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Sample records for baltic sea sediments

  1. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km2 of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of 137Cs and 239,240Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep, they are of

  2. Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Increasing δ15N and δ13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the δ15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high δ15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower δ15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in δ15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial δ15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient δ15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the δ13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( δ13C and δ15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

  3. Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Viktorsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010 in August–September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (−0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m−2 d−1, hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m−2 d−1 and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m−2 d−1. The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5–10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a

  4. Biogeochemical controls on carbon and sulfur cycling in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Manh, Thang

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is the largest brackish inland sea in the world. Over the last 100 years, the Baltic Sea has received a large amount of nutrients from surrounding watersheds that has increased the primary production, and eutrophication in the water column. Thus, the seafloor of Baltic Sea has received large amounts of organic matter that lead to the enhancement of gas bearing sediments (H2S, CH4, etc). An important aspect was to study the link between organic carbon delivery into the Baltic Se...

  5. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present 137Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of 137Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The 137Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210Pb geochronology to follow the history of 137Cs accumulation. The 137Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated 137Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m−2. The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by 137Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m−2. This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of 137Cs inventories. The 137Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m−2 and 527 Bq m−2) due to large Chernobyl 137Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of 137Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m−2. The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. -- Highlights: • 137Cs contamination in the Baltic Sea was studied before the new NPP is put into operation. • Bothnian Sea sediments are severely contaminated by 137Cs (inventories up to 95,191 Bq m−2). • Most of the

  6. Intercomparison of sediment sampling devices using artificial radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediments. The MOSSIE Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    During the last four decades Baltic Sea sediments have been an excellent object for research by radioecologists and other scientists studying sedimentation and other processes in sediments using artificial radionuclides deposited in sediment laminae of the seabed in chronological order. This is due to two major events which have caused significant radioactive fallout in the Baltic Sea region, leaving distinct markers in the corresponding layers of the sediments. One was the global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests in the late 1950s and early '60s, resulting in clear peaks of longlived radionuclides such as Cs{sup -13}7, Sr{sup -90} and certain transuranic elements (especially Pu{sup -239,240}) in the sediments. Another was the fallout from the accident at Chernobyl NPP, in the former USSR, in April 1986. Since the first radioactive clouds from Chernobyl travelled north and caused high deposition in the Baltic Sea region, the Baltic was the sea most affected by the accident. The main long-lived constituents in this fallout were Cs{sup -137} and Cs{sup -134}. These radioactive markers have since been utilised, e.g. in dating sediments and determining the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate (mm a{sup -1}) and sediment accumulation rate (g cm{sup -2} a{sup -1}) vary widely in the Baltic Sea, depending on the area and local environmental factors there. The rates may even be different at sampling points situated very near to each other. A study carried out in 1995-1996 showed that the sedimentation rates varied between 0.2 and 29 mm a{sup -1} at different soft-bottom sampling sites in the Baltic Sea, depending on the sedimentation itself and the method used for calculation. The corresponding accumulation rates of dry matter ranged from 0.006 to 0.90 g cm{sup -2} a{sup -1}. The importance of undisturbed, high-quality samples is especially pronounced in sedimentation rate studies. The loss of soft surface sediments during sampling can significantly

  7. Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea. A preliminary survey of existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verta, M.; Salo, S.; Korhonen, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Koistinen, J.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Isosaari, P. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most contaminated areas with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins). The high load of dioxins in Baltic fish has lead to restrictions of the use of contaminated fish for human consumption. Uncertainties about sources, geographical distribution of these contaminants, the pathways of bioaccumulation and possible ecotoxicological and human health effects are of concern. POPs may enter the Baltic Sea from atmospheric deposition, riverine input and point sources along the coast. The ultimate sink for the majority of the compounds is the open sea and coastal sediments, although some fraction enters the food chain. Analysis of sediment has been widely used to study regional and temporal trends of dioxin pollution in freshwater and oceans and the Baltic Sea has been one of the most studied sea areas for dioxin-like compounds as well. Only a fraction (unknown) of the analytical results have been published in scientific papers, however. Here we present regional distribution of certain congeners of dioxins in surface sediments and in six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. New data is compared with data on earlier Finnish sediment surveys. Some data from published papers and unpublished data from the Kattegat Sound is also given for reference. The purpose of this paper is to: 1. get an ''draft'' picture of regional distribution (possible hot spots, major regional differences) along the Finnish-Swedish-Danish-German coastal and open sea sites in the Baltic 2. study differences in congener distributions (source identification) 3. study temporal changes in sediment profiles 4. identify major areas with gap of data 5. call for more data (both published and grey literature as well as new sediment surveys)

  8. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea: inventories and temporal trends of 137Cs and 90Sr in water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baltic Sea is ecologically unique as one of the world's largest brackish water basins. It was significantly contaminated by radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the major contaminant being long-lived 137Cs. Due to the slow exchange of water between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and the relatively rapid sedimentation rates, radionuclides have prolonged residence times in the Baltic Sea. 137Cs levels are consequently still clearly higher than in other water bodies around the world. In addition to the Chernobyl accident, artificial radionuclides in the Baltic Sea originate from the global fallout following nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, while discharges into the Baltic Sea from nuclear power plants and other facilities are of minor importance. Here, inventories and the temporal evolution of radionuclides both in seawater and sediments of the Baltic Sea are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Quantifying the importance of sediment resuspension for the North Sea and Baltic Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Cara; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute; Fennel, Katja; Castaño Primo, Rocío

    2014-05-01

    Including sedimentary processes such as resuspension in marine coupled bio-physical models is crucial to realistically simulate the dynamics of biologically important chemical variables (e.g oxygen and the macro-nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicate). These comprise diffusive release of dissolved nutrients and resuspension of particulate organic material, which occurs when a critical bottom shear stress (τcrit) acting on the sediment particles is exceeded. In global and regional modelling approaches sediment-water exchange is often parametrized by sedimentation and constant release rates and dynamic resuspension resolving the tidal cycle is often neglected in coupled physical-biological ecosystem models. During resuspension, sediment particles get transported back into the water column. Thereby, both the turbidity of the water and nutrient availability by releasing dissolved nutrients from the pore-water are changed. Since both light and nutrients are limiting factors in primary production, it is near by hand to suspect resuspension to play an important role in the growth of phytoplankton. Here, we assess the role of resuspension and its dynamic consideration for the modelled productivity and CO2 air-sea exchange in the North Sea and Baltic Sea using the coupled 3D physical-biological model ECOSMO. ECOSMO is a coupled hydrodynamic-sea ice-NPZD-carbonate-system model and is implemented for the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Its ecosystem module includes interactions between three functional groups of phytoplankton, two of zooplankton, detritus, oxygen, three nutrient cycles (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate) and sediment pools. In the North Sea, wind forcing and strong tides lead to a frequent exceedance of the critical bottom shear stress and therefore, resuspension events take place regularly, especially in the shallow coastal areas where the tidal range is largest. Here, the model results indicate a clear increase in estimated primary production when dynamical

  10. Vertical distribution of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The unique study on 241Pu in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea was presented. • 241Pu was determined using alpha spectrometry by indirect method. • The biggest amount of 241Pu existed in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments. • The highest 241Pu amount comes from the Chernobyl accident. - Abstract: The vertical distribution of plutonium 241Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of 241Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of 241Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident

  11. The Effects of Hypoxia on Sediment Nitrogen Cycling in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntti, Helena; Hietanen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Primary production in the eutrophic Baltic Sea is limited by nitrogen availability; hence denitrification (natural transformation of nitrate to gaseous N2) in the sediments is crucial in mitigating the effects of eutrophication. This study shows that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) process, where nitrogen is not removed but instead recycled in the system, dominates nitrate reduction in low oxygen conditions (O2

  12. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  13. Analysis of Elements in The Baltic Sea Sediment by Using Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have done analysis of elements in the Baltic sea sediment by using gamma spectrometry in neutron activation analysis Goal of the analysis is to determine the rate of morsel elements which is contained in the Baltic sea sediment. Sample of the Baltic sea Sediment (IAEA-SED-1), Standard of Reference Material (SRM) 1646 Estuarine Sediment and Standard Ce, Fe, Sc, and Co are put into vial of capsule rabbit, then irradiated together for 30 minutes in rabbit facility Multi Purpose Reactor at power of 25 MW and then cooled for one week. Next sample, standard, and SRM which have irradiated, each is cut for 30 minutes using gamma spectrometer. Result of analysis of rate of elements Ce, Fe, Sc and Co in the baltic sea sediment successively equal to 141.20 ppm, 5.91 %, 14.88 ppm, and 19.59 ppm. Result of analysis in SRM Estuarine sediment successively equal to 96.60 ppm, 3.21 %, 10.25 ppm, and 9.63 ppm. Result of this analysis if compared to the value contained in SRM certificate have good accuracy for the elements of Fe, Sc, and Co that are equal to 95.82 %, 94.90 % and 91.71 %, while for the element of Ce, it is less accurate that is equal to 82.82 %. And the precision of analysis successively for the elements of Ce, Fe, Sc, and Co are equal to 0.04 %, 0.12 %, 0.09 % and 0.05 %. (author)

  14. Plutonium in Baltic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediments accumulate the bulk of plutonium produced by nuclear tests. The nuclear power industry will form an additional source of plutonium, and it is important to determine the present background levels of plutonium in sediments and to compare the accumulation rate in the Baltic with that in other areas of the world. Plutonium was determined on four sediment cores collected from the Baltic Sea in 1974 and 1975. Two of the samples were from oxygenated coastal sediment with benthic life and two cores were collected from deep basins in the Baltic at depths of 183 m and 164 m where the bottoms were anoxic, with no benthic life, and where the rate of sedimentation is rather high. Data are presented on the Pu-239,240 content of the sediment cores as is pCi/kg dry wt in the different core sections. The highest plutonium concentrations were found near the surface, at depths of 0 to 8 cm. In all cores the plutonium concentration decreases sharply at a depth of about 6 to 8 cm

  15. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  16. Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This s

  17. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    ) diffusion gradients at the sediment water interface and within the sediment cores and (v) site specific distribution ratios. Contamination levels were low in the northern Baltic Sea, moderate to elevated in the Baltic Proper and highest in the Gulf of Finland. Chemical activities were well below levels...... expected to cause narcosis to benthos organisms. The SPME method is a very sensitive tool that opens new possibilities for studying the PAHs at trace levels in marine environments....

  18. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G;

    2010-01-01

    . Most burial of P takes place as organic P. We find no evidence for significant authigenic Ca–P formation or biogenic Ca–P burial. The lack of major inorganic P burial sinks makes the Baltic Sea very sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased...... primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century and are accompanied by a rise in values for typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P...

  19. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Reed, Dan C.; Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients has been significantly altered. Water column studies have shown that the availability of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is positively correlated with hypoxia due to release of phosphorus from sediment Fe-oxides and from organic matter upon the transition from oxic to hypoxic conditions. Thus, a large internal source of phosphorus exists in the sediment that largely controls short-term variability in water column DIP concentrations. In this presentation, we focus on results of recent field and modeling work for various parts of the Baltic Sea that confirm the role of Fe-bound P from seasonally hypoxic sediments at intermediate water depths as a major source of DIP. We also show that extended hypoxia and anoxia leads to depletion of sediment Fe-bound P and, ultimately, lower rates of sediment-water exchange of P. Authigenic Ca-P minerals appear to be only a relatively minor burial sink for P. The lack of major inorganic P burial makes the Baltic Sea sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century which is accompanied by a rise in values of typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P concentrations in anoxic basins are equal to or higher than at oxic sites, burial rates of P at hypoxic and anoxic sites are up to 20 times lower because of lower sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, burial of

  20. Cultivation and diversity of fungi buried in the Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, N.

    2015-12-01

    @font-face { "MS 明朝"; }@font-face { "Century"; }@font-face { "Century"; }@font-face { "@MS 明朝"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0mm 0mm 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; font-size: 12pt; ; }.MsoChpDefault { ; }div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; } Studies on molecular biological and cultivation have been done for the prokaryotic microbial community in the deep biosphere. Compare to the prokaryotic community, few attempts have been done for eukaryotic microbial community. Here we report the study on fungi buried in deep-subsurface sediments by approaches of both cultivation and molecular diversity survey. Cultivation targeting fungi has been done using a sequential sediment samples obtained from the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep site during the IODP expedition 347. 6 culture media with different nutrition and salt concentration have been tried for the fungi cultivation. 50 isolates of fungi were obtained from the sediment samples. The surface sediments showed richness of fungi strains but not for the deep sediments. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of RNA genes were amplified and for the identification of the isolates. The isolates were classified to 11 different genera. Pseudeurotium bakeri was the dominant strain throughout the glacial and interglacial sediments. We also found different representative fungal strains from glacial and interglacial sediments, suggesting the cultivated strains are buried from different sources. The survey of fungal diversity was done by sequencing the 18S RNA genes in the total DNA extracted from selected sediment samples. Fungi community showed different cluster in the glacial and interglacial sediments.Our results revealed the presence and activity of fungi in the deep biosphere of the Baltic sea and provided evidence of fungal community response to the climate change.

  1. Iron oxide reduction in deep Baltic Sea sediments: the potential role of anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.; Dijkstra, Nikki; Sapart, Célia J.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kasten, Sabine; Riedinger, Natascha; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its emission from marine sediments to the atmosphere is largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Traditionally, sulfate is considered to be the most important electron acceptor for AOM in marine sediments. However, recent studies have shown that AOM may also be coupled to the reduction of iron (Fe) oxides (Beal et al., 2009; Riedinger et al., 2014; Egger et al., 2014). In the Baltic Sea, the transition from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish/marine phase (A/L-transition) ca. 9-7 ka ago (Zillén et al., 2008) resulted in the accumulation of methanogenic brackish/marine sediments overlying Fe-oxide rich lacustrine deposits. The downward diffusion of methane from the brackish/marine sediments into the lake sediments leads to an ideal diagenetic system to study a potential coupling between Fe oxide reduction and methane oxidation. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained at sites M0063 and M0065 during the IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013 to identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the apparent Fe oxide reduction in the non-sulfidic limnic sediments below the A/L transition. In this presentation, we will review the various explanations for the elevated ferrous Fe in the porewater in the lake sediments and we will specifically address the potential role of the reaction of methane with Fe-oxides. References: Beal E. J., House C. H. and Orphan V. J. (2009) Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science 325, 184-187. Egger M., Rasigraf O., Sapart C. J., Jilbert T., Jetten M. S. M., Röckmann T., van der Veen C., Banda N., Kartal B., Ettwig K. F. and Slomp C. P. (2014) Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 277-283. Riedinger N., Formolo M. J., Lyons T. W., Henkel S., Beck A. and Kasten S. (2014) An inorganic geochemical argument for coupled anaerobic oxidation of

  2. Artificial radionuclides 90Sr and 241Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: Total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The inventories of 137Sr and 241Am in the Baltic Sea is studied. • About 20 sediment cores around the Baltic Sea were analyzed. • The results show that 90Sr distribution is uneven and effected by the Chernobyl fallout. • 241Am is more evenly distributed in the sediments. • The Baltic Sea is the most contaminated sea with respect to 137Cs in sediments. -- Abstract: The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of 90Sr and 241Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of 90Sr in the same areas where the increase of 137Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for 241Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea

  3. Arsenic concentrations in Baltic Sea sediments close to chemical munitions dumpsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Szubska, Marta; Emelyanov, Emelyan; Garnaga, Galina; Drzewińska, Anna; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Vanninen, Paula; Östin, Anders; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    In addition to natural sources and land-originated pollution, the Baltic Sea has another anthropogenic source of arsenic in bottom sediments-arsenic-based Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA). To examine the potential usage of arsenic contents results for monitoring the leakage from chemical weapons, sediment samples were collected from officially reported and potential chemical weapon dumpsites located in the Baltic Sea, and total and inorganic arsenic concentrations were analyzed. Results showed an elevated arsenic content in dumpsite areas compared to reference areas. Correlations of arsenic with other metals and organic matter were studied to elucidate any unusual behavior of arsenic in the dumpsites. In the area of the Bornholm Deep, such behavior was observed for inorganic arsenic. It appears that in close vicinity of dumped munitions, the inorganic arsenic concentration of sediments is not correlated with either organic matter content or authigenic minerals formation, as is commonly observed elsewhere. Investigations on CWA concentrations, performed within the CHEMSEA (Chemical Munition Search and Assesment) project, allowed us to compare the results of arsenic concentrations with the occurrence of arsenic-containing CWA.

  4. Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

    2008-05-15

    Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

  5. Alkylphenols in Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniecko, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna; Burska, Dorota; Kielczewska, Joanna; Jasinska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of alkylphenols in European industry has led to their presence in the environment and the living organisms of the Baltic Sea. The present study (2011-2012) was designed to determine the concentrations of alkylphenols, 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), in surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, a section of the Baltic that lies in close proximity to industrial and agricultural areas and borders with an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. It is also where the Vistula, the largest Polish river, ends its course. In spring, large concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were washed off into the coastal zone with meltwater. In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity. In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn. The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols. PMID:25132692

  6. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-306 radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Baltic Sea sediment sample, coded as IAEA-306, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected in the fall 1986. It was anticipated that the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides in this sediment would be higher than the environmental levels usually found and, therefore, would constitute an excellent intercomparison sample. The data from 84 laboratories representing 34 countries have been evaluated. The most frequently measured radionuclides are: 90Sr, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 40K, 210Pb-210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 234U and 238U. 6 refs, 13 tabs

  7. Dating and assessing the recent sediments of three deep basins of the Baltic Sea: Indication of natural and anthropogenic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, H.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-years EU-MAST-3 project (Baltic Sea System Study, BASYS) recovered short and long sediment cores from 3 deep basins of the Baltic Sea (Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin and North Central Basin). During a paleoenvironmental study, lead-210 dating andgeochemical data were generated.Dating of cores...... rhodochrosite formation which is thought to be coupled to saltwater inflows in that oxygen and HCO_3- rich saltwater converts bacterially re-dissolved Mninto the carbonate mineral. There is a clear indication for cyclic rhodochrosite deposition in that about 300 year long periods with relatively high Ca-Mn are...

