characteristics of the Baltics, such as leasing; and comparing the structure of the Baltic financial systems to other European Union accession countries and/or euro zone averages, both of which serve as benchmarks. The paper also addresses some of the broader analytical q...

  6. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  7. The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world, accounting for approximately 15% of world industrial output, and is relatively dense in population. Large quantities of pollutants water its waters by way of industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste. A lack of adequate sewage treatment accounts for much of the waste. The Baltic is also especially sensitive to oil pollution as the relatively cold water inhibits bacteriological breakdown. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of exclusionary regimes reappeared with the attainment of independence. Further, the legacy of Soviet maritime environment and resource management has engendered fundamental political, social, and economic conflicts for which resources and effective management structures are lacking. The competing requirements of economic development, reintegration into Western markets, and management of critical marine resources highlights the need for comprehensive and regionally focused approaches to the problems identified

  8. Foreign Direct Investment Attraction in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Saksonova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the importance of macroeconomic factors as well as investment climate for foreign direct invest­ ment attraction in the Baltic states. It reviews some of the indicators for measuring the investment climate and their usefulness as indicators of strength of FDI attraction and uses the results of econometric analysis to consider relative importance of various macroeconomic factors. The results suggest that perceptions of corruption and fiscal policy are some of the more important drivers of FDI attraction. The paper also considers several measures that could improve foreign direct investment attraction in the Baltic States such as expanding the protection of property rights and improving the quality of infrastructure.

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE BALTIC STATES: A COMPARATIVE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA KIURIENÉ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses models of administrative supervision of local self-government in the Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these models. The research done in this article defines the theoretical concept of administrative supervision of local self-government; gives an overview of the legislative framework underpining the key administrative supervision bodies of local self-government in the Baltic States; discusses the issue of legal regulation and the present state of administrative supervision over local self-government units in the Baltic States; gives some theoretical and practical suggestions to develop this field in the Baltic States.The research methods employed in preparation of this article are theoretical methods of analysis of scientific literature and sources, legal acts and documents as well as comparative and logical analysis, induction and generalisation. Three Baltic States similar in their area, number of inhabitants, and governmental peculiarities have been chosen for the analysis.

  10. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  11. The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  12. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  13. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  14. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  15. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  16. The role of Lithuania in energy sector development in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real cooperation of Baltic States in energy sector is lagging behind our common political goals and our numerous declarations. What we have today in the three Baltic states as really useful common installations like common electricity grid, Dispatch Centre in Latvia, were mostly inherited from the Soviet times. Exchange of produced electricity from hydro power plants on the Daugava and Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant during different seasons of the year can be put as a very good example of mutual benefit for the two neighbouring countries and there are more similar examples

  17. Explaining ethnic politics in the Baltic States : reviewing the triadic nexus model / Vello Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Dovile Budryte. Taming nationalism? Political community building in the post-soviet Baltic States; David J. Galbreath. Nation-building and minority politics in post-socialist states : interests, influences and identities in Estonia and Latvia; Judith G. Kelley. Ethnic politics in Europe : the power of norms and incentives. Skeemid

  18. MPC and A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC

  19. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  20. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  1. Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of social development, particular attention is drawn to studies that assess major infrastructure — and thus political — projects aimed at a qualitative breakthrough in the socio-economic development of the countries under investigation. The scheduled multi-billion investments into energy sector are of political rather than economic nature. The projects to develop alternative power grids and high-speed railways can result in large-scale economic downturns diminishing the prospects of balanced social development. The author addresses the classical concepts of the theory of regional economy and new economic geography and their interpretation of the interconnection between political and economic factors. The article aims to demonstrate the inconsistency between political and economic objectives of the development of the Baltics. The study contributes to a broader set of research into the issues of post-Soviet economic and political development. The Baltic States follow their own political and economic ways. The study proves the hypothesis of low efficiency of large infrastructure project and their political motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation with Russia destabilizes the development of national economic of the Baltic States. The author believes that modern infrastructure projects in the Baltic Sea region should be integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.

  2. Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of social development, particular attention is drawn to studies that assess major infrastructure — and thus political — projects aimed at a qualitative breakthrough in the socio-economic development of the countries under investigation. The scheduled multi-billion investments into energy sector are of political rather than economic nature. The projects to develop alternative power grids and high-speed railways can result in large-scale economic downturns diminishing the prospects of balanced social development. The author addresses the classical concepts of the theory of regional economy and new economic geography and their interpretation of the interconnection between political and economic factors. The article aims to demonstrate the inconsistency between political and economic objectives of the development of the Baltics. The study contributes to a broader set of research into the issues of post-Soviet economic and political development. The Baltic States follow their own political and economic ways. The study proves the hypothesis of low efficiency of large infrastructure project and their political motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation with Russia destabilizes the development of national economic of the Baltic States. The author believes that modern infrastructure projects in the Baltic Sea region should be integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.

  3. The international association of teachers of russian language and literature (MAPRYAL) and its activity in the baltic sea states

    OpenAIRE

    Brunova, Natalia; Moskovkin, Leonid; Yurkov, Yevgeny

    2009-01-01

    The article offers general information about the International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature (MAPRYAL) and its main lines of activity. The authors focus on the activity of MAPRYAL in the Baltic Sea States offering a detailed description of the International Festival of Russian Language in the Baltic Sea States, and the events held by MAPRYAL in Germany, Poland, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.

  4. Building methodology, assessing the risks: the case of energy security in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Arūnas Molis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is not confined to analysis of risks to the Baltic States' energy security. The research aimed to develop methods for risk intensity assessment tools as well empirical examples. It encompasses an effort to tailor a system of damage and probability (i.e. risk intensity) assesment used by other authors to risk analysis. The analysis performed by using this methodology shows the existence of at least two major energy security risks of intolerable intensity for the Bal...

  5. Benefits of meeting the Baltic Sea nutrient reduction targets - Combining ecological modelling and contingent valuation in the nine littoral states

    OpenAIRE

    Ahtiainen, H; Hasselström, L.; Artell, J; Angeli, D; Czajkowski, M; Meyerhoff, J.; Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Dahlbo, K; Fleming-Lehtinen, V.; Hasler, Berit; Hyytiäinen, K; Karlõseva, A; Khaleeva, Y; Maar, Marie; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious threats to the Baltic Sea and its ecosystem services is human-induced eutrophication. European Union legislation, in the form of the Marine Strategy and Water Framework Directives, requires information on the benefits of improving the condition of the sea to a good environmental status. Our study uses a unique dataset collected from all nine littoral countries of the Baltic Sea, in combination with state-of-the-art marine modelling of the area, to estimate the benefits...

  6. The Foreign Commercial Banks In The Baltic States: Aspects Of The Financial Crisis Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Aarma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization practice of financial institutions has been intensively studied since the 1960s. Due to increase in international capital flows, foreign direct investments and international trade at that time active development of international or cross-border banking began. At present the world is undergoing a very complex process with a high uncertainty in the global banking and financial markets. This article focuses on the banking sector development and some aspects of management of commercial banks in the Baltic States. The main subject of the article is comparative analysis of the inwards and outwards development in international banking. The main stress is placed on aggregated credit enlargements in the Baltic States during the first decade of the 21st century. During the last global economic crisis commercial banks have been looking for a possible optimization of activities and consequently changes in their networks could be an option for the assessment of their development. However the priority could be to identify the cross-border international credit expansion in the Baltic countries. On the other hand these activities rely on the countries' macroeconomic indicators, mainly to the accumulated money supply. There is a scientific self-determination described in this paper in line with an analysis of identifying the particular Baltic countries in the dynamics of accumulated deposits and credits of international banks. Subsequently it increased the money supply growth. Nowadays banks are required to make sensible strategic decisions in order to maintain sustainable banking businesses in the future. However influences of the financial institutions to the global economic recession affect international banks creating the negative feedback to their previous problems. 

  7. Contemporary Welfare Regimes in Baltic States: Adapting Post-Communist Conditions to Post-Modern Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Toots

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article revises the conventional approach to welfare state development in the post-communist world, according to which the main challenge for the Eastern European states is to catch up with Western European welfare regimes. The article argues that adjustment to the new social risks and volatile markets is more important today than the catching-up scenario. Based on social and labour market statistics for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the article analyses how the Baltic States are coping with this adjustment challenge. Adaptation to the post-modern conditions can be regarded as successful if the stability of welfare spending is accompanied by the expanding and flexible employment and by the stable or decreasing level of poverty. The findings suggest that the opportunities to increase the flexibility and equality of the labour market provided by the breakdown of the communist regime were not used. Instead, the Baltic welfare states continue to focus on protecting against the old social risks by combining neoliberal and post-communist principles. Poor performance in meeting new social risks poses a greater challenge for the post-communist welfare states than their lag in terms of gross welfare expenditure.

  8. Observations on reproductive health programs in the Baltic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nadisauskiene, R J; Liljestrand, J

    2004-01-01

    of reproductive health articulated in Cairo 10 years ago. Reproductive health and rights have improved in these states in spite of recent reforms often acting to oppose improvement. Reforms such as the introduction of family medicine need continued adjustment, especially regarding antenatal care. One......Public attention in Sweden has been drawn to three neighboring states that recently joined the European Union: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. At this historic moment, it seems instructive to look at how the rapidly reformed health sectors of these ex-Soviet republics are responding to the vision...

  9. Monetary Policy of the Baltic States - new EU Members

    OpenAIRE

    Wieslawa Przybylska-Kapuścinska

    2007-01-01

    On 1 May 2004, new East and Central European states that had made a major breakthrough in their social and economic system found themselves within the European Union area. A fundamental decision of capital importance for their future had been the transformation of centrally planned economies into market economies. This required an extreme determination, consistence and sacrifices, and entailed different social and economic costs. The economies in transformation carried out many indispensable ...

  10. Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrey, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

  11. Energy use, efficiency gains and emission abatement in transitional industrialised economies. Poland and the Baltic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    This thesis is a study of how energy use and air pollution in Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been affected by the economic transition after 1989. It consists of six articles, which examine three different aspects of these changes. The first group of articles analyses the structure of energy use in the Baltic states (Article 1) and Poland (Articles 2 and 3) at the outset of transition. The results show that these countries had a primary energy consumption per GDP which was two to three times higher than in developed market economics because of a more energy intensive structure of the economy and higher specific energy intensities in many sectors of the economy. They also had significantly higher levels of air pollution per primary energy consumption and GDP because of a heavy reliance on fossil fuels, an energy intensive economy and an ineffective control of emissions. The deep fall in energy consumption during the first phase of transition was due to a sharp drop in industrial output and higher fuel prices. In the Baltic states, part of the fall in energy consumption was the result of shortfalls in the supply of oil and gas from Russia. The second group of articles (Articles 4 and 5) examines changes in electricity production, fuel consumption, generation efficiency and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions in the Polish power industry between 1988 and 1997. The results show that SO{sub 2} emissions dropped by 45 per cent between 1988 and 1997. The drop in emissions was partly the result of a fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. Other reasons were more important. One reason was the restructuring of the power industry, during which hard budget constraints were introduced and the price of coal was raised. Another reason for the fall in emissions was the reorganisation and stricter enforcement of environmental protection. Together, these reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal

  12. Suicide in Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Pray, L.; Cohen, C; Maekinen, I.H.; Vaernik, A.; F L MacKellar

    2013-01-01

    While suicide is a major public health problem worldwide, the countries of the former Soviet Union, including the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), have some of the highest rates in the world. High suicide rates across Eastern Europe have been correlated with the post-Soviet transitional period and the societal changes associated with that transition. Many scholars have speculated that the sudden collapse of the paternalistic Soviet system and the introduction of...

  13. Pozicija mezhdunarodnogo soobshhestva po voprosu «vosstanovlenija» nezavisimosti Baltijskih respublik [The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  14. Second periodic assessment of the state of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea, 1984-1988; general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, S.A. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The present assessment of the Baltic Sea Area concerning primarily the years 1984-1988 deals mainly with observations made in the open Baltic Sea and consequently, the statements do not reflect findings in coastal areas, which will be assessed separately. Due to the ban in the use of some harmful substances, positive changes were observed; DDT and PCB concentrations in biota have decreased since the 1970s and are now on a lower and steady level, although comparable data on herring indicate that the levels are still higher in the Baltic than in the Skagerrak area. After the ban on technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), the decrease of {alpha} -HCH concentrations in water is still continuing. COncentrations of organochlorine residues in fish from the Baltic Proper are still 3 to 10 times higher than in fish from around the Shetland Islands. Among the 'new contaminants', there has been an increasing number of organic substances identified which are potentially harmful to the environment. Trace element concentrations in fish and shellfish have not changed remarkably since the early 1980s. Generally, it can be stated that mercury concentrations in biota do not significantly differ now from those in the North Sea and the North-East Atlantic. Sallinity continued to decrease mainly due to lack of major inflows of highly saline water from the North Sea during the last 13 years. The area with insufficient oxygen conditions for macrofauna (about 70 000 km{sup 2} with less than 2ml/l oxygen in bottom water) has fluctuated in extent from year to year, but has not increased for 25 years in the Central Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland.

  15. Analyses of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its broadest meaning 'energy security' is the ability of a nation to muster the energy resources needed to ensure its welfare. In a narrower meaning it refers to territorial energy autonomy. Consequently, energy supply security is a matter of both domestic policy and international relations. Perceived and real threats may be economic or logistic, politically motivated or the result of war or natural causes. They may be source, technology or transport related, specific to a facility or a function of system structure, due to sabotage or to inadequate investment or maintenance, or result from pricing or regulatory policies. Energy security has become a growing concern in the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania since regaining independence in 1991. As their national energy systems depend on essentially one single foreign supplier for most of their oil and all of their natural gas supplies, a comprehensive analysis of potential measures to improve security including alternative supply options becomes vital. Such an analysis needs to consider, for example, the availability of domestic energy reserves and resources, the vintage of existing energy infrastructures (including regional and interregional interconnections), storage facilities, as well as future technology and energy trade options. However, the Baltic States' accession to the European Union in 2004 has added further responsibilities with regard to energy security. Robust future energy development strategies, for each individual country and the region as a whole, will also require compliance with EU regulations, as well as with special stipulations formulated in the accession agreements. Robust energy strategies need to strike a balance between the potentially conflicting dimensions of energy security, economic efficiency and environmental protection. For example, supply security is likely to incur an 'insurance premium', while environmental protection may well raise the cost of providing energy

  16. Results of the neotectonic stress state study in the eastern part of Baltic shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lidiya A.; Zhirov, Dmitriy V.; Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Smaglichenko, Alexandr V.

    2010-05-01

    Recently a caving of the Kovdor quarry south-eastern bort occurred on the Kovdor massif (the eastern part of Baltic shield). This required a careful analyze of the stress field in the massif and a comparison of it with general situation in a region. In spite of weak seismicity at whole on the given territory it is characterized by the presence of earthquakes with M = 4 - 4.4 especially in zones of mining works (for example, events of 16.04.1989 and 17.08.1999 at the Khibiny-Lovoserskyi district). The risk zone is increased as for large industrial facilities AES located there as for big quarries extracting minerals. Kinematic method developed by Gushenko in 1973, 1979 has been applied in order to get the stress fields. The field works were performed during summer of 2009. According to this method vectors of tectonic movements along in fissures have been analyzed and local stress states have been reconstructed demonstrating significant range in orientation of axis of main normal stresses. These local stress states were conventionally correspond to the third rank and by using this information tectonic stresses of the second rank have been reconstructed. In the caving zone the local stress state can be characterized as uniaxial tension that could bring the caving. Previous investigations of the eastern part of Baltic shield were made for peninsulas Sredniy, Ryibachiy, for the White sea islands, at coast of the Kandalakschsky Bay, on the Chibino massif. Tectonic stresses of the first rank were revealed and were characterized as subhorizontal axis of compression and of tension. The compressional axis has the WNW orientation while and the extension axis is submeridional. Our research showed that the compression axis on the Kovdor massif has orientation 98° , angle is equal 15. This is in agreement with the previous results. The reconstructed stress field at whole well corresponds to the major faults Onego-Segozerskiy and Kandalakscha, which are seismic active zones. The

  17. South Eastern Baltic radioactive state in 1971-1995, its simulation, prediction, imitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long - term observation results of radionuclides and volume activity (VA) in the Baltic Sea water were analysed. Radiological situations in the coastal zone and the open area of the south-eastern Baltic were observed. The objective analysis method was used to define the radionuclide VA field structure. Thee measured and calculated results of and VA field comparison in the south-eastern Baltic was satisfactory. According to the nuclear hydrophysical model an imitated situation of a 'passive' admixture spreading calculation in the south-eastern Baltic was carried out. In the case of the 'pollution' source concentration 106 times exceeding the 'natural' background at the western wind velocity 10 m/s, the whole coastal area of Lithuania would be contaminated in three days. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  18. Non-equivalent Stringency of Ethical Review in the Baltic States: A Sign of a Systematic Problem in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Gefenas, E; Dranseika, V.; Cekanauskaite, A.; Hug, K; Mezinska, S; Peicius, E; Silis, V.; Soosaar, A; Strosberg, M

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the system of ethical review of human research in the Baltic States by introducing the principle of equivalent stringency of ethical review, that is, research projects imposing equal risks and inconveniences on research participants should be subjected to equally stringent review procedures. We examine several examples of non-equivalence or asymmetry in the system of ethical review of human research: (1) the asymmetry between rather strict regulations of clinical drug trials and re...

  19. Res-E Support Policies in the Baltic States: Electricity Price Aspect (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing volumes of electricity derived from renewable energy sources (RES-E) affect the electricity market prices and the prices for final electricity consumers in the Baltic States. The results of a multivariate regression analysis show that in 2013 the RES-E contributed to decreasing the electricity market prices in the Baltic States. However, the final electricity consumers pay for the promotion of RES-E through the approved RES-E component which has a tendency to increase. It is estimated that in 2013 the net benefits from the wind electricity promotion were achieved in Lithuania and Latvia while the net cost - in Estonia. This suggests that the economic efficiency of the wind electricity support scheme based on the application of feed-in tariffs was higher than that based on the feed-in premium. Rakstā analizēta elektroenerģijas ražošanas no atjaunojamiem energoresursiem (AER-E) palielināšanas ietekme uz elektroenerģijas tirgus cenu un gala cenu elektroenerģijas lietotājiem Baltijas valstīs. Daudzfaktoru regresijas analīzes rezultāti atklāja, ka AER-E 2013. gadā varētu samazināt elektroenerģijas tirgus cenas Baltijas valstīs. Tomēr jāņem vērā, ka elektroenerģijas lietotāja gala cenā ir iekļauta AER-E atbalsta komponente, kurai ir raksturīgi palielināties. Aprēķināts, ka no vēja elektroenerģijas ražošanas Latvijā un Lietuvā tika iegūta tīrā peļņa, bet Igaunijā tikai nosedza pašizmaksu. Tas liecina, ka vēja elektroenerģijas atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz obligātā iepirkuma atbalsta principu, ir augstāka ekonomiskā efektivitāte, nekā atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz piemaksu par no AER saražoto elektroenerģiju obligātā iepirkuma ietvaros.

  20. Impact of climate change on the timing of strawberry phenological processes in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Līga Bethere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been shown to impact aspects of agriculture and phenology. This study aims to quantify changes in the timing of garden strawberry blooms and harvests in the Baltic States using Regional Climate Models (RCMs. First, parameters for a strawberry phenology model based on the growing degree day (GDD methodology were determined. Growing degree days were calculated using a modified sine wave method that estimates the diurnal temperature cycle from the daily maximum and minimum temperature. Model parameters include the base temperature and the required cumulative GDD sum, estimated from phenological and meteorological observations in Latvia for the years 2010–2013 via iterative calibration. Then an ensemble of bias-corrected RCM results (ENSEMBLES project was used as input to the phenological model to estimate the timing of strawberry phenological processes for the years 1951–2099. The results clearly show that strawberry phenological processes can be expected to occur earlier in the future, with a significant change in regional patterns. Differences between coastal and inland regions are expected to decrease over time. The uncertainty of the results was estimated using the RCM ensemble spread, with northern coastal locations showing the largest spread.

  1. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  2. Ergonyms of Educational and Cultural spheres in two of Baltic States cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvita Pošeiko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daugavpils (Latvia and Narva (Estonia are cities in the Baltic States and significant cultural and economic centres of their respective countries. These cities are characterized by a minority of nationals (19.8% of residents of Daugavpils are Latvian, 4% of residents of Narva are Estonian and a similar linguistic situation: there is a dominance of Russian in the press, television and radio, but the state language prevails in the urban language signs. The aim of the study is to analyse the linguistic and extralinguistic means used for the creation of ergonyms of educational and cultural spheres. The main criteria for the analysis are: language choice, grammatical structures, sources of precedent and semantic groups. The data for this study were collected in city websites. Some conclusions: 1 Mixed proper names (the direct name and symbolical name prevail: in Daugavpils there are more mixed names in the field of education, while in Narva there are more mixed names in the culture sphere. Onymization of nomenclature names can be observed. 2 Ergonyms are mostly created in the official language. In Narva, there is explicit use of Russian (directly as the first/second or third language and indirectly – in transliteration. 3 In symbolical names, there are more lexemes representing or characterizing wildlife, while in Narva also the potential of mythology, literature and cinema is used. Denotative precedent is more often found in the names of informal educational institutions and the cultural sphere, connotative precedent – in the names of kindergartens. 4 In general, it must be concluded that the specific things characteristic to the local environment are used more often in Narva, while respecting the unique experience of minorities.

  3. Creative industries in the capital cities of the Baltic States: Are there innovations in urban policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafel-Viia Külliki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of urban policy, resulting from ‘creative industries’ policy developments, is explored in this article, with respect to the Baltic capitals. Policy initiatives in the creative industries in Central and Eastern European cities have predominantly developed through policy transfers from Western Europe, with its long-term market economy experience. How adaptable are such policies for post-socialist cities? Using the concept of social innovation, this article describes mechanisms that facilitate policy acceptance and examines whether and how the development of creative industries has resulted in urban policy renewal in the Baltic capitals.