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in sediment cores from the northern Baltic Sea: Declines over the last two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Trends in Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As concentrations were investigated in Baltic Sea sediment cores. • Heavy metal deposition in surface sediment of the northern and eastern Baltic Sea is declining. • Arsenic concentrations in sediments from the Bothnian Bay remain at high levels. • Cd and Hg concentrations still occur at unacceptably high levels. - Abstract: The Baltic Sea has received considerable loads of pollutants due to industrialization in Eastern Europe. Concern for the Baltic’s ecological health eventually led to legislation and voluntary measures to limit pollution during the last decades of the 20th century. Heavy metal concentrations in open sea surface sediments reflected these steps to limit contaminant loads almost immediately, suggesting the possibility that the trend would continue in the ensuing years. Recent seafloor samples reveal that the declines have persisted over the past two decades. Currently, almost all heavy metal species have declined in surface sediments to levels approaching the safe limits for humans and the environment. Cadmium and mercury however remain at relatively high concentrations in many areas. Arsenic concentrations, which occur at safe levels within the Gulf of Finland persist at unacceptably high levels in surface sediments of the Bothnian Bay, and thus pose a potential threat to marine life in the area

  9. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  10. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  11. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  12. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol;

    2015-01-01

    microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During...

  13. Bacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish-marine basins, established after deglaciation of Scandinavia about 17 000 to 15 000 yr ago. In the changeable history of the Baltic Sea, the initial freshwater system was connected to the North Sea about 8000 yr ago and the modern brackish-marine setting (Littorina Sea was established. Today, a relatively stable stratification developed in the water column of the deep basins due to salinity differences. Stratification is only occasionally interrupted by mixing events, and controls nutrient availability and growth of specifically adapted microorganisms and algae. We studied bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs, lipids of specific bacterial groups, in a sediment core from the Central Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and found considerable differences between the distinct stages of the Baltic Sea's history. Individual BHP structures indicate contributions from as yet unknown redoxcline-specific bacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol isomer, methanotrophic bacteria (35-aminobacteriohopanetetrol, cyanobacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether isomer and, through allochthonous input after the Littorina transgression, from soil bacteria (adenosylhopane, whereas the origin of other BHPs in the core has still to be identified. Notably high BHP abundances were observed in the deposits of the brackish-marine Littorina phase, particularly in laminated sediment layers. Because these sediments record periods of stable water column stratification, bacteria specifically adapted to these conditions may account for the high portions of BHPs. An additional and/or accompanying source may be nitrogen-fixing (cyanobacteria, which is indicated by a good correlation of BHP abundances with Corg and δ15N.

  14. Bacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish-marine basins, established after deglaciation of Scandinavia about 17 000 to 15 000 yr ago. In the changeable history of the Baltic Sea, the initial freshwater system was connected to the North Sea about 8000 yr ago and the modern brackish-marine setting (Littorina Sea was established. Today, a relatively stable stratification has developed in the water column of the deep basins due to salinity differences. Stratification is only occasionally interrupted by mixing events, and it controls nutrient availability and growth of specifically adapted microorganisms and algae. We studied bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs, lipids of specific bacterial groups, in a sediment core from the central Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and found considerable differences between the distinct stages of the Baltic Sea's history. Some individual BHP structures indicate contributions from as yet unknown redoxcline-specific bacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol isomer, methanotrophic bacteria (35-aminobacteriohopanetetrol, cyanobacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether isomer and from soil bacteria (adenosylhopane through allochthonous input after the Littorina transgression, whereas the origin of other BHPs in the core has still to be identified. Notably high BHP abundances were observed in the deposits of the brackish-marine Littorina phase, particularly in laminated sediment layers. Because these sediments record periods of stable water column stratification, bacteria specifically adapted to these conditions may account for the high portions of BHPs. An additional and/or accompanying source may be nitrogen-fixing (cyanobacteria, which is indicated by a positive correlation of BHP abundances with Corg and δ15N.

  15. Active microbial community structure of deep subsurface sediments within Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, B. K.; Zinke, L.; Carvalho, G.; Lloyd, K. G.; Marshall, I.; Shumaker, A.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea Basin (BSB) is a unique depositional setting that has experienced periods of glaciation and deglaciation as a result of climatic fluctuations over past tens of thousands of years. This has resulted in laminated sediments formed during periods with strong permanent salinity stratification. The high sedimentation rates make this an ideal setting to understand the microbial structure of a deep biosphere community in a relatively high carbon, and thus high-energy environment, compared to other deep subsurface sites. Samples were collected through scientific drilling during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 347 on board the Greatship Manisha, September-November 2013. We examined the active microbial community structure using the 16S rRNA gene transcript and active functional genes through metatranscriptome sequencing. Major biogeochemical shifts have been observed in response to the depositional history between the limnic, brackish, and marine phases. The active microbial community structure in the BSB is diverse and reflective of the unique changes in the geochemical profile. These data further refine our understanding of the existence life in the deep subsurface and the survival mechanisms required for this extreme environment.

  16. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland's formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P macrofauna densities, as well as macrophyte vegetation characteristics (shoot density, phytobenthos biomass) were tested using PERMANOVA distance-based linear model (DISTLM) procedures and showed that the main factors explaining bacteria characteristics are bottom type (vegetated vs. unvegetated) and meiofauna density. These two factors explained together 48.3% of variability in TBN and 40.5% in BBM, and their impacts did not overlap (as indicated by DISTLM sequential tests) demonstrating the different natures of these relationships. The effects of seagrass were most probably related to the increase of organic matter and providing habitat while higher numbers of meiofauna organisms may have stimulated the bacterial growth by increased grazing. PMID:26178839

  17. Timescales for the development of methanogenesis and free gas layers in recently-deposited sediments of Arkona Basin (Baltic Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón, J.M.; Dale, A. W.; Fossing, H.; Regnier, P.

    2012-01-01

    Arkona Basin (southwestern Baltic Sea) is a seasonally-hypoxic basin characterized by the presence of free methane gas in its youngest organic-rich muddy stratum. Through the use of reactive transport models, this study tracks the development of the methane geochemistry in Arkona Basin as this muddy sediment becomes deposited during the last 8 kyr. Four cores are modeled each pertaining to a unique geochemical scenario according to their respective contemporary geochemical profiles. Ultimatel...

  18. Biogeochemical and microbiological characteristic of the pockmark sediments, the Gdansk Deep, The Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenov, Nikolay; Kanapatskiy, Timur; Sivkov, Vadim; Toshchakov, Stepan; Korzhenkov, Aleksei; Ulyanova, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Comparison of the biogeochemical and microbial features was done for the gas-bearing and background sediments as well as near-bottom water of the Gdansk Deep, The Baltic Sea. Data were received in October, 2015 during 64th cruise of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Gas-bearing sediments were sampled within the known pockmark (Gas-Point, depth 94 m). Background sediments area (BG-Point, depth 86 m) was located several km off the pockmark area. The sulphate concentration in the pore water of the surface sediment layer (0-5 cm) of Gas-Point was 9,7 mmol/l, and sharply decreased with depth (did not exceed 1 mmol/l deeper than 50 cm). The sulphate concentration decrease at BG-Point also took place but was not so considerable. Sulphate concentration decrease is typical for the organic rich sediments of the high productive areas, both as for the methane seep areas. Fast sulphate depletion occurs due to active processes of its microbial reduction by consortium of the sulphate-reduction bacteria, which may use low-molecular organic compounds or hydrogen, formed at the different stages of the organic matter destruction; as well as within the process of the anaerobic methane oxidation by consortium of the methane-trophic archaea and sulphate-reduction bacteria. Together with sulphate concentration decrease the methane content increase, typical for the marine sediments, occurred. At the Gas-Point the methane concentration varied within 10 μmol/dm3 in the surface layer till its maximum at sediment horizon of 65 cm (5 mmol/dm3), and decreased to 1.5 mmol/dm3 at depth of 300 cm. The BG-Point maximum values were defined at sediment horizon 6 cm (2,6 μmol/dm3). Methane sulfate transition zone at the Gas-Point sediments was at 25-35 cm depth; whereas it was not defined at the BG-Point mud. High methane concentration in the gas-bearing sediments results in the formation of the methane seep from the sediments to the near-bottom water. So the Gas-Point near-bottom waters were

  19. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  20. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeikaitė-Nikienė, Nijolė; Lujanienė, Galina; Malejevas, Vitalijus; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Stankevičius, Algirdas

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) as well as its sources in the south-eastern Baltic Sea were investigated. Organic matter was characterized by the organic carbon content, δ13C and δ15N signatures and C/N ratios. The sampling was performed in the coastal, offshore areas and in the Curonian Lagoon in the period from May 2012 to September 2014. The average elemental (C/N ~ 6.4) and isotopic composition (δ13C from - 29.6‰ to - 24.9‰) of SOM suggested that during most of the year it was composed of both freshwater and marine phytoplanktonic material. Elevated δ15N values (average ranging from 5.6‰ to 6.7‰) were detected in SOM from the Curonian Lagoon. This most likely reflected the increased isotopic signal of the Nemunas River (δ15N ~ 8‰) derived from the anthropogenic input in the basin area. At the Baltic Sea offshore sites, SOM had lower δ15N values (δ15N ~ 3.5‰ on average), indicating phytoplankton blooms. A two-end member mixing model based on the carbon stable isotopic composition showed that a large proportion (~ 90%) of SOM in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon was of the freshwater origin. The allochthonous organic matter accounted for about 47% of SOM in the studied Baltic Sea area with the highest contribution (about 75%) within the Curonian Lagoon plume zone in the coastal waters.

  1. Aquaculture changes the profile of antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic element associated genes in Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muziasari, Windi I; Pärnänen, Katariina; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Karkman, Antti; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture and they can change the environmental resistome by increasing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Sediment samples were collected from two fish farms located in the Northern Baltic Sea, Finland, and from a site outside the farms (control). The sediment resistome was assessed by using a highly parallel qPCR array containing 295 primer sets to detect ARGs, mobile genetic elements and the 16S rRNA gene. The fish farm resistomes were enriched in transposon and integron associated genes and in ARGs encoding resistance to antibiotics which had been used to treat fish at the farms. Aminoglycoside resistance genes were also enriched in the farm sediments despite the farms not having used aminoglycosides. In contrast, the total relative abundance values of ARGs were higher in the control sediment resistome and they were mainly genes encoding efflux pumps followed by beta-lactam resistance genes, which are found intrinsically in many bacteria. This suggests that there is a natural Baltic sediment resistome. The resistome associated with fish farms can be from native ARGs enriched by antibiotic use at the farms and/or from ARGs and mobile elements that have been introduced by fish farming. PMID:26976842

  2. Sedimentological conditions and sediment transport pathways in the nearshore zone of the Russian part of South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhova, Evgenia

    2016-04-01

    The sediment transport pathways and sedimentological conditions are identified on the South-Eastern Baltic Sea coastal zone (Russian part) up to the depth of 30 m on the base of grain size analysis of recent marine sediments. The interrelations between grain size statistical parameters of 971 sediment samples are used. The two independent approaches that discussed in the literature are applied: 1) the sediment trend analysis, based on spatial variations of sediment grain size parameters from sample to sample (McLaren, 1981) and 2) the population anomalies method, which allows to determine the sedimentation conditions (erosion, transit or accumulation) from the deviations of sediments grain size parameters in each sampling place from the average values in investigation area (Baraniecki and Racinowski, 1996). Taking into account that the sediment grain size composition achieve its constant in calm period of reduced storm influence and that the all samples were taking during summer season, the obtained sedimentation pattern present the long-time annual average of sediment transport pathways in the investigated area. The results show that the sediment accumulation under the wave influence prevails up to the depth of 5 m. The continuous accumulation zone breaks in erosion where the shore line changes its direction. Seaward of the accumulation zone the sediment transit area extends and interrupts by zones of erosion and accumulation up to the depth of 20 m. Sediment transport here occurs in hydrodynamic circulation cells within bays along the Sambian peninsula north coast. The erosion zones serves as sediment source on the underwater shore slope. The north-eastern direction of sediment transport exist along the straightened coast of Curonian spit according to prevail west winds. Deeper there are zones of transit and "slowly" sediment accumulation up to the depth of 30 m. The seaward and isobaths parallel sediment transport pathways are obtained in these zones. The work

  3. The basic patterns of the distribution, migration and accumulation of radionuclides in the bottom sediment of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of certain factors on the contemporary distribution of natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40К and anthropogenic (137Cs, 60Co radionuclides in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. The results of the study suggest that the distribution of 137Cs is determined by the content of hydromica of silty-clay and clay grain-size fractions, while radiocaesium is mainly accumulated by silty fractions. The accumulation of 226Ra by bottom sediments is mainly determined by the pH geochemical barrier at the water-seafloor boundary. The accumulation of 232Th occurs mainly in clayey fractions of the sediment. The distribution and accumulation of 40K is predominantly determined by the ratio of potassium contained in hydromica minerals. Significant 60Co activity was registered only in a few samples.

  4. Timescales for the development of methanogenesis and free gas layers in recently-deposited sediments of Arkona Basin (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Mogollón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Arkona Basin (southwestern Baltic Sea is a seasonally-hypoxic basin characterized by the presence of free methane gas in its youngest organic-rich muddy stratum. Through the use of reactive transport models, this study tracks the development of the methane geochemistry in Arkona Basin as this muddy sediment becomes deposited during the last 8 kyr. Four cores are modeled each pertaining to a unique geochemical scenario according to their respective contemporary geochemical profiles. Ultimately the thickness of the muddy sediment and the flux of particulate organic carbon are crucial in determining the advent of both methanogenesis and free methane gas, the timescales over which methanogenesis takes over as a dominant reaction pathway for organic matter degradation, and the timescales required for free methane gas to form.

  5. Multi-isotope biogeochemistry of sulfur in the water column and surface sediments of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, M. E.; Kamyshny, A.; Dellwig, O.; Farquhar, J.

    2012-04-01

    The anoxic deeps of the modern Baltic Sea with the temporal development of a pelagic redoxcline offer the opportunity to study the fundamental processes in the sulfur cycle of natural dynamic euxinic systems. In the low-temperature sulfur cycle multi-sulfur isotope discrimination has been found to be of particular value for the evaluation of fundamental biogeochemical processes and has, therefore, reached a lot of attention within the past decade. We analyzed the concentrations and stable sulfur isotope (S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36) compositions of dissolved sulfide and sulfate, as well as elemental sulfur in the water column, and of sulfate, acid-volatile sulfide (FeS + HS-) and CrII-reducible sulfur (essentially pyrite) in surface sediments of several stations in the Landsort Deep (LD) and the Gotland Basin (GB). Samples were recovered during several research cruises to the Baltic Sea. Water column samples were obtained via the IOW pump-CTD system or a conventional CTD-rosette system; short sediment cores were retrieved with a multi coring device. Special focus was set on the zone at and below the pelagic redoxcline. Stable isotope results are compared to previous measurements of the traditional sulfur isotopes (S-32, S-34), and findings from other euxinic systems. The direct correlation between salinity and dissolved sulfate and the low concentrations of dissolved sulfide (below 40 µM in the LD and 130 µM in the GB) indicate that now significant net pelagic sulfate reduction took place. Most of the sulfide originates from microbial processes in the surface sediments and further diffusion into the water column. The magnitude of overall 34S/32S discrimination between dissolved sulfate and sulfide in the anoxic water column was 49±1 (LD) and 46±2 (GB) per mil, with only small vertical variations and significantly smaller than in the modern Black Sea. This partitioning is within the range of published results found in experiments with pure cultures of sulfate

  6. Sulphur diagenesis in the sediments of the Kiel Bight, SW Baltic Sea, as reflected by multiple stable sulphur isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Harald; Bast, Rebecca; Cording, Anja; Diekrup, David; Fugmann, Artur; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lutter, Andreas; Oeser, Martin; Rabe, Katharina; Reinke, Debora; Teichert, Barbara M A; Westernströer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the biogeochemistry of marine sediments from the Kiel Bight, coastal SW Baltic Sea, is studied based on the abundance and isotopic composition of organic carbon and different forms of sedimentary sulphur. Active bacterial sulphate reduction, partly under sulphate-limiting conditions, is evident from paired δ(34)S and δ(18)O values of pore water sulphate. The resulting pore water sulphide is partly precipitated as acid-volatile iron sulphide and subsequently forms sedimentary pyrite, partly serves in later diagenetic sulphurisation of organic matter, or remains dissolved in the pore water, all evident from the respective δ(34)S values. Microbial sulphate turnover is associated with an apparent isotopic fractionation between dissolved sulphate and dissolved sulphide (Δ(34)S) that varies between 46 and 66‰. PMID:22303924