  4. State-of-the-art research: Reflections on a concerted Nordic-Baltic nuclear energy effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Lars; Tveit, Jesper; Vaagen, Jan S.; Ridikas, Danas

    2009-09-15

    Quite a few hold the view that nuclear energy will have its renaissance in the not too distant future. Technology is, however, a necessary, but not sufficient condition. The needed prerequisites represent a complex issue. With increasing energy demand and depletion of non-renewable energy resources, nuclear will have to prove its role in an increasing energy mix, globally, regionally and often also nationally. Based on its history, experience with coordinated interplay in electricity production from a variety of energy sources, and science engagements, we argue for a future Nordic/Baltic SHOWCASE: A nuclear weapons free and proliferation safe nuclear energy supplier in the region, with a concerted role in competence building and in international ventures, and with focus on operation, safety, economy and societal aspects. (Author)

  5. State-of-the-art research: Reflections on a concerted Nordic-Baltic nuclear energy effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quite a few hold the view that nuclear energy will have its renaissance in the not too distant future. Technology is, however, a necessary, but not sufficient condition. The needed prerequisites represent a complex issue. With increasing energy demand and depletion of non-renewable energy resources, nuclear will have to prove its role in an increasing energy mix, globally, regionally and often also nationally. Based on its history, experience with coordinated interplay in electricity production from a variety of energy sources, and science engagements, we argue for a future Nordic/Baltic SHOWCASE: A nuclear weapons free and proliferation safe nuclear energy supplier in the region, with a concerted role in competence building and in international ventures, and with focus on operation, safety, economy and societal aspects. (Author)

  6. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles.

  7. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  8. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries-Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania-to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  9. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  10. The electricity sector in the Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania before the accession to the EU; Die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft der baltischen Laender Estland, Lettland und Litauen vor dem Beitritt zur Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.; Kraemer, J. [TETRA Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Slitha, G. [Inst. of Physical Energetics, Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga (Latvia)

    2004-07-01

    The accession of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to the EU sets the target to integrate electricity sectors of these Baltic States into a common electricity sector of the EU. The integration of the electricity sectors is one of the most important economic and technical problems. For solving these problems, large-scale financing investments are needed, as well as technical and organisational efforts from the three Baltic States and from the EU. (orig.)

  11. Clubs within clubs: The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and the Benelux as Macro-regions within the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, Nico; Muravska, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with two examples of macro-regions in the EU: the Benelux and the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS). Building on the distinction between “old” and “new” regionalism, it discusses some characteristics of regions in general, and of sub-integration schemes within the EU in particular. These characteristics are applied to the two regions at hand. From this application it follows that the CBSS can be regarded as a “new” region, whereas the Benelux is an “old” region with som...

  12. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  13. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  14. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO, there is no...... reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...

  15. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  16. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  17. Potential for Nordic-Baltic security cooperation: shared threat perception strengthens regional collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    All the Nordic and Baltic states are concerned about the deteriorating security situation in northern Europe. Most of all, military tensions in the Baltic region engender a collective threat perception vis-à-vis Russia. The pressure to respond is boosting a historically rooted security cooperation between the Nordic and Baltic states. A shifting of priorities is becoming apparent within the institutional cooperation, which is moving from a forum of exchange towards a shared framework of actio...

  18. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  19. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  20. The Nordic-Baltic Security Dynamics after the Ukraine Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Tina; Schou, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis takes departure in the observation that the Russian involvement in the Ukraine crisis since 2014 has altered the European security environment with implications for the security dynamics of the Nordic-Baltic states. The thesis examines how the perception of Russia in relation to the Ukraine crisis has affected the Nordic-Baltic security dynamics. In order to analyse this, the thesis employs an analytical framework based on the Regional Security Complex Theory by Barry Buzan...

  1. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT)

  2. Nordic-Baltic security, Germany and NATO: the Baltic Sea Region is a test case for European security

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Claudia; Voss, Alicia von

    2016-01-01

    The countries around the Baltic Sea are among Europe's frontline states affected by the conflict between Russia and western Europe. The Baltics and Nordics share a common concern about a revisionist, aggressive, and rearming Russia: Since the onset of the crisis in and around Ukraine in 2014, these countries have felt increasingly exposed to Rus­sian military and non-military intimidation. Currently, they can neither defend nor maintain regional security by themselves: Their capacities are li...

  3. Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea : Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Markus; Granstedt, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-coun...

  4. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  5. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  6. The principles of making maps and commmmentaries to the Atlas of the Baltic Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Asta Leskauskaitė; Danguolė Mikulėnienė

    2015-01-01

    The principles of making maps and commentaries to The Atlas of the Baltic LanguagesPeople in Lithuania and Latvia speak related languages which belong to the Baltic branch. The fate of both states was also similar. After the restoration of independence of both countries in 1990 it was very important to bring out the similarities which link them. This is how the idea of making an atlas of the Baltic languages evolved.Preparing the Atlas of the Baltic Languages Lithuanian and Latvian linguists ...

  7. Plutonium in Baltic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediments accumulate the bulk of plutonium produced by nuclear tests. The nuclear power industry will form an additional source of plutonium, and it is important to determine the present background levels of plutonium in sediments and to compare the accumulation rate in the Baltic with that in other areas of the world. Plutonium was determined on four sediment cores collected from the Baltic Sea in 1974 and 1975. Two of the samples were from oxygenated coastal sediment with benthic life and two cores were collected from deep basins in the Baltic at depths of 183 m and 164 m where the bottoms were anoxic, with no benthic life, and where the rate of sedimentation is rather high. Data are presented on the Pu-239,240 content of the sediment cores as is pCi/kg dry wt in the different core sections. The highest plutonium concentrations were found near the surface, at depths of 0 to 8 cm. In all cores the plutonium concentration decreases sharply at a depth of about 6 to 8 cm

  8. ONE OF THE LIMITROPHE TERRITORIES OF THE GLOBAL WORLD(TRANSFORMATION OF THE STATES OF THE BALTIC-BLACK SEA REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY)

    OpenAIRE

    Zazhigaev, Boris

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the academic community has become increasingly engrossed in the conceptions of the Baltic-Black Sea system (BBSS) of international relations. Closer inspection reveals three major approaches. The first approach envisages the conceptual mapping of Europe (an idea suggested by Stein Rokkan) 1 and its application in the Vienna-Moscow-Istanbul triangle. The second approach relies on the Cold War logic best described as conflicting interaction; it rests on the agency interpretation...

  9. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  10. VOLGA - BALTIC WATERWAY AND TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-01-01

    Tourism activities throughout the world are becoming diversified every year. One of these is river tourism. In Russia, these activities took place and developed at different locations and at different times commencing in the 1960s. At first planned to meet the needs of industry, the Volga-Baltic Waterway Project in recent years has emphasized tourism different from its original purpose. This study takes the geographical, touristic, historical and cultural dimensions of the Volga-Baltic waterw...

  11. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  12. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management...... unit can mask the relatively poor state of the western Baltic cod population. Second, the current fishing mortality estimates for the entire western Baltic management unit, used as basis for fisheries management, are difficult to interpret as these are highly influenced by mixing of biological...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...

  13. EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the 'EIA vocabulary' eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their 'Eastern' counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

  14. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  15. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    confirmed the high credibility of this report (Bray et al. 2010). A remarkable aspect of this assessment, and BALTEX outreach activities in general, is the sensible cooperation with regional bodies acting as science-policy interfaces, such as HELCOM (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission), and basin-wide organized regional decision makers (BSSSC, Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Co-operation), who are dependent on reliable scientific information to design and implement regional adaptation strategies against climate change impacts. A new BACC report has been initiated as a scientific update extending the scope to socio-economic impacts, and is expected to be finished in 2014.

  16. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...... significant sensitivity towards risk levels, but react on the amplitude of pumping. Even so, approximately one third of the popula-tions in the three countries find the state of the Baltic Sea so severe that they would be willing to accept even high risks induced by oxygenation pumping for a faster recovery...

  17. Russian Port-Projects in the Baltic Sea: A Brief Analysis of Russian Ports and Projected Ports in the Baltic Sea Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Alf Brodin

    2001-01-01

    With its present borders, Russia faces severe limitations in port capacity in relation to the demand of the domestic industry and raw material producers. The Baltic states possess, on the other hand, a port capacity that vastly exceeds local demand and continues to attract large volumes of Russian transit cargo. In this paper, existing Russian ports on the Baltic Sea are described along with a number of proposed port projects in the Gulf of Finland. Future large scale development of new Russi...

  18. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Kazlauskas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising.

  19. Baltic countries in the international surveys – publicity or factors for the development

    OpenAIRE

    Eglitis, Janis

    2008-01-01

    All three Baltic countries have a rather similar geographical, historical and political background nevertheless their economic performance is different. One of the main factors that determine economic success is effective functioning of the state both legislative and governmental bodies. There is no independent audit evaluation of state systems, but the Baltic countries are EU and NATO members, that mean their legislations meet the standards of these organisations. However, the results of the...

  20. VOLGA - BALTIC WATERWAY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities throughout the world are becoming diversified every year. One of these is river tourism. In Russia, these activities took place and developed at different locations and at different times commencing in the 1960s. At first planned to meet the needs of industry, the Volga-Baltic Waterway Project in recent years has emphasized tourism different from its original purpose. This study takes the geographical, touristic, historical and cultural dimensions of the Volga-Baltic waterway as a whole and the area is evaluated within the coverage of the geography of tourism.

  1. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis of...

  2. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  3. President of the Republic at the U. S.-Baltic Foundation Awards Dinner / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi kõne Ameerika-Balti Fondi auhindade üleandmise pidulikul õhtusöögil, 19. aprillil 2008 Washingtonis. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  4. Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 77...

  5. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  6. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit; Munch, Kris

    developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model is to...... results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution to the...... regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  7. Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States. Project November 2007 - October 2009. Final report. Advisory assistance programme for environmental protection in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fammler, Heidrun; Kuris, Merle [Baltic Environmental Forum, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-12-15

    This is the final report of the project ''Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States'', which was co-funded by the German Environmental Agency (project No 380 01 173). The main outcomes of the project are: - The ''Guidelines for the investigation of the impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment in the Baltic States'' developed by the Baltic Environmental Forum and German consultant Dr. Jan Kube in consultation with experts from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The guidelines give an overview on potential negative impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment and general EIA and monitoring requirements as well as give detailed guidance on methodology for relevant field investigations. - The background paper ''Legal frame for the use of offshore wind energy in Germany'' prepared by RA'in Dr. Ursula Prall (April 2009) - 3 international workshops on different aspects related to establishment of offshore wind farms and assessment of their environmental impacts. (orig.)

  8. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  9. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj;

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...... to improving the state of the Baltic Sea. For future research, we propose a similar large-scale, coordinated study across all nine littoral countries using state-of-the art valuation methods to assess the monetary benefits of improving the state of the Baltic Sea....... set obtained from a coordinated survey across all nine littoral countries, we examine the recreational use and perceptions towards the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the Baltic Sea is an important recreation area for residents of the littoral states, as the majority of people spend leisure time...

  10. Contents of Global Talent Evaluations: Baltics & Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Buracas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study discuss the reliability of global talent competitiveness (GTC as framework of deter- minants based on multiple criteria assessment method- ology presenting the comparisons of Baltic States and Serbia as a case study. The multiple criteria evaluation principles are focused on the knowledge components interdependencies with global talent determinants as well as other criterial systems used for the innovation strategies. The approach in a research under review and de- tailing of GTC criterial system when evaluating the talent potential determinants revealed some benefits of multicriteria decision making analysis. The GTC index is a useful instrument for rational global talent management when using the EU structural funds, in- tersectorial distributing of limited resources for more rational development of labour & vocational skills, for evaluating the innovation and talent growth determi- nants.

  11. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  12. Sillamaee - a common Baltic concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of uranium mining and milling are related to the huge amount of waste containing radioactive as well as chemical pollutants. Tailings can be satisfactorly protected so that the environmental impact is minor in the short term. The methods to reduce the risks are many. The actual releases today in the Sillamaee region of the Baltic Sea from the tailings pond are relatively small and should not give rise to concern. However, the situation is unstable, which is why efforts to find remediation methods are justified

  13. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  14. Enhanced cooperation in energy economics in the Baltic area: possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preussen Elektra has been researching the possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Baltic area. The Baltic states; Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, together with the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad were reliant on energy imports from Russia. The main local resource is oil shale in Estonia, although wood and peat have also been used on a smaller scale. Latvia has hydroelectricity, while Lithuania has a nuclear power plant at Ignalina and a masut oil-fired plant at Elektreinai. Kaliningrad relies on energy imports from Lithuania or St Petersburg. Natural gas is a possible future fuel, but will have to be imported from Russia, the very situation from which the Baltic states wish to escape. Imported coal could be used in power plants - these would need to be constructed as West/East joint ventures. Alternatively electricity could be imported direct from States in the western Baltic, at least a Baltic Ring should be started on, but the problems of transformation from a command economy should not be underestimated

  15. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  16. Baltic sea level low-frequency variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Evgueni A.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

    2015-01-01

    The low-frequency sea level spectrum in the Baltic Sea has been analysed based on long-term time series of sea level data (15–124 yr) from three tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea and two stations in the North Sea. The principal periodicities detected in the spectrum are seasonal and tidal oscillations including the pole tide with a period of about 14 months. Cross-spectral analysis has been applied to estimate the frequency response of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea relative to ...

  17. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Świrgoń; Małgorzata Stramska; Halina Kowalewska-Kalkowska

    2013-01-01

    Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is ...

  18. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  19. Seasonal variability in the optical properties of Baltic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zdun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A five-year dataset of spectral aerosol optical thickness was used to analyse the seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties (the aerosol opticalthickness (AOT at wavelength λ=500 nm, AOT(500 and the Ångström exponent for the 440-870 nm spectral range,α(440, 870 over the Baltic Sea and dependence of these optical properties on meteorological factors (wind direction, wind speed and relativehumidity. The data from the Gotland station of the global radiometric network AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.govwere taken to be representative of the Baltic Sea conditions. Meteorological observations from Fårosund were also analysed.       Analysis of the data from 1999 to 2003 revealed a strong seasonal cycle in AOT(500 and α(440, 870. Two maxima of monthly mean values of AOT(500over the Baltic were observed. In April, an increase in the monthly mean aerosol optical thickness over Gotland most probably resulted from agricultural waste strawburning, mainly in northern Europe and Russia as well as in the Baltic states, Ukraine and Belarus. During July and August, the aerosol optical thickness wasaffected by uncontrolled fires (biomass burning. There was a local minimum of AOT(500 in June.       Wind direction, a local meteorological parameter strongly related to air mass advection, is the main meteorological factor influencing the variabilityof aerosol optical properties in each season. The highest mean values of AOT(500 and α(440, 870 occurred with easterly winds in both spring and summer,but with southerly winds in autumn.

  20. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  1. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international co...

  2. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  3. Unemployment and Structural Unemployment in the Baltics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ebeke; Greetje Everaert

    2014-01-01

    While the unemployment rate in the Baltics has fallen sharply from its crisis-peaks, it remains close to double digits. This paper estimates the structural component of the jobless rate in the three Baltic countries and analyzes its causes. Our main findings are that the current still elevated levels of unemployment mostly reflect structural factors. We then turn to why structural unemployment is so high. This paper points to skill mismatches, high tax wedges, and unemployment and inactivity ...

  4. The baltic environmental information dissemination system: using environmental informatics as a tool for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Filho Walter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-going economic development of EU-countries as well of the countries in the C&E European region has been leading to a significant use of a great deal of natural resources as well as to noticeable environmental problems. The lack of a wide-spread environmental awareness from the side of those acting in various sectors (industry, public administration, users sometimes inhibit the implementation of legislation already available as well as the introduction of new technologies deriving, from example, from marine research. An example of this state of affairs is seen in respect of the implementation of the recommendations deriving from Baltic 21 and VASAB 2010, which illustrate the advantages from a cross-sectorial, open mechanism for the dissemination of environmental information in the region. There are various organisations today which act as suppliers of environmental information in the Baltic Sea Region. However, few, if any, are providers concerned with the various ways in which information on matters related to sustainable development is being used by various groups and audiences. This state of affairs makes it necessary to enhance the current mechanisms and approaches in place, so as to enable the wide-range of environmental information available today from areas such as marine research, to be more widely used. It is equally important that the didactic or educational potential of such information be exploited, so as to not only inform, but also to educate various groups and the general public on matters concerned with the environment in European closed seas and give information to planners and politicians to prepare decisions. In order to address such needs, the project "Baltic Environmental Information Dissemination System (BEIDS" was set in motion. BEIDS has been taking advantage of the most modern information technologies and has been acting as a focal point for the circulation of intelligent information on aspects of the marine

  5. Insect frass in Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A. Kinnunen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusions of wood debris loosened from pine-like trees are abundant in Baltic amber of Eocene and Oligocene age. The possibilities to find insect frass and excrement among wood debris are outlined and some examples are given. Comparison with the frass and excrement produced by present-day insects provide a possibility to identify insects even though their fossils are lacking. This information can be used to characterize former forest environments. Amber forests may have also covered Southern Finland, and this possibility is discussed. Furthermore, the presence of wood debris may be utilized to recognize amber fakes, which is important for both gem trade and paleontology. It is proposed that databases and identification keys of frass and excrement should be constructed.

  6. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  7. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  8. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  9. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  10. Transport interests and environmental regimes: The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Olav F., E-mail: olav.f.knudsen@gmail.co [Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Box 27035, 102 51 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests.

  11. Transport interests and environmental regimes. The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Olav F. [Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Box 27035, 102 51 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests. (author)

  12. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  13. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  14. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol;

    2015-01-01

    microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During...

  15. A swarm of whiteflies—the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed.

  16. A swarm of whiteflies-the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed. PMID:27023734

  17. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  18. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  19. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels of the...... water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  20. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija; Jounela, Pekka; Lundström, Karl; Köster, Fritz

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals on...

  1. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure.

    Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006–2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10, endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  2. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure.

    Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006–2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10, endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  3. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  4. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  5. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  6. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  7. Baltic Ring may soon become reality

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Euroopa energiasüsteemide ühendamiseks loodud projekti Baltic Ring raames kirjutasid Leedu ja Poola alla elektrivõrkude ühendamise lepingule. Välisminister Urmas Paet tõdeb, et Eesti on huvitatud Leedu tuumaenergia tulevikust

  8. Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K OW. The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. - The bioaccumulation behaviour of PCB congeners in a Baltic food web is studied using a novel mechanistic model

  9. Ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea. Part 1. Description of the ProDeMo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ProDeMo (Production and Destruction of Organic Matter Model, a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model, was formulated and applied to the whole Baltic Sea and the subregion of the Gulf of Gdansk. It describes nutrient cycles (phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon through the food web with 15 state variables, oxygen conditions and the parameterisation of water-sediment interactions. The present version of the model takes two groups of phytoplankton - diatoms and non-diatoms - as well as zooplankton into consideration. It covers the flow of matter and energy in the sea, including river discharges and atmospheric deposition. Numerical applications are embedded on a 1 NM grid for the Gulf of Gdansk and a 5 NM grid for the Baltic Sea.     Since the model results largely concur with observations, the model can be regarded as a reliable tool for analysing the behaviour of the Baltic ecosystem. Some examples of the spatial-temporal variability of the most important biological and chemical parameters are presented. The model results are compared with those of other modelling research in the Baltic Sea.     Both the ProDeMo model algorithm and its computing procedures need to be further developed. The next version should therefore enable more phytoplankton groups to be defined, for example cyanobacteria, which are able to take up molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere (nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the sediment phase should be divided into active and non-active layers.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27226172

  11. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  12. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  13. Perspektivy razvitija atomnoj jenergetiki v vostochnoj chasti Baltijskogo morja kak faktor formirovanija sistemy mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij v regione [The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of...

  14. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    inter-annual variability of the freshwater supply has no significant impact on the decadal variability of the mean salinity. Also the impact of river regulation which changes the discharge seasonality is only minor. Finally, the response of the Baltic Sea salinity to extreme changes of the freshwater inflow is investigated. We found that even with a 100 % increased freshwater supply compared to the period 1902-1998 the Baltic Sea cannot be classified as a lake. The relationship between freshwater supply and mean salinity of the final steady-state is non-linear.

  15. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  16. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  17. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea 1992-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Since 1984, the Contracting Parties to the Helsinki Convention have collected monitoring data on radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The data covers concentrations of radioactivity in the Baltic marine environment and discharges from nuclear installations (nuclear power plants and nuclear research facilities) in the catchment area of the Baltic Sea. Additionally, important sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Baltic Sea have been considered - namely atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident, and discharges into sea from European reprocessing facilities at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Due to the relatively slow exchange of water between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, contaminants such as anthropogenic radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the Baltic Sea. Levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs are consequently still high in the Baltic Sea compared with other water bodies around the world. Strontium-90 contamination originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which peaked in the 1960's and led to direct input to the Baltic Sea from atmospheric fallout, and to delayed input via rivers. Caesium-137 was also released during atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, but the related input was small compared to the direct input from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The delayed input of {sup 137}Cs to the Baltic Sea from rivers is smaller than the direct atmospheric fallout of {sup 137}Cs, and also much smaller than delayed inputs of {sup 90}Sr, since due to its chemical properties, caesium is less mobile in the environment than strontium. The anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Baltic Sea originate from several sources and modes of input. Direct atmospheric fallout has accounted for the main inputs, from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. Run-off from the land into sea via rivers has also contributed significantly for {sup 90}Sr, and to a lesser extent for {sup

  18. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  19. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  20. Regional security and cooperation in the Arctic and Baltic: destabilisation follows Ukraine crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Etzold, Tobias; Steinicke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Ukraine conflict has created a deep and long-running crisis of confidence in relations between the West and Russia, as Moscow challenges the foundations of the European security order. Russia's behaviour in the Baltic and Arctic regions, which it shares with members of NATO and the European Union, has become increasingly confrontative and presents an impediment to regional cooperation and security. While growing instability looms over these two regions, all the states there should maintai...

  1. The HBM-PDAF assimilation system for operational forecasts in the North and Baltic Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Nerger, Lars; Loza, Svetlana; Brüning, Thorger; Janssen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To improve hydrographic forecasts in the North and Baltic Seas, the HIROMB-BOOS Model (HBM) has been coupled with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework PDAF (http://pdaf.awi.de). The forecast system assimilates satellite sea surface temperature as well as in situ data of temperature and salinity profiles to initialize forecasts up to 5 days. The assimilation uses a fully-featured ensemble Kalman filter, which dynamically estimates the uncertainty of the state estimate with an ensemble mode...

  2. Environmental spaces:a geopolitics of environmental interdependence in the Baltic Sea area

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2005-01-01

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects. 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension be...

  3. The role of Baltic identity and cooperation in political developments / Andres Kasekamp ; interviewed by Karoliina Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasekamp, Andres, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Politoloog räägib oma raamatust "A History of Baltic states", leiab, et Baltimaade koostööst peaks Läänemeremaade koostöö saama, märgib, et Vene-USA suhete "restart" peaks ka Baltimaade-Vene suhetele hästi mõjuma ja rõhutab, et Eesti, Läti ning Leedu peaks tegema koostööd ka energeetika vallas

  4. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kostianoy A.G.; Bulycheva E.V.; Semenov A. V.; Krainyukov A.