  7. Long-lived radionuclides in seabed of the Baltic Sea. Report of the sediment baseline study of HELCOM MORS-PRO in 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Jukka Mattila, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Jakobson, E. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Talinn (Estonia); Herrmann, J. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Germany); Graveris, V. [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency (Latvia); Vilimaite-Silobritiene, B. [Lithuanian Environment Protection Agency (Lithuania); Suplinska, M. [Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw (Poland); Stepanov, A. [Radium Institute (Russian Federation); Luening, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Generally, this is the final sink for most of the organic material produced in the water phase, as well as for other particles transported by water currents from other sea areas and from adjacent terrestrial areas. During their slow settling, the particles tend to bind radionuclides from the water phase and carry them to the bottom. Under favourable conditions, the deposited particles form undisturbed laminae in a stratigraphic sequence on the seabed, and the bottom sediments create an archive from which the history of the area can be read. Various particle-bound substances can be identified as markers of specific historical events and, with the aid of marker horizons, the laminae can be dated. Modern dating methods provide reliable time scales in which time-dependent changes in the concentrations of radionuclides can be recorded. As an example, the radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986 have created useful markers in the sediments of many sea areas, especially in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea offers exceptionally good opportunities to conduct sedimentological studies because the average rate of sedimentation there is much higher than in the oceans and in most other coastal seas. The anoxic conditions in the near-bottom water of the Baltic Proper, and hence the lack of benthic animals over large bottom areas, result in the formation of an undisturbed sedimentary medium, which enables the sampling of sediment laminae in an undisturbed stratigraphic sequence. However, sediment sampling is extremely sensitive to errors, which can cause substantial differences in results. This fact should always be taken into account

  8. Long-lived radionuclides in seabed of the Baltic Sea. Report of the sediment baseline study of HELCOM MORS-PRO in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Generally, this is the final sink for most of the organic material produced in the water phase, as well as for other particles transported by water currents from other sea areas and from adjacent terrestrial areas. During their slow settling, the particles tend to bind radionuclides from the water phase and carry them to the bottom. Under favourable conditions, the deposited particles form undisturbed laminae in a stratigraphic sequence on the seabed, and the bottom sediments create an archive from which the history of the area can be read. Various particle-bound substances can be identified as markers of specific historical events and, with the aid of marker horizons, the laminae can be dated. Modern dating methods provide reliable time scales in which time-dependent changes in the concentrations of radionuclides can be recorded. As an example, the radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986 have created useful markers in the sediments of many sea areas, especially in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea offers exceptionally good opportunities to conduct sedimentological studies because the average rate of sedimentation there is much higher than in the oceans and in most other coastal seas. The anoxic conditions in the near-bottom water of the Baltic Proper, and hence the lack of benthic animals over large bottom areas, result in the formation of an undisturbed sedimentary medium, which enables the sampling of sediment laminae in an undisturbed stratigraphic sequence. However, sediment sampling is extremely sensitive to errors, which can cause substantial differences in results. This fact should always be taken into account

  9. Seasonal patterns of bacterial communities in the coastal brackish sediments of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, Adrien; Hyytiäinen, Kirsi; Ahjos, Minttu; Auvinen, Petri; Paulin, Lars; Hietanen, Susanna; Leskinen, Elina

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are critical in mitigating the impact of nutrient runoffs and downstream eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. In the Gulf of Finland, the easternmost sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, seasonal and long-term oxygen depletion at the surface of the sediment feeds back the eutrophication loop by promoting the release of nutrients locked in the sediment matrix. In order to understand how the bacterial community responds to the seasonal variations, we sequenced ribosomal gene fragments from the top sediment layer at two coastal sites in southern Finland in spring, summer and late autumn during two consecutive years. Analysis of the samples collected at a shallow (11 m) and deep site (33 m) revealed that the overall community composition was rather constant over time with an extensive collection of shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between sites. The dominant taxa were related to organoheterotrophs and sulfate reducers and the variation in community structure was linked to the availability of organic matter in the surface sediment. Proteobacteria formed the most abundant and diverse group. The taxa characteristic of spring samples belonged primarily to Actinobacteria, possibly of fresh water origin and linked to humic carbon. Summer communities were characterized by an increase in the number of reads associated with heterotrophic bacteria such as Bacteroidetes which feed on labile organic matter from spring bloom. Taxa typical of autumn samples were linked to Cyanobacteria and other bloom-forming bacteria from the overlying water and to bacteria feeding on organic matter drifting from the phytal zone.

  10. Use of bromodeoxyuridine immunocapture to identify psychrotolerant phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in phenanthrene-enriched polluted Baltic Sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, A.; Jansson, J.

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich and identify psychrotolerant phenanthrenedegrading bacteria from polluted Baltic Sea sediments. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediments were spiked with phenanthrene and incubated for 2 months in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine that is incorporated into the DNA of replicating cells. The bromodeoxyuridine-incorporated DNA was extracted by immunocapture and analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to identify bacterial populations that were growing. In addition, degradation genes were quantified in the bromodeoxyuridine-incorporated DNA by real-time PCR. Phenanthrene concentrations decreased after 2 months of incubation in the phenanthrene-enriched sediments and this reduction correlated to increases in copy numbers of xylE and phnAc dioxygenase genes. Representatives of Exiguobacterium, Schewanella,Methylomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacteroides and an uncultured Deltaproteobacterium and a Gammaproteobacterium dominated the growing community in the phenanthrene spiked sediments. Isolates that were closely related to three of these bacteria (two pseudomonads and an Exiguobacterium sp.) could reduce phenanthrene concentrations in pure cultures and they all harbored phnAc dioxygenase genes. These results confirm that this combination of culture-based and molecular approaches was useful for identification of actively growing bacterial species with a high potential for phenanthrene degradation.

  11. Searching for order in chaos: a sediment stratigraphical study of a multiple-impacted bay of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaalgamaa, S.; Korhola, A.

    2004-02-01

    The lithological and geochemical properties of sediment cores collected from a heavily impacted embayment in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, were investigated. Hillonlahti Bay has been the focus of much human activity, including timber and oil industries, transportation, housing, dredging and waste discharge, thus constituting an exceptionally challenging environment for sediment studies. A total of nine cores were sampled along perpendicular transects across the elongated bay, and described lithologically in the field. Major and trace element concentrations were determined for a "master core" taken from the central area of the bay. The vertical distribution of 210Pb, 137Cs and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP) was also examined in order to provide a chronological framework for the sediment. Changes in the sediment nature and differences in the distributions of soluble heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn), lithophilous (Al, Ti, K, Mg, Ca, Na), redox-sensitive (Fe, Mn), and nutrient (TP) elementary concentrations were related to temporal and spatial processes. These include the building of the Hamina port starting in the mid-1930s, establishment of the timber and oil industry in 1950-1960s, construction of railway embankments in 1950 and 1996, increasing urbanisation from 1960s, and wastewater discharge between 1950 and 1987. The use of Cr as a preservative in the wood processing industry is reflected in the marked enrichment of Cr in the sediment, while the influence of wastewater discharge can be seen in the sediment record by a rise in concentrations of P and evidently organically bound Na, Cu and Zn. The results are encouraging in demonstrating that via a rather simple repertoire of sediment-analytical methods it is possible to obtain information about the land-use history and contamination in such a strongly rampaged system.

  12. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels of the...... water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  13. Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, E.; Andrén, T.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    2000-01-01

    dates. The transgression that marks the onset of the Ancylus Lake stage is recorded in the sediments as a small increase in organic carbon coinciding with a peak in diatom abundance and increased diatom diversity. A minor occurrence of brackish-freshwater diatoms is recorded in the Ancylus Lake c. 9950...... decrease in organic carbon, interpreted as representing a deterioration in the climate, correlates with the start of the 'Little Ice Age' about 850-700 cal. yr BP. A change dated to ad 1950-1960 is probably an effect of increased nutrient availability in the open Baltic Sea. This effect of eutrophication......Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14...

  14. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea 1992-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    137}Cs. Hydrodynamic transport has been significant for radionuclides from European nuclear reprocessing facilities, even though these are located beyond the North Sea, and far away from the Baltic Sea. Only a small proprotion of the total radioactive discharges into the sea from these facilities is estimated to reach the Baltic Sea, but on a relative scale this input is significant for the Baltic Sea. Finally, direct discharges into the Baltic Sea occur in coastal waters from the routine operations of nuclear facilities along the shores of the Baltic Sea itself. These discharges are very low, however, and are authorised by national regulatory authorities. Other anthropogenic radionuclides are present in the Baltic Sea, but {sup 137}Cs is by far the most important radionuclide with respect to radiation doses to humans. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Baltic Sea have generally declined mainly due to radioactive decay and the gradual outflow of water through the Belt Sea and the Kattegat. However, increased discharges of radionuclides into the Irish sea from Sellafield since 1994 have affected European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea, which receives small but measurable amounts of technetium-99 in inflow from the North Sea. This report describes the work carried out by the MORS group during the period 1992-1998 concerning radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea. Chapter 2 lists the sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. Chapter 3 describes the monitoring network which forms the backbone of the HELCOM Recommendation 18/1 on monitoring activities. Chapter 4 describes the work carried out on the analytical quality of the monitoring data. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 describe the levels of radionuclides in seawater, sediments and biota, respectively. Chapter 8 describes the modelling of radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, and Chapter 9 covers the assessment of radiation doses to humans from radioactivity

  15. Δ14C and δ13C as tracers of organic carbon in Baltic Sea sediments collected in coastal waters off Lithuania and in the Gotland Deep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signatures of Δ14C and δ13C of total organic carbon in sediments as well as of total lipid extracts and phospholipid-derived fatty acid fractions isolated from the surface (0-3 cm) sediments collected in the Curonian Lagoon and in the open Baltic Sea were studied. An endmember mixing-model approach was applied to estimate relative contributions of the marine and terrestrial inputs to organic carbon in sediments, and to elucidate a possible leakage of chemical warfare agents at the Gotland Deep dumpsite. (author)

  16. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  17. Using an independent geochronology based on palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and atmospheric Pb deposition to date Baltic Sea sediments and infer 14C reservoir age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Bryan C.; Snowball, Ian; Moros, Matthias; Kabel, Karoline; Muscheler, Raimund; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Wacker, Lukas

    2012-05-01

    Dating of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea has proven to be difficult due to uncertainties surrounding the 14C reservoir age and a scarcity of macrofossils suitable for dating. Here we present the results of multiple dating methods carried out on cores in the Gotland Deep area of the Baltic Sea. Particular emphasis is placed on the Littorina stage (8 ka ago to the present) of the Baltic Sea and possible changes in the 14C reservoir age of our dated samples. Three geochronological methods are used. Firstly, palaeomagnetic secular variations (PSV) are reconstructed, whereby ages are transferred to PSV features through comparison with varved lake sediment based PSV records. Secondly, lead (Pb) content and stable isotope analysis are used to identify past peaks in anthropogenic atmospheric Pb pollution. Lastly, 14C determinations were carried out on benthic foraminifera (Elphidium spec.) samples from the brackish Littorina stage of the Baltic Sea. Determinations carried out on smaller samples (as low as 4 μg C) employed an experimental, state-of-the-art method involving the direct measurement of CO2 from samples by a gas ion source without the need for a graphitisation step - the first time this method has been performed on foraminifera in an applied study. The PSV chronology, based on the uppermost Littorina stage sediments, produced ten age constraints between 6.29 and 1.29 cal ka BP, and the Pb depositional analysis produced two age constraints associated with the Medieval pollution peak. Analysis of PSV data shows that adequate directional data can be derived from both the present Littorina saline phase muds and Baltic Ice Lake stage varved glacial sediments. Ferrimagnetic iron sulphides, most likely authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), present in the intermediate Ancylus Lake freshwater stage sediments acquire a gyroremanent magnetisation during static alternating field (AF) demagnetisation, preventing the identification of a primary natural remanent magnetisation for

  18. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis of...

  19. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

  20. Chlorobiphenyls in suspension and sediment of the southern Baltic Sea: a mass balance calculation since the onset of PCB-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanz, T.; Schulz-Bull, D. E.; Emeis, K. C.; Petrick, G.; Duinker, J. C.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of the supply of chlorinated biphenyls by the river Oder into some adjacent areas of Baltic Sea was studied in nine sediment cores and in 10 suspended matter samples. Congener-specific analysis was carried out on 28 individual chlorobiphenyls (CBs). ∑CB concentrations in suspension ranged from 2.4 pg dm -3 in the southern Bornholm Basin to 986 pg dm -3 in the Achterwasser. ∑CB contents in surface sediment decreased with increasing distance from the river mouth. Highest contents were found in the Oderhaff (18 ng g -1 dw) decreasing to 2 ng g -1 dw in the Bornholm Basin. The ∑CB contents generally decreased more or less regularly with increasing depth. The compositions of the CB mixtures in surficial sediment and suspension samples were rather similar, suggesting a common source. Compositions of the CB mixtures in the sediment cores showed distinct differences. These may reflect variations in source strength over time. Mass balance considerations on the basis of the 28 CBs resulted in an estimation of a total storage of approximate 733±158 kg ∑CBs in the Oderhaff, Achterwasser, Greifswalder Bodden, Oder Rinne, Arkona Basin and Bornholm Basin in the past 65 years, covering the time period since CBs were first produced. Based on river data about 500 kg of ∑CBs were supplied during this time by river Oder, that may thus be the major source of these compounds for the southern Baltic Sea.

  1. Anthropogenic lead concentrations and sources in Baltic Sea sediments based on lead isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pb concentrations reach even 147 μg/g at Gdansk Basin sediments. • Marine sediments deposited before 1860 are not contaminated by Pb. • Contemporary inventories of anthropogenic Pb in marine sediments was of 0.5–11 g for m2. • The lowest 206Pb/207Pb (1.165) were measured in sediments deposited between 1970s–90s. • Coal burning was always the most important Pb source in Poland. - Abstract: The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. In this study, temporal concentration changes of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were studied in six, 50 cm long sediment cores. The main aim of the study was to concentrate on the history of Pb fluxes and Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) to trace Pb sources. The lowest Pb concentrations (19 μg g−1) were measured in sediments deposited circa 1860, while the highest Pb concentrations (63–147 μg g−1) were measured in sediments deposited between 1960s and 70s. Pre-industrial Pb fluxes were 7 Pb m2 year−1, while after WWII they reached 199 Pb m2 year−1. Highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios (∼1.22) were measured in the oldest sediment layers, and the lowest 206Pb/207Pb ratios (∼1.165) were measured in the sediments deposited in 1970s–90s. During the period of highest Pb contamination, the anthropogenic Pb fraction reached up to 93%. A general discussion of the Pb sources, emissions, and loads for Poland is included

  2. Evaluation and selection of test methods for assessment of contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari; Ahvo, Aino; Berezina, Nadya; Breitholtz, Martin; Eklund, Brita; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Strand, Jakob; Sundelin, Brita

    toxicity), sediment avoidance (C. volutator), bacterial luminescence (Vibrio fischeri), algae growth inhibition (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceramium tenuicorne), SOS/umu genotoxicity (Salmonella) and imposex in female gastropods (Nassarius reticulata). The results of this first round of experiments...

  3. The tests on stabilization of the contaminated sediments for sustainable management in the Baltic Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Pazikowska-Sapota, Grażyna; Dembska, Grażyna; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Zegarowski, Łukasz; Littwin, Małgorzata; Holm, Goran; Kreft-Burma, Kata

    2016-01-01

    Sediments in ports usually contain very high concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other contaminants. The stabilization/solidification technology would reduce the environmental impact and it may also prove to be cost-effective and sustainable. The Port of Gdynia in Poland serves as a case study to present some of the aspects of the dredged sediments stabilization. By using an echo sounder and digital side sonar the hydrographical m...

  4. Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

    2015-08-01

    Expanding hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century has led to the development of anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) deep basins that are only periodically ventilated by inflows of oxygenated waters from the North Sea. In this study, we investigate the potential consequences of the expanding hypoxia for manganese (Mn) burial in the Baltic Sea using a combination of pore water and sediment analyses of dated sediment cores from eight locations. Diffusive fluxes of dissolved Mn from sediments to overlying waters at oxic, hypoxic and euxinic sites are consistent with an active release of Mn from these areas. Although the present-day fluxes are significant (ranging up to ca. 240 μmol m-2 d-1), comparison to published water column data suggests that the current benthic release of Mn is small when compared to the large pool of Mn already present in the hypoxic and anoxic water column. Our results highlight two modes of Mn carbonate formation in sediments of the deep basins. In the Gotland Deep area, Mn carbonates likely form from Mn oxides that are precipitated from the water column directly following North Sea inflows. In the Landsort Deep, in contrast, Mn carbonate and Mn sulfide layers appear to form independently of inflow events, and are possibly related to the much larger and continuous input of Mn oxides linked to sediment focusing. Whereas Mn-enriched sediments continue to accumulate in the Landsort Deep, this does not hold for the Gotland Deep area. Here, a recent increase in euxinia, as evident from measured bottom water sulfide concentrations and elevated sediment molybdenum (Mo), coincides with a decline in sediment Mn content. Sediment analyses also reveal that recent inflows of oxygenated water (since ca. 1995) are no longer consistently recorded as Mn carbonate layers. Our data suggest that eutrophication has not only led to a recent rise in sulfate reduction rates but also to a decline in reactive Fe input to these basins. We hypothesize that these

  5. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  6. Mercury concentration in the sediments as a function of changing climate in coastal zone of Southern Baltic Sea – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bełdowska M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, despite of its many uses in industry, is also highly toxic. It is highly neurotoxic, and because of the ability of mercury to penetrate placental barrier, in some countries ban on predatory fish consumption (the main route of mercury into human organism by pregnant women was introduced. There are very little publications describing the consequences of weather anomalies on contaminants cycles. No research was published concerning the reemission of Hg due to climate change in the Southern Baltic Sea. The study area was situated in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk - the Southern Baltic. Samples of different species of macrophytobenthos were collected once a month during 2006-2012. Samples of Potamogeton pectinatus, sediments and pore waters were collected once a month from February 2011 to January 2012. The climate changes in the moderate latitudes: extension of the fall season, has contributed to stabilization of high concentrations of mercury in pore waters. Lack of ice cover in the coastal zone and simultaneous occurrence of storms had an impact on supply of the organic matter to the sediments and the increased concentration of Hg. More intense burning of fossil fuels in this season favored the increased metal concentration in the atmosphere and consequently an increase of the atmospheric deposition of metals to the sediments. This led to a fourfold increase of the mercury concentration in sediments as compared to fall season.

  7. Baltic sea level low-frequency variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Evgueni A.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

    2015-01-01

    The low-frequency sea level spectrum in the Baltic Sea has been analysed based on long-term time series of sea level data (15–124 yr) from three tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea and two stations in the North Sea. The principal periodicities detected in the spectrum are seasonal and tidal oscillations including the pole tide with a period of about 14 months. Cross-spectral analysis has been applied to estimate the frequency response of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea relative to ...

  8. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit; Munch, Kris

    developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model is to...... results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution to the...... regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  9. Endmember analysis of heavy-metal pollution in surficial sediments from the Gulf of Gdansk and the southern Baltic Sea off Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty one bulk (<2 mm) samples of surficial sediments from the Gulf of Gdansk and the Southern Baltic Sea off Poland were analyzed for 20 elements and the resulting compositional dataset was subjected to endmember analysis. The compositions of 4 endmember estimates were constructed and the abundances of these endmembers were calculated for each sample. Copper, Zn and Ag appear on one endmember and Cd and Pb on another. This suggests that Cu, Zn and Ag are introduced into the Gulf of Gdansk principally from the Vistula River whereas Cd and Pb are introduced as a result of atmospheric and riverine transport of these elements. The dual source of Cd and Pb into the Gulf of Gdansk may explain the complex interelement relationships displayed by these elements in the sediments from this region. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Świrgoń; Małgorzata Stramska; Halina Kowalewska-Kalkowska

    2013-01-01

    Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is ...

  11. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international co...

  12. Bacterial communities potentially involved in iron-cycling in Baltic Sea and North Sea sediments revealed by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Dellwig, Olaf; Dähnke, Kirstin; Gehre, Matthias; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz E; Böttcher, Michael E; Meister, Patrick; Friedrich, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    To gain insight into the bacterial communities involved in iron-(Fe) cycling under marine conditions, we analysed sediments with Fe-contents (0.5-1.5 wt %) from the suboxic zone at a marine site in the Skagerrak (SK) and a brackish site in the Bothnian Bay (BB) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Several bacterial families, including Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Pelobacteraceae and genera, includingDesulfobacterandGeobacter, known to reduce Fe were detected and showed highest abundance near the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox boundary. Additional genera with microorganisms capable of coupling fermentation to Fe-reduction, includingClostridiumandBacillus, were observed. Also, the Fe-oxidizing families Mariprofundaceae and Gallionellaceae occurred at the SK and BB sites, respectively, supporting Fe-cycling. In contrast, the sulphate (SO4 (2-)) reducing bacteriaDesulfococcusandDesulfobacteriumwere more abundant at greater depths concurring with a decrease in Fe-reducing activity. The communities revealed by pyrosequencing, thus, match the redox stratification indicated by the geochemistry, with the known Fe-reducers coinciding with the zone of Fe-reduction. Not the intensely studied model organisms, such asGeobacterspp., but rather versatile microorganisms, including sulphate reducers and possibly unknown groups appear to be important for Fe-reduction in these marine suboxic sediments. PMID:26960392

  13. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  14. Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.; Conley, D. J.; Wolthers, M.; Slomp, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Expanding hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century has led to the development of anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) deep basins that are only periodically ventilated by inflows of oxygenated waters from the North Sea. In this study, we investigate the potential consequences of the expanding hypoxi

  15. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  16. Gymnodinium corollarium sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) - a new cold-water dinoflagellate responsible for cyst sedimentation events in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Annica; Kremp, Anke; Daugbjerg, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    revealed a preference of G. corollarium for low salinities and temperatures, confirming it to be a cold-water species well adapted to the brackish water conditions in the Baltic Sea. At nitrogen-deplete conditions, G. corollarium cultures produced small, slightly oval cysts resembling a previously...

  17. Organic contaminants - occurrence and biological effects in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pikkarainen, Anna-Liisa

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea was studied with respect to selected organic contaminants and their ecotoxicology. The research consisted of analyses of total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bile metabolites, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The contaminants were measured from various matrices, such as seawater, sediment and biota. The methods of analysis were evaluated and refined to comparability of t...

  18. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples, such as seawater, seaweed, lake water, lake sediment and grass collected from the Baltic Sea area were analyzed for 129I and 127I by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In 2000, the concentration of 129I in the seawater from Borholm and Moeen in the Baltic Sea has reached 6.0x10-13 and 16x10-13 g/l, respectively, these are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the global fallout level. The highest value of 270x10-13 g/l being found in the seawater from the Kattegat. By comparison of the level of 129I in the lake water and precipitation in this region, it is estimated that more than 95% of 129I in the Baltic Sea originates from reprocessing emissions, especially from the French nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. More than 30% of 129I in the south Baltic and 93% in the Kattegat directly originates from the marine discharges of the European reprocessing plants

  19. Rates and regulation of nitrogen cycling in seasonally hypoxic sediments during winter (Boknis Eck, SW Baltic Sea): Sensitivity to environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Bohlen, L.; Treude, T.; Bertics, V. J.; Bange, H. W.; Pfannkuche, O.; Schorp, T.; Mattsdotter, M.; Wallmann, K.

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the biogeochemical processes that control the benthic fluxes of dissolved nitrogen (N) species in Boknis Eck - a 28 m deep site in the Eckernförde Bay (southwestern Baltic Sea). Bottom water oxygen concentrations (O 2-BW) fluctuate greatly over the year at Boknis Eck, being well-oxygenated in winter and experiencing severe bottom water hypoxia and even anoxia in late summer. The present communication addresses the winter situation (February 2010). Fluxes of ammonium (NH 4+), nitrate (NO 3-) and nitrite (NO 2-) were simulated using a benthic model that accounted for transport and biogeochemical reactions and constrained with ex situ flux measurements and sediment geochemical analysis. The sediments were a net sink for NO 3- (-0.35 mmol m -2 d -1 of NO 3-), of which 75% was ascribed to dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium (DNRA) by sulfide oxidizing bacteria, and 25% to NO 3- reduction to NO 2- by denitrifying microorganisms. NH 4+ fluxes were high (1.74 mmol m -2 d -1 of NH 4+), mainly due to the degradation of organic nitrogen, and directed out of the sediment. NO 2- fluxes were negligible. The sediments in Boknis Eck are, therefore, a net source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO 3- + NO 2- + NH 4+) during winter. This is in large part due to bioirrigation, which accounts for 76% of the benthic efflux of NH 4+, thus reducing the capacity for nitrification of NH 4+. The combined rate of fixed N loss by denitrification and anammox was estimated at 0.08 mmol m -2 d -1 of N 2, which is at the lower end of previously reported values. A systematic sensitivity analysis revealed that denitrification and anammox respond strongly and positively to the concentration of NO 3- in the bottom water (NO 3-BW). Higher O 2-BW decreases DNRA and denitrification but stimulates both anammox and the contribution of anammox to total N 2 production (%R amx). A complete mechanistic explanation of these findings is provided. Our analysis indicates

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of ammonia oxidizers in the sediments of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, Adrien; Hietanen, Susanna; Leskinen, Elina

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) nitrifying communities in the sediments of the eutrophic Gulf of Finland (GoF) were investigated. Using clone libraries of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), we found a low richness of both AOB and AOA. The AOB amoA phylogeny matched that of AOB 16S ribosomal genes from the same samples. AOA communities were characterized by strong spatial variation while AOB communities showed notable temporal patterns. At open sea sites, where transient anoxic conditions prevail, richness of both AOA and AOB was lowest and communities were dominated by organisms with gene signatures unique to the GoF. Given the importance of nitrification as a link between the fixation of nitrogen and its removal from aquatic environments, the low diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microbes across the GoF could be of relevance for ecosystem resilience in the face of rapid global environmental changes. PMID:26722795

  1. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  2. PO4 release at the sediment surface under anoxic conditions: a contribution to the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schneider

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The vertical profiles of phosphate, total CO2 and oxygen/hydrogen sulphide were determined in the deep water of the Gotland Sea during March 2003 to July 2006 with a temporal resolution of 2-3 months. This time span included the shift from anoxic to oxic conditions resulting from a water renewal event, as well as the transition back to anoxic waters during the subsequent two-year stagnation period. The data from depths below 150 m were used to identify and quantify phosphate release and removal processes. The relationship between the total CO2 generated by mineralization (CT, min and the PO4 concentrations indicated that the initial decrease in the phosphate concentrations after the inflow of oxygen-rich water was mainly a dilution effect. Only about one third of the PO4 removal was a consequence of the precipitation of insoluble iron-3-hydroxo-phosphates (Fe-P, which occurred slowly at the sediment surface under oxic conditions. From the CT, min/PO4 ratios it was also concluded that the formation of Fe-P was reversed during the later phase of the stagnation, when the redoxcline approached a depth of 150 m. A phosphate mass balance was performed for four deep water sub-layers in order to quantify the dissolution of Fe-P during the stagnation period and thus to estimate the amount of Fe-P deposited during the last inflow of oxygen-rich water. A value of about 50 mmol-P m-2 was found, which refers to the specific biogeochemical conditions during the change from anoxic to oxic conditions that preceded the stagnation period.

  3. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and...... concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants, and...

  4. Dispersal of thermophilic Desulfotomaculum endospores into Baltic Sea sediments over thousands of years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezende, Julia Rosa de; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Hubert, Casey RJ; Finster, Kai; Loy, Alexander; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    natural model for investigating passive dispersal in the ocean. We investigated the activity, diversity and abundance of thermophilic endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Aarhus Bay by incubating pasteurized sediment between 28 and 85°C, and by subsequent molecular diversity analyses of 16...... decreased exponentially to 100 per cm3 at 6.5m depth, corresponding to 4500 years of sediment age. Thus, a half-life of ca. 300 years was estimated for the thermophilic SRB endospores deposited in Aarhus Bay sediments. These endospores were similarly detected in the overlying water column, indicative of...... passive dispersal in water masses preceding sedimentation. The sources of these thermophiles remain enigmatic, but at least one source may be common to both Aarhus Bay and Arctic sediments....

  5. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SEDIMENT SUSPENSIONS FROM ECKERNF(O)RDE AND KIELER F(O)RDE BAYS, WESTERN BALTIC SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Local areas of fine-grained organic-rich sediments in Eckernforde and Kieler Forde Bays may experience disturbances which cause fluidization of the substrate and create a dense suspension (fluid mud) which exists temporarily as a component of the benthic boundary layer before becoming incorporated into the permanent bottom. Laboratory studies indicate this material behaves rheologically as a non-Newtonian substance, and both shear thinning (pseudoplastic) and shear thickening (dilatant) flow behavior can occur (often within the same sample) under low to intermediate shear stresses (2 - 40 Pa) and shear rates (0.46 - 122.49 s-1).Detailed granulometric analyses (1/4 phi intervals) of the fraction <63 μm show differences in the silt/clay ratio (clay <2 μm) between the two environments. Little change in the silt/clay ratio is seen in the Kieler Forde sediments (from 0.74 to 0.95); however, at Eckemforde, the ratio changed from0.73 to 2.19. Fine silt particles are lacking or were removed from the 4 to 16 μm fraction of the Eckernforde but not from the Kieler Forde sediments. Both shear thickening and shear thinning flow was observed in the Eckemforde sediments. Shear thickening flow behavior was not observed in the Kieler Forde sediments.Samples of organic-rich (10 to 20%) interface sediments from both areas were analyzed rheologically prior to, and after removal of organic matter by H2O2 treatment. Reduction in 'apparent'viscosity occurred through the entire range of shear rates and stresses, shear thickening behavior was reduced or became nonexistent, and yield stress decreased significantly compared to the natural samples. The differences in yield stress and flow behavior of dense suspensions result primarily from differences in grain size distributions but the role of organic matter on those properties is very significant and adds to the effects of the grain size distribution of the sediment.

  6. Element composition of biota, water and sediment in the Forsmark area, Baltic Sea. Concentrations, bioconcentration factors and partitioning coefficients (K{sub d}) of 48 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda; Bradshaw, Clare (Dept. of Systems Ecology, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    In this study the elemental composition of biota, water and sediment from a shallow bay in the Forsmark region have been determined. The report presents data for 48 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Gd, Hg, Ho, I, K, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Ra, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) in all major functional groups of the coastal ecosystem (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic microalgae, macroalgae, macrophytes, benthic herbivores, benthic filter feeders, benthic detrivores, planktivorous fish, benthic omnivorous fish, carnivorous fish, dissolved and particulate matter in the water and the sediment) during spring 2005. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of ecological properties and processes that govern uptake and transfer of trace elements, heavy-metals, radionuclides and other non-essential elements/contaminants in coastal environments of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the data was collected to provide site-specific Bioconcentration Factors (BCF), Biomagnification Factors (BMF), partitioning coefficients (K{sub d}) and element ratios (relative to carbon) for use in ongoing SKB safety assessments. All these values, as well as the element concentration data from which they are derived, are presented here. As such, this is mainly a data report, although initial interpretations of the data also are presented and discussed. Reported data include element concentrations, CNP-stoichiometry, and multivariate data analysis. Elemental concentrations varied greatly between organisms and environmental components, depending on the function of the elements, and the habitat, ecosystem function, trophic level and morphology (taxonomy) of the organisms. The results show for instance that food intake and metabolism strongly influence the elemental composition of organisms. The three macrophytes had quite similar elemental composition (despite their taxonomic

  7. Element composition of biota, water and sediment in the Forsmark area, Baltic Sea. Concentrations, bioconcentration factors and partitioning coefficients (Kd) of 48 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the elemental composition of biota, water and sediment from a shallow bay in the Forsmark region have been determined. The report presents data for 48 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Gd, Hg, Ho, I, K, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Ra, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) in all major functional groups of the coastal ecosystem (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic microalgae, macroalgae, macrophytes, benthic herbivores, benthic filter feeders, benthic detrivores, planktivorous fish, benthic omnivorous fish, carnivorous fish, dissolved and particulate matter in the water and the sediment) during spring 2005. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of ecological properties and processes that govern uptake and transfer of trace elements, heavy-metals, radionuclides and other non-essential elements/contaminants in coastal environments of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the data was collected to provide site-specific Bioconcentration Factors (BCF), Biomagnification Factors (BMF), partitioning coefficients (Kd) and element ratios (relative to carbon) for use in ongoing SKB safety assessments. All these values, as well as the element concentration data from which they are derived, are presented here. As such, this is mainly a data report, although initial interpretations of the data also are presented and discussed. Reported data include element concentrations, CNP-stoichiometry, and multivariate data analysis. Elemental concentrations varied greatly between organisms and environmental components, depending on the function of the elements, and the habitat, ecosystem function, trophic level and morphology (taxonomy) of the organisms. The results show for instance that food intake and metabolism strongly influence the elemental composition of organisms. The three macrophytes had quite similar elemental composition (despite their taxonomic differences

  8. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  9. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... View the MathML source or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of View the MathML source and sulfide and the actual measured relations between View the MathML source and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ...... extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132–547 kton N yr−1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191 kton N yr−1. With a total external N-input of 773 kton N yr−1 it is clear that...

  10. Osnovnye zakonomernosti raspredelenija, migracii i nakoplenija radionuklidov v donnyh otlozhenijah Baltijskogo morja [The basic patterns of the distribution, migration and accumulation of radionuclides in the bottom sediment of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of certain factors on the contemporary distribution of natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40К and anthropogenic (137Cs, 60Co radionuclides in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. The results of the study suggest that the distribution of 137Cs is determined by the content of hydromica of silty-clay and clay grain-size fractions, while radiocaesium is mainly accumulated by silty fractions. The accumulation of 226Ra by bottom sediments is mainly determined by the pH geochemical barrier at the water-seafloor boundary. The accumulation of 232Th occurs mainly in clayey fractions of the sediment. The distribution and accumulation of 40K is predominantly determined by the ratio of potassium contained in hydromica minerals. Significant 60Co activity was registered only in a few samples.

  11. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija; Jounela, Pekka; Lundström, Karl; Köster, Fritz

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals on...

  12. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  13. Phosphorus binding by aluminium in sediment: a tool for restoring water quality in the Baltic Sea and other brackish surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lake and sea sediments act as stores for historical inputs of pollutants from both direct and diffuse sources including urbanization, agriculture, municipal and indus- trial waste waters, among others. Historical accumulation in sediments can provide a continual source of phosphorus to the water column for decades or longer after external sources have been controlled. Addition of metal salts, e.g. aluminium salts, can permanently bind this excess phosphorus in the sediment, thereby reducing i...