    2015-01-01

    Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which inclu...

  5. Utshastnikam i gostjam 5-go Mezhdunarodnogo foruma "Budushtsheje Baltiiskihh portov" = To the participants and guest of the 5th International Forum "The Future of the Baltic ports" / Valerijus Ponomariovas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ponomariovas, Valerijus

    2004-01-01

    Leedu transpordi- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi aseministri ettekanne 5. rahvusvahelise foorumi "The Future of the Baltic States" avamisel. Baltimaade ning Euroopa Liidu riikide meretranspordialasest koostööst, Leedu transpordipoliitika prioriteetidest, Klaipeda sadama olukorrast, arengust, Leedu sadamaprojektidest

  6. airBaltic claims to be subsidizing Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Riia lennujaama väitel võlgneb airBaltic neile 3,5 miljoni euro väärtuses lennujaamatasusid ning annab lennufirma kohtusse. airBaltic on aga lennujaama diskrimineeriva käitumise tõttu pöördunud konkurentsiameti poole

  7. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants and...

  8. The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in sparse…

  9. Gender Segregated Labour Markets in the Baltics: What are Prevailing – Similarities or Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vöörmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on men and women and the gender segregation of jobs in the Baltic countries. Based on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian labour force survey data, a look is taken at the employment structure of men and women by industries and occupations, as well as at the question whether or not gender segregation in the labour market has been increased after the collapse of the communist systems in the region under consideration. Empirical data demonstrate that in respect to industrial gender segregation there is some increase in Estonia and Latvia, but not in Lithuania. Occupational gender segregation demonstrates more stability in all three Baltic States. Compared to the Western European countries, the main trend is towards bigger similarities.

  10. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in Baltic Sea water sample IAEA-299

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison exercise on IAEA-299 for the determination of 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs concentration in Baltic Sea Water. The participants belong to 8 laboratories located in 6 countries, members of the Helsinki commission. Statistical evaluation of the data reported yields to recommended values for these elements. The elements, their recommended values and confidence intervals are listed here: 90Sr: 13.6 Bq kg-1 (12.8-14.4); 134Cs: 6.7 Bq kg-1 (5-8.3); 137Cs: 70.9 Bq kg-1 (68-72.3). Reference date: 27 June 1991 (sampling date). The data reported by the laboratories of the Baltic Sea States are generally in very good agreement. (author)

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOVEREIGNTY PROCESS OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE BALTIC REPUBLICS IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A. K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of centrifugal tendencies in the Baltic republics in the years of perestroika, especially on the background of today's events in the Ukraine (the Crimea entry into Russia, the civil war in the Donbass, the aggravation of relations between Russia and the Western powers, is very important. An important direction in social and political life of the Baltic republics was the legislative activity of the Supreme Council, which made laws and regulations aimed at the isolation and subsequent exit of republics from the Soviet Union. Nowadays the problem of the role of the Supreme Council of the Baltic States in the process of sovereignty and independence was not seriously developed. That’s why consideration of the main legal acts as a historical source is an important area of research in the field of legislation the Supreme Council of the Baltic states in the perestroika years, from 1988 to 1991. The aim of the work is to study the process of sovereignty of the Baltic States through the activities of the republican Supreme Soviets in the above period. The object of work is to study legal acts of the Supreme Soviets of the Baltic republics. This article will address the following regulations: the Declaration of Sovereignty, language laws, citizenship, national symbols, as well as regulations, declared a withdrawal from the Soviet Union (as in Lithuania or the beginning of transitional period (as in Latvia and Estonia. It should be noted that in Latvia and Estonia citizenship laws in the years 1988-1991 were only developed. Finally these laws were passed after the official recognition of these republics, so they are not included in the focus of our attention. The subject of the work is legislative activity of the Supreme Soviets of the Baltic republics in the years of perestroika

  12. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  13. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    OpenAIRE

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space...

  14. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Lavrova, Olga Yu. (ed.) [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Space Research Institute

    2014-04-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Algorithms for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem (DESAMBEM. Part 2: Empirical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second of two articles on the methodology ofthe remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem. In Part~1 the authorspresented the set of DESAMBEM algorithms for determining themajor parameters of this ecosystem on the basis of satellitedata (see Wo/xniak et al.~2008 -- this issue. That article discussedin detail the mathematical apparatus of the algorithms. Part2 presents the effects of the practical application of the algorithmsand their validation, the latter based on satellite maps of selectedBaltic ecosystem parameters: the distributions of the sea surfacetemperature, the Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PARat the sea surface, the surface concentrations of chlorophyll~{it a}and the total primary production of organic matter.~Particularemphasis was laid on analysing the precision of estimates ofthese and other parameters of the Baltic ecosystem, determinedby remote sensing methods. The errors in these estimates turnedout to be relatively small; hence, the set of DESAMBEM algorithmsshould in the future be utilised as the foundation for the effectivesatellite monitoring of the state and functioning of the Balticecosystem.

  17. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  18. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Research; Gustafsson, Bo [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden); Omstedt, Anders [SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times.

  19. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times

  20. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    OpenAIRE

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear pow...

  1. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  2. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  3. Polonium, uranium and plutonium in the southern Baltic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the measurement of polonium, uranium and plutonium alpha radionuclides in seawater and biota of the southern Baltic ecosystem as well as the recognition of their accumulation processes in the trophic chain. Investigation of the polonium 210Po and plutonium 239+240Pu concentrations in Baltic biota revealed that these radionuclides are strongly accumulated by some species. Mean values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) fell within the range 9x102 to 3.7x104. The Baltic Sea algae, benthic animals and fish concentrated uranium radioisotopes only to a small extent and mean BCF values for this element range from 1 to 55, which is several orders of magnitude lower than that for polonium and plutonium. Moreover, it was found that Baltic fish constitute an important source of polonium 210Po for humans. (author)

  4. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  5. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  6. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  7. CHARACTERISTIC ASPECTS OF THE NORTHWEST BALTIC REGION SEA BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelezkova, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the characteristic features of the port infrastructure development in the Northwest of the Baltic basin. The ports specialization is emphasized. Following the results, a need to build multimodal terminal and logistic complexes (hubs) was found.

  8. Synoptic conditions governing upwelling along the Polish Baltic coast

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Czernecki; Ewa Bednorz; Marek Półrolniczak

    2013-01-01

    The study analyses atmospheric feedback to the occurrence of upwelling along the Polish Baltic coast. Upwelling events were identified on the basis of daily mean sea surface temperature (SST) maps from the period 1982-2010 derived from the NOAA OI SST V2 High Resolution Dataset. Synoptic conditions favourable to the occurrence of upwelling were determined on the basis of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. On average, there are approximately 23 days with upwelling each year along the Polish Baltic...

  9. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  10. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, O.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Brandt, J.; J.H. Christensen; Frohn, L. M.; J. Frydendall

    2003-01-01

    A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model), and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comp...

  11. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  12. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koistinen, J.; Kiviranta, H.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Vartiainen, T. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland); Hallikainen, A. [National Food Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea has a long history of being one of the most polluted brackish water areas in the world. Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.) that plays a significant role in the diet of both human and Baltic seals is a good indicator of pollution of the Baltic Sea. Herring of the Gulf of Bothnia are considered to be stationary fish as they have a low migratory behaviour. Migration among young herring in the Gulf of Finland is also low, whereas older herring migrate even to the southern Baltic Sea. The growth of herring in the Gulf of Finland has retarded since the 1980's. Monitoring of organochlorine compounds such as PCBs has been performed in the Baltic Sea since the late 1960's. This monitoring has shown a continuous decline of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). In 1990's, the data of herring did not reveal any clear decline in the concentrations of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF, dioxins). There is less data on levels and trends of other pollutants such as toxaphene, polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in Baltic herring from different areas of the Baltic Sea. PCNs have been used for similar purposes as PCBs and PBDEs are widely used as flame retardants. The main aim of this study was to investigate by herring analyses the contamination of different sites along the coast of Finland. We aimed to see whether polluted and less polluted sites along the coast of Finland were reflected in the herring data. Besides, dioxins and PCBs, toxaphene, DDT compounds, PBDEs and PCNs were analysed.

  13. Effective recycling agriculture around the Baltic Sea: background report

    OpenAIRE

    Granstedt, Artur; Seuri, Pentti; Thomsson, Olof

    2004-01-01

    In this report the historical background and present situation of the plant nutrient balances and surplus of plant nutrients within the agricultural sector in the eight countries of the Baltic Sea catchments area (Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, Germany and Russia) are presented and analysed. The Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) project is evaluating the consequences of converting the whole agricultural sector according to recycling...

  14. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    CERN Document Server

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space astrometry realistic, resulting in the approval by ESA of the first astrometry satellite Hipparcos in 1980 which brought a revolution of high-precision astrometry of positions, motions and distances of stars. The correspondence with ten observatories shows that only one of them has any archive of letters at all from the 1950s, that is in Copenhagen where about 7000 letters on scientific and administrative matters are extant.

  15. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  16. A nuclear-weapon-free zone from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, at the Extension and Review Conference of the parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Belarus introduced the new idea of establishing the nuclear-weapon-free zone 'in the center of Europe', as an alternative to a military and nuclear expansion eastwards by the Western military alliance NATO. The geographical scope of the zone from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea could encompass the former Warsaw pact territory west of Russian federation including: the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), four Visegrad states (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary), newly independent states (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova), Romania and Bulgaria. The success of nuclear-weapon-free zone is dependent on how it would be accepted by the nuclear-weapon powers and the surrounding world. There would be four measures of central importance for the achievement of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in general and in European case: non-possession of nuclear weapons by zonal states; non-stationing of nuclear weapons within the zone by any state; non-use or no-threat of use of nuclear weapons throughout the zone or against targets within the zone; and verification that parties comply with their treaty obligations

  17. Faddei Bulgarin ja baltisakslased: enese positsioneerimine äratuskella metafoori kaudu / Faddey Bulgar in and the Baltic Germans. Self-positioning Through the Metaphor of an Alarm Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Veizenen

    2013-12-01

    of the tsarist government, breaking the self-encapsulation of Baltic German cultural circles, etc. Bulgarin depicts the local Baltic Germans as sincere, naive and emotional children of nature or cold, enlightened sceptics who are critical of Russia. We can see how the latter description becomes more and more dominant in his texts. Thus, following the metaphor of an alarm clock, we can observe the evolution of Bulgarin’s thoughts: after the 1830s the “awaking” is related to conflicts with the local elite, and the alarm clock does not awaken the Baltic Germans any more but, rather, informs the authorities about danger. Bulgarin’s view of the Baltic Germans changes from positive to negative (opposed to the authorities, distrustful, hostile to Russia. As a result, the previously idealised image of Baltic Germans as innocent and sincere is replaced by one describing the locals as lazy, rebellious and amoral people. It is important to notice that the author even points out that besides the Baltic Germans, local students of Russian nationality also oppose the authorities. In this context, the original opposition, Russians – Baltic Germans, is replaced by state supporting – state opposing. To illustrate this point further, the author also mentions how the activities of a Baltic German, a state official Craffström, are useful for the state and support the authorities. Bulgarin’s auto-image undergoes an important, dramatic transformation as well: the initially naive philosopher and poet, the message-bearing angel and political awakener finally becomes a guardian of public order and a fighter against German ways and customs.

  18. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  19. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part – the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7–5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30–100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60–70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km. The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  20. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  1. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy for the...... Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  2. Atomnaja jenergetika Pribaltiki: istorija vozniknovenija i politiko-jekonomicheskie osobennosti razvitija [Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  3. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  4. Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This s

  5. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  6. Finansovyj krizis v stranah Baltii: nekotorye social'nye i politicheskie uroki [The financial crisis in the Baltics: social and political lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the features of the global financial crisis in the Baltic states, shows the differences between the countries in the process of its development, and examines changes in the mass consciousness of the political establishment in the countries considered.

  7. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km2 of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of 137Cs and 239,240Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep, they are of

  8. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  9. Osobennosti jenergeticheskoj strategii ES v Baltijskom regione [The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the issues of EU energy policy in the 1990s-the beginning of the 2000s in order to identify the features of energy supply and energy safety of the Baltic region countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the stepwise description of actions taken by EU leaders and EU member states in order to formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European countries and, especially, the Baltic States. The energy industries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other Eastern European and CIS countries, are closely related to the energy industry of the Russian Federation. Trying to allow for this circumstance, EU leaders and energy structures took a number of organizational measures aimed, on the one hand, at an increase in energy independence of new members of the EU and, on the other hand, at taking into account the recent trends in the energy market development. The research shows that most of the initiatives do not take into account the perspective and interests of Russia, which has a strong presence in the energy market. The analysis conducted will help the assessment of prospects of further development of the Baltic States' energy industry and its interaction with that of the Russian Federation.

  10. Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organisation of economy in the globalisation conditions, which has become a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of the Baltic region. It requires a comprehensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. This article aims to identify structured international clusters in the Baltic region and map the corresponding regions. The results obtained will make it possible to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters existing and emerging in the region and put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article considers the processes of transboundary and transnational regionalisation in the countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the degree of involvement of a Russian region into the processes of international cluster cooperation in the macroregion.

  11. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  12. The concentrations of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was 241Pu activities determination in different components (water, plankton and fish of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. The determination of 241Pu in the samples was done indirectly by activity measuring the increment in 241Am from the decay of β-emitting 241Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed between the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of 241Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of 241Pu with Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small.

  13. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk I. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  14. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH; Huwer, B; Hüssy, K; Klügel, A; Böttcher, U; Hanel, R

    2012-01-01

    Microchemical otolith analyses have been shown to provide valuable information on the life history, dispersal and stock characteristics of teleost fish. In the present study, the suitability of this technique for identifying the origin and distribution of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from the...... Baltic Sea was examined using laser ablation-ICPMS. The capacity to distinguish individuals from different Baltic Sea stocks and from the adjacent North Sea stock based on incoporation of stock-specific elemental fingerprints along otolith growth axes was investigated. It was further tested if different...... origins led to spawning-site specific element concentrations in otolith cores. The results indicate that microchemical analyses of Baltic cod otoliths are applicable for differentiating individuals of different stocks. Analyses of similarities including 12 element/calcium ratios resulted in significant...

  15. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.; Gaumiga, R.

    The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance...... during the first decades of the 20th century. We then assess whether these data can be used to estimate the relative roles of fishing and ecosystem changes on variations in catches. We conclude that the assembled data reveal biologically meaningful variations in the state of the cod stock and that some...

  16. Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldowska, M.; Saniewska, D.; Falkowska, L.; Lewandowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Important Hg transformations can occur at the air-water interface where polluted terrestrial air masses meet humid, halogen-rich marine air masses over the southern Baltic Sea. These chemical and physical processes include gas-to-particle conversion that led to an increase of Hg associated with coarse particles, which due to higher dry deposition rates, enhanced local scale deposition and limited the transport of this toxic trace metal. Daily (24 h) sampling of size-segregated atmospheric particles revealed the sea to be a sink for Hg during winter months and as a source of Hg during summer months. Poland is one of the major Hg emitters among the Baltic States according to International HELCOM Reports. Thus, important measurements in this region were conducted over a one-year period from December 18, 2007 to December 15, 2008. The range in concentrations of Hg in particulate matter (2-142 pg m -3) at the Polish site are comparable to other measurements at sites along the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Annual Hg(p) represents 1% of the total atmospheric Hg (Hg TOT) under unpolluted or background ambient conditions. A major source of atmospheric Hg in this area is the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning used for home heating. This was clearly seen in the statistically higher mean concentration of 24 pg m -3 observed during the heating season compared to the 15 pg m -3 measured during the non-heating season. Construction activities e.g., cement manufacturing, gravel extraction, and waste incineration during the warm season strongly influenced Hg concentrations and led to an increase in Hg(p) on working days compared to weekend days.

  17. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  18. Literature review on future development of the Baltic Sea and recommendations for safety modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report represents the summary of the main factors, which affects the future development and state of the Baltic Sea. The emphasis is on land uplift, shoreline displacement, and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the sea. In addition, historical evolution of the Baltic Sea after the last ice age and potential impacts of the different climate scenarios are presented. The Baltic Sea has an important influence on the development of the geospherebiosphere interface zone at Olkiluoto. Thus, it is important to take account all these factors in the Safety Modelling of the nuclear waste repository. Different models have been used to evaluate land uplift at Olkiluoto and changes in the sea and land area, especially in the interface zone. The main parameters have been monitored satisfactory way at the Olkiluoto offshore. Based on the present sea sediment stratigraphy, overburden, topography and vegetation it has been fairly well estimated coming future land and sea areas of the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. According to the results, Olkiluoto will be part of the continent during the next decade. In the shallow shores of Olkiluoto, the amounts of common reed are increasing naturally, resulting in paludification. The spatial and temporal changes at Olkiluoto can be estimated and modelled more detailed by using the well focused research sites and more accurate results. In addition, more information is needed on development of the watershed areas, lakes, rivers and vegetation and on sedimentation and erosion processes, hydrology, quality and quantity of seabed sediments and stratigraphy, element budgets and recharge and discharge areas, especially at the geosphere-biosphere interface zones. (orig.)

  19. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny;

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  20. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Lännergren, Christer; Ollikainen, Markku; Priha, Maarit; Reinikainen, Marko; Saarijärvi, Erkki; Zandersen, Marianne

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...... possibilities to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis....

  1. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  2. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

  3. Potential Masking of the Baltic Grey Seal Vocalisations by Underwater Shipping Noise in the Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bagočius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical surveys were completed in the Lithuanian Sea Museum and the Lithuanian area of the Baltic Sea during the period of 2012–2013. Underwater vocalisations of the Baltic grey seals were recorded and collated with underwater shipping noise recorded in the shallow area of the Lithuanian area of the Baltic Sea with the aim to evaluate possible masking of social vocalisations of animals. The following paper focuses not on the complex biomedical auditory or brain stem response research, but on the acoustical measurements and evaluation of possible masking of social vocalisations of grey seals by shipping noise. The results of the survey show masking potential of grey seal communication calls at significant distance in the presence of local shipping noise where the detection distance of calls between conspecifics can be significantly reduced. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.6913

  4. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf

    2010-10-15

    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  5. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    related to the distance between the measurement point and open boundary. For example, in the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, the 36hr harmonic has an amplitude substantially higher than in the open sea, and in the Stockholm area, this harmonic is at the noise level. The 40dy and 121dy harmonics have slightly lower amplitudes than the original prescribed signal, but they are almost unchanged while propagating further into the sea, and in all the investigated locations have almost identical peaks of spectral density. The 3dy and 6dy harmonics significantly lost their amplitude in all parts of the sea, and spectral density peaks are at the noise level. The simulation results showed us that the Danish straits do not filter 121dy and 40dy oscillations, and their amplitude does not decrease much. The 13dy, 6dy and 3dy oscillations significantly lose in amplitude and have no significant peaks of the spectral density. The 1.5dy harmonic propagates to the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, and increases in amplitude due to resonance at the natural frequency of the basin. It is suggested that, while Danish straits do not filter or transform frequency characteristics of oscillations propagated from the North Sea, but the Baltic Sea configuration may affect the magnitude and propagation extent of these oscillations. Thus, the fluctuations in the North Sea and the Danish Straits can significantly contribute to the Baltic Sea dynamics in the low-frequency range of the spectrum, and the periods of natural oscillations of the basin. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 16-05-00534) and Saint-Petersburg State University (grant №18.37.140.2014)

  6. Sulfidization of lacustrine glacial clay upon Holocene marine transgression (Arkona Basin, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2014-10-01

    Towards the end of the last deglaciation more than 13,500 years ago the southern Baltic Sea was a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake, for several thousand years during which iron-rich, organic-poor clay was deposited. The modern brackish-marine stage started about 8600 years ago with the deposition of organic-rich mud, which is today characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction and high concentrations of free sulfide. We studied the iron-sulfur diagenesis in gravity cores from the Arkona Basin, SW Baltic Sea, to track the progressing sulfidization front in the buried Ice Lake sediment. The geochemical zonation was unusual as the sulfate concentration dropped steeply by two thirds below which it increased again due to a deep sulfate reservoir. The reservoir had been established during the early Holocene marine period as sulfate and other seawater ions diffused down into the lake sediment for several thousand years. Sulfur isotope analyses confirmed its origin as seawater sulfate, while its oxygen isotope composition indicated a microbially catalyzed equilibration with ambient interstitial water, decoupled from net sulfate reduction. Today, hydrogen sulfide diffuses from the marine mud down into the lake sediment where a black band with high magnetic susceptibility and high iron monosulfide, greigite and elemental sulfur content shows progressing sulfidization of the large pool of solid-phase reactive iron. Dissolved iron from the deep Ice Lake sediment diffuses up to the sulfide front and provides a small supplement to the solid Fe(III) pool as a sulfide sink. Pyrite formation at the sulfidization front may involve surface-bound zero-valent sulfur while, above the front, polysulfides are in equilibrium with the system hydrogen sulfide - polysulfide - rhombic sulfur and may not be important for further pyrite formation. The Holocene iron-sulfur diagenesis observed in the Arkona Basin represents an important transitional state for post-glacial transgressions

  7. Trends in the amplitude of Baltic Sea level annual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo (Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (DE)). e-mail: birgit.huenicke@gkss.de

    2008-01-15

    Baltic Sea tide gauge data and climatic data sets are statistically analysed to investigate the centennial trends in the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic sea level. In almost all gauge stations analysed, an increase of the amplitude (winter-spring sea level) is detected. These trends are not large compared to the decadal variations of the annual cycle, but they are statistically significant. The magnitude of the trends is almost spatially uniform, with exception of the Skagerrak area. Since interannual and decadal variability of sea level displays a clear spatial pattern, the mechanism responsible for the trends in the annual cycle seem to be not regional, but affect the Baltic Sea basin as a whole. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these centennial trends on the winter-minus-spring sea level: wind (through the SLP field), the barometric effect, temperature and precipitation. By elimination of three of the working hypothesis, seasonal Baltic precipitation remains a plausible candidate. For the other three, either the sign or magnitude of the trend makes them unlikely the sole explanation

  8. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  9. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  10. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Schmidt, J.O.; Voss, R.; Kraus, Gerd; Köster, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat, the...