  14. Toxicity assessment by microtox {sup registered} in sediments, pore waters and sediment saline elutriates in the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukawska-Matuszewska, Katarzyna; Burska, Dorota; Niemirycz, Elzbieta [Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-07-15

    The toxicity of sediments in the Gulf of Gdansk is analyzed in relation to the chemical composition of interstitial and near-bottom waters, and sediment properties. The toxicity of sediments, pore waters and saline elutriates is determined by using the Microtox {sup registered} test based on changes in light production of the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The results indicate considerable toxicity in the majority of examined sediments. Since the sediment elutriates and pore waters are toxic in some cases, the total toxicity of the sediments is likely to be due to both sediment-bound and water soluble substances. The sediment toxicity is related to the percentage contribution of the fine fraction of sediments. A significant correlation between the toxicity of the sediments and the black carbon content implies anthropogenic contamination. The toxicity of the sediments is seen to increase with the increase of hydrogen sulfide concentration in pore waters. The ammonia in pore waters was found not to be responsible for the toxicity of the sediments. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  16. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Lavrova, Olga Yu. (ed.) [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Space Research Institute

    2014-04-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  17. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  18. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and some also for 90Sr and transuranic elements. The general levelling of Chernobyl derived 137Cs and 134Cs in the water mass of the Baltic Sea, which had started soon after the fallout situation, continued in 1989. The activity concentration of 137Cs was about the same level (120-160 Bq/m3) in surface water throughout the Baltic Sea area except in some coastal areas. The cesium concentrations had levelled vertically as well as horizontally. In 1990, the cesium concentrations of surface water decreased further in other sea areas, but not in the Bothnian Sea, where somewhat higher values were detected once more. In bottom sediments the total amounts of 137Cs had clearly increased between 1988 and 1990 which indicates that fresh fallout was still settling on the bottom. No increase was found in the total amounts of 239,240Pu. Small amounts of 60Co were detected in the surface sediment of our sampling station in the Northern Baltic proper. 137Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 17 to 32 Bq/kg fresh weight and pike from 22 to 290 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in the samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose received by Finns from eating Baltic Sea fish was 0.01mSv both in 1989 and in 1990. (orig.)

  19. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs. The ratio 134Cs/137Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m-3, in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m-3, in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m-3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m-3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137Cs was about 18 kBq m-3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg-1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg-1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  20. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, O.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Brandt, J.; J.H. Christensen; Frohn, L. M.; J. Frydendall

    2003-01-01

    A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model), and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comp...

  1. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT)

  2. Ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea. Part 1. Description of the ProDeMo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ProDeMo (Production and Destruction of Organic Matter Model, a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model, was formulated and applied to the whole Baltic Sea and the subregion of the Gulf of Gdansk. It describes nutrient cycles (phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon through the food web with 15 state variables, oxygen conditions and the parameterisation of water-sediment interactions. The present version of the model takes two groups of phytoplankton - diatoms and non-diatoms - as well as zooplankton into consideration. It covers the flow of matter and energy in the sea, including river discharges and atmospheric deposition. Numerical applications are embedded on a 1 NM grid for the Gulf of Gdansk and a 5 NM grid for the Baltic Sea.     Since the model results largely concur with observations, the model can be regarded as a reliable tool for analysing the behaviour of the Baltic ecosystem. Some examples of the spatial-temporal variability of the most important biological and chemical parameters are presented. The model results are compared with those of other modelling research in the Baltic Sea.     Both the ProDeMo model algorithm and its computing procedures need to be further developed. The next version should therefore enable more phytoplankton groups to be defined, for example cyanobacteria, which are able to take up molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere (nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the sediment phase should be divided into active and non-active layers.

  3. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    observations of salt-water ingressions. The sediment record of the dated core is marked by seven Mn/Fe-excursions and suggests that major inflows terminating longer stagnation periods have occurred more frequently during the last 250 years. This in turn suggests the more frequent generation of low......The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on...... time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...

  4. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  5. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ∼13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (∼30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (∼60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/χ, χARM/SIRM and χARM/χ that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and

  6. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  7. Effective recycling agriculture around the Baltic Sea: background report

    OpenAIRE

    Granstedt, Artur; Seuri, Pentti; Thomsson, Olof

    2004-01-01

    In this report the historical background and present situation of the plant nutrient balances and surplus of plant nutrients within the agricultural sector in the eight countries of the Baltic Sea catchments area (Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, Germany and Russia) are presented and analysed. The Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) project is evaluating the consequences of converting the whole agricultural sector according to recycling...

  8. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  9. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  10. Trends in the amplitude of Baltic Sea level annual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo (Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (DE)). e-mail: birgit.huenicke@gkss.de

    2008-01-15

    Baltic Sea tide gauge data and climatic data sets are statistically analysed to investigate the centennial trends in the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic sea level. In almost all gauge stations analysed, an increase of the amplitude (winter-spring sea level) is detected. These trends are not large compared to the decadal variations of the annual cycle, but they are statistically significant. The magnitude of the trends is almost spatially uniform, with exception of the Skagerrak area. Since interannual and decadal variability of sea level displays a clear spatial pattern, the mechanism responsible for the trends in the annual cycle seem to be not regional, but affect the Baltic Sea basin as a whole. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these centennial trends on the winter-minus-spring sea level: wind (through the SLP field), the barometric effect, temperature and precipitation. By elimination of three of the working hypothesis, seasonal Baltic precipitation remains a plausible candidate. For the other three, either the sign or magnitude of the trend makes them unlikely the sole explanation

  11. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Lännergren, Christer; Ollikainen, Markku; Priha, Maarit; Reinikainen, Marko; Saarijärvi, Erkki; Zandersen, Marianne

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...... possibilities to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis....

  12. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...... significant sensitivity towards risk levels, but react on the amplitude of pumping. Even so, approximately one third of the popula-tions in the three countries find the state of the Baltic Sea so severe that they would be willing to accept even high risks induced by oxygenation pumping for a faster recovery...

  13. Effect of North Sea waters containing radioactive industrial wastes on the radioactivity of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of field studies of the Baltic Sea radioactive contamination, carried out in 1984, are presented. The investigations are aimed at the evaluation of the effect of the North Sea waters, contaminated with industrial radioactive wastes of Western European countries on the environmental radioactivity in the Baltic Sea refion 134Cs was used as an indicator of radioactive waste presence in sea water. The whole water area of the Baltic Sea is shown to be affected by industrial radioactive contamination of various degrees. It is established that the part of industrial 137Cs in the total radionuclide content in benthic waters of the Arkonskaya hollow constitutes ∼ 50% and it decreases down to 16-18% in benthic waters of the western part of the Gulf of Finland. Empirical dependences permitting to predict the content of industrial 137Cs in the Baltic Sea water with the variation in the volume of annular radionuclide disposal by Sellafield radiochemical plant, are obtained

  14. Literature review on future development of the Baltic Sea and recommendations for safety modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report represents the summary of the main factors, which affects the future development and state of the Baltic Sea. The emphasis is on land uplift, shoreline displacement, and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the sea. In addition, historical evolution of the Baltic Sea after the last ice age and potential impacts of the different climate scenarios are presented. The Baltic Sea has an important influence on the development of the geospherebiosphere interface zone at Olkiluoto. Thus, it is important to take account all these factors in the Safety Modelling of the nuclear waste repository. Different models have been used to evaluate land uplift at Olkiluoto and changes in the sea and land area, especially in the interface zone. The main parameters have been monitored satisfactory way at the Olkiluoto offshore. Based on the present sea sediment stratigraphy, overburden, topography and vegetation it has been fairly well estimated coming future land and sea areas of the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. According to the results, Olkiluoto will be part of the continent during the next decade. In the shallow shores of Olkiluoto, the amounts of common reed are increasing naturally, resulting in paludification. The spatial and temporal changes at Olkiluoto can be estimated and modelled more detailed by using the well focused research sites and more accurate results. In addition, more information is needed on development of the watershed areas, lakes, rivers and vegetation and on sedimentation and erosion processes, hydrology, quality and quantity of seabed sediments and stratigraphy, element budgets and recharge and discharge areas, especially at the geosphere-biosphere interface zones. (orig.)

  15. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.; Smedman, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    heterogeneous; the modifications primarily being caused by the land-sea contrasts. On the day with the weaker wind speed, sea-breeze circulations develop. As a consequence, the wind direction at lower levels is more or less opposite to the geostrophic over large areas of the Baltic Sea and the surface wind...... speed decreases with offshore distance. Wind speed maxima caused by the sea breezes are found along the east coasts in the studied area. For the other day, the slow growth of a stable internal boundary layer over the sea also gives a surface wind speed decrease with offshore distance from the coast....

  16. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  17. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  18. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C. P.; B. G. Gustafsson; De Boer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P) in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during degradation of...

  19. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny;

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  20. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy for the...... Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  1. The concentrations of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was 241Pu activities determination in different components (water, plankton and fish of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. The determination of 241Pu in the samples was done indirectly by activity measuring the increment in 241Am from the decay of β-emitting 241Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed between the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of 241Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of 241Pu with Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small.

  2. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic sea after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident extensive studies were started in the Baltic Sea area. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment, fish, plnkton, littoral algae and benthic animals were collected for radionuclide analyses. All the samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically. From some of the samples ''8''9Sr, ''9''0Sr and transuranic elements were determined. The fallout from the Chernobyl accident was areally unevenly distributed, contrary to the fallout situation in the 1960s. This also reflects in the results of the measurements in the marine environment. After the decay of short-lived radionuclides, ''1''3''7Cs and ''1''3''4Cs were the most important nuclides. The ''1''3''7Cs concentrations in sea water were considerably higher in 1986 than the values reported from the 1960s. Due to the low accumulation of caesium isotopes in brackish-water fish, the concentrations in Baltic Sea fish were clearly lower than in freshwater fish. Thus the consumption of Baltic fish contributes only insignificantly to internal radiation doses of Finnish people

  3. Influence of pelagic invertebrate predators on the zooplankton in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Barz, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Pelagic invertebrates have a wide prey spectrum and may constitute important predators in marine ecosystems. This study analyses the impact of pelagic invertebrate predators in the two connected ecosystems Baltic Sea and North Sea. Both ecosystems have different hydrographic conditions, but also show similarities in their reaction on changing ocean conditions (synchronous regime shifts) and were object of comparative studies in the framework of the German GLOBEC Project. In the central Baltic...

  4. Nitrate source identification in the Baltic Sea using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-09-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3- inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 47 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (33-100%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e. the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (34-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 49-65% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  5. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  6. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, E., E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, E., E-mail: erik.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G., E-mail: bo.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate.

  7. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate

  8. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  9. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  10. Nickel-63 in Baltic fish and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of 63Ni was carried out on fish samples of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and samples of sediment core from the Gdansk Bay. In contrast to stable nickel, 63Ni is non-uniformly distributed within the fish. More than 95% of total 63Ni content in cod and herring is located in fillet with skin and scale. Our data suggests, that mechanism for uptake of 63Ni in cod and herring is by passive adsorption onto the surface of skin and scale mucus. The concentration of 63Ni in analysed sediment lies within the range from 0.5 to 3.8 mBq·g-1 dry wt, while values of its specific activity ranged between 10 and 70 Bq·g-1. (Author)

  11. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... banning the discard of highly contaminated organs such as cod liver could be part of the pollution management....

  12. A comparison of marine radionuclide dispersion models for the Baltic Sea in the frame of IAEA MODARIA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four radionuclide dispersion models have been applied to simulate the transport and distribution of 137Cs fallout from Chernobyl accident in the Baltic Sea. Models correspond to two categories: box models and hydrodynamic models which solve water circulation and then an advection/diffusion equation. In all cases, interactions of dissolved radionuclides with suspended matter and bed sediments are included. Model results have been compared with extensive field data obtained from HELCOM database. Inventories in the water column and seabed, as well as 137Cs concentrations along 5 years in water and sediments of several sub-basins of the Baltic, have been used for model comparisons. Values predicted by the models for the target magnitudes are very similar and close to experimental values. Results suggest that some processes are not very relevant for radionuclide transport within the Baltic Sea, for instance the roles of the ice cover and, surprisingly, water stratification. Also, results confirm previous findings concerning multi-model applications. - Highlights: • Box and hydrodynamic models applied to Chernobyl 137Cs dispersion in the Baltic Sea. • Calculated concentrations in water and sediments compared with HELCOM database measurements. • Good agreement found between models and measurements. • Some processes surprisingly not relevant for radionuclide transport (stratification, ice). • Previous findings on multi-model applications have been confirmed

  13. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological and...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  14. Suggestions for a Marketing Plan for Guardian of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddini, Mandana; Koskela , Juliana Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis project was to create suggestions for a marketing plan for an existing company, Guardian of the Baltic Sea, to enter into the Swedish market. Guardian of the Baltic Sea (GBS) is a charity project of Kehrä Interior Oy, producing jewelry that contributes to protecting the Baltic Sea. The suggestions were in the areas of distribution channel, target market and tools of promotion. The theoretical background and knowledge base of the thesis consists of theory on m...

  15. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... ARC observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all...

  16. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  17. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  18. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity account for nearly one-fifth of the oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore the seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and the carbon accumulation (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to ex...

  19. Sulfidization of lacustrine glacial clay upon Holocene marine transgression (Arkona Basin, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2014-10-01

    Towards the end of the last deglaciation more than 13,500 years ago the southern Baltic Sea was a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake, for several thousand years during which iron-rich, organic-poor clay was deposited. The modern brackish-marine stage started about 8600 years ago with the deposition of organic-rich mud, which is today characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction and high concentrations of free sulfide. We studied the iron-sulfur diagenesis in gravity cores from the Arkona Basin, SW Baltic Sea, to track the progressing sulfidization front in the buried Ice Lake sediment. The geochemical zonation was unusual as the sulfate concentration dropped steeply by two thirds below which it increased again due to a deep sulfate reservoir. The reservoir had been established during the early Holocene marine period as sulfate and other seawater ions diffused down into the lake sediment for several thousand years. Sulfur isotope analyses confirmed its origin as seawater sulfate, while its oxygen isotope composition indicated a microbially catalyzed equilibration with ambient interstitial water, decoupled from net sulfate reduction. Today, hydrogen sulfide diffuses from the marine mud down into the lake sediment where a black band with high magnetic susceptibility and high iron monosulfide, greigite and elemental sulfur content shows progressing sulfidization of the large pool of solid-phase reactive iron. Dissolved iron from the deep Ice Lake sediment diffuses up to the sulfide front and provides a small supplement to the solid Fe(III) pool as a sulfide sink. Pyrite formation at the sulfidization front may involve surface-bound zero-valent sulfur while, above the front, polysulfides are in equilibrium with the system hydrogen sulfide - polysulfide - rhombic sulfur and may not be important for further pyrite formation. The Holocene iron-sulfur diagenesis observed in the Arkona Basin represents an important transitional state for post-glacial transgressions

  20. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  1. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  2. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  3. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of NH3 and NH4+ and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3- are somewhat overestimated. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the annual atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south--north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 T N km-2 in the south and 0.2 T N km-2 in the north. The results show that in 1999 the maximum diurnal mean deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year. Total deposition to the Baltic Sea was for the year 1999 estimated to 318 kT N for an area of 464 406 km2 equivalent to an average deposition of 684 kg N/km2.

  4. Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginning of 2011, using Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide mode and Envisat ASAR wide swath mode data. The resulting ice drift fields are publicly available as part of the MyOcean EC project. The SAR-based ice drift vectors have been compared to the drift vectors from drifter buoys in the Baltic Sea during the first operational season, and also these validation results are shown in this paper. Also some navigationally useful sea ice quantities, which can be derived from ice drift vector fields, are presented.

  5. Transparency of the North Sea and Baltic Sea - a Secchi Depth data mining study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorkild Aarup

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Secchi depth data mining study for the North Sea - Baltic Sea region. 40,829 measurements of Secchi depth were compiled from the area as a result of this study. 4.3% of the observations were found in the international data centers [ICES Oceanographic Data Center in Denmark and the World Ocean Data Center A (WDC-A) in the USA], while 95.7% of the data was provided by individuals and ocean research institutions from the surrounding North Sea and Baltic...

  6. Speciation of 137Cs in the Baltic sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of application of Filtrac 391 and Nuclepore filters, Ky-2-8-C exchanger and the Mtilon-T fiber impregnated with Fe, Co, Ni ferrocyanides for separation of particulate and ionic 137Cs in the sea water was investigated. Physico-chemical forms of 137Cs were investigated in the Baltic Sea water during 1995-1997. It was determined that 137Cs was mainly present in ionic form (62-93 %) both in the near-shore and open waters. Concentration of particulate 137Cs ranged from 255 to 625 Bq/kg (dry weight).The distribution coefficient (Kd) of radiocaesium reached values of 2100-9700. (author)

  7. Radioactive contamination of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea - a status report (September 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines different inputs of North and Baltic Sea by fallout of nuclear weapons, reprocessing plants and Chernobyl. The reprocessing plants Sellafield and La Hague are the most important sources of radioactive contamination, especially for the North Sea. After Chernobyl all radionuclides of the fallout were demonstrable. (CW)

  8. Foraminiferal response to environmental changes in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schönfeld

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea were investigated in the years 2005 and 2006. The faunal studies were accomplished by geochemical analyses of surface sediments. In general, sediment pollution by copper, zinc, tin and lead is assessed as moderate in comparison with levels reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea. However, the inner Kiel Fjord is still exposed to a high load of metals and organic matter due to enhanced accumulation of fine-grained sediments in conjunction with potential pollution sources as shipyards, harbours and intensive traffic. The results of our survey show that the dominant environmental forcing of benthic foraminifera is nutrients availability coupled with human impact. A comparison with faunal data from the 1960s reveals apparent changes in species composition and population densities. The stress-tolerant species Ammonia beccarii invaded Kiel Fjord. Ammotium cassis had disappeared that reflects apparently the changes in salinity over the last 10 years. These changes in foraminiferal community and a significant increase of test abnormalities indicate an intensified environmental stress since the 1960s.