  11. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  12. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  13. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  14. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  15. President Ilves kohtus Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi delegatsiooniga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 20. septembril 2010 hiljuti loodud sihtasutuse Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi (BAFF) direktorite nõukoguga, kes tutvustasid Balti riikide elanikele mõeldud haridusalaseid vahetusprogramme. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 29. sept. 2010, lk. 2 (allk. Piret Pert); Vaba Eesti Sõna 23. sept. 2010, lk. 3

  16. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  17. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  18. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples, such as seawater, seaweed, lake water, lake sediment and grass collected from the Baltic Sea area were analyzed for 129I and 127I by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In 2000, the concentration of 129I in the seawater from Borholm and Moeen in the Baltic Sea has reached 6.0x10-13 and 16x10-13 g/l, respectively, these are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the global fallout level. The highest value of 270x10-13 g/l being found in the seawater from the Kattegat. By comparison of the level of 129I in the lake water and precipitation in this region, it is estimated that more than 95% of 129I in the Baltic Sea originates from reprocessing emissions, especially from the French nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. More than 30% of 129I in the south Baltic and 93% in the Kattegat directly originates from the marine discharges of the European reprocessing plants

  19. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...

  20. Isotopic signatures of lamproite dikes on the eastern Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age values, coinciding by Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd, are obtained for lamproits in the eastern party of the Baltic Shield (the Kostamuksha Region): 1230±5 Ma and 1234±80 Ma correspondingly. The magnetic source of lamproites is depletary relative to the Sr isotope composition and enriched relative to the Nd composition

  1. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  2. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  3. Proceedings of Conference of Ministers of Energy on co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference of the Ministers of Energy on Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region held in Helsinki on 24-25 October has been regarded as a success. The European Commission and eleven countries adopted a communique that outlined goals for the regional energy sector, defined tasks for the cooperation for the next few years and decided how to organise the cooperation. In December 1999, the Energy Council discussed the Northern Dimension (ND) policy and the energy sector cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. The work in the energy sector was stated to be important for the whole EU, and the Commission was charged with the task of following the developments and reporting to the Council on the progress. The Foreign Ministers' Conference on the Northern Dimension, held in Helsinki on 11-12 November 1999, identified - in addition to the energy sector - also many other prioritised ND policy action fields, such as the forest sector, transportation systems, environmental challenges, the cooperation for new solutions of many social, health-related and administrative problems and research work, just to mention some sectors. The European Commission is preparing an action plan for the ND policy on the basis of the results of the Foreign Ministers' Conference and the Commission Communications on the ND policy activities. Energy cooperation will certainly have a central role in this action programme provided that the international political atmosphere gives the framework and support for further integration and cooperation in the region

  4. Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Pavelkovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae  n=1983 and E. coli  n=7774 clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production.

  5. Detection of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the baltic countries and st. Petersburg area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Pai, Kristiine; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the bla NDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

  6. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  7. Analysis of a liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sectors in the Baltic countries are presently undergoing reform processes in order to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding deregulation of electricity sectors. At the same time, EU is putting pressure upon Lithuania to close the largest electricity producer in the Baltic countries, the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. The purpose of the paper is to establish a common background for evaluating the future perspectives of the Lithuanian and Baltic electricity market. The results of the paper deal with the possibilities of creating a competitive market and with the economic and technical consequences of different future settings. The market concentration at a liberalised electricity market in Lithuania and the Baltic region may be high because of relatively few and large production units. The joint problem of liberalisation, high market concentration and nuclear phase out has been analysed. The future electricity and district heating markets are simulated using the Balmorel model. The focus of the analyses is the economic consequences of different market openings, different producer supply behaviour and different closure speeds of INPP. With focus on Lithuania, it is shown that if competition arises in the electricity market, the prices will become low due to a large excess capacity in the system. The consumers and the society as a whole will gain significantly from competition, but most power plants will have difficulties in making positive earnings. It is furthermore concluded that there is a high risk of lack of competition in a closed Lithuanian electricity market due to the high market concentration. Even a minor lack of competition will imply significant gains to producers, but losses to consumers and the society as a whole. The establishment of a common Baltic electricity market instead of national electricity markets may help reducing the competition problem. (au)

  8. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  9. Baltic states plead for energy security in Copenhagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Liidul ei õnnestunud kaitsta Baltimaade energiahuve Venemaa ja EL-i liidrite kohtumisel. Baltimaad loodavad saada energiaküsimustele rohkem tähelepanu Põhjamaade ja Baltimaade konverentsil (NB8). Peaministrite kommentaarid

  10. Poland wants more EU cooperation with Baltic States / Arturas Racas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Racas, Arturas

    2006-01-01

    Balti riikide ja Poola presidendid kohtusid Vilniuses. Teemadeks oli: NATO, EL, Gruusia küsimused, koostöö tuumaelektrijaama rajamisel, vastastikuste suhete tihendamine. Vt. samas lk. 12: Presidents bond over ambitious communique. Läti, Leedu, Eesti ja Poola presidendid kirjutasid alla kommunikeele regionaalse koostöö tugevdamiseks, rõhuga infrastruktuuri ja energia küsimustel

  11. Size and determinants of shadow economies in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Putniņš, Tālis J.; Arnis Sauka

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and estimates an index of the size of shadow economies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and analyses the factors that influence participation in the shadow sector. The index can be used to track shadow economies through time or across sectors and therefore is a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of policies aimed ar reducing the size of shadow economies. Our results suggest that the shadow economy in Latvia in 2010 is considerably larger than in neighbouring Estoni...

  12. Poland wants more EU cooperation with Baltic States / Arturas Racas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Racas, Arturas

    2006-01-01

    Balti riikide ja Poola presidendid kohtusid Vilniuses. Teemadeks olid: NATO, Euroopa Liidu, Gruusia küsimused, koostöö tuumaelektrijaama rajamisel, vastastikuste suhete tihendamine. Vt. samas lk. 12: Presidents bond over ambitious communique. Läti, Leedu, Eesti ja Poola presidendid kirjutasid alla kommunikeele regionaalse koostöö tugevdamiseks, rõhuga infrastruktuuri ja energia küsimustel. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Leedu Vabariiki 6.10.2006

  13. Baltic states to remain macroeconomic leaders among new EU members

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Maailmapanga uuringu kohaselt säilitavad Balti riigid lähema kahe-kolme aasta kestel suurima majanduskasvu Euroopa Liidu uute liikmesriikide seas. Balti riike iseloomustavad madal inflatsioonitase, madal riigivõlg ja riigieelarve defitsiidi vastavus Euroopa Liidu nõuetele. Tabel

  14. Industrial and intellectual capital clusters in the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Vanags, Alf; Basarova, Julija; Titova, Nellija

    2002-01-01

    Various recent developments, eg the 'new economic geography' as exemplified by say, Krugman, P. (1991) or work originating in the business literature (Porter 1998), point to industrial and intellectual capital clusters as key factors associated with economic development. Indeed recent evidence suggests that multiple clustering leads to higher regional economic development. This leads to the idea that clusters should be encouraged as for example in the Latvian context in Phare (2001), an idea ...

  15. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  16. Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM) - an ongoing project in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Wo¼niak; Adam Krê¿el; Jerzy Dera

    2004-01-01

    A large national project: Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM) for creating mathematical models and a complex algorithm for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem and its primary production is described. The final aim of the project is the development of a routine remote sensing methodology for determining characteristics of the Baltic ecosystem such as distribution maps of surface temperature, water transparency, upwelling currents, phytopl...

  17. Suggestions for a Marketing Plan for Guardian of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddini, Mandana; Koskela , Juliana Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis project was to create suggestions for a marketing plan for an existing company, Guardian of the Baltic Sea, to enter into the Swedish market. Guardian of the Baltic Sea (GBS) is a charity project of Kehrä Interior Oy, producing jewelry that contributes to protecting the Baltic Sea. The suggestions were in the areas of distribution channel, target market and tools of promotion. The theoretical background and knowledge base of the thesis consists of theory on m...

  18. SatBałtyk - A Baltic environmental satellite remote sensing system - an ongoing project in Poland. Part 1: Assumptions, scope and operating range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of the description of the first stage of the SatBałtyk project's implementation. Part 1 (Woźniak et al. 2011, in this issue presents the assumptions and objectives of SatBałtyk and describes the most important stages in the history of our research, which is the foundation of this project. It also discusses the operation and general structure of the SatBałtyk system. Part 2 addresses various aspects of the practical applicability of the SatBałtyk Operational System to Baltic ecosystem monitoring. Examples are given of the Baltic's characteristics estimated using the preliminary versions of the algorithms in this Operational System. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Monitoring results obtained with these preliminary algorithms are exemplified in the form of distribution maps of selected abiotic parameters of the Baltic, as well as structural and functional characteristics of this ecosystem governed by these parameters in the Baltic's many basins. The maps cover practically the whole area of the Baltic Sea. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps. In actual fact, the errors of these estimates are relatively small. The further practical application of this set of algorithms (to be gradually made more specific is therefore entirely justified as the basis of the SatBałtyk system for the effective operational monitoring of the state and functioning of Baltic ecosystems. This article also outlines the plans for extending

  19. Riverine water inflows and the Baltic Sea water volume 1901-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cyberski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of riverine outflow into the Baltic Sea is presented for the years 1901 – 1990. The monthly outflows were calculated from the measurements in a number of representative rivers. The analysis included estimation of seasonal and multi-year characteristics of riverine outflows and periodic structure, as well as stochastic and statistical indicators characterising the influence of riverine water on the variability of the sea level and water volume in the basin. The article presents prognostic characteristics determined using analysis of parametric stochastic processes. The results obtained are related to oceanographic characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Keywords: Baltic volume; Baltic balance; river outflow; river seasonality

  20. Biogeochemical controls on carbon and sulfur cycling in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Manh, Thang

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is the largest brackish inland sea in the world. Over the last 100 years, the Baltic Sea has received a large amount of nutrients from surrounding watersheds that has increased the primary production, and eutrophication in the water column. Thus, the seafloor of Baltic Sea has received large amounts of organic matter that lead to the enhancement of gas bearing sediments (H2S, CH4, etc). An important aspect was to study the link between organic carbon delivery into the Baltic Se...

  1. The problems of studying the Baltic origins of hydronyms on the territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Л. Васильев

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a wide range of issues related to the ancient presence of Balts in Russian hydronymy. The entire eastern half of the vast Old Baltic ethno-historical area overlapped with regions of European Russia. The names of rivers and lakes are the main source that allows to ascertain the extent of their ancient settlement as well as some features of their language. This paper provides an overview of the history of the study of hydronyms of Baltic origin on the territory of Russia, including the criticism of certain previous works, and briefly highlights a number of issues, among which are: 1 the refinement of the South-eastern, Eastern and especially North-eastern borders of the Old Baltic range, 2 the correlation of the Baltic linguistic elements with the Finnish and the Iranian elements, 3 the relationship of Baltic hydronymy to archaeological cultures, localizable in European Russia, 4 the relative density of the Baltic stratum in different Russian regions, 5 the optimization of techniques related to searching and confirmation of Baltic water names. Maps are provided to show the North-eastern flank of the Baltic hydronymic areal and the maximum geographical extent of Eastern Baltic hydronymy.

  2. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  3. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  4. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.; Bernreuther, M.; Huwer, Bastian; Neumann, Viola; Schmidt, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort...... analysis. Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning...

  5. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and...... concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants, and...

  6. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological and...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  7. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... View the MathML source or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of View the MathML source and sulfide and the actual measured relations between View the MathML source and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ...... extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132–547 kton N yr−1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr−1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr−1 it is clear that...

  8. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  9. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  10. Organic contaminants - occurrence and biological effects in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pikkarainen, Anna-Liisa

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea was studied with respect to selected organic contaminants and their ecotoxicology. The research consisted of analyses of total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bile metabolites, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The contaminants were measured from various matrices, such as seawater, sediment and biota. The methods of analysis were evaluated and refined to comparability of t...

  11. Magnitude determination of earthquakes in the Baltic Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Rutger Wahlström; T. Ahjos

    1984-01-01

    Station corrections have been introduced into the M"SUB L"-scale hitherto used for Baltic Shield earthquakes. The new formula is valid for Benioff and Grenet seismograph stations in Finland and Sweden. An extension of the magnitude scale to distances as small as 30 km is made by adding the constant 0.31 to the equation. Correlating the instrumental magnitude with macroseismic parameters, a relationship between the radius of areas of perceptibility (km) and maximum intensity has been obtained ...

  12. BABAR: Becoming Adult Educators in the Baltic-Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milana, Marcella; Andersson, Per; Gross, Marin; Jõgi, Larissa; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results from a comparative study of the qualification of adult educators in the Nordic-Baltic region. The study involved Denmark, Estonia and Sweden. The rationale behind the study is a growing interest in adult education resulting from a focus on lifelong learning in the public and political agendas, internationally and nationally. According to the authors of the report, an increased interest in adult education generates an increased interest in the professionalisati...

  13. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  14. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of NH3 and NH4+ and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3- are somewhat overestimated. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the annual atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south--north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 T N km-2 in the south and 0.2 T N km-2 in the north. The results show that in 1999 the maximum diurnal mean deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year. Total deposition to the Baltic Sea was for the year 1999 estimated to 318 kT N for an area of 464 406 km2 equivalent to an average deposition of 684 kg N/km2.

  15. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  16. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity account for nearly one-fifth of the oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore the seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and the carbon accumulation (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to ex...

  17. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... banning the discard of highly contaminated organs such as cod liver could be part of the pollution management....

  18. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  19. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  20. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  1. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  2. Ecological network indicators of ecosystem status and change in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej T Tomczak

    Full Text Available Several marine ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure have experienced shifts from one ecological state to another. In the central Baltic Sea, the regime shift of the 1980s has been associated with food-web reorganization and redirection of energy flow pathways. These long-term dynamics from 1974 to 2006 have been simulated here using a food-web model forced by climate and fishing. Ecological network analysis was performed to calculate indices of ecosystem change. The model replicated the regime shift. The analyses of indicators suggested that the system's resilience was higher prior to 1988 and lower thereafter. The ecosystem topology also changed from a web-like structure to a linearized food-web.

  3. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  4. [Образ Другого : страны Балтии и Советский Союз перед Второй мировой войной = Images of the Other : Baltic States and Soviet Union before the World War II ] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Образ Другого : страны Балтии и Советский Союз перед Второй мировой войной = Images of the Other : Baltic States and Soviet Union before the World War II. Hrsg. von Райнхард Крумм, Денис Ханов, Никита Ломагин. Verlag РОССПЕН. Москва 2012

  5. Quantifying the importance of sediment resuspension for the North Sea and Baltic Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Cara; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute; Fennel, Katja; Castaño Primo, Rocío

    2014-05-01

    resuspension is considered. In contrast, resuspension only plays a minor role in large parts of the Baltic Sea which is generally characterized by weak tides and deep basins where the sediment is decoupled from surface wind stress. The results of the sensitivity analysis in ECOSMO are presented which quantify and illustrate the impact of resuspension on primary production and state variables of the carbonate system.

  6. Seasonal variation of 129I species in the Baltic Proper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.;

    2013-01-01

    new data on profiles of 129I speciation in the Baltic Proper during November 2009. Along with the two earlier investigations (August 2006 and April 2007), an assessment of seasonal variation of 129I species is presented. The results show that, due to the anoxic nature of Baltic Proper, presence of 129...

  7. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  8. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  9. Distribution and reproduction of the Arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S; Haslob, H; Huwer, B; Katajisto, T; Lennuk, L; Majaneva, S; Põllumäe, A; Schaber, M; Setälä, O; Reusch, TBH; Viitasalo-Frösén, S; Vuorinen, I; Välipakka, P

    2013-01-01

    southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also...

  10. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  11. A Hundred Years Later. Streetcars are still rattling in Baltic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika V. Polanska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A young geographer by the name of Sten De Geer mapped the cities around the Baltic Sea in an article published in 1912. As an attempt to capture the urban structure of Baltic region cities, his paper is unique. In this article, we comment on his meticulous descriptions of these cities, with a century-long perspective.

  12. Mean and extreme sea level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jessica; Patzke, Justus; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen; Fröhle, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution an overview over the BMBF project AMSeL_Ostsee (2015-2018) for the assessment of mean and extreme sea level changes over the past 150 years in the southwestern Baltic Sea is presented. We compile several high resolution tide gauge records provided by the Water and Shipping Administration (WSV) along the German Baltic Sea coastline and merge them in internationally available data bases (UHSLC, PSMSL, and data officially available at national authorities). In addition, we make efforts in digitizing historical records to expand the number of available data sets in this complex and vulnerable coastal region. To separate absolute from relative long-term changes in sea level the vertical land motion (VLM) at specific sites is assessed. Possible sources of VLM are independently assessed by using different state-of-the-art approaches, that is: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelled by viscoelastic Earth models, GPS derived VLM, and the difference between tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry. The VLM corrected tide gauge records are further assessed for linear and non-linear trends as well as possible acceleration/deceleration patterns by applying advanced time series models such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) combined with a Monte-Carlo-Autoregressive-Padding approach (Wahl et al., 2010). These trend assessments are applied to mean and extreme sea levels independently to prove whether observed changes in extremes are either due to an underlying trend on mean sea levels or changes in storminess. References: Wahl, T., Jensen, J., Frank, T. (2011): On analysing sea level rise in the German Bight since 1844, NHESS, 10, 171-179.

  13. Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Viktorsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010 in August–September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (−0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m−2 d−1, hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m−2 d−1 and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m−2 d−1. The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5–10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a

  14. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of  NH3 and NH4 and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3 are somewhat overestimated by the model. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south – north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 tonnes N km−2 in south and 0.2 tonnes N km−2 in north. The model results show that in 2000 the maximum deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year.

  15. Solar radiation at the surface in the Baltic Proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Keevallik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the central part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment meteorological data archives are used to study the spatio-temporal variability of daily global radiation totals. The annual average daily global radiation total varies from about 10 MJ m-2 at Visby(on Gotland and Kołobrzeg (on the coast of Poland to less than 9 MJ m-2 at Zīlāni (inland Latvia, Šilutė (Lithuaniaand Jokioinen (Finland. The monthly average daily global radiation total over the whole region extends from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The variability in global radiation is analysed on the basis of the fraction of the daily total at the top of the atmosphere.The spatial and temporal variability is the least in August - this shows that the variation in the cloud cover and atmospheric properties at this time of year is the smallest. The spatial correlation is the strongest between the two Finnish stations - Vantaa and Jokioinen. It is also high between Stockholm and Norrköping, on the east coast of Sweden. The correlation coefficients are the largest over the whole area in April. Radiation data from coastal stations are compared with an earlier parameterization basedon ship observations (Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Isemer & Rozwadowska 1999. It is concluded that in climatological research, actinometric data from Visby can be used to characterize the radiation field over the northern part of the Baltic Proper and those from Kołobrzeg to characterize the radiation field over the southern part of this sea.

  16. A 20-yr reanalysis Experiment in the Baltic Sea Using three Dimensional Variational (3DVAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year retrospective reanalysis of the ocean state in the Baltic Sea is constructed using three dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation combining an operational numerical model with available historical temperature (T and salinity (S profiles. To determine the accuracy of the reanalysis, the authors present a series of comparisons with independent observations on a monthly mean basis. The performance of the assimilation in deep/shallow waters is investigated.

    With assimilation, temperature and salinity in the reanalysis fit better than the free run with independent measurements at different depths. Overall, the mean biases of temperature and salinity are reduced by 0.32 °C and 0.34 psu, respectively. Similarly, the mean root mean square error (RMSE of the reanalysis is decreased by 0.35 °C and 0.3 psu compared to the free run. In space, the model error is inhomogeneous and strongly steered by the model error dynamics. Seasonally varying error of the modeled sea surface temperature is mainly controlled by the weather forcing, and shows the least improvements due to sparse observations. Deep layers, on the other hand, witness significant and stable model error improvements. In particular, the salinity related to saline water intrusions into the Baltic Proper is largely improved in the reanalysis. The major inflow events such as in 1993 and 2003 are captured more accurately in the reanalysis as the model salinity in the bottom layer is increased by 2–3 psu. Sea level is also improved due to an improved density field. The correlation between model and observation is increased by 2 %–5 %, and the RMSE is generally reduced by 10 cm in the reanalysis compared to the free run. The reduction of RMSE is mainly due to the reduction of mean bias. Assimilation of T/S contributes little to the barotropic transport in the shallow Danish Transition zone.

    The mixed layer depth exhibits strong seasonal

  17. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  18. Speciation of 137Cs in the Baltic sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of application of Filtrac 391 and Nuclepore filters, Ky-2-8-C exchanger and the Mtilon-T fiber impregnated with Fe, Co, Ni ferrocyanides for separation of particulate and ionic 137Cs in the sea water was investigated. Physico-chemical forms of 137Cs were investigated in the Baltic Sea water during 1995-1997. It was determined that 137Cs was mainly present in ionic form (62-93 %) both in the near-shore and open waters. Concentration of particulate 137Cs ranged from 255 to 625 Bq/kg (dry weight).The distribution coefficient (Kd) of radiocaesium reached values of 2100-9700. (author)

  19. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  20. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  1. Laser ablation studies of solid aerosols on the Baltic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jaworski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Berner cascade impactor was used for the separation of solid urban aerosols in two localities of the Baltic coastal macro-region - Słupsk and Hel - in different seasons and weathers. Ten ranges of aerodynamic diameters between 0.009 and 8.11 µm were used. The elementary composition for each diameter was obtained in a complex procedure consisting of laser ablation of deposits, then their successive ionization in an inductively coupled plasma generator, and finally, mass selection in a quadrupole spectrometer. Despite its complexity, the chemical element analysis method proved to be versatile, allowing the identification air pollution from natural and industrial sources, and road traffic.

  2. Study of radioactive materials in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an evaluation of the Coordinated Research Programme on the long-term behaviour of radionuclides entering in the Baltic Sea area, including their transport back to man, and some conclusions and recommendations together with the final reports given by the chief investigators on the activities performed during the entire coordinated research programme, from its inception in 1981 to its conclusion in 1984, as well as the results of Intercalibration Exercises. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  3. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  4. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.; Smedman, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    heterogeneous; the modifications primarily being caused by the land-sea contrasts. On the day with the weaker wind speed, sea-breeze circulations develop. As a consequence, the wind direction at lower levels is more or less opposite to the geostrophic over large areas of the Baltic Sea and the surface wind...... speed decreases with offshore distance. Wind speed maxima caused by the sea breezes are found along the east coasts in the studied area. For the other day, the slow growth of a stable internal boundary layer over the sea also gives a surface wind speed decrease with offshore distance from the coast....

  5. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat...... data that recruitment depends on temperature conditions during the months when sprat gonads, eggs, and larvae are developing. We also show that recruitment can be predicted before adults spawn (and fully 15 months earlier than using present technology) by using linkages between recruitment, large-scale...