  9. Results of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea radioactive pollution monitoring in 1986-1992 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea radioactive pollution regular monitoring carried out from June 1986 till present time are presented.It is revealed that after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station accident a considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides got into the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea in May-June of 1986. The conclusion about the atmospheric transport as the main source of radionuclide coming into the marine environment of the Black Sea was substantiated. The data on the vertical profile of the radioactive caesium distribution on years of observation are presented. This results make it possible to judge about the rate of penetration of the products of the accident into the deep layers of sea. It is shown that caesium-137 concentration in the estuarine waters of Dnieper and in the Dnieper-Bug Liman is ten times lower than in the open areas of the Black Sea

  10. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  11. Riverine water inflows and the Baltic Sea water volume 1901-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cyberski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of riverine outflow into the Baltic Sea is presented for the years 1901 – 1990. The monthly outflows were calculated from the measurements in a number of representative rivers. The analysis included estimation of seasonal and multi-year characteristics of riverine outflows and periodic structure, as well as stochastic and statistical indicators characterising the influence of riverine water on the variability of the sea level and water volume in the basin. The article presents prognostic characteristics determined using analysis of parametric stochastic processes. The results obtained are related to oceanographic characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Keywords: Baltic volume; Baltic balance; river outflow; river seasonality

  12. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230–450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980–1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). - Highlights: • We present a model to estimate water inflow from North Sea to Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. • The model predicted inflow range of 230–450 km3/y from the North Sea to Baltic Sea during 1980–1999. • The model provides a new way of application of 129I isotope for the Baltic Sea

  13. Hypoxia-driven variations in iron and manganese shuttling in the Baltic Sea over the past 8 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Conny; Jilbert, Tom; Conley, Daniel J.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-10-01

    The Baltic Sea has experienced three major intervals of bottom water hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater circa 8 kyr ago. These intervals occurred during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), and during recent decades. Here we show that sequestration of both Fe and Mn in Baltic Sea sediments generally increases with water depth, and we attribute this to shelf-to-basin transfer ("shuttling") of Fe and Mn. Burial of Mn in slope and basin sediments was enhanced following the lake-brackish/marine transition at the beginning of the hypoxic interval during the HTM. During hypoxic intervals, shelf-to-basin transfer of Fe was generally enhanced but that of Mn was reduced. However, intensification of hypoxia within hypoxic intervals led to decreased burial of both Mn and Fe in deep basin sediments. This implies a nonlinearity in shelf Fe release upon expanding hypoxia with initial enhanced Fe release relative to oxic conditions followed by increased retention in shelf sediments, likely in the form of iron sulfide minerals. For Mn, extended hypoxia leads to more limited sequestration as Mn carbonate in deep basin sediments, presumably because of more rapid reduction of Mn oxides formed after inflows and subsequent escape of dissolved Mn to the overlying water. Our Fe records suggest that modern Baltic Sea hypoxia is more widespread than in the past. Furthermore, hypoxia-driven variations in shelf-to-basin transfer of Fe may have impacted the dynamics of P and sulfide in the Baltic Sea thus providing potential feedbacks on the further development of hypoxia.

  14. Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea : Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Markus; Granstedt, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-coun...

  15. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  16. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  17. Nordic-Baltic security, Germany and NATO: the Baltic Sea Region is a test case for European security

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Claudia; Voss, Alicia von

    2016-01-01

    The countries around the Baltic Sea are among Europe's frontline states affected by the conflict between Russia and western Europe. The Baltics and Nordics share a common concern about a revisionist, aggressive, and rearming Russia: Since the onset of the crisis in and around Ukraine in 2014, these countries have felt increasingly exposed to Rus­sian military and non-military intimidation. Currently, they can neither defend nor maintain regional security by themselves: Their capacities are li...

  18. Distribution and reproduction of the Arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S; Haslob, H; Huwer, B; Katajisto, T; Lennuk, L; Majaneva, S; Põllumäe, A; Schaber, M; Setälä, O; Reusch, TBH; Viitasalo-Frösén, S; Vuorinen, I; Välipakka, P

    2013-01-01

    southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also...

  19. CLIMLINK: Climate forcing factors for marine environmental change during the mid- and late Holocene - a link between the NE Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Bąk, Małgorzata; Binczewska, Anna; Borówka, Ryszard; Dobosz, Sławomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kaniak, Aleksandra; Moros, Matthias; Perner, Kerstin; Sławinska, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has a strong amplifying effect on the environment of marginal seas such as the Baltic Sea. Owing to the connection of the Baltic Sea with the Atlantic (and the resultant pathway of water exchange via the narrow Danish Straits), changes in the Baltic region are suggested to be driven by external oceanic and atmospheric forcing originating in the Atlantic, particularly in the eastern Nordic seas, the Skagerrak, and the Kattegat. CLIMLINK aims to reconstruct mid- to late Holocene ecosystem changes in these regions and identify linkages, common forcing factors and effects for the Baltic Sea on a millennial to decadal time scale. High-resolution sediment records from selected key sites in the Norwegian Trench, and central Baltic Sea are studied by using a multi-proxy approach. Micropalaeontological studies of diatoms and foraminifera are combined with geochemical proxies, such as stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, TOC, TIC, C/N, XRF and magnetic susceptibility in order to achieve a more comprehensive view on environmental changes during the last 6000 to 8000 years. The chronology of the sediment cores is secured by using multiple dating tools: Hg-pollution records, 137Cs, 210Pb, 14C and tephra layers. Herein we present the initial results of the project.

  20. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.;

    2013-01-01

    crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y...... from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). Crown...

  1. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  2. Study of radioactive materials in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an evaluation of the Coordinated Research Programme on the long-term behaviour of radionuclides entering in the Baltic Sea area, including their transport back to man, and some conclusions and recommendations together with the final reports given by the chief investigators on the activities performed during the entire coordinated research programme, from its inception in 1981 to its conclusion in 1984, as well as the results of Intercalibration Exercises. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  3. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat...... data that recruitment depends on temperature conditions during the months when sprat gonads, eggs, and larvae are developing. We also show that recruitment can be predicted before adults spawn (and fully 15 months earlier than using present technology) by using linkages between recruitment, large-scale...

  4. Potential Masking of the Baltic Grey Seal Vocalisations by Underwater Shipping Noise in the Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bagočius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical surveys were completed in the Lithuanian Sea Museum and the Lithuanian area of the Baltic Sea during the period of 2012–2013. Underwater vocalisations of the Baltic grey seals were recorded and collated with underwater shipping noise recorded in the shallow area of the Lithuanian area of the Baltic Sea with the aim to evaluate possible masking of social vocalisations of animals. The following paper focuses not on the complex biomedical auditory or brain stem response research, but on the acoustical measurements and evaluation of possible masking of social vocalisations of grey seals by shipping noise. The results of the survey show masking potential of grey seal communication calls at significant distance in the presence of local shipping noise where the detection distance of calls between conspecifics can be significantly reduced. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.6913

  5. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  6. Baroclinic internal wave energy distribution in the Baltic Sea derived from 45 years of circulation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    Internal waves and internal tides are an essential component of the functioning of stratified shelf seas. They carry substantial amounts of energy through the water masses, drive key hydrophysical processes such as mixing and overturning and support the functioning of marine ecosystem in many ways. Their particular impact becomes evident near and at the bottom where they often create substantial loads to engineering structures and exert a wide range of impacts on the bottom sediments and evolution of the seabed. We analyse several properties of spatio-temporal distributions of energy of relatively long-period large-scale internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea. The analysis is based on numerically simulated pycnocline variations that are extracted from the hydrographic data calculated by the Rossby Centre Ocean circulation model (RCO) for the entire Baltic Sea for 1961-2005. This model has a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles and uses 41 vertical layers with a thickness between 3 m close to the surface and 12 m in 250 m depth. The model is forced with atmospheric data derived from the ERA-40 re-analysis using a regional atmosphere model with a horizontal resolution of 25 km. It also accounts for river inflow and water exchange through the Danish Straits. See (Meier, H.E.M., Höglund, A., 2013. Studying the Baltic Sea circulation with Eulerian tracers, in Soomere, T., Quak, E., eds., Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection, Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, 101-130) for a detailed description of the model and its forcing. The resolution of the model output used in this study (once in 6 hours) is sufficient for estimates of spectral amplitudes of the displacements of isopycnal surfaces with a typical period of 2-12 days. We provide the analysis of kinetic and potential energy of motions with these periods. The resulting maps of the maxima of energy and spatial distributions of near-bottom velocities have been evaluated for the entire simulation interval of 45

  7. Screening methodology for dose assessment to seawater organisms in baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of radionuclides in Baltic Sea environment in the frame of MORS programme gives opportunity to evaluate doses for aquatic organisms from the Southern Baltic Sea. The available environmental data from the last few years included concentrations of 137Cs (bomb-tests-fallout and Chernobyl origin), 226Ra (natural radionuclide) and 239,240Pu (bomb-tests-fallout) in biota, bottom sediment and water. The doses assessment of 137Cs, 226Ra and 239,240Pu for aquatic animals was performed, based on the screening methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to consideration and the annual doses from 137Cs, 226Ra and 239Pu to organisms were calculated at average concentrations of these radionuclides observed in water, concentration of radionuclides determined in bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) and average concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues. The total maximal annual doses for seawater organisms do not exceed a one percent of recommended dose limits however, the dominate contribution to the total dose depends on analysed radionuclide. For 137Cs a maximum contribution to the total dose gives external dose from bottom sediment (about 0.5 mGy y-1). Only about 1% of the total 137Cs dose is derived from internal dose however animal-water ratio obtained from measurements is much lower (in a range 30-300 L kg-1) comparing with recommended by DOE Standard value (22000 L kg-1). For 226Ra internal doses for fish and Mytilus are similar (0.2 mGy y-1, 0.6 mGy y-1 respectively) and they are comparable with external doses from sediment (0.3 mGy y-1) whereas internal dose for Sanduria is about 10 times higher (7 mGy y-1). A measured animal- water ratios (20 - 500 L kg-1) differs remarkably from default DOE Standard value (3200 L kg-1). For plutonium 239Pu the maximum contribution to the total dose gives

  8. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of  NH3 and NH4 and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3 are somewhat overestimated by the model. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south – north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 tonnes N km−2 in south and 0.2 tonnes N km−2 in north. The model results show that in 2000 the maximum deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year.

  9. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  11. Fluctuation of dominant mesozooplankton species in the Black Sea, North Sea and the Baltic Sea: Is a general trend recognisable?

    OpenAIRE

    NIERMANN, Ulrich; BİNGEL, Ferit; ERGÜN, Güner

    1998-01-01

    The distribution and fluctation of dominant pelagic species>300µ(Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Scyhozoa, Ctenophora and ichthyoplankton) of the southern Black Sea were compared with that of dominant species of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in relation to oceanographic and environmental features. In all three seas, similar changes in the zooplankton composition took place at the end of the 1980's, and the beginning of the 1990's. - decreasing or increasing abundances of certain s...

  12. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  13. Distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data were collected in 1988 and 1989 on the distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Crude oil degrading bacteria and the number of bacteria which in particular degrade naphthalene were quantified using a modified dilution method (MPN). Crude oil degrading bacteria were present in all of about 100 water samples, with as many as 103 ml-1 in some samples. Numbers of naphthalene degrading bacteria were at least tenfold lower. There is obviously a greater connection between this bacteria group and petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination than between the more nonspecific group of crude oil degrading bacteria and PHC contamination. Data from the North Sea show an extremely high abundance of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, even in winter, while in the southern Baltic Sea low numbers of bacteria were found and slower crude oil degradation was observed. (orig.)

  14. Effects on gravity from non tidal sea level variations in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Per-Anders; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Ågren, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to investigate numerically the effects of non tidal sea level variations in the Baltic Sea on gravity with special emphasis on the Swedish stations in the Nordic Absolute Gravity Project. To calculate the ocean loading effect on gravity the method described by Farrell (1972) is widely used. This method is based on convolution of a Green's function for gravity with the ocean load, but does not include the direct attraction depend...

  15. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Jaana; Karjalainen, Anna K; Schultz, Eija; Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. PMID:25506908

  16. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Bartnicki, J.; Semeena, V. S.; H. Fagerli

    2011-01-01

    The EMEP Unified model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 years: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13%. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11%) in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen depositions to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively l...

  17. Spatial sensitivity of inorganic carbon to model setup: North Sea and Baltic Sea with ECOSMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano Primo, Rocio; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    In ocean biogeochemical models it is critical to capture the key processes adequately so they do not only reproduce the observations but that those processes are reproduced correctly. One key issue is the choice of parameters, which in most cases are estimates with large uncertainties. This can be the product of actual lack of detailed knowledge of the process, or the manner the processes are implemented, more or less complex. In addition, the model sensitivity is not necessarily homogenous across the spatial domain modelled, which adds another layer of complexity to biogeochemical modelling. In the particular case of the inorganic carbon cycle, there are several sets of carbonate constants that can be chosen. The calculated air-sea CO2 flux is largely dependent on the parametrization chosen. In addition, the different parametrizations all the underlying processes that in some way impact the carbon cycle beyond the carbonate dissociation and fluxes give results that can be significantly different. Examples of these processes are phytoplankton growth rates or remineralization rates. Despite their geographical proximity, the North and Baltic Seas exhibit very different dynamics. The North Sea receives important inflows of Atlantic waters, while the Baltic Sea is an almost enclosed system, with very little exchange from the North Sea. Wind, tides, and freshwater supply act very differently, but dominantly structure the ecosystem dynamics on spatial and temporal scales. The biological community is also different. Cyanobacteria, which are important due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and they are only present in the Baltic Sea. These differentiating features have a strong impact in the biogeochemical cycles and ultimately shape the variations in the carbonate chemistry. Here the ECOSMO model was employed on the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model is set so both are modelled at the same time, instead of having them run separately. ECOSMO is a 3-D coupled

  18. Russian Port-Projects in the Baltic Sea: A Brief Analysis of Russian Ports and Projected Ports in the Baltic Sea Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Alf Brodin

    2001-01-01

    With its present borders, Russia faces severe limitations in port capacity in relation to the demand of the domestic industry and raw material producers. The Baltic states possess, on the other hand, a port capacity that vastly exceeds local demand and continues to attract large volumes of Russian transit cargo. In this paper, existing Russian ports on the Baltic Sea are described along with a number of proposed port projects in the Gulf of Finland. Future large scale development of new Russi...

  19. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pesic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea, from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean, and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea. The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a. As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a, additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2. Champacyclin (1a is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, because of its high content of (d-amino acids. The compound (1a showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants.

  20. Champacyclin, a new cyclic octapeptide from Streptomyces strain C42 isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Alexander; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ensle, Paul; Wiese, Jutta; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2013-12-01

    New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a). As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a), additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn) studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS) supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a) was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2). Champacyclin (1a) is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), because of its high content of (D)-amino acids. The compound (1a) showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants. PMID:24317473

  1. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  2. The Hydrographical Features of the Baltic Sea and the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to point out a few hydrographical features of the Baltic Sea, which make this sea, in reference to the disposal of radioactive wastes, different from any oceanic region. The seas can be divided, in reference to the practical problem of the disposal of radionuclides, into the following zones: (1) harbours, (2) fairways leading into harbours, (3) outer continental shelf and (4) the open sea. There, is no open sea, in the above sense, in the Baltic Sea. In addition, the validity of the rules recommended for the above zones, must be carefully checked through further hydrographical studies, since: (1) the whole Baltic is, in a sense, an estuary, with a sill-depth of only 18 metres in the Danish Sounds, (2) the mixing in the Baltic Sea is much more restricted than in the oceans, since the Baltic is rich in islands, brackish, heavily stratified, practically tideless, in winter partly covered with ice, and has a limited fetch of wind and only slowly moving permanent currents. In the paper reference is made to all these factors which diminish the turbulent diffusion, both vertical and horizontal. For the evaluation of the advection and turbulent (eddy) diffusion, both in the upper water layers and at the bottom, synoptic observations of current velocity and salinity at a number of points in several regions of the Baltic Sea and under different weather conditions are needed. (author)

  3. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Eker Develi; Aydın Sellioğ; Nuray Öner

    2011-01-01

    In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. T...