  6. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard; Wilmsmeier, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...... modeling techniques used in freight rate forecasting. At the same time research in shipping index forecasting e.g. BDTI applying artificial intelligent techniques is scarce. This analyses the possibilities to forecast the BDTI by applying Wavelet Neural Networks (WNN). Firstly, the characteristics of...

  7. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  8. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting. Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes.    The expression enables fa to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations: the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surfaceCa(0 and the spectral downward irradiance Ed(λ, 0 just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of τ ≈ 5.    The verification of the model description of fa was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: Ed(λ, z (or also PAR(z, apl(λ, z,and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments Ca(z and Cj(z (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC. The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa estimated using the modeldeveloped in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%.    Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of fa, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the

  9. Development of a remote sensing algorithm for cyanobacterial phycocyanin pigment in the Baltic Sea using neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Stefan; Krawczyk, Harald

    2011-11-01

    Water quality monitoring in the Baltic Sea is of high ecological importance for all its neighbouring countries. They are highly interested in a regular monitoring of water quality parameters of their regional zones. A special attention is paid to the occurrence and dissemination of algae blooms. Among the appearing blooms the possibly toxicological or harmful cyanobacteria cultures are a special case of investigation, due to their specific optical properties and due to the negative influence on the ecological state of the aquatic system. Satellite remote sensing, with its high temporal and spatial resolution opportunities, allows the frequent observations of large areas of the Baltic Sea with special focus on its two seasonal algae blooms. For a better monitoring of the cyanobacteria dominated summer blooms, adapted algorithms are needed which take into account the special optical properties of blue-green algae. Chlorophyll-a standard algorithms typically fail in a correct recognition of these occurrences. To significantly improve the opportunities of observation and propagation of the cyanobacteria blooms, the Marine Remote Sensing group of DLR has started the development of a model based inversion algorithm that includes a four component bio-optical water model for Case2 waters, which extends the commonly calculated parameter set chlorophyll, Suspended Matter and CDOM with an additional parameter for the estimation of phycocyanin absorption. It was necessary to carry out detailed optical laboratory measurements with different cyanobacteria cultures, occurring in the Baltic Sea, for the generation of a specific bio-optical model. The inversion of satellite remote sensing data is based on an artificial Neural Network technique. This is a model based multivariate non-linear inversion approach. The specifically designed Neural Network is trained with a comprehensive dataset of simulated reflectance values taking into account the laboratory obtained specific optical

  10. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230–450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980–1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). - Highlights: • We present a model to estimate water inflow from North Sea to Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. • The model predicted inflow range of 230–450 km3/y from the North Sea to Baltic Sea during 1980–1999. • The model provides a new way of application of 129I isotope for the Baltic Sea

  11. Report of a survey of the state of the environment in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roots, O. [Ministry of the Environment of Estonia, Talinn (Estonia). Environment Information Centre

    2000-07-01

    In connection with the change in economic principles and disintegration of big industrial enterprises, the environmental pollution in the Baltic States decreased considerably in 1991-1996. Although there are still many things waiting to be done, the improvement of the Baltic environmental situation during the years of independence gives us a cause to be optimistic. The article looks at five 'International Cooperative Programmes' established under the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) Convention for monitoring and assessing air pollution effects. It considers the trends in air pollution and water pollution in the Baltic States. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  13. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  14. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  15. Fostering Employee Engagement Through Gamification: AirBaltic Forecaster Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiga Ergle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Next to the employee productivity or indicators for staff turnover and absenteeism in organizations, Employee Engagement stands out as one of the most significant measurements for Human Resource Management efficiency. With younger generation representatives joining the workforce companies are bound to investigate and pursue some of the new tools and techniques that respond more effectively to engagement triggers of generations Y and Z. At AirBaltic Corporation in Riga, Latvia, management has been trying to foster engagement of the workforce through introduction of a business game, called Forecaster. According to management belief, in addition to improved internal communication, Forecaster has potential to save up to 1 million eur annually due to the resulting better quality management decisions. Within the article author looks at the theory and research related to application and effects of gamification within corporate settings, as well as reviews workplace environment at AirBaltic Corporation. Further in the article, Forecaster game is described in more detail and its impact on employee engagement and organizational performance is analysed. Finally, recommendations are drawn for organizations to consider when gamifying people management processes in their organizations.

  16. The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be changed. A more pronounced international division of labour accompanied by the historically developed specialization of Russia makes nuclear power an important factor in Russia’s economic diplomacy. The promotion of Russian energy projects in the region contributes to the development of a system of mutually beneficial ties. The increasing energy deficiency in the region can serve an economic prerequisite to this process.

  17. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Bartnicki, J.; Semeena, V. S.; H. Fagerli

    2011-01-01

    The EMEP Unified model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 years: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13%. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11%) in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen depositions to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively l...

  18. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.;

    2013-01-01

    crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y...... from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). Crown...

  19. Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM - an ongoing project in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Wo¼niak

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A large national project: Development of a satellite method for Baltic ecosystem monitoring (DESAMBEM for creating mathematical models and a complex algorithm for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem and its primary production is described. The final aim of the project is the development of a routine remote sensing methodology for determining characteristics of the Baltic ecosystem such as distribution maps of surface temperature, water transparency, upwelling currents, phytoplankton blooms, radiation balance, pigment concentrations and primary production. The progress of the study and examples of results are presented.

  20. Large-scale environmental effects and ecological processes in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Swedish research programme concerning the Baltic Sea is initiated by the SNV to produce budgets and models of eutrophying substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, some organic substances) and toxic substances (PCB, lindane and PAH). A description of the distribution and turnover of these substances including their transformation will be necessary in the evaluation of critical processes controlling concentrations in relation to external load. A geographical information system will be made available as a database and analytical tool for all participants (BED, Baltic Ecosystem Data). This project is designed around cooperation between the Baltic Sea countries. (au)

  1. Modelling of marine radionuclide dispersion in IAEA MODARIA program: Lessons learnt from the Baltic Sea and Fukushima scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R; Bezhenar, R; Brovchenko, I; Duffa, C; Iosjpe, M; Jung, K T; Kobayashi, T; Lamego, F; Maderich, V; Min, B I; Nies, H; Osvath, I; Outola, I; Psaltaki, M; Suh, K S; de With, G

    2016-11-01

    State-of-the art dispersion models were applied to simulate (137)Cs dispersion from Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster fallout in the Baltic Sea and from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant releases in the Pacific Ocean after the 2011 tsunami. Models were of different nature, from box to full three-dimensional models, and included water/sediment interactions. Agreement between models was very good in the Baltic. In the case of Fukushima, results from models could be considered to be in acceptable agreement only after a model harmonization process consisting of using exactly the same forcing (water circulation and parameters) in all models. It was found that the dynamics of the considered system (magnitude and variability of currents) was essential in obtaining a good agreement between models. The difficulties in developing operative models for decision-making support in these dynamic environments were highlighted. Three stages which should be considered after an emergency, each of them requiring specific modelling approaches, have been defined. They are the emergency, the post-emergency and the long-term phases. PMID:27376914

  2. Atomnaja jenergetika Pribaltiki: istorija vozniknovenija i politiko-jekonomicheskie osobennosti razvitija [Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    OpenAIRE

    Kretinin Gannady

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear pow...

  3. Surface wave effects on water temperature in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.

  4. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  5. Baltic Listed Companies´ disclosure quality – far ahead or lagging behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbi Karmo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the level of average quality of disclosures made in English by biggest companies listed on Baltic stock exchanges and to analyse it in the context of biggest companies listed on other Central and Eastern European (CEE and three developed European (EU stock exchanges. Content analysis reveals that the disclosure quality level of Baltic listed companies outperforms that of other CEE peers by at least 30% and in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures 50 to 80%. Compared to companies listed on developed EU stock exchanges, the disclosure quality of Baltic listed companies is slightly lower in the company home page category, however, it outperforms in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures. This result raises concerns about possibly too restrictive stock exchange web page disclosure regulations which may have a negative impact on the future outlook of Baltic stock exchanges.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus S.) batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, Holger; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd

    Over the last decade the size of the Baltic sprat spawning stock declined from a record highof over 1.7 million tonnes in 1996 to 910.000 tonnes in 2008. From the perspective of stockrecovery it is of central interest how reproductive parameters have changed over this periodof strongly changing...... stock size. Batch fecundity of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticusS.)during peak spawning time was investigated in relation to fish length and weight applyingthe hydrated oocyte method. A series of ten years was established covering importantspawning areas in the Central Baltic Sea, i. e., the...... Bornholm Basin, the Gdansk Deep and forsome years the Gotland Basin. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) showed significantdifferences in batch fecundity of Baltic sprat between areas and years. To detect possiblecauses for this variation in batch fecundity environmental factors such as water temperature...

  7. Baltic Graduate School for Social Sciences and Humanities founded in Tallinn / Maiki Voore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voore, Maiki, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Oktoobris 2008 allkirjastasid Tallinna Ülikooli, Läti Ülikooli ja Kaunase Vytautas Magnuse Ülikooli rektorid Baltimaade sotsiaal- ja humanitaarteaduste doktorikooli (Baltic Graduate School) asutamislepingu

  8. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    . This paper investigates the costeffective distribution of nutrient abatement measures between drainage basins and Baltic Sea regions, where the aim is to achieve the BSAP nutrient load reduction targets. The cost-minimisation model BALTCOST, an interdisciplinary development involving economists and...... natural scientists, is used to identify the most cost-effective configuration of abatement measures. BALTCOST utilises detailed regional and spatial data down to 10 x 10km grid cell level for all Baltic littoral countries. Modelling results suggest that it should be possible to achieve the BSAP load...... reduction targets for N and P in most Baltic Sea regions, with the exception of the P load target in the Baltic Proper and the N reduction target in the Danish Straits, where only 74% and 88% respectively, of the desired BSAP load reductions can be delivered. BALTCOST results indicate that the BSAP targets...

  9. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...... reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity of the...... Baltic because of its low salinity. Fishing fleets which presently target marine species (e.g. cod, herring, sprat, plaice, sole) in the Baltic will likely have to relocate to more marine areas or switch to other species which tolerate decreasing salinities. Fishery management thresholds that trigger...

  10. [Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections] / Konrad Maier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maier, Konrad, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections (Proceedings of the Art Museum of estonia, 1 (6)). Hrsg. von Anu Allikvee und Tiina-Mall Kreem. (Tallinn, 2011)

  11. Effect of North Sea waters containing radioactive industrial wastes on the radioactivity of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of field studies of the Baltic Sea radioactive contamination, carried out in 1984, are presented. The investigations are aimed at the evaluation of the effect of the North Sea waters, contaminated with industrial radioactive wastes of Western European countries on the environmental radioactivity in the Baltic Sea refion 134Cs was used as an indicator of radioactive waste presence in sea water. The whole water area of the Baltic Sea is shown to be affected by industrial radioactive contamination of various degrees. It is established that the part of industrial 137Cs in the total radionuclide content in benthic waters of the Arkonskaya hollow constitutes ∼ 50% and it decreases down to 16-18% in benthic waters of the western part of the Gulf of Finland. Empirical dependences permitting to predict the content of industrial 137Cs in the Baltic Sea water with the variation in the volume of annular radionuclide disposal by Sellafield radiochemical plant, are obtained

  12. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  13. What we know about the Baltic Sea: a summary of BSSC 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Uścinowicz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction    The Baltic Sea, an internal sea of the European Community, isone of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. It isquite unique in many respects, particularly in its natural featuresand in the cultural, political and socio-economic patterns ofthe countries bordering it.    After nearly 40 years, during which Baltic marine physicists,chemists, biologists and geologists had been holding separatescientific meetings, it was decided the time was ripe to arrangejoint scientific conferences with the purpose of getting togetherto discuss general and specific aspects of the Baltic Sea, toexchange information, to integrate efforts, and to get to knowand understand each other better. The Sopot 2005 Congress, precededby the Baltic Sea Science Congresses in Rønne (1997, Warnemünde(1999, Stockholm (2001 and Helsinki (2003, was the fifth jointmeeting of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers (CBO, BalticMarine Biologists (BMB and Baltic Sea Geologists (BSG. Likeall the previous congresses, the one held in Sopot bore witnessto the idea that we all, members of CBO, BMB and BSG, shouldcontinue to work together even more closely.    The meeting in Sopot instigated discussion on a broad spectrumof problems, from large-scale climate change-related processesto local, small-scale specific Baltic Sea features. Further subjectsfor deliberation included modelling as a research tool and asa way of providing services and forecasting certain phenomena,operational oceanography, and man's impact on the Baltic Seaenvironment and its resources.    We are indebted to our Scientific Committee for their work duringthe past months to sort out and select interesting contributionsto all the oral and poster sessions, and thus for making theCongress an attractive and quality event. We also thank the PolishAcademy of Sciences and the City of Sopot for their financialsupport.    We hope that the joint Congress and fruitful scientific

  14. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  15. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ∼13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (∼30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (∼60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/χ, χARM/SIRM and χARM/χ that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and

  16. Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Increasing δ15N and δ13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the δ15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high δ15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower δ15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in δ15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial δ15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient δ15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the δ13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( δ13C and δ15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

  17. Fish and Ships in the Baltic Sea - Prices, Demand and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The essay discusses different aspects of the market for fish from the Baltic Sea. The first chapter introduces the subject and discusses why the market for fish is interesting and in particular why analyses of first-hand market prices can give insights into the effects of new regulations or natural variations changing the conditions for fisheries. Prices of different attributes of Baltic cod is the topic of the second chapter. The results show that larger and better quality cod have h...

  18. Floating along buoyancy levels: dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.;

    2014-01-01

    prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea...... the Skagerrak. There was no successful transport to more eastern Baltic areas past a hypothetical line from the island of Moen (Denmark) to Kap Arkona on Rügen Island (Germany...

  19. Nodularia spumigena and Its Attribute to Bloom Formation in Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Humayan Kabir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available N. spumigena is the dominant cyanobacterial species found in Baltic Sea. It forms extensive bloom in late summer in areas of the Baltic Sea with high phosphorus concentrations and moderate salinity. Both environmental and manmade factors are involved with bloom formation. This review also elucidates the physiological and molecular aspects of nitrogen fixation, heterocyst formation and nodularin production in N. spumigena.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.992

  20. Responses of Baltic Sea Ice and Open-Water Natural Bacterial Communities to Salinity Change

    OpenAIRE

    Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Laamanen, Maria; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the responses of Baltic Sea wintertime bacterial communities to changing salinity (5 to 26 practical salinity units), an experimental study was conducted. Bacterial communities of Baltic seawater and sea ice from a coastal site in southwest Finland were used in two batch culture experiments run for 17 or 18 days at 0°C. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, and leucine and thymidine incorporation were measured during the experiments. The bacterial community structure was assessed u...

  1. New Levels of Climate Adaptation Policy: Analyzing the Institutional Interplay in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkku Juhola; Erik Glaas

    2013-01-01

    International policy development and expected climate change impacts such as flooding, landslides, and the extinction of sensitive species have forced countries around the Baltic Sea to begin working on national climate adaptation policies. Simultaneously, the EU is building both a central and a macro-regional Baltic Sea-wide adaptation strategy to support national policy developments. However, it yet remains unclear how these EU strategies will complement each other or national policies. Thi...

  2. Influence of pelagic invertebrate predators on the zooplankton in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Barz, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Pelagic invertebrates have a wide prey spectrum and may constitute important predators in marine ecosystems. This study analyses the impact of pelagic invertebrate predators in the two connected ecosystems Baltic Sea and North Sea. Both ecosystems have different hydrographic conditions, but also show similarities in their reaction on changing ocean conditions (synchronous regime shifts) and were object of comparative studies in the framework of the German GLOBEC Project. In the central Baltic...

  3. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea: inventories and temporal trends of 137Cs and 90Sr in water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baltic Sea is ecologically unique as one of the world's largest brackish water basins. It was significantly contaminated by radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the major contaminant being long-lived 137Cs. Due to the slow exchange of water between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and the relatively rapid sedimentation rates, radionuclides have prolonged residence times in the Baltic Sea. 137Cs levels are consequently still clearly higher than in other water bodies around the world. In addition to the Chernobyl accident, artificial radionuclides in the Baltic Sea originate from the global fallout following nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, while discharges into the Baltic Sea from nuclear power plants and other facilities are of minor importance. Here, inventories and the temporal evolution of radionuclides both in seawater and sediments of the Baltic Sea are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  5. The Hydrographical Features of the Baltic Sea and the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to point out a few hydrographical features of the Baltic Sea, which make this sea, in reference to the disposal of radioactive wastes, different from any oceanic region. The seas can be divided, in reference to the practical problem of the disposal of radionuclides, into the following zones: (1) harbours, (2) fairways leading into harbours, (3) outer continental shelf and (4) the open sea. There, is no open sea, in the above sense, in the Baltic Sea. In addition, the validity of the rules recommended for the above zones, must be carefully checked through further hydrographical studies, since: (1) the whole Baltic is, in a sense, an estuary, with a sill-depth of only 18 metres in the Danish Sounds, (2) the mixing in the Baltic Sea is much more restricted than in the oceans, since the Baltic is rich in islands, brackish, heavily stratified, practically tideless, in winter partly covered with ice, and has a limited fetch of wind and only slowly moving permanent currents. In the paper reference is made to all these factors which diminish the turbulent diffusion, both vertical and horizontal. For the evaluation of the advection and turbulent (eddy) diffusion, both in the upper water layers and at the bottom, synoptic observations of current velocity and salinity at a number of points in several regions of the Baltic Sea and under different weather conditions are needed. (author)

  6. The Baltic States 1918-2001 : thirty-two years of Baltic foreign policy-making / Peeter Vares, Marina Sergeyeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vares, Peeter

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb: nr. 7, lk. 134-144. Balti riikide välispoliitilisest koostööst maailmasõdade vahelisel ajal, nõukogude perioodil, taasiseseisvumisel ning tänapäeval, sõjalisest koostööst erinevate projektide BALTBAT, BALTRON, BALTNET ja BALTDEFCOL raames

  7. Market Behaviour: Case Studies of NASDAQ OMX Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines market behaviour, defines the concept of behavioural finance and exhaustively analyzes the varying behaviour of market participants and occurring examples. The article deals with the issues of possible anomalies describing their main features. The conducted research is aimed at investigating two anomalies in the Baltic Stock Exchanges, including branches in Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius. The publication selects specific stocks listed in the equity market and analyzes their features. The obtained results are compared to discuss differences and characteristics of the markets. The paper also presents an original examination of the practical aspects of momentum and contrarian anomalies, underlies recommendations and helps financial market participants with a better understanding of the influence of anomalies from an economic perspective and with improving their competitiveness thus helping them to make appropriate decisions.

  8. Observations of the Chernobyl fallout in Tvaeren bay, baltic proper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident was detected in Tvaeren bay, Baltic sea proper. A second peak of Cs-137 in the water occurring one year after the fallout event indicated a supply of water from the highly contaminated Bothnian sea area. Bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) responded quickly to the variations in CS-137 content of the water. Bladder wrack seems to be a ten times more sensitive bioindicator for radioactive CS than the blue mussel. An apparent half-time of 29 and 21 days was observed for bladder wrack and blue mussel, respectively, at a mean temperature of 12 degree C and 7 per thousand S. A long-term increase in Cs-137 content was observed in bottom sediment and benthic infauna. (au)

  9. Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the...... cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present...... knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these...

  10. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs. The ratio 134Cs/137Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m-3, in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m-3, in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m-3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m-3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137Cs was about 18 kBq m-3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg-1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg-1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  11. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  12. Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In

  13. Using an independent geochronology based on palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and atmospheric Pb deposition to date Baltic Sea sediments and infer 14C reservoir age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Bryan C.; Snowball, Ian; Moros, Matthias; Kabel, Karoline; Muscheler, Raimund; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Wacker, Lukas

    2012-05-01

    Dating of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea has proven to be difficult due to uncertainties surrounding the 14C reservoir age and a scarcity of macrofossils suitable for dating. Here we present the results of multiple dating methods carried out on cores in the Gotland Deep area of the Baltic Sea. Particular emphasis is placed on the Littorina stage (8 ka ago to the present) of the Baltic Sea and possible changes in the 14C reservoir age of our dated samples. Three geochronological methods are used. Firstly, palaeomagnetic secular variations (PSV) are reconstructed, whereby ages are transferred to PSV features through comparison with varved lake sediment based PSV records. Secondly, lead (Pb) content and stable isotope analysis are used to identify past peaks in anthropogenic atmospheric Pb pollution. Lastly, 14C determinations were carried out on benthic foraminifera (Elphidium spec.) samples from the brackish Littorina stage of the Baltic Sea. Determinations carried out on smaller samples (as low as 4 μg C) employed an experimental, state-of-the-art method involving the direct measurement of CO2 from samples by a gas ion source without the need for a graphitisation step - the first time this method has been performed on foraminifera in an applied study. The PSV chronology, based on the uppermost Littorina stage sediments, produced ten age constraints between 6.29 and 1.29 cal ka BP, and the Pb depositional analysis produced two age constraints associated with the Medieval pollution peak. Analysis of PSV data shows that adequate directional data can be derived from both the present Littorina saline phase muds and Baltic Ice Lake stage varved glacial sediments. Ferrimagnetic iron sulphides, most likely authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), present in the intermediate Ancylus Lake freshwater stage sediments acquire a gyroremanent magnetisation during static alternating field (AF) demagnetisation, preventing the identification of a primary natural remanent magnetisation for

  14. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  15. The principles of making maps and commmmentaries to the Atlas of the Baltic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Leskauskaitė

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of making maps and commentaries to The Atlas of the Baltic LanguagesPeople in Lithuania and Latvia speak related languages which belong to the Baltic branch. The fate of both states was also similar. After the restoration of independence of both countries in 1990 it was very important to bring out the similarities which link them. This is how the idea of making an atlas of the Baltic languages evolved.Preparing the Atlas of the Baltic Languages Lithuanian and Latvian linguists hope for the following: 1 to research using the geolinguisitc method into what has been common in the Baltic languages; 2 to record the boundaries of the former common area of the living Baltic languages as it was at least at the end of the 20th century; 3 to demonstrate the vast variety of the Baltic dialects which have been formed naturally in the course of history; 4 to prove the variance and archaism of the lexicon, phonetics, morphology and word formation, syntax and other linguistic phenomena, which exist in the living Baltic languages on the basis of the data obtained from old writings and dialects.The material is not only part of the historical and cultural heritage of the two related nations but also a very valuable treasure of linguistic data on an international level, which can supply much information not only to experts in the Baltic and Slav languages but also to specialists on Indo-European linguistics, ethnography, history, archaeology and other branches. Принципы составления карт и комментариев к Атласу балтийских языковВ Литве и Латвии процесс общения осуществляется на родственных языках, относящихся к балтийской ветви индоевропейской группы. После восстановления независимости государств в 1990 г. для обеих народов

  16. Innovacionnaja jekonomika v regione Baltijskogo morja [Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  17. Re-evaluating the role of voluntary organisations: merchant networks, the Baltic and the expansion of European long-distance trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sahle, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Based on a letter book of the London Baltic merchant Michael Mitford dating 1703-1707 this paper argues that the ability of merchant networks to secure property rights in long distance trade must be re-evaluated. Contrary to the argument of the New Institutional Economists, these were not inferior to the nation state in facilitating the expansion of trade and thereby Smithean growth. It is shown that Mitford's network did not limit membership by non-economic criteria but adapted to the needs ...