  4. Stratigraphic correlation for the IODP Expedition 347 - toward an integrated Baltic Sea Basin stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Andrén, Thomas; Cotterill, Carol; Hale, Walter; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, the

    2014-05-01

    The IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" completed in September - November 2013 (offshore phase) was the 5th and the final mission-specific platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The expedition used a geotechnical drillship, the Greatship Manisha equipped with a Geoquip Marine coring rig, to core and wireline-log several sub-basins within the Baltic Sea, aiming to produce new information on the history of the Baltic Sea and climate change during the last glacial cycle. During the IODP Expedition 347 altogether over 1900 meters were successfully drilled at 8 Sites (M0059 - M0067) in the Lille Belt, Kattegat, Ångermanälven Estuary, Landsort Deep, Hanö Basin and Bornholm Basin with core recovery of approximately 1600 m (expansion adjusted core recovery of 91.46%). In this presentation, we show the preliminary results of regional stratigraphic correlation and splice results for the Expedition. That information provides a solid base for stratigraphic and high-resolution paleoenvironmental studies. Stratigraphic correlation consisted of the following: (1) ensuring the maximum core recovery on site, (2) seismic-core (sedimentary facies) correlation and (3) generating composite depth scales and splice records to each site. To obtain a complete sedimentary record, multiple adjacent holes were cored with an offset in depth of 0.5-1.5 m between cores from different holes. The continuity of recovery was assessed by generating composite sections that align prominent features in physical property data from adjacent holes. With the information gained by Fast Track Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, it was possible to adjust coring plan before the new hole, to ensure that intervals missing in previous cores could be recovered from an adjacent hole. Correlation between seismic profiles and cores used a simple estimation sound velocity vs. sediment type. Acquired depth was tested by comparison with major core surfaces, downhole logs

  5. Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from sedimentary records, hydrography and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bartholdy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Short sediment cores from the eastern Gotland Basin were investigated using a multi-proxy approach in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions of the area during the past 1000 years. Sediment data and facies were discussed in relation to hydrographic features (salinity, oxygen and climate change. During the medieval warm period (MWP, from about 900 to 1250 AD, the hydrographic and environmental conditions were similar to those of the present time (modern warm period, since about 1850: a temporally stable halocline, caused by regular saline water inflows from the North Sea, prevents vertical mixing and leads to bottom water anoxia and the deposition of laminated, organic-rich sapropels. During the period from about 1250 to 1850, referred to as the cold phase (including the Little Ice Age, the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly different: the lower salinity, resulting from reduced North Sea water inflows, allowed vertical convection of the water column and long-term stable ventilation of the sea bed (oxic stage. Both the productivity of the planktonic ecosystem as well as the preservation of organic matter in the sediments improved during the warm periods. The anthropogenic impact can be identified within the recent laminated sequence by a temporal reconstruction of pollutant deposition. Our findings imply a climate-change driven shift in the environmental conditions and the ecosystem of the Baltic from the north to the south and back to the north.

  6. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the baltic and coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Lerz, Astrid

    1996-03-01

    The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides, e.g. the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p’-dichiorodiphenyitrichloroethane (DDT) and its primary metabolites DDE and DDD was investigated in surface sediments (0 2 cm) and sediment cores (0 45 cm) from the western Baltic Sea and the coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Sediment sampling was carried out in the Belt Sea, the Arkona Basin, the Pomeranian Bight and in almost all Bodden and Haff areas of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in autumn 1993 and 1994. The highest concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds, measured in the innercoastal waters, reached 214 ng g-1 dry weight (d. w.). The values of HCH isomers ranged between 0.01 and 2.9 ng g-1 d.w., the highest levels being those of Β-HCH. Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, which varied depending on the sediment properties, indicated increased riverine inputs (Oder, Peene, and Uecker). Elevated levels in the Oderhaff and Peenestrom characterize that area as a sink and, due to remobilization of the upper sediment layer (fluffy layer) into the pelagic, also as a source of organic contaminants. Input from agriculture and industrial point sources (shipyards, shipbuilding) was observed in the coastal waters. The homogeneous PCB and DDT distribution (TOC standardization) observed in the surface sediments of some areas in the western Baltic indicates high sediment dynamics. This is supported by the results of sediment core analyses which showed a constant PCB and DDT distribution down to a depth of 15 to 20 cm.

  8. Nodularia spumigena and Its Attribute to Bloom Formation in Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Humayan Kabir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available N. spumigena is the dominant cyanobacterial species found in Baltic Sea. It forms extensive bloom in late summer in areas of the Baltic Sea with high phosphorus concentrations and moderate salinity. Both environmental and manmade factors are involved with bloom formation. This review also elucidates the physiological and molecular aspects of nitrogen fixation, heterocyst formation and nodularin production in N. spumigena.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.992

  9. Responses of Baltic Sea Ice and Open-Water Natural Bacterial Communities to Salinity Change

    OpenAIRE

    Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Laamanen, Maria; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the responses of Baltic Sea wintertime bacterial communities to changing salinity (5 to 26 practical salinity units), an experimental study was conducted. Bacterial communities of Baltic seawater and sea ice from a coastal site in southwest Finland were used in two batch culture experiments run for 17 or 18 days at 0°C. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, and leucine and thymidine incorporation were measured during the experiments. The bacterial community structure was assessed u...

  10. New Levels of Climate Adaptation Policy: Analyzing the Institutional Interplay in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkku Juhola; Erik Glaas

    2013-01-01

    International policy development and expected climate change impacts such as flooding, landslides, and the extinction of sensitive species have forced countries around the Baltic Sea to begin working on national climate adaptation policies. Simultaneously, the EU is building both a central and a macro-regional Baltic Sea-wide adaptation strategy to support national policy developments. However, it yet remains unclear how these EU strategies will complement each other or national policies. Thi...

  11. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    In this research, we study the influence of dynamic processes in the Danish Straits on the sea surface height (SSH) oscillations in the Baltic Sea. For this purpose, we use the model of marine and oceanic circulation INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). The simulations were carried out for the period 2009-2010, and the coastal station data were used for verification of SSH modelling quality. Comparison of the simulated data with the ones measured in the coastal points showed us that the model does not describe SSH variability in different areas of the Baltic Sea well enough, so in the following simulation series the in situ SSH data of the coastal measurements were assimilated at the open boundary in the Danish Straits. The results of the new simulation showed us that this approach significantly increases the SSH simulation quality in all areas of the sea, where the comparison was made. In particular, the correlation coefficients between the simulated and measured SSH data increased from 0.21-0.73 to 0.81-0.90. On the basis of these results, it has been suggested that the Baltic Sea SSH variability is largely determined by the influence of the dynamic processes in the Danish Straits, which can be represented as a superposition of oscillations of different space-time scales. These oscillations can either be generated in the straits themselves, or propagate from the North Sea. For verification of this hypothesis and assessment of the oscillation propagation distance in the Baltic Sea, the following experiment was performed. At the open boundary in the Danish Straits, the six harmonics were set with the following parameters: the periods are 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 13.5, 40.5, and 121.5 days, and the amplitude for all the harmonics is 50 cm. The results showed us that the prescribed harmonic oscillations at the open boundary propagate into all areas of the sea without changing the frequency, but with decreasing amplitude. The decrease in amplitude is not

  12. Large-scale environmental effects and ecological processes in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Swedish research programme concerning the Baltic Sea is initiated by the SNV to produce budgets and models of eutrophying substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, some organic substances) and toxic substances (PCB, lindane and PAH). A description of the distribution and turnover of these substances including their transformation will be necessary in the evaluation of critical processes controlling concentrations in relation to external load. A geographical information system will be made available as a database and analytical tool for all participants (BED, Baltic Ecosystem Data). This project is designed around cooperation between the Baltic Sea countries. (au)

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  14. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  15. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  16. Non-navigational Uses of the Sea Space: The Baltic Sea Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Otremba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some parts of the global ocean, apart from their traditional use (maritime transport, fishery, navy, becomes suitable for other technical activities and investments (e.g. gas and electricity transmission, wind farms, gas and oil extraction, gravel extraction, coastal protection. These activities interact with marine environment as well as can interfere with navigation. This paper presents relating to the Baltic Sea large scale technical activities as well as points up their possible individual environmental effects.

  17. Development of interdisciplinary model of microplastics transport and transformation in the Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Chubarenko, Irina; Mizyuk, Artem; Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Isachenko, Igor; Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, anthropogenic pressure from the coastal areas comes up in many aspects of marine environment changes, decreasing the aesthetics of the underwater world, threatening the sustainability of marine ecosystems and influencing the quality of human life. Microplastics are pervasive throughout the marine environment, are ingested by many marine organisms, and enter a food chain that includes humans. A certain fraction of microplastics in marine environment results from breakdown of larger items in numerous tiny fragments due to mechanical forces and photochemical processes, as well as from other degradation sources. Microplastics can absorb high levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and other toxins. Deep-sea sediments are a likely, but yet unquantified, sink for microplastics (Cole et al., 2011). Since the MARBLE ('MicroplAstics Research in the BaLtic Environment') project started, three expeditions and multiple on-shore field experiments have been conducted in the South-Eastern Baltic. The samples were collected from the surface, deep water layers and bottom sediments. The samples were processed and physical parameters of the microparticles were established. In parallel, laboratory experiments under controllable conditions over the particles of regular shapes were conducted in order to test the empirical formulas for the sinking velocity. PLEX ('PLastics EXplorer') -- a device for efficiently collecting microparticles in marine environment -- was developed, built and tested. An attempt was made to quantify some geometrical properties of particles, to compare their surface areas, fouling rates, sinking velocities, and finally provide some estimates for the main spatial and temporal scales, describing the behaviour of the particles of different densities and shapes in the Baltic Sea (Chubarenko et al., 2016). An original 3D model of Microplastics dynamics is under development now. Its aim is to provide a robust numerical predictive tool to study pathways

  18. Tritium concentration in the Baltic and North Sea surface waters in autumn 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium concentration in the surface waters of Baltic and North seas is investigated using liquid-scintillation technique after preliminary electrolysis concentrating. Prior to electrolysis water samples were subjected to double distillation. Single determination duration made up ∼150 min. The method cumulative error under 0.60 confidence probability makes up 30%. As a result of analyzing the water samples taken in the surface waters of the seas under investigation in the fall of 1985 the medium tritium concentration in the Baltic sea waters was 4.5 k Bq/m3 and in the North sea ones -3.6 kBq/m3. A more inhomogeneous tritium concentration distribution with gradual decrease to the South-West and North-West is detected in the Baltic sea as compared to the North sea

  19. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  20. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  1. Effects of fluvial discharges on meiobenthic and macrobenthic variability in the Vistula River prodelta (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Mazurkiewicz, Mikołaj; Jankowska, Emilia; Kotwicki, Lech; Damrat, Mateusz; Zajączkowski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    The role of environmental variability produced by river discharges in shaping the spatial and seasonal patterns of meiobenthic and macrobenthic communities was studied in the Vistula River (Baltic Sea) prodelta. Seven stations located in the delta front, the plume influence area and the distal zone of the prodelta were visited over the four seasons of 2012. Meiofauna, macrofauna, water (temperature, salinity, and suspended matter) and sediments (grain size, POC, TN, δ15N and δ13C and photosynthetic pigments) were analysed. The seasonal variations in the river discharges (with maximum flows in spring) resulted in a strong temporal variability in the studied environmental characteristics. In the benthic biota, the signals of seasonal variability, if present, were much weaker than spatial zonation. The benthic communities inhabiting the delta front where the main bulk of fluvial materials was deposited were taxonomically impoverished. The richest fauna dwelled within the plume influence area where the physical disturbance ceased and primary marine production was enhanced by river transported nutrients. In the distal zone outside the river influence, the fauna was dominated by deeper dwelling species, and the numbers of individuals and taxa decreased. Factors related to the riverine discharges (i.e., salinity, mineral suspension, POC and δ13C in the water and sediments) were identified as having high correlation with variability in the meiofaunal and macrofaunal community descriptors. Evidently, the interplay of food (i.e., the quantity and quality of organic matter) and disturbance (i.e., the deposition of river transported minerals) constraints shaped the patterns of benthic variability in the prodelta of the second largest river entering the Baltic Sea.

  2. Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Klusek, Zygmunt; Szubska, Marta; Turja, Raisa; Bulczak, Anna I.; Rak, Daniel; Brenner, Matthias; Lang, Thomas; Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Fricke, Nicolai; Östin, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Fabisiak, Jacek; Garnaga, Galina; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Majewski, Piotr; Broeg, Katja; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula; Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Lehtonen, Kari; Berglind, Rune; Schmidt, Beata

    2016-06-01

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  3. Nitrogen isotope dynamics and fractionation during sedimentary denitrification in Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dähnke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global marine nitrogen cycle is constrained by nitrogen fixation as a source of reactive nitrogen, and denitrification or anammox on the sink side. These processes with their respective isotope effects set the marine nitrate 15N-isotope value (δ15N to a relatively constant average of 5‰. This value can be used to better assess the magnitude of these sources and sink terms, but the underlying assumption is that sedimentary denitrification and anammox, processes responsible for approximately one-third of global nitrogen removal, have little to no isotope effect on nitrate in the water column. We investigated the isotope fractionation in sediment incubations, measuring net denitrification and nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in surface sediments from the coastal Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck, northern Germany, a site with seasonal hypoxia and dynamic nitrogen turnover. Sediment denitrification was fast, and regardless of current paradigms assuming little fractionation during sediment denitrification, we measured fractionation factors of 18.9‰ for nitrogen and 15.8‰ for oxygen in nitrate. While the input of nitrate to the water column remains speculative, these results challenge the current view of fractionation during sedimentary denitrification and imply that nitrogen budget calculations may need to consider this variability, as both preferential uptake of light nitrate and release of the remaining heavy fraction can significantly alter water column nitrate isotope values at the sediment–water interface.

  4. Nitrogen isotope dynamics and fractionation during sedimentary denitrification in Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dähnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global marine nitrogen cycle is constrained by nitrogen fixation as a source of reactive nitrogen, and denitrification or anammox on the sink side. These processes with their respective isotope effects set the marine nitrate 15N-isotope value (δ15N to a relatively constant average of 5‰. This value can be used to better assess the magnitude of these sources and sink terms, but the underlying assumption is that sedimentary denitrification and anammox, processes responsible for approximately one third of global nitrogen removal, have little to no isotope effect on nitrate in the water column.

    We investigated the isotope fractionation in sediment incubations, measuring net denitrification and nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in surface sediments from the coastal Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck, Northern Germany, a site with seasonal hypoxia and dynamic nitrogen turnover.

    We found tremendously high denitrification rates, and regardless of current paradigms assuming little fractionation during sediment denitrification, we measured fractionation factors of 18.9‰ for nitrogen and 15.8‰ for oxygen in nitrate. While the input of nitrate to the water column remains speculative, these results challenge the current view of fractionation during sedimentary denitrification and imply that nitrogen budget calculations may need to consider this variability, as both preferential uptake of light nitrate and release of the remaining heavy fraction can significantly alter water column nitrate isotope vales at the sediment-water interface.

  5. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  6. What we know about the Baltic Sea: a summary of BSSC 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Uścinowicz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction    The Baltic Sea, an internal sea of the European Community, isone of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. It isquite unique in many respects, particularly in its natural featuresand in the cultural, political and socio-economic patterns ofthe countries bordering it.    After nearly 40 years, during which Baltic marine physicists,chemists, biologists and geologists had been holding separatescientific meetings, it was decided the time was ripe to arrangejoint scientific conferences with the purpose of getting togetherto discuss general and specific aspects of the Baltic Sea, toexchange information, to integrate efforts, and to get to knowand understand each other better. The Sopot 2005 Congress, precededby the Baltic Sea Science Congresses in Rønne (1997, Warnemünde(1999, Stockholm (2001 and Helsinki (2003, was the fifth jointmeeting of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers (CBO, BalticMarine Biologists (BMB and Baltic Sea Geologists (BSG. Likeall the previous congresses, the one held in Sopot bore witnessto the idea that we all, members of CBO, BMB and BSG, shouldcontinue to work together even more closely.    The meeting in Sopot instigated discussion on a broad spectrumof problems, from large-scale climate change-related processesto local, small-scale specific Baltic Sea features. Further subjectsfor deliberation included modelling as a research tool and asa way of providing services and forecasting certain phenomena,operational oceanography, and man's impact on the Baltic Seaenvironment and its resources.    We are indebted to our Scientific Committee for their work duringthe past months to sort out and select interesting contributionsto all the oral and poster sessions, and thus for making theCongress an attractive and quality event. We also thank the PolishAcademy of Sciences and the City of Sopot for their financialsupport.    We hope that the joint Congress and fruitful scientific

  7. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  8. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  9. Application of a littoral Baltic Sea resuspension model in a eutrophic lake-factors behind differences in the model performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jukka Horppila n; Joni Kaitaranta; Leena Nurminen

    2015-01-01

    abstract The performance of a linear resuspension model developed in the Baltic Sea was studied in the conditions of a eutrophic Lake Kirkkojärvi (southern Finland). The model predicts sediment resuspen-sion rate using data on vegetation cover, wind and sediment quality as an input. When the original model coefficients were used, the model resulted on average 1.8 fold overestimation of the resuspension rate in Kirkkojärvi. This was due to lower fetch and water depth, and less consolidated sediment of Kirkkojärvi compared with the Baltic Sea study site. When coefficients were adjusted for Kirkkojärvi, the model predictions were 1.1 times the measured values. Due to the continuous resuspension, the effect of the wind term in the model was so low that it could be excluded without affecting the accuracy of model predictions. The study demonstrated that in a shallow eutrophic lake accurate predictions on resuspension rate can be made using only data on sediment quality and on factors inhibiting resuspension (macrophytes). The model residuals increased with increasing resuspension rate and high rates of resuspension were underestimated by the model. Due to the fluffy sediment in Kirkkojärvi, erosion of sediment increases more than linear with increasing shear stress. Thus in such conditions, even better predictions could be achieved by a non-linear resuspension model.&2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation/the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  10. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  11. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  12. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  13. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  14. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  15. Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deutsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether dissolved organic matter (DOM in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as δ13C values of high molecular weight DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM that reaches the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations our results indicate that substantial amounts of DOM (>50% seems to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.3, 2.7, and 4.1 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

  16. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  17. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    . This paper investigates the costeffective distribution of nutrient abatement measures between drainage basins and Baltic Sea regions, where the aim is to achieve the BSAP nutrient load reduction targets. The cost-minimisation model BALTCOST, an interdisciplinary development involving economists and...... natural scientists, is used to identify the most cost-effective configuration of abatement measures. BALTCOST utilises detailed regional and spatial data down to 10 x 10km grid cell level for all Baltic littoral countries. Modelling results suggest that it should be possible to achieve the BSAP load...... reduction targets for N and P in most Baltic Sea regions, with the exception of the P load target in the Baltic Proper and the N reduction target in the Danish Straits, where only 74% and 88% respectively, of the desired BSAP load reductions can be delivered. BALTCOST results indicate that the BSAP targets...