  18. Nutrient turnover at the hypoxic boundary: flux measurements and model representation for the bottom water environment of the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea* The study was supported by the ERAF project ‘Development of a mechanistic model of the Gulf of Riga ecosystem in support of an efficient national policy to ensure the protection of the Baltic Sea and to promote the sustainable use of its ecosystem’ (Ref. Nr. 2010/0287/2DP/2.1.1.1.0/10/APIA/VIAA/040 and the state research programme ‘Impact of climate change on Latvia’s water environment – KALME’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvita Eglīte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of intact sediment cores from the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea, were conducted to estimate the response of sediment nutrient fluxes to various near-bottom water oxygen conditions. The experiment was performed in the laboratory using a batch-mode assay type system on the sediment cores held at 4°C and oxygen concentrations maintained at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg l−1. The results from the experiment were subsequently used to optimise the fit of the sediment denitrification sub-model of the Gulf of Riga basin. Sediment- water fluxes of phosphate were low and directed out of the sediments under all treatments, demonstrating a general decreasing tendency with increasing nearbottom water oxygen concentration. The sediment-water fluxes of ammonium and nitrate+nitrite demonstrated opposing trends: ammonium fluxes decreased whereas nitrate+nitrite fluxes increased with rising near-bottom water oxygen concentration. The modelled fluxes agreed well with the measured ones, with correlation coefficients of 0.75, 0.63 and 0.88 for ammonium, nitrate+nitrite and phosphate fluxes respectively. The denitrification rate in sediments was simulated at oxygen concentrations from–2 to 10 mg l−1. At oxygen concentrations < 2 mg l−1 the modelled denitrification was sustained by nitrate transport from water overlying the sediments. With increasing oxygen concentrations the simulated denitrification switched from the process fuelled by nitrates originating from the overlying water (Dw to one sustained by nitrates originating from the coupled sedimentary nitrification – denitrification (Dn. Dn reached its maximum at an oxygen concentration of 5 mg l−1.

  19. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  20. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present 137Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of 137Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The 137Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210Pb geochronology to follow the history of 137Cs accumulation. The 137Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated 137Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m−2. The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by 137Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m−2. This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of 137Cs inventories. The 137Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m−2 and 527 Bq m−2) due to large Chernobyl 137Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of 137Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m−2. The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. -- Highlights: • 137Cs contamination in the Baltic Sea was studied before the new NPP is put into operation. • Bothnian Sea sediments are severely contaminated by 137Cs (inventories up to 95,191 Bq m−2). • Most of the

  1. A 20-year reanalysis experiment in the Baltic Sea using three-dimensional variational (3DVAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year retrospective reanalysis of the ocean state in the Baltic Sea is constructed by assimilating available historical temperature and salinity profiles into an operational numerical model with three-dimensional variational (3DVAR method. To determine the accuracy of the reanalysis, the authors present a series of comparisons to independent observations on a monthly mean basis.

    In the reanalysis, temperature (T and salinity (S fit better with independent measurements than the free run at different depths. Overall, the mean biases of temperature and salinity for the 20 year period are reduced by 0.32 °C and 0.34 psu, respectively. Similarly, the mean root mean square error (RMSE is decreased by 0.35 °C for temperature and 0.3 psu for salinity compared to the free run. The modeled sea surface temperature, which is mainly controlled by the weather forcing, shows the least improvements due to sparse in situ observations. Deep layers, on the other hand, witness significant and stable model error improvements. In particular, the salinity related to saline water intrusions into the Baltic Proper is largely improved in the reanalysis. The major inflow events such as in 1993 and 2003 are captured more accurately as the model salinity in the bottom layer is increased by 2–3 psu. Compared to independent sea level at 14 tide gauge stations, the correlation between model and observation is increased by 2%–5%, while the RMSE is generally reduced by 10 cm. It is found that the reduction of RMSE comes mainly from the reduction of mean bias. In addition, the changes in density induced by the assimilation of T/S contribute little to the barotropic transport in the shallow Danish Transition zone.

    The mixed layer depth exhibits strong seasonal variations in the Baltic Sea. The basin-averaged value is about 10 m in summer and 30 m in winter. By comparison, the assimilation induces a change of 20 m to the mixed layer depth in deep waters

  2. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  3. Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deutsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether dissolved organic matter (DOM in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as δ13C values of high molecular weight DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM that reaches the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations our results indicate that substantial amounts of DOM (>50% seems to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.3, 2.7, and 4.1 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

  4. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  5. Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gdansk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. - Enteromorpha sp. can be used as efficient biomonitor for chemical elements in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

  6. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/MSC-W model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 yr: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13 %. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11 % in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13 % to +17 % of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly deposition pattern is similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13 % and Denmark 8–11 %. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–9 %, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5 %.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP Unified model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 years: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13%. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11% in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen depositions to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13% to +17% of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly depositions are similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13% and Denmark 8–11%. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–10%, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5%.

  8. Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbikowski, Radoslaw [Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, al. Gen. J Hallera 107, PL 80-416 Gdansk (Poland); Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Av. Pilsudskiego 46, PL 81-378 Gdynia (Poland); Szefer, Piotr [Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, al. Gen. J Hallera 107, PL 80-416 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: pszef@amg.gda.pl; Latala, Adam [Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Av. Pilsudskiego 46, PL 81-378 Gdynia (Poland)

    2006-10-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gdansk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. - Enteromorpha sp. can be used as efficient biomonitor for chemical elements in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  9. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  10. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply to the Baltic Sea from boreal rivers will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially...

  11. Reducing the environmental impact of Baltic Power Plant ash fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash fields of Estonian oil-shale-fired power plants, especially ash hydrotransport system with its large amounts of high-alkaline waters, may cause great damage to the environment. The situation is particularly bad at the Baltic Power Plant whose ash fields and sediment ponds occupy more than ten square kilometers. The samples taken from the 2nd ash field were studied to determine their structure, pressure resistance and water filtration ability. Ash field material has a stratified structure, all layers contain Ca(OH)2 which, contacting with water, makes the latter highly alkaline. According to preliminary calculations, the ash field material binds only 10-20 % of CO2 emitted at oil shale burning. Disconnection of the 2nd ash field from the ash field water-sluicing system would be the first and most practical way to reduce the amount of water to be added to the water system of ash fields. Ca(OH)2 content of ash field material must be considered when making the projects for the 2nd ash field recultivation. (author)

  12. Atlas of the Baltic languages: from idea to pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stafecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atlas of the Baltic languages: from idea to pilot projectDialectologists from Latvian Language Institute of the University of Latvia and the Department of Language History and Dialectology of the Institute of the Lithuanian Language, have developed a proposal for a joint project entitled, The Atlas of the Baltic Languages, which is intended to demonstrate the close kinship of these two Baltic languages. A pilot project, supported by a grant from the University of Latvia and Directorate for the Millenium of Lithuania has been carried out between 2006 and 2008 to determine what the form and eventual content of such an atlas might be.In 2009 a summary of work carried out on the pilot project on Atlas of the Baltic Languages, Prospect has been published which includes 12 geolinguistic maps, with commentary in Latvian, Lithuanian and English. The publication also contains in the introduction homage paid to the living and extinct Baltic languages, as well as an overview of the history of the study of dialects in both countries and the characteristics and regional distribution of the dialects of Latvian and Lithuanian. The publication also describes the principles followed in creating these geolinguistic maps and associated commentary.This article describes recent progress made in research on the regional distribution of dialects of both Baltic languages. For more than a century research on the dialects of the Latvian and Lithuanian languages has taken place in parallel, separately gathering data on the various dialects of each respective language. It is, therefore, necessary first to examine, briefly, the histories of the respective geolinguistic research endeavours.The first records of differences between the territorial extents and diversity of Latvian and Lithuanian are to be found in surviving grammars and dictionaries of these languages compiled in the 17th century.The first map showing the geographical reach of the Lithuanian language is to be

  13. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis. In the...... Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower......, stock, recruitment, and cannibalism declined steadily until the early 1990s and then increased again. Problems identified in relation to data compilation and estimation procedure are discussed with respect to their impact on estimates of cannibalism and stock- recruitment relationships. (C) 2000...

  14. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for...... organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate to...... stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  15. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. PMID:26992746

  16. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2012-01-01

    of Baltic cod from spring/early summer to midsummer since the early 1990s remain unresolved and may partly be diet related. This study demonstrated that a substantial amount of lipid was invested in cod ovarian development, and that lipid composition varied substantially with the reproductive cycle......This study describes lipid composition and antioxidants of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. during the reproductive cycle, and investigates whether they reflect its dominant prey and whether levels of fatty acids important for reproductive performance were low. Reasons for a shift in peak spawning time...... in cod diet, while the level of 16:1n-7 and astaxanthin indicated the presence of the isopod Saduria entomon in cod diet. It is likely that food web alterations in the Baltic ecosystem related to environmental and hydrographic changes caused a decrease in ARA availability. Low ARA content coincides...

  17. Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginning of 2011, using Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide mode and Envisat ASAR wide swath mode data. The resulting ice drift fields are publicly available as part of the MyOcean EC project. The SAR-based ice drift vectors have been compared to the drift vectors from drifter buoys in the Baltic Sea during the first operational season, and also these validation results are shown in this paper. Also some navigationally useful sea ice quantities, which can be derived from ice drift vector fields, are presented.

  18. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  19. Tritium concentration in the Baltic and North Sea surface waters in autumn 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium concentration in the surface waters of Baltic and North seas is investigated using liquid-scintillation technique after preliminary electrolysis concentrating. Prior to electrolysis water samples were subjected to double distillation. Single determination duration made up ∼150 min. The method cumulative error under 0.60 confidence probability makes up 30%. As a result of analyzing the water samples taken in the surface waters of the seas under investigation in the fall of 1985 the medium tritium concentration in the Baltic sea waters was 4.5 k Bq/m3 and in the North sea ones -3.6 kBq/m3. A more inhomogeneous tritium concentration distribution with gradual decrease to the South-West and North-West is detected in the Baltic sea as compared to the North sea

  20. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.;

    2015-01-01

    the last 50–100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs......, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative...... eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea.Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to...

  1. Portrait of a necessary Ponto-Baltic alliance: Polish commercial road projects towards the Balkans and the Black Sea, 1919 – 1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Anghel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic expression of the Romanian-Polish military and political alliance undoubtedly had to be represented by the rebirth of the Baltic-Pontic commercial road, as the flow of products coming into and towards the Polish space had been artificially directed, during the 19th century, as a result of understandable political and economic interests, towards the North and the Adriatic Seas, instead of the Baltic and Black Seas. A Polish commercial road towards the Balkans obviously comprised economic, financial and strategic components. One of them referred to building an alternative to the continental routes dominated by Germany (Rhine, Main, Danube; the aim was chiefly to break a dangerous monopoly in the region of Central Europe and the Baltic area. Foreign commerce on the two relations did not enjoy, in any period between the two world wars, a spectacular evolution and never reached an important point. The arguments are based on strictly economic and financial elements: 1. Romania and Poland produced largely the same type of merchandise: there were basically similar raw materials (cereal, coal, oil, the products had a very low degree of processing, and one could earn more and more assuredly with the export type-products on traditional markets (mainly Western Europe; 2. Even if there was a great interest in a partner or a product on the other market, the transport thereof took a very long time. Between Warsaw and Bucharest there was a simple, inefficient and unsafe railroad; there was no preoccupation in the ’20s for the revamping or modernizing of the transport and service infrastructure (telephone, telegraph, post between the two states; 3. Last, but not least, although the two states had a great number of inhabitants – and, thus, an extremely important potential for buying and consumption – the potential was strongly handicapped by the standard of living. The scanty Polish projects and investments on the Baltic – Black Sea axis have

  2. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A.G. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geology; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics 101 refs, 22 figs

  3. POP load and vitamins as potential biomarkers in the Baltic seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routti, H.; Nyman, M.; Helle, E. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Backman, C. [National Veterinary and Food Research Inst. (Finland); Koistinen, J. [Div. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst. (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Exceptionally high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 1,1,1.trichloro- 2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (DDT) and its metabolites were reported in the Baltic seals in the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCB levels in ringed seals, in particular, are still high enough to threaten the well being of the animals. The observed difference in contaminant pattern between ringed and grey seals in the Baltic has not been explained, but could be partly due to species-specific food sources. Several pathological and biochemical changes observed in the Baltic seals correlate with the individual POP loads. Of the observed biochemical changes, elevated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels, decreased liver vitamin A stores and increased vitamin E levels in blubber or plasma, have been proposed as possible biomarkers of contaminant load in Baltic seals. However, as the vitamin A and E status of marine mammals also reflects the nutritional vitamin level, the lower vitamin A and elevated vitamin E levels observed in the Baltic seals could be a reflection of the levels of these vitamins in their food sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the contaminant load in the Baltic seals and to evaluate the utility level of potential exposure and effect biomarkers. Seals from less contaminated areas were used as reference material (Svalbard and Sable Island, Canada). In the present study, POP and vitamin levels were also studied in seal prey species in order to study the transfer of these compounds to grey and ringed seals from their main food sources.

  4. Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea. A preliminary survey of existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verta, M.; Salo, S.; Korhonen, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Koistinen, J.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Isosaari, P. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most contaminated areas with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins). The high load of dioxins in Baltic fish has lead to restrictions of the use of contaminated fish for human consumption. Uncertainties about sources, geographical distribution of these contaminants, the pathways of bioaccumulation and possible ecotoxicological and human health effects are of concern. POPs may enter the Baltic Sea from atmospheric deposition, riverine input and point sources along the coast. The ultimate sink for the majority of the compounds is the open sea and coastal sediments, although some fraction enters the food chain. Analysis of sediment has been widely used to study regional and temporal trends of dioxin pollution in freshwater and oceans and the Baltic Sea has been one of the most studied sea areas for dioxin-like compounds as well. Only a fraction (unknown) of the analytical results have been published in scientific papers, however. Here we present regional distribution of certain congeners of dioxins in surface sediments and in six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. New data is compared with data on earlier Finnish sediment surveys. Some data from published papers and unpublished data from the Kattegat Sound is also given for reference. The purpose of this paper is to: 1. get an ''draft'' picture of regional distribution (possible hot spots, major regional differences) along the Finnish-Swedish-Danish-German coastal and open sea sites in the Baltic 2. study differences in congener distributions (source identification) 3. study temporal changes in sediment profiles 4. identify major areas with gap of data 5. call for more data (both published and grey literature as well as new sediment surveys)

  5. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and some also for 90Sr and transuranic elements. The general levelling of Chernobyl derived 137Cs and 134Cs in the water mass of the Baltic Sea, which had started soon after the fallout situation, continued in 1989. The activity concentration of 137Cs was about the same level (120-160 Bq/m3) in surface water throughout the Baltic Sea area except in some coastal areas. The cesium concentrations had levelled vertically as well as horizontally. In 1990, the cesium concentrations of surface water decreased further in other sea areas, but not in the Bothnian Sea, where somewhat higher values were detected once more. In bottom sediments the total amounts of 137Cs had clearly increased between 1988 and 1990 which indicates that fresh fallout was still settling on the bottom. No increase was found in the total amounts of 239,240Pu. Small amounts of 60Co were detected in the surface sediment of our sampling station in the Northern Baltic proper. 137Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 17 to 32 Bq/kg fresh weight and pike from 22 to 290 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in the samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose received by Finns from eating Baltic Sea fish was 0.01mSv both in 1989 and in 1990. (orig.)

  6. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  7. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  8. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  9. Iodine Isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Hansen, Violeta;

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive 129I in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites in...... April 2007 in the Baltic Proper and related Kattegat and Skagerrak basins. The results reveal considerable differences of 129I concentration in terms of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Variability in the concentration of 127I, stable natural...

  10. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanobacterium) Populations along a Baltic Sea Salinity Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Laamanen, Maria J.; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-01-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to...

  11. Assessment of Marine Mammal Impact Zones for Use of Military Sonar in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mathias H; Johansson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Military sonars are known to have caused cetaceans to strand. Navies in shallow seas use different frequencies and sonar pulses, commonly frequencies between 25 and 100 kHz, compared with most studied NATO sonar systems that have been evaluated for their environmental impact. These frequencies match the frequencies of best hearing in the harbor porpoises and seals resident in the Baltic Sea. This study uses published temporary and permanent threshold shifts, measured behavioral response thresholds, technical specifications of a sonar system, and environmental parameters affecting sound propagation common for the Baltic Sea to estimate the impact zones for harbor porpoises and seals. PMID:26610942

  12. Radiocaesium from Chernobyl in benthic algae along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K were measured in samples taken from the upper littoral along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast in 1990 and 1991. The results were compared with earlier measurements carried out 1984-1989, and some unpublished data from these years are presented as well. The levels of radiocesium in algae that belong to different algal groups were compared, and the value of different algal species as monitoring organisms for radionuclides in the Baltic Sea was discussed. Suggestions for future monitoring and future research are given. 10 refs, 5 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Transparency of the North Sea and Baltic Sea - a Secchi Depth data mining study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorkild Aarup

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Secchi depth data mining study for the North Sea - Baltic Sea region. 40,829 measurements of Secchi depth were compiled from the area as a result of this study. 4.3% of the observations were found in the international data centers [ICES Oceanographic Data Center in Denmark and the World Ocean Data Center A (WDC-A) in the USA], while 95.7% of the data was provided by individuals and ocean research institutions from the surrounding North Sea and Baltic...

  14. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to...... the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one...

  15. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    have been hampered by examination of only a few species in each study and differences in methods among studies. To permit interspecific comparisons and statistical evaluations of relations to distribution patterns we studied the ability of 44 macroalgal species from North Zealand, South Kattegat...... distribution in the inner Baltic Sea (r: 0.32). A broad tolerance and high abundance of species in the Kattegat were significantly related to the contemporary distribution of Baltic macroalgae. Nonetheless, a large proportion of the interspecific variability was unaccounted for, presumably because a range of...

  16. Forecasting fish stock dynamics under climate change: Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolino, V.; Margonski, P.; Lindegren, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    fisheries exploitation and climate change on the temporal dynamics of the central Baltic herring stock. Alternative scenarios of increasing sea surface temperature and decreasing salinity of the Baltic Sea from a global climate model were combined with two alternative fishing scenarios, and their direct and...... ecosystem-mediated effects (i.e., through predation by cod and competition with sprat) on the herring population were evaluated for the period 2010-2050. Gradual increase in temperature has a positive impact on the long-term productivity of the herring stock, but it has the potential to enhance the recovery...

  17. Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Sylwia; Latała, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia może być kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na tworzenie się masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazują, że zakwity sinic w Morzu Bałtyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie się nasiliły, dlatego tak ważne jest określenie stopnia oddziaływania allelopatycznego dominujących w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach określono wpływ związków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez bałtycką sinicę Nodularia spumigena hodowaną w różnych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy por

  18. Main geological settings of uranium mineralization in the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and uranium-associated deposits of the Baltic Shield occur in a variety of structurematter settings. Most prospective of the latter are (1) Zones of structure-stratigraphic unconformity (SSU): those of Prevendian SSU in the basement of the Russian platform, those of Preriphean SSU in the basement of Pasha-Ladoga, Tersky bereg and other Riphean troughs, and those of Preyatulian SSU in the basement of Early Proterozoic superimposed depressions. (2) Zones of fold-fracture dislocations (FFD) in the Early Proterozoic troughs characterized with widespread black shale. Uranium mineralization occurrences within the old uranium-bearing SSU zones are of different grade: high-grade ore in the Preriphean SSU zone, low-grade ore but of significant content in the Prevendian SSU zone, ore of an uncertain,by now, grade in the Preyatulian SSU zone. The prospect for the first zone has been determined so far by the discovery of the Karku deposit in the Pasha-Ladoga trough, for the second - by the discovery of the Ratnitsa, Ryabinovka and other deposits, and, finally, for the third one - by the presence of numerous poorly studied ore mineralization occurrences - Palozerj-1,2, Maimjarvi-1, etc. Regionally, the distribution of uranium mineralization restricted to the SSU zones is controlled by a variety of factors: linear grabens complicated by fold-fracture zones on the boundaries of major earth crust blocks (Preriphean SSU), by the juncture of the Russian plate rock complex with the Baltic Shield structures, by the localization within the regional fracture-block zone (Prevendian SSU, by occurrence on the slope of the Early Protewrozoic superimposed depression complicated by deep fault zones (Preyatulian SSU). All SSUs result from the flat dip of sedimentary rocks (Vendian, Riphean, Yatulian ones) onto the rocks of the Archean-Proterozoic or Archean basement. The latter rocks are heterogeneous in composition, contain carbonaceous and carbon-bearing varieties, display intensive

  19. Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Harding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A conservative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led to increased interactions with the fishery, and demands are being raised for the re-introduction of the hunt. We provide a demographic analysis and a risk assessment of the population, and make recommendations on how to decrease the risk of over exploitation. Although hunting increases the risk of quasi-extinction, the risk can be significantly reduced by the choice of a cautious hunting regime. The least hazardous regimes allow no hunting below a ‘security level’ in population size. Obviously, to implement such a hunting regime detailed knowledge of the population size and growth rate is required. It is not possible to estimate “true” risks for quasi-extinction, but we used an approach where the relative difference for different scenarios can be compared. With a security level at 5,000 females, the population quasi-extinction risk increases 50 fold at an annual hunt of 500 females compared with a scenario with no hunting. The risk of quasi-extinction is very sensitive to declines in the mean growth rate and to increased variance in growth rate. The variance in the population estimates over the last 14 years imply that it would take 9 years to detect a declinefrom 1.075 to 1.027 in the rate of population increase. We also show how the age composition of killed animals influences the impact of the hunt. The overall recommendation is that hunting should be kept to a minimum, carefully documented and accompanied by close population monitoring.

  20. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  1. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps and from 10 meteorological masts, established specifically for wind energy in the study area, are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a root mean square error of 1.17 m s−1, bias of −0.25 m s−1, standard deviation of 1.88 m s−1 and correlation coefficient of R2 0.783. Wind directions from a global atmospheric model, interpolated in time and space, are used as input to the geophysical model function CMOD-5 for SAR wind retrieval. Wind directions compared to mast observations show a root mean square error of 6.29° with a bias of 7.75°, standard deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images show wind power density values to range from 300 to 800 W m−2 for the 14 existing and 42 planned wind farms.

  2. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  3. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  4. Circulation of water masses in the Baltic Proper revealed through iodine isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Aldahan, A.;

    2013-01-01

    evidence for: (1) inflow water masses through the Drogden Sill that may reach as far as the SW of the Arkona Sea, (2) a portion of North Atlantic water in the bottom of Arkona basin, (3) cyclonic upwelling which breaks through the halocline in a pattern similar to the Baltic haline conveyor belt and (4...

  5. PÖFF-i filmiturul Baltic Event sünnivad tuleviku kinomagnetid / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    12. PÖFFiga kaasnes ka Tallinnas 30. novembrist 3. detsembrini toimunud filmiturg Baltic Event, millel stsenaariumi staadiumis olevad filmiprojektid otsivad maailma filmitööstuse esindajatest koostööpartnereid. Eestist osales Jaak Kilmi ja Artur Talviku projekt "Rahad ette"

  6. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Urba, A.

    2009-10-01

    In the following periods: November 2005-June 2006 and October 2007-January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg) and Hg(II) were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic - the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L-1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants). During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m-2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  7. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siudek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following periods: November 2005–June 2006 and October 2007–January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg and Hg(II were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic – the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L−1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants. During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m−2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  9. Resolving early Mid-Ordovician (Kundan) bioevents in the East Baltic based on brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Mac Ørum; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Bed-by-bed sampling of brachiopods from selected Kundan Stage localities in the East Baltic has permitted the construction of a-diversity curves, unprecedented in detail from this particular stage and region. These a-diversity curves can be correlated between the investigated sections, along an...

  10. Do toxic cyanobacteria blooms pose a threat to the Baltic ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mazur-Marzec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, otherwise known as blue-green algae, are oxygenic, photosynthetic prokaryotes. They occur naturally in many fresh, marine and brackish waters worldwide and play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In their long history, cyanobacteria have developed structures and mechanisms that enable them to survive and proliferate under different environmental conditions. In the Baltic Sea, the mass development of cyanobacteria is compounded by a high level of eutrophication. The dominant species in the Baltic, the filamentous Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, can fix dissolved atmospheric N2, as a result of which they can outcompete other phytoplankton organisms. Heterocystous, filamentous cyanobacteria also make a significant contribution to the internal nutrient loading in the Baltic. The blooms of N. spumigena are of particular concern, as this cyanobacterium produces nodularin (NOD, a hepatotoxic peptide. The concentration of the toxin in the sea is regulated mainly by dilution with uncontaminated water, photolysis, sorption to sediments and microbial degradation. The transfer of the toxin in the Baltic trophic chain through zooplankton, mussels, fish and birds has been reported, but biodilution rather than bioconcentration has been observed. Cyanobacterial blooms are thought to pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. Their harmful effects are related to the occurrence of a high biomass, oxygen depletion, a reduction in biodiversity, and the production of toxic metabolites.

  11. Identification of potential target levels for Central Baltic Sea fishing mortalities, taking multispecies interactions into account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit;

    2012-01-01

    The main biological interactions between Baltic cod, herring and sprat have been modelled in a stochastic multispecies (SMS) model. Based on this, a simple approach has been developed to quantify candidates for FMSY proxies (fishing mortality that produces the maximum sustainable yield) in a...

  12. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Peck, M.A.; Barz, K.;

    2012-01-01

    multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on...

  13. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Remke; E. Brouwer; A. Kooijman; I. Blindow; H. Esselink; J.G.M. Roelofs

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  14. Life cycle and spring phenology of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Mohrholz, V.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal variation in abundance, biomass and vertical distribution of nauplii and copepodites of Temora longicornis in the Bornholm Basin was studied from March 2002 to May 2003 to understand the overwintering, spring development and life cycle of this species in the Baltic Sea. The analysis ...

  15. Aastatepikkune visadus viis raudtee Baltic Rail Service'ile / Anneli Ammas, Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti erastamisagentuur sõlmis Baltic Rail Service'iga lepingu 66% Eesti Raudtee aktsiate müügiks. Vt. samas "Uus omanik lubab hakata Eesti Raudtee töötajaid koondama". Kronoloogia: Raudtee müük 1999, 2000, 2001

  16. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.; Eero, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the...

  17. Baltic Cyber Shield : Research from a Red Team versus Blue Team Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one of the few red team versus blue team exercises to date that focused on producing research, namely, the Baltic Cyber Shield (BCS). Various research have been conducted based on the data gathered during this exercise – this article describes two of these studies.

  18. Estimating abundances of 0-group western Baltic cod by using pound net fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Robert; Stepputtis, Daniel; Storr-Paulsen, Marie; Weigelt, Ronny; Hammer, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Nearshore 0-group western Baltic cod are frequently caught as bycatch in the commercial pound net fishery. Pound net fishermen from the Danish Isle of Funen and Lolland and the German Isle of Fehmarn have recorded their catches of small cod between September and December 2008. Abundance patterns...

  19. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...

  20. 23. IV avati EKA galeriis projekti "Network Baltic" laureaatide graafikanäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise kunstiprojekti "Network Baltic - a new dimension" algatas Grafikenshus Rootsis Mariefredis, Eestist osaleb EKA graafikaosakond, kuraator - Enno Ootsing. Näitusel esinevad Kevin Lytsen Taanist, Kaija Kesa Soomest, internetikonkursil ära märgitud Helen Tago ja Eveli Varik

  1. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  2. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J;

    manure were investigated). In-house slurry cooling as well as the possibility to produce highly available phosphorus mineral fertilizers from manure ashes (obtained from manure thermo-gasification) were also assessed. This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing...

  3. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Christoffersen, Mads; Clink, Sally; Florin, Ann-Britt; Gruszka, Piotr; Puntila, Riikka; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be...

  4. Climate, zooplankton, and pelagic fish growth in the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, C.; Kornilovs, G.; Fetter, M.; Köster, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    competition on condition of central Baltic pelagic fish species. Our results indicate that herring condition results from a combined effect of changes in the food environment and increased competition with sprat, while sprat condition appeared to be primarily determined by intra-specific competition....

  5. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias;

    2012-01-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an em...

  6. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority of the...

  7. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova L. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  8. A lasting legacy for the Baltic and North Sea GLOBEC Germany program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Dutz, Jörg; Voss, R.

    2012-01-01

    This preface introduces four manuscripts that form a special theme section of the GLOBEC Germany program within Progress in Oceanography. The four manuscripts link changes in physical forcing to the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas. The target species of GLOBEC...... Germany included various species of calanoid copepods and a small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)...

  9. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  10. N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, i.e., the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP taken by primary producers, varies in different basins and in different seasons in the Baltic Sea. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration fore and after spring blooms is not same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former can be regarded as an indicator for the later in the Baltic Sea. Based on the observed N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, we hypothesize a non-Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake. The 3D-ecosystem model ERGOM coupled with the circulation model DMI-BSHcmod was used to test the hypothesis. When the Redfield ratio was used in the model, the DIP surplus after spring blooms was too high and resulted in the overly growth of cyanobacteria and too much nitrogen fixation. When the non-Redfield ratio was used in the model, the corresponding problem tended to disappear. In summary, we show that: (1 the Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea tends to be too high; (2 a lower N/P ratio 10:1 appears to work better than the Redfield value; and (3 the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Proper during spring blooms is around 6:1.

  11. Baltic Storm'i tagasihoidlik edu / Jürgen-Friedrich Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jürgen-Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Saksa ajakirjanduse vastukajasid Berliinis esilinastunud poliitilisele põnevusfilmile "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis

  12. Corpore pälvis turunduskommunikatsiooni kategoorias Baltic PR Awards 2011 peaauhinna / Aleksandra Moorast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moorast, Aleksandra, 1980-

    2012-01-01

    Üritus "Electrolux VIP koertepidu - koerad punasel vaibal" tõi suhtekorraldusfirmale Corpore'i konkursil Baltic PR Awards 2011 turunduskommunikatsiooni kategoorias esikoha. Ürituse eesmärk oli toetada Electroluxi kaubamärki ning tutvustada uut tolmuimejat, mis on mõeldud lemmikloomade karvade koristamiseks

  13. Radioactive contamination of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea - a status report (September 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines different inputs of North and Baltic Sea by fallout of nuclear weapons, reprocessing plants and Chernobyl. The reprocessing plants Sellafield and La Hague are the most important sources of radioactive contamination, especially for the North Sea. After Chernobyl all radionuclides of the fallout were demonstrable. (CW)

  14. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  15. Intercultural Education in the Curriculum: Some Comparative Aspects from the Baltic and Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser, Hiie; Trasberg, Karmen; Vassilchenko, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the educational systems of the Baltic countries, newly independent of the Soviet Union, underwent rapid and far-reaching change. National educational traditions were re-established and the countries achieved an internationally recognized quality of education. In the second half of the past decade, however, it came to be…

  16. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.;

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values f...

  17. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures...

  18. Ornithological surveys in the Baltic 2 wind farm area using high-resolution digital imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Nielsen, Rasmus Due; Stjernholm, Michael;

    Beskrivelse af fugle antal og frodeling i et undersøgelsesområde omkring Baltic 2 havvindmølleparken i Tysk Østersø. Optælling foretages med højopløseligt Vexcel Ultracam XP kamera fra fly, og fugle lokaliseres ved hjælp af semi-automatiseret procedure vha. software eCognition....

  19. Arsenic concentrations correlate with salinity for fish taken from the North Sea and Baltic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Francesconi, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations were determined in three teleost species (herring Clupea harengus; cod Gadus morhua, and flounder Platichthys flesus) taken. from four locations in the Baltic and North Sea with salinities ranging from 8 to 32 psu. Individual arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.04 to...

  20. The Effects of Hypoxia on Sediment Nitrogen Cycling in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntti, Helena; Hietanen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Primary production in the eutrophic Baltic Sea is limited by nitrogen availability; hence denitrification (natural transformation of nitrate to gaseous N2) in the sediments is crucial in mitigating the effects of eutrophication. This study shows that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) process, where nitrogen is not removed but instead recycled in the system, dominates nitrate reduction in low oxygen conditions (O2

  1. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  2. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  3. Diversity of pico- to mesoplankton along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue O.O. Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  4. Mass variations of the Baltic Sea compared to superconducting gravimeter and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, H.; Virtanen, J.; Nordman, M.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Mäkinen, J.

    2009-04-01

    We study the gravity effect of Baltic Sea mass variations observed using different methods and time resolutions. We compare data from tide gauges, from superconductive gravimeter (SG) at Metsähovi, Finland and from the GRACE gravity satellite. The mass variation in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is due to both internal redistribution of the water mass and due to changes in the so-called fill level caused by water exchange with the North Sea. The monthly variation in the water mass is about 60 Gt over an area of 390000 km-2. Due to a dense network of tide gauges, the Baltic Sea is one of best monitored mass variations in this size in the world. For modeling the observed water mass, we have used both monthly PSMSL tide gauge records and hourly values from several sources. In addition, we have hydrodynamic models for comparisons. To calculate gravity effect, we have used Green's function formalism for modeled sea surface. We have previously used temporal gravity field data from GRACE satellite to show that GRACE can recover the total mass variation in the Baltic Sea on monthly scales. In addition to monthly GRACE solutions with different filters, we now also use 10-day mascon block solutions from Goddard Space Flight Center. As the GRACE solutions are already corrected for gravity changes due to oceans, we have restored the contribution due to the Baltic Sea. We have also corrected for an effect due to leakage of continental water storage using the GLDAS hydrology model. The fundamental station Metsähovi is located 10 km from the nearest bay of the Baltic Sea and 15 km from the open sea. Using a single tide gauge at the distance of 30 km from SG at Metsähovi, very clear correlation is found between gravity and sea level. Superconducting gravity data has been corrected by tides and polar motion, atmospheric mass redistribution, local groundwater and drift. Hourly mass variations of sea are clearly separable. Theoretically one-meter even-layer water cause 30 nms-2

  5. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros. PMID:17520945

  6. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  7. Tobacco taxation policy in three Baltic countries after the EU accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the EU in 2004 and had to increase tobacco excise rates. The aim of the paper is to explore the impact of tax policies on tobacco consumption, revenue and tobacco market in the Baltic countries.METHODS: Data on tobacco sales, tax rates, prices, revenues, and smoking prevalence were taken from databases and reports. Tobacco affordability index was calculated using data on prices and GDP. RESULTS: Tobacco taxation policy had three similar stages in Baltic countries: (1 In 2004-2007, tax rates increased slowly and cigarettes became more affordable in years of economic boom. Tobacco consumption and smuggling out of Baltic countries was on the rise, which caused increase of sales and revenues. (2 In 2008-2009, Baltic countries had to hike excise and VAT rates in years of economic recession, which caused sharp decline of cigarette affordability and resulted in large decline of consumption and sales and some excise revenue downfall in 2009-2010; however, all countries had higher revenues in 2010 than in 2007. (3 In 2011, economic situation improved and tobacco sales and revenue increased. The tobacco taxation policy in Baltic countries in 2004-2011 resulted in: (1 decline of total (licit + illicit annual cigarette consumption by 30% both in Latvia and Lithuania, and by 10% in Estonia; (2 decline of daily smoking prevalence by 10-20%; (3 decline of the out-of-country smuggling; (4 almost no changes in volumes of smuggling into Lithuania and Estonia; (5 three-fold increase of the annual tobacco revenues in three countries combined.CONCLUSIONS: Decrease of tobacco affordability caused by tax hikes and economic recession was the key factor of tobacco consumption decline. Tobacco tax hike is a win-win policy, while in years of economic boom it has more fiscal benefits and in years of economic recession it has more public health benefits.

  8. Parasite diversity of sticklebacks from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In the brackish Baltic Sea, the species richness and diversity of parasite communities of three- (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) were investigated. The studies regarded four localities at the Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg coasts, northern Germany, where salinities were between 10 and 18 per thousand. Species richness was relatively high, attaining 15 parasite species in G. aculeatus and 16 in P. pungitius, which are only surpassed by former investigations that lasted a year or more. An analysis of parasite species identity revealed clear differences in diverse localities referring to different supracommunities. The infracommunity comprised maximally of eight species in G. aculeatus and seven in P. pungitius, which corresponds to former investigations. The mean value of infracommunity with 5.3 parasites is the highest value ever found in small-sized fish. An infracommunity index revealed that the digenean Podocotyle atomon and Magnibursatus caudofilamentosa and the copepod Thersitina gasterostei were the most abundant parasites. The relationship of component community to mean infracommunity can judge about the threshold level, which allows parasite to settle successfully. An important factor to form parasite communities is the season of their appearance, which depends also on their reproduction and on the presence of intermediate hosts. In addition, the choice of prey (for passive infection) and quality of habitats (for active infection) influences the constitution of the parasite communities. The diversity values of parasites were low in all hosts, which is due to the brackish milieu and by different levels of eutrophication, which both create extreme environments. These do not mirror in every case the biodiversity of the respective habitats. The parasite community was in a level of early heterotrophic succession where low diversity is combined with high population density, which is characteristic for extreme

  9. THE GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR OF INVESTORS FROM BALTIC STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The investors’ irrational behaviour is influenced by actions, feelings and impulses that are intertwined: mimicry, fear, trust, greed, optimism, pessimism, euphoria, panic. These features highlight an erroneous perception of investors in point of unsustained increase in prices, which has been generated by the stock prices deviations from their fundamental value.Under these premises, optimism, overreaction and speculative bubbles are appearing on the market and may constitute triggering factors of a financial crash.The probability of the occurrence of the speculative bubbles and financial crashes is influenced by the continuous entry on the market of new investors and less informed participants, which often act based on impulse, following a benchmark, without considering their own analysis and information that they hold. The existence of a “collective behaviour” of the investors, which is manifested by their tendency to imitate other market participants actions and to “follow the herd”, so ignoring their own beliefs, may increase market sensitivity to shocks and the probability of the occurrence of the systemic risk.In order to identify the investors’ herding behaviour, I have applied an adjusted CSSD model proposed by (Yao, Ma, Peng He, 2014, which implies the inclusion of two additional variables, the first one, to reduce the effect of multicollinearity and a second one, a lag term of the dependent variable, in order to improve the power of the

  10. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  11. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  12. Iodide and iodate (129I and 127I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Violeta; Yi, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Roos, Per; Possnert, Göran

    129I and 127I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass...... 127I−/127IO3− significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in 129I and 127I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in...... Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea....

  13. Integrated Multi - Trophic Aquaculture of Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Seaweed (Saccharina latissima) in the Western Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rößner, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    This study observed the species interaction in different development stages of shellfish ( Mytilus edulis) and seaweed (Saccharina latissima) in an integrated system, and the respective species potential for extractive aquaculture in the western Baltic Sea.

  14. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.;

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace...... element patterns in cod otoliths for age determination. By first identifying elements of interest in a stock without ageing problems, western Baltic cod, we then tested their applicability on another stock without ageing problems, North Sea cod, and finally applied this knowledge to estimate age of......, the same patterns in Cu, Zn, Rb, Mg, and Mn signals occurred. All eastern Baltic cod with low visual contrast between growth zones exhibited clearly defined synchronous cycles in Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb. Using a combined finite differencing method and structural break models approach, the statistical...

  15. Differences in PCDD/F concentrations and patterns in herring (Clupea harengus) from southern and northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, P.J.; Parmanne, R. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)]|[Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Kiviranta, H.; Isosaari, P.; Vartiainen, T. [Dept. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)]|[Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Hallikainen, A. [National Food Agency, Helsinki (Finland)]|[Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow (mean depth 57 m) brackish-water sea with a wide drainage area and a long residence time. It is surrounded by 9 countries with ca. 90 million inhabitants. Thus the Baltic Sea is heavily loaded by domestic and industrial effluents and also through long-range transport, although the loading from surrounding countries has considerably reduced during the last decades. Quite high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been measured in Baltic fish species, and concentrations of organochlorines have been demonstrated to increase according to age of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus). In July 2002 the decision of the European Commission set a new maximum allowable concentration in fish edible part to 4 pg WHO-TEQ g{sup -1} (fresh weight) for human consumption. Finland and Sweden got an exemption order until end of 2006 for commercial exploitation of Baltic fish within their own markets. However, they were ordered to monitor the concentrations of those toxicants in fish and to advice their consumers. In Finland a large project was performed during 2002-2003 to study PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in fish, which were commercially most important species and caught from three most important Baltic Sea and inland fishing areas. The present paper investigates PCDD/F concentrations and congener profiles in Baltic herring of different size caught from southern and northern Baltic Sea in order to map differences and find out causes for them. Such a knowledge is important for setting regulations for fisheries, advising consumers and finding means to further reduce emissions of these toxicants.

  16. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa;

    2014-01-01

    in the northern Baltic Sea was used to evaluate the effect of very low salinities, down to 3.4 psu. The laboratory feeding experiments with M. trossulus at 7 psu showed that the growth in shell length was negligible, whereas the body dry weight nearly doubled during the 15 d experiment, with a weight...... increased condition index, as seen in the benthic Baltic Sea mussels transferred to cages suspended in the water column....

  17. Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Stein-Bachinger; Moritz Reckling; Johann Bachinger; Johannes Hufnagel; Wijnand Koker; Artur Granstedt

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster t...

  18. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    ) diffusion gradients at the sediment water interface and within the sediment cores and (v) site specific distribution ratios. Contamination levels were low in the northern Baltic Sea, moderate to elevated in the Baltic Proper and highest in the Gulf of Finland. Chemical activities were well below levels...... expected to cause narcosis to benthos organisms. The SPME method is a very sensitive tool that opens new possibilities for studying the PAHs at trace levels in marine environments....

  19. Demograficheskie problemy gorodov stran Baltijskogo regiona: osnovnye tendencii [The demographic problems of the Baltic cities: general trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the trends of demographic development of the Baltic Sea region's cities. It analyses the factors affecting the urban population dynamics in the second half of the 20th — the beginning of the 21st centuries. The authors emphasise the dependence of the Baltic cities on the socioeconomic development level throughout the region as well as intraregional disparities. The article analyses the conclusions drawn in the "Urban audit.2007" report.

  20. Genetic species identification and low genetic diversity in Pseudocalanus acuspes of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Holmborn, Towe; Goetze, Erica; Põllupüü, Maria; Põllumäe, Arno

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Calanoid copepods of the genus Pseudocalanus are key species in temperate boreal marine pelagic ecosystems. Pseudocalanus species are difficult to distinguish morphologically and there is uncertainty regarding the species present in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigated the species composition of Pseudocalanus in the Baltic proper and Gulf of Finland using a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) approach. Screening of 888 individuals from 13 different st...

  1. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Uutela, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304) from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional sta...

  2. Iodide and iodate (129I and 127I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the common incorporation of iodine in the biological cycle and occurrence of huge contamination of the radioactive isotope 129I in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat, there is no data on chemical speciation of iodine in these waters. We here present first time data on iodine isotopes 129I and 127I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique for the 129I and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for 127I. High concentrations of both isotopes species were found in the Skagerrak–Kattegat basins, whereas the values in the Baltic Proper are low for both species. The ratios of 129I−/129IO3− and 127I−/127IO3− significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in 129I and 127I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea.