  18. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...... reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity of the...... Baltic because of its low salinity. Fishing fleets which presently target marine species (e.g. cod, herring, sprat, plaice, sole) in the Baltic will likely have to relocate to more marine areas or switch to other species which tolerate decreasing salinities. Fishery management thresholds that trigger...

  19. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants and...

  20. Fish and Ships in the Baltic Sea - Prices, Demand and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The essay discusses different aspects of the market for fish from the Baltic Sea. The first chapter introduces the subject and discusses why the market for fish is interesting and in particular why analyses of first-hand market prices can give insights into the effects of new regulations or natural variations changing the conditions for fisheries. Prices of different attributes of Baltic cod is the topic of the second chapter. The results show that larger and better quality cod have h...

  1. Assessment of Marine Mammal Impact Zones for Use of Military Sonar in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mathias H; Johansson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Military sonars are known to have caused cetaceans to strand. Navies in shallow seas use different frequencies and sonar pulses, commonly frequencies between 25 and 100 kHz, compared with most studied NATO sonar systems that have been evaluated for their environmental impact. These frequencies match the frequencies of best hearing in the harbor porpoises and seals resident in the Baltic Sea. This study uses published temporary and permanent threshold shifts, measured behavioral response thresholds, technical specifications of a sonar system, and environmental parameters affecting sound propagation common for the Baltic Sea to estimate the impact zones for harbor porpoises and seals. PMID:26610942

  2. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  3. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/MSC-W model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 yr: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13 %. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11 % in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13 % to +17 % of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly deposition pattern is similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13 % and Denmark 8–11 %. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–9 %, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5 %.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP Unified model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 years: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13%. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11% in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen depositions to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13% to +17% of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly depositions are similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13% and Denmark 8–11%. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–10%, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5%.

  5. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority of the...

  6. Mean and extreme sea level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jessica; Patzke, Justus; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen; Fröhle, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution an overview over the BMBF project AMSeL_Ostsee (2015-2018) for the assessment of mean and extreme sea level changes over the past 150 years in the southwestern Baltic Sea is presented. We compile several high resolution tide gauge records provided by the Water and Shipping Administration (WSV) along the German Baltic Sea coastline and merge them in internationally available data bases (UHSLC, PSMSL, and data officially available at national authorities). In addition, we make efforts in digitizing historical records to expand the number of available data sets in this complex and vulnerable coastal region. To separate absolute from relative long-term changes in sea level the vertical land motion (VLM) at specific sites is assessed. Possible sources of VLM are independently assessed by using different state-of-the-art approaches, that is: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelled by viscoelastic Earth models, GPS derived VLM, and the difference between tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry. The VLM corrected tide gauge records are further assessed for linear and non-linear trends as well as possible acceleration/deceleration patterns by applying advanced time series models such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) combined with a Monte-Carlo-Autoregressive-Padding approach (Wahl et al., 2010). These trend assessments are applied to mean and extreme sea levels independently to prove whether observed changes in extremes are either due to an underlying trend on mean sea levels or changes in storminess. References: Wahl, T., Jensen, J., Frank, T. (2011): On analysing sea level rise in the German Bight since 1844, NHESS, 10, 171-179.

  7. Studies on the distribution of transuranics in the Baltic Sea, the Danish Belts, the Kattegat and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish Sounds and Belts connect the North Sea with the Baltic Sea. The salinity of the North Sea is approximately 34 per mille and of the Baltic approximately 9 per mille. In the inner Danish waters the bottom water consists mostly of ingoing, heavy North Sea water, while on the surface we find the low salinity Baltic water. The Danish waters make it possible within a limited area to study the influence on radionuclide levels of the varying salinities in the marine environment. The Thule samples referred to in the present report do not include those which were contaminated by unexploded nuclear weapon debris from the 1968 accident. The study of transuranics in Danish waters has been supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1978

  8. A freshwater species wintering in a brackish environment: Habitat selection and diet of Slavonian grebes in the southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Nicole; Garthe, Stefan; Adler, Sven

    2009-09-01

    After the breeding season, Slavonian grebes ( Podiceps auritus) leave their freshwater breeding habitats and migrate to wintering grounds in marine or brackish waters. The most important wintering area in northwestern Europe is located in the southern Baltic Sea, with the largest concentrations in the offshore area of the Pommeranian Bight. Analysis of ship-based surveys revealed that the habitat selection of Slavonian grebes in this brackish area is significantly influenced by water depth and bottom sediment type. The grebes prefer shallow waters of 4-14 m depth and occur only over sandy sediments. While the diving depths of endothermic animals is limited due to energetic constraints and thermoregulation, sediment type is regarded to be a proxy for food choice. The diet of Slavonian grebes in the Pomeranian Bight consists mainly of demersal gobies (Gobiidae) that frequently occur over sandy bottom substrates.

  9. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  10. Transport and hydraulically-induced recycling of phosphorous in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Rikke; Struve, Anke; Christiansen, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    Bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements indicate that the net transport of water (844 m3 s-1) in the Little Belt makes up only 6% of the total transport between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. This is a smaller percentage than the 9% commonly found in the literature. Owing...

  11. Influence of the arrival of radioactive industrially contaminated North Sea water upon the radiation conditions in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present and evaluate data from a four-year period of monitoring the movement of radioactive effluents from the radiochemical plants of Western Europe from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and determine the concentrations at various regions along this pathway for cesium 134 and 137 and strontium 90 isotopes

  12. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply to the Baltic Sea from boreal rivers will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially...

  13. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  14. Unstructured-grid model for the North Sea and Baltic Sea: Validation against observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Stanev, E. V.; Grashorn, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new unstructured-grid model and its application to the North Sea and Baltic Sea are described. The research focus is on the dynamics in the two basins and in the multiple straits connecting them and more specifically on how the model replicates the temporal and spatial variability of physical processes. The comparison against observed data indicates the realism in the simulations of the exchange flows. The simulations demonstrated that in contrast to the tidal variability which decreases in the strait, the role of the barotropic forcing due to weather systems increases. In this zone reversal of transport is well manifested by the increased difference between the surface and bottom salinity values. Small sub-basins like Arkona and Bornholm play the role of reservoirs for denser water which under specific conditions cascades on its way to the Gotland Deep. Unlike the intermediate and deep water salinity in the Baltic Sea, which is strongly affected by fluxes in the straits, the simulated winter-refill and evolution of cold intermediate water are rather driven by surface cooling and processes in the upper mixed layer.

  15. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uutela, A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304 from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional stages as well as during Middle Ordovician transitions from Aseri to Lasnamägi and from Idavere to Jöhvi regional stages. The provenance of the erratics was the Bothnian Bay, further north than the Lower Palaeozoic deposits previously known in the Bothnian Sea. The age could be determinated by their acritarch composition which shows that the sea also covered Central Ostrobothnia during the Lower Ordovician Billingen and early Middle Ordovician Lasnamägi regional stages. The drillcore samples contained also unknown spores. They suggest that there have been sediments and/or a terrestrial flora later than Ordovician in the Lappajärvi area.

  16. Assessment of the environmental status for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Fryer, Rob; Andersen, Jesper H.

    background”, green for “no harmful effect to the environment” and red for unacceptable. The HELCOM goals set out in the Baltic Sea action plan are similar, “concentrations of hazardous substances close to natural levels”, “all fish safe to eat”, and “healthy wildlife”. The assessment criteria used and the...... conventions will be highlighted and discussed in the light of the question: How much science should be sacrificed to achieve a product accessible to lay people and politicians? Both conventions are headed towards a “traffic light” system with a blue as background levels OSPARs goal of “close to or at...

  17. Airborne EM sea-ice thickness profiling over brackish Baltic sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Helicopter-borne electromagnetic-inductive (EM) ice thickness measurements have been performed in February 2003 along the Finish Baltic Sea coast. Both, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia were surveyed. Measurements have been performed with a small, two-frequency EM-Bird, a towed sensor suspended 20 m below the heli-copter and operated 15 m above the ice surface. Results show that sufficiently accurate measurements were obtained even with minimum water salinities of 3 ppt in the Bay ...

  18. Halomonhystera disjuncta - a young-carrying nematode first observed for the Baltic Sea in deep basins within chemical munitions disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kotwicki, Lech

    2016-06-01

    Three deep basins in the Baltic Sea were investigated within the framework of the CHEMSEA project (Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment), which aims to evaluate the ecological impact of chemical warfare agents dumped after World War II. Nematode communities, which comprise the most numerous and diverse organisms in the surveyed areas, were investigated as a key group of benthic fauna. One of the most successful nematode species was morphologically identified as Halomonhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865). The presence of this species, which is an active coloniser that is highly resistant to disturbed environments, may indicate that the sediments of these disposal sites are characterised by toxic conditions that are unfavourable for other metazoans. Moreover, ovoviviparous reproductive behaviour in which parents carry their brood internally, which is an important adaptation to harsh environmental conditions, was observed for specimens from Gdansk Deep and Gotland Deep. This reproductive strategy, which is uncommon for marine nematodes, has not previously been reported for nematodes from the Baltic Sea sediment.

  19. The baltic environmental information dissemination system: using environmental informatics as a tool for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Filho Walter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-going economic development of EU-countries as well of the countries in the C&E European region has been leading to a significant use of a great deal of natural resources as well as to noticeable environmental problems. The lack of a wide-spread environmental awareness from the side of those acting in various sectors (industry, public administration, users sometimes inhibit the implementation of legislation already available as well as the introduction of new technologies deriving, from example, from marine research. An example of this state of affairs is seen in respect of the implementation of the recommendations deriving from Baltic 21 and VASAB 2010, which illustrate the advantages from a cross-sectorial, open mechanism for the dissemination of environmental information in the region. There are various organisations today which act as suppliers of environmental information in the Baltic Sea Region. However, few, if any, are providers concerned with the various ways in which information on matters related to sustainable development is being used by various groups and audiences. This state of affairs makes it necessary to enhance the current mechanisms and approaches in place, so as to enable the wide-range of environmental information available today from areas such as marine research, to be more widely used. It is equally important that the didactic or educational potential of such information be exploited, so as to not only inform, but also to educate various groups and the general public on matters concerned with the environment in European closed seas and give information to planners and politicians to prepare decisions. In order to address such needs, the project "Baltic Environmental Information Dissemination System (BEIDS" was set in motion. BEIDS has been taking advantage of the most modern information technologies and has been acting as a focal point for the circulation of intelligent information on aspects of the marine

  20. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. PMID:26992746

  1. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.;

    2015-01-01

    the last 50–100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs......, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative...... eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea.Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to...

  2. Transport interests and environmental regimes: The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Olav F., E-mail: olav.f.knudsen@gmail.co [Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Box 27035, 102 51 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests.

  3. Transport interests and environmental regimes. The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Olav F. [Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Box 27035, 102 51 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests. (author)

  4. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  5. CHARACTERISTIC ASPECTS OF THE NORTHWEST BALTIC REGION SEA BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelezkova, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the characteristic features of the port infrastructure development in the Northwest of the Baltic basin. The ports specialization is emphasized. Following the results, a need to build multimodal terminal and logistic complexes (hubs) was found.

  6. Mass variations of the Baltic Sea compared to superconducting gravimeter and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, H.; Virtanen, J.; Nordman, M.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Mäkinen, J.

    2009-04-01

    We study the gravity effect of Baltic Sea mass variations observed using different methods and time resolutions. We compare data from tide gauges, from superconductive gravimeter (SG) at Metsähovi, Finland and from the GRACE gravity satellite. The mass variation in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is due to both internal redistribution of the water mass and due to changes in the so-called fill level caused by water exchange with the North Sea. The monthly variation in the water mass is about 60 Gt over an area of 390000 km-2. Due to a dense network of tide gauges, the Baltic Sea is one of best monitored mass variations in this size in the world. For modeling the observed water mass, we have used both monthly PSMSL tide gauge records and hourly values from several sources. In addition, we have hydrodynamic models for comparisons. To calculate gravity effect, we have used Green's function formalism for modeled sea surface. We have previously used temporal gravity field data from GRACE satellite to show that GRACE can recover the total mass variation in the Baltic Sea on monthly scales. In addition to monthly GRACE solutions with different filters, we now also use 10-day mascon block solutions from Goddard Space Flight Center. As the GRACE solutions are already corrected for gravity changes due to oceans, we have restored the contribution due to the Baltic Sea. We have also corrected for an effect due to leakage of continental water storage using the GLDAS hydrology model. The fundamental station Metsähovi is located 10 km from the nearest bay of the Baltic Sea and 15 km from the open sea. Using a single tide gauge at the distance of 30 km from SG at Metsähovi, very clear correlation is found between gravity and sea level. Superconducting gravity data has been corrected by tides and polar motion, atmospheric mass redistribution, local groundwater and drift. Hourly mass variations of sea are clearly separable. Theoretically one-meter even-layer water cause 30 nms-2

  7. Transport and hydraulically-induced recycling of phosphorus in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Christiansen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measurementsindicate that the net transport of water (844 m3 s-1 in theLittle Belt makes up only 6% of the total transport betweenthe Baltic Sea and the North Sea. This is a smaller percentagethan the 9% commonly found in the literature. Owing to barotropicand tidal currents the gross transport is 5 times larger. Thenet transport is directed towards the North Sea mainly in thetop 32 m of the water column but towards the Baltic Sea it occursin the lower 5 m of the water column. The resulting transportof phosphorus is strongly affected by vertical mixing in an areaof hydraulic control in the narrow part of the Little Belt. Comparisonsof phosphorus profiles in stratified waters and in the mixingarea indicate a yearly entrainment of 15 tonnes P from the bottomwater to the surface layer. This vertical transport of P formspart of an internal loop in the general transport between theBaltic Sea and the North Sea. Compared to the transport observed15-16 years ago, the present net phosphorus transport of 163tonnes yr-1 from the Baltic Sea through the Little Belt is substantiallylower.

  8. Finnish studies in the Baltic Sea on the behaviour of radionuclides due to global fall-out and releases from nuclear power plants. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of studies on the behaviour of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The balances of 90Sr and 137Cs in water phase are discussed as well as their elimination from water by sedimentation and distribution in sediments. The distribution of 239Pu, 240Pu in sediments is also described. In soft bottoms the amount of 90Sr per unit area varies from 6 to 15% of that deposited on land surface, 137Cs from 17 to 700% and 239Pu,240Pu from 65 to 1000%. Accumulation of the above-mentioned radionucides as well as 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, sup(110m)Ag and 124Sb by some Baltic mussels, a crustacean different littoral algae, plankton and some fish species is reported

  9. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  10. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps and from 10 meteorological masts, established specifically for wind energy in the study area, are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a root mean square error of 1.17 m s−1, bias of −0.25 m s−1, standard deviation of 1.88 m s−1 and correlation coefficient of R2 0.783. Wind directions from a global atmospheric model, interpolated in time and space, are used as input to the geophysical model function CMOD-5 for SAR wind retrieval. Wind directions compared to mast observations show a root mean square error of 6.29° with a bias of 7.75°, standard deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images show wind power density values to range from 300 to 800 W m−2 for the 14 existing and 42 planned wind farms.

  11. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C and nitrogen (N during degradation of organic matter plays a key role in determining the surplus of bioavailable P in the water column. Preferential remineralization of P takes place both in the water column and upper sediments and its rate is shown to be redox-dependent, increasing as reducing conditions become more severe at greater water-depth in the deep basins. Existing Redfield-based biogeochemical models of the Baltic may therefore underestimate the imbalance between N and P availability for primary production, and hence the vulnerability of the Baltic to sustained eutrophication via the fixation of atmospheric N. However, burial of organic P is also shown to increase during multidecadal intervals of expanded hypoxia, due to higher net burial rates of organic matter around the margins of the deep basins. Such intervals may be characterized by basin-scale acceleration of all fluxes within the P cycle, including productivity, regeneration and burial, sustained by the relative accessibility of the water column P pool beneath a shallow halocline.

  12. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C and nitrogen (N during degradation of organic matter plays a key role in determining the surplus of bioavailable P in the water column. Preferential remineralization of P takes place both in the water column and upper sediments and its rate