  3. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  4. Evaluation report of the Nordic-Baltic annex to the INEX-2-FIN-exercise April 17, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Under the auspices of the NKS programme and as a part of EKO-4 project a special Nordic-Baltic emergency exercise was carried out. In order to rationalise exercise activities it was organised as an annex to the international INEX-2-FIN exercise arranged by the OECD/NEA on April 17, 1997. Some countries carried out simultaneous national exercises as well. Only the Nordic-Baltic exercise is discussed in this report. The objectives of the INEX-2-FIN exercise were to test real time information exchange, decision making based on plant conditions and real weather, and public information. These objectives determined the framework for the scenario and necessary scripts of the exercise. For the Nordic-Baltic annex of the exercise five more detailed objectives, subordinated to the INEX-2-FIN objectives, were defined by the planning group under EKO-4 project. Since the exercise was the first of this kind for the Baltic countries only one of the special objectives was designed for them, namely N4. An independent evaluators group, consisting of one member from each participating country plus a chairperson, was set to evaluate the Nordic-Baltic annex of the INEX-2-FIN exercise. However, because of lack of personnel in the Baltic countries the evaluators were the same persons as in the planning group. (au)

  5. Evaluation report of the Nordic-Baltic annex to the INEX-2-FIN-exercise April 17, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of the NKS programme and as a part of EKO-4 project a special Nordic-Baltic emergency exercise was carried out. In order to rationalise exercise activities it was organised as an annex to the international INEX-2-FIN exercise arranged by the OECD/NEA on April 17, 1997. Some countries carried out simultaneous national exercises as well. Only the Nordic-Baltic exercise is discussed in this report. The objectives of the INEX-2-FIN exercise were to test real time information exchange, decision making based on plant conditions and real weather, and public information. These objectives determined the framework for the scenario and necessary scripts of the exercise. For the Nordic-Baltic annex of the exercise five more detailed objectives, subordinated to the INEX-2-FIN objectives, were defined by the planning group under EKO-4 project. Since the exercise was the first of this kind for the Baltic countries only one of the special objectives was designed for them, namely N4. An independent evaluators group, consisting of one member from each participating country plus a chairperson, was set to evaluate the Nordic-Baltic annex of the INEX-2-FIN exercise. However, because of lack of personnel in the Baltic countries the evaluators were the same persons as in the planning group. (au)

  6. Laboratory analysis of the habitat occupancy of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) in an invaded ecosystem: The north-eastern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nurkse, Kristiina; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Pärnoja, Merli; Kuprijanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The Harris mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) arrived to the Baltic Sea in 1936. It was not until the late 2000es when the species considerably expanded its distribution area towards the northern Baltic Sea and formed a viable and expanding population. This introduction represents an appearance of a completely new function, as such larger epibenthic predators were previously missing from north-eastern Baltic Sea. In order to assess potential impacts of the crab to the invaded ecosystem, know...

  7. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  8. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  9. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Baretta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (oversaturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic, or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs. The model indicates the

  10. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help

  11. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  12. Atlas of the Baltic languages: plant names of Slavonic origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Jansone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atlas of the Baltic Languages: Plant Names of Slavonic OriginThe article investigates Slavonic-derived plant names in dialects of the two surviving Baltic languages – Latvian and Lithuanian. Historically, these Slavonisms were originally adopted by small-scale regional dialects, which are now disappearing. In 2009, a pilot study for the Atlas of the Baltic Languages was published. It comprised 12 geo-linguistic maps with Latvian, Lithuanian and English commentaries. 2012 saw the publication, in CD format, of the Atlas’s first volume: Lexis 1: Flora. The material analysed concerns names for: (1 wild plants, e.g., cornflower, nettle, waybread, milfoil, dandelion, plantain; (2 cultivated plants, e.g., onion, potatoe, garlic, cucumber, Swedish turnip, [winter] wheat; (3 trees (juniper, hazel-tree, pear-tree, plum-tree, cherry-tree, etc. and words related to a tree (top of the tree, cone, etc..Borrowed plant names can generally be grouped as follows: 1. Common borrowings located in a wide area in Lithuania and used all over Eastern part of Latvia – the region of Latgale. These usually denote fruits and vegetables, e.g. the potatoe (Solanum tuberosum – Latv. buļve and its variants, buļba and variants, uļbiks / Lith. bulvė and variants, bulbė and variants; or garlic – casnags, casnāgs and variants / Lith. česnākas, šešnākas and variants. 2. Common borrowings located in wide area in Lithuania and used in some subdialects in Latgale, e.g. Lith. vosilka / Lat. Vasilka ‘cornflower (Centaurea cyanus’; Lith. kriváunykas and variants / Lat. kravavņiks and variants ‘yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.’. 3. Slavonisms whose origin differs in Latvian and in Lithuanian, e.g. Lat. klevers (< Russ. клевер, Bel. dialectal клéвер, клевiр / Lith. kaniušina < Bel. канюшына, Pol. koniczyna for ‘clover (Trifolium’.The Atlas of the Baltic Languages, reflecting the language contacts, could be an important source

  13. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m3/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m3/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  14. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  15. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  16. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    observations of salt-water ingressions. The sediment record of the dated core is marked by seven Mn/Fe-excursions and suggests that major inflows terminating longer stagnation periods have occurred more frequently during the last 250 years. This in turn suggests the more frequent generation of low......The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on...... time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...

  17. Vertical distribution of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The unique study on 241Pu in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea was presented. • 241Pu was determined using alpha spectrometry by indirect method. • The biggest amount of 241Pu existed in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments. • The highest 241Pu amount comes from the Chernobyl accident. - Abstract: The vertical distribution of plutonium 241Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of 241Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of 241Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident

  18. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  19. Early 2015 Performance In Baltic Sea Ports: Forecasts Of Estonian Performance For Entire Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmola Olli-Pekka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many changes have appeared in year 2015. In Europe economic malaise has continued since debt crisis started in year 2010, and although its effects on Northern Europe have started to diminish, new economic dark clouds have appeared through sanctions set by both European Union and Russia to each other during year 2014. Together with these, shipping sector has been under pressure due to strict sulphur regulation implemented from early 2015 onwards in the entire Baltic Sea Region. Due to these factors, sea ports at Baltic Sea have been under pressure during the first months of 2015, this particularly concerning container handling. Based on our regression model forecast, Estonia and Port of Tallinn shall have clearly declining container handling year ahead. However, overall handling at sea port is not so easy to forecast.

  20. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans Harald; Eero, Margit; Temming, Axel

    Cod (Gadus morhua L.) recruitment success in the central Baltic Sea is influenced by various abiotic and biotic factors, which include ambient salinity and oxygen conditions as well as predation pressure on early life stages by planktivore clupeids, such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring...... (Clupea harengus). After a period of very low recruitment and stock size during the 1990s–early 2000s, the eastern Baltic cod stock exhibits signs of recovery, at least partly owing to several stronger year classes formed in recent years. In this paper we investigate whether or not changes in predation...... pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  1. Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Jørgensen, N.O.G.; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau;

    2002-01-01

    Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely neglected in studies of coastal microbial food webs. We examined 50 rivers, draining a major part of...... the Baltic Sea watershed, with respect to summer concentrations, chemical composition, and biological availability of N and P. The broad spectrum of rivers studied enabled us to assess whether the input of terrigenous organic matter can be an important nutrient source, at various levels of...... anthropogenic loading of inorganic N and P. Concentrations of total N and P ranged from 9 to 220 mumol/L and from 0.14 to 5.56 mumol/L, respectively, with the highest concentrations in the southern part of the Baltic Sea drainage area and in several rivers on the Finnish western coast. Urea and dissolved...

  2. Improving selectivity of the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery: Experiments to assess the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Tschernij, Vesa; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Due to declining cod (Gadus morhua) stocks, the Baltic Sea was one of the first areas regulated by the European Communities where selective escape windows were implemented to improve the exploitation pattern. Increasing discard rates and the potential for a significant increase of the spawning...... stock and the yield of the fishery are important reasons to further improve the selectivity of the fishery and to asses the potential next step in this process. In this study, we tested three relatively different design concepts, in the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery, that are relevant to past or...... present legislation and that were developed to meet requirements of increased selectivity performance. A standard nominal 135 mm diamond mesh codend, a codend with two nominal 125 mm bottom windows, and a codend with a nominal 125 mm nominal top window were tested using the covered codend method. A Danish...

  3. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of follicular atresia in Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Diekmann, R.; Köster, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, 307 ovaries of eastern Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias sampled during the prespawning and spawning season 2000 were analysed histologically to estimate the seasonal prevalence and intensity of atresia. The number of atretic oocytes per ovary was estimated using a combination...... of the physical disector method and volume fraction (Delesse principle). Atretic oocytes were observed in 32% of the ovaries. Prevalence of atresia was independent of female size, but increased significantly with declining female condition from prespawning and through the spawning stages. The...... population egg loss due to atresia amounted to 4.6% indicating that Baltic cod was performing close to maximum productivity, i.e. potential egg production. (c) 2008 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2008 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  4. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael;

    2001-01-01

    , predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group......We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...

  5. Results of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea radioactive pollution monitoring in 1986-1992 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea radioactive pollution regular monitoring carried out from June 1986 till present time are presented.It is revealed that after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station accident a considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides got into the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea in May-June of 1986. The conclusion about the atmospheric transport as the main source of radionuclide coming into the marine environment of the Black Sea was substantiated. The data on the vertical profile of the radioactive caesium distribution on years of observation are presented. This results make it possible to judge about the rate of penetration of the products of the accident into the deep layers of sea. It is shown that caesium-137 concentration in the estuarine waters of Dnieper and in the Dnieper-Bug Liman is ten times lower than in the open areas of the Black Sea

  6. Distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data were collected in 1988 and 1989 on the distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Crude oil degrading bacteria and the number of bacteria which in particular degrade naphthalene were quantified using a modified dilution method (MPN). Crude oil degrading bacteria were present in all of about 100 water samples, with as many as 103 ml-1 in some samples. Numbers of naphthalene degrading bacteria were at least tenfold lower. There is obviously a greater connection between this bacteria group and petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination than between the more nonspecific group of crude oil degrading bacteria and PHC contamination. Data from the North Sea show an extremely high abundance of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, even in winter, while in the southern Baltic Sea low numbers of bacteria were found and slower crude oil degradation was observed. (orig.)

  7. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2003-01-01

    relationship between fish and otolith size were found to change at settling, with an increase of fish size in relation to otolith size after settling. This change was more pronounced on the slope compared to the top of the bank. The timing of first settling at the 2 localities did not differ with respect to......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The growth, age at settling and vertical migration pattern were studied by otolith microstructure analysis. The...... fish age. At both localities, fish that hatched early in the season spent a shorter time in the pelagic stage than late-hatched fish. However, significant differences in growth rate during the pelagic stage were observed, where fish captured on the slope grew faster. On the bank, individuals with fast...

  8. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain......The aim of this study was to evaluate the consistency of three methods for assigning annuli in adult Baltic cod otoliths. The methods examined were (i) daily increment patterns, (ii) opacity profiles, and (iii) traditional age reading. Frequency distributions of the distance from the nucleus to the...... similar to opacity patterns. However, within individual fish, the co-occurrence of overlap between the two patterns was random. In cases where there was overlap, translucent zone formation started just before the disappearance of visible increments. Overlap in 1 year did not necessarily lead to a...

  9. Long-term temperature and salinity records from the Baltic Sea transition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K. S.; Hoejerslev, N. K. (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    The digitization of temperature and salinity data from lightships and coastal stations in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone allows for multi-station and long-term studies of the oceanographic conditions of the last century. The salinity records, in combination with tide gauge records, are analyzed to demonstrate the development of a major inflow to the Baltic Sea, in terms of surface salinity, changes in stratification throughout the transition zone, and variations in the water level gradient in the zone. Also, temperature and salinity variations for years 1900-1998 are analyzed and show a 0.7 deg C warming at the Drogden station towards the end of the 20th century, and no large change in salinity. The temperature change is largest in the winter and spring. (orig.)

  10. Modelling the mixing of herring stocks between the Baltic and the North Sea from otolith data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Post, Søren Lorentzen; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks, mainly North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS) and western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS), which is managed through a single TAC. Catches of these two stocks are split using otolith microstructures from Danish and...... Swedish commercial landings and surveys samples for the purpose of stock assessment. But the split estimates from sampling data are highly variable and noisy. Better understanding of the migration and exploitation patterns involved could therefore potentially improve the stock assessment as well as...... provide solutions to the complex management of this mix. The stock‐specific seasonal trends in distribution of the two main stocks from otolith data were analysed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) of stock composition. The results show a clear seasonal and age‐related pattern and are...

  11. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  12. Agricultural Policy and Structural Reforms in the Baltics: Prospects for the Environmental Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Natalija Kazlauskiene; William H. Meyers

    1993-01-01

    The Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are undertaking rapid economic and structural reforms affecting the food and agricultural sectors. The environmental problems related to agriculture now and in the recent past are more in the area of chemical and animal waste runoff than in soil erosion. The radical change in economic incentives and progressing structural change in farming systems have already reduced chemical use and the intensity of livestock production. Some effects of...

  13. Relations between Environmentally Disturbing Establishments and three Invertebrate Indicator Species in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Anna-Emilia

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the knowledge about polluted areas in Sweden, Naturvårdsverket has compiled a list of all establishments and other anthropological activities, so called MIFOobjects, which emit harmful chemicals. Those activities which are placed on land might, depending on factors such as closeness to the sea, water solubility, degradability and toxicity of the chemicals have an impact on the biota in the Baltic Sea. In this study, spatial and statistical methods were used to explore pote...

  14. Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist , Johan; Hammarlund, Cecilia; Waldo, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    How are market conditions affected by a change in fishery regulations? Who benefits and who loses? The paper discusses the price effects of a reform in the Swedish Baltic cod fishery where vessels using active gear were given annual quotas rather than the previously applied quarterly quotas. We investigate whether the bargaining power of fishers using trawlers have improved after the reform using a difference-in-difference approach. Since fishers have more freedom to fish for cod over the yea...

  15. Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanauskas, R.; Jorgensen, N O G; Eigaard, O.R.; Zvikas, A; Tranvik, L. J.; Leonardson, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely neglected in studies of coastal microbial food webs. We examined 50 rivers, draining a major part of the Baltic Sea watershed, with respect to summer concentrations, chemical composition, and biological availability of N and P. The broad spectrum of rivers studied enabled us to assess whether the ...

  16. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1996-01-01

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statisticall...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  17. Isolation and Properties of Ferromanganese-Depositing Budding Bacteria from Baltic Sea Ferromanganese Concretions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiorse, William C.; Hirsch, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Hyphal budding bacteria were observed by electron microscopy in thin sections of surface material from Baltic Sea ferromanganese concretions. Similar bacteria were also observed in and isolated from enrichment cultures prepared from the same concretion material. Three morphologically similar strains of Mn-Fe-depositing budding bacteria were isolated from the enrichment cultures. Strain B-4 possessed extracellular anionic polymers that accumulated Mn oxides. Mn deposition by B-4 was inhibited ...

  18. The Drinking Rate of Fish in the Skagerak and the Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been made into the drinking rate of four different fish species in the Baltic and the Skagerak. Different methods for the measurement of drinking rate in fish are discussed, together with available data from the literature. The significance of the drinking rate as a factor in the osmoregulation of fish is compared with other mechanisms such as the permeability for water and the tolerance to osmotic changes in the internal milieu

  19. Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John; Ekman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies, us...

  20. Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea : influence of allochthonous organic matter and salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the precipitation ~30% in higher latitudes during the next century, increasing the land runoff via rivers to aquatic ecosystems. The Baltic Sea will receive higher river discharges, accompanied by larger input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial ecosystems. The salinity will decrease due to freshwater dilution. The allochthonous DOM constitute a potential growth substrate for microscopic bacterioplankton and phytoplankton, wh...

  1. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrova O. Yu.; Mityagina M.I.; Kostianoy A.G.; Semenov A.V.

    2014-01-01

    From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Sp...

  2. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  3. Satellite mapping of Baltic Sea Secchi depth with multiple regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Andy

    2015-08-01

    Secchi depth is a measure of water transparency. In the Baltic Sea region, Secchi depth maps are used to assess eutrophication and as input for habitat models. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite data would be the most suitable data source for such maps. But the Baltic Sea's optical properties are so different from the open ocean that globally calibrated standard models suffer from large errors. Regional predictive models that take the Baltic Sea's special optical properties into account are thus needed. This paper tests how accurately generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) with MODIS/Aqua and auxiliary data as inputs can predict Secchi depth at a regional scale. It uses cross-validation to test the prediction accuracy of hundreds of GAMs and GLMs with up to 5 input variables. A GAM with 3 input variables (chlorophyll a, remote sensing reflectance at 678 nm, and long-term mean salinity) made the most accurate predictions. Tested against field observations not used for model selection and calibration, the best model's mean absolute error (MAE) for daily predictions was 1.07 m (22%), more than 50% lower than for other publicly available Baltic Sea Secchi depth maps. The MAE for predicting monthly averages was 0.86 m (15%). Thus, the proposed model selection process was able to find a regional model with good prediction accuracy. It could be useful to find predictive models for environmental variables other than Secchi depth, using data from other satellite sensors, and for other regions where non-standard remote sensing models are needed for prediction and mapping. Annual and monthly mean Secchi depth maps for 2003-2012 come with this paper as Supplementary materials.

  4. Towards Operational Data Assimilation in the North and Baltic Seas with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nerger, Lars; Loza, Svetlana; Schröter, Jens; Hiller, Wolfgang; F. Janssen

    2010-01-01

    Within the GMES-related project DeMarine Environment, the operational circulation model of the German Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) is extended into a data assimilation system. The aim of the data assimilation is to improve the forecast of sea surface height, temperatura, currents and salinity in the North and Baltic Seas. For the data assimilation component, the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF, http://pdaf.awi.de) is coupled to the operational circulation model. PDAF prov...

  5. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statistically...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  6. Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod : possible causes and implications for recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid; Horbowa, K.

    2000-01-01

    caused progressively delayed spawning since the early 1990s. Late spawning involves several processes that are detrimental to the survival of the early lire stages. Recruitment in the mid-1990s was below what could be expected from spawning stock biomass and favourable hydrographic conditions. It is...... therefore suggested that the rebuilding of the Baltic cod stock could be improved by reduced fishing pressure in spring on early spawners. (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  7. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present wo...

  8. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  9. Investigating a seabird hotspot : factors influencing the distribution of birds in the southern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The southern Baltic Sea in northeastern Europe has been described as one of the most important areas for seabirds in the Western Palaearctic, based on extraordinary high numbers of birds occurring in the area particularly during the winter half-year. Most studies, however, only comprise information about the distribution of birds, while the factors and mechanisms causing the observed distribution patterns are only seldom addressed. Prey distribution and abundance and foraging strategies are c...

  10. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5). An executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Pyhala, M.; Kotilainen, P.; Bartnicki, J.; Knuuttila, S.; Durkin, M.

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes and combines the main results of the Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (HELCOM 2011) which covers waterborne loads to the sea and data on atmospheric loads which are submitted by countries to the co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), which subsequently compiles and reports this information to HELCOM.

  11. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Czerny, J.; Haunost, M.; Schulz, K.-G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically-fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ~ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 μatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in inorganic or organic N pools sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom plankton

  12. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  13. Ocean acidification and warming in the Baltic Sea : effects on diazotrophy and pelagic biogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Allanah J.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation presents the results from two independent mesocosm studies on naturally present summer plankton communities in the Baltic Sea. The aim was to investigate the impact of ocean acidification (increased CO2 concentration and decreased seawater pH) as well as the combination of ocean acidification and ocean warming (increased seawater temperature) on the abundance and activity of diazotrophic organisms and on N-limited plankton communities.

  14. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  15. Non-navigational Uses of the Sea Space: The Baltic Sea Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Otremba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some parts of the global ocean, apart from their traditional use (maritime transport, fishery, navy, becomes suitable for other technical activities and investments (e.g. gas and electricity transmission, wind farms, gas and oil extraction, gravel extraction, coastal protection. These activities interact with marine environment as well as can interfere with navigation. This paper presents relating to the Baltic Sea large scale technical activities as well as points up their possible individual environmental effects.

  16. Analysis of Elements in The Baltic Sea Sediment by Using Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have done analysis of elements in the Baltic sea sediment by using gamma spectrometry in neutron activation analysis Goal of the analysis is to determine the rate of morsel elements which is contained in the Baltic sea sediment. Sample of the Baltic sea Sediment (IAEA-SED-1), Standard of Reference Material (SRM) 1646 Estuarine Sediment and Standard Ce, Fe, Sc, and Co are put into vial of capsule rabbit, then irradiated together for 30 minutes in rabbit facility Multi Purpose Reactor at power of 25 MW and then cooled for one week. Next sample, standard, and SRM which have irradiated, each is cut for 30 minutes using gamma spectrometer. Result of analysis of rate of elements Ce, Fe, Sc and Co in the baltic sea sediment successively equal to 141.20 ppm, 5.91 %, 14.88 ppm, and 19.59 ppm. Result of analysis in SRM Estuarine sediment successively equal to 96.60 ppm, 3.21 %, 10.25 ppm, and 9.63 ppm. Result of this analysis if compared to the value contained in SRM certificate have good accuracy for the elements of Fe, Sc, and Co that are equal to 95.82 %, 94.90 % and 91.71 %, while for the element of Ce, it is less accurate that is equal to 82.82 %. And the precision of analysis successively for the elements of Ce, Fe, Sc, and Co are equal to 0.04 %, 0.12 %, 0.09 % and 0.05 %. (author)

  17. Precautionary management of Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callaris) under different harvesting and environmental scenarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Isomaa, Marleena

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to increase knowledge of heavily harvested cod stock dynamics and attain information for more suitable and sustainable management strategies. Achieving sustainable management strategies requires sufficient knowledge about the population dynamics. One tool for research this is to introduce stochastic variation models in investigated species stock dynamics. As a model species we use eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callarias), where the population dynamics are...

  18. Identifying potentially high risk areas for environmental pollution in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at the identification of areas in the Baltic Sea from where potential pollution is transported to vulnerable regions. Generally, there is higher risk of ship accidents along the shipping routes and along the approaching routes to the harbors. The spreading of harmful substances is mainly controlled by prevailing atmospheric conditions and wind-induced local sea surface currents. Especially, spawning, nursery and tourist areas are considered high-vulnerable areas. With sophistic...

  19. Foreign Direct Investment Impact on Economic Indicators of the Baltic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barkauskaite, A; Naraskeviciute, V

    2016-01-01

    The foreign direct investment movement is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Various studies are conducted to determine the influence of foreign direct investments on certain countries. That is why it is important and useful to evaluate and compare how foreign direct investments affect the economic indicators of the Baltic countries – countries having similar economies. Methods used in the analysis are: logical comparative and generalization methods, systematic lit...

  20. Comparison of E-Commerce behaviour among women consumers of Balkan and Baltic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Polychronidou Persefoni; Valsamidis Stavros; Florou Giannoula; Karasavvoglou Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more consumers prefer to make their shopping via Internet. Researchers wish to study the e-commerce behaviour and the factors influencing consumer’s attitude while shopping on line. This paper investigates the differences and similarities of women’s behaviour toward e-commerce in two culturally different Europe regions; the Balkans and the Baltic regions. Some attributes such as trust in vendor, trust in transactions, language, culture, age or education and their possible i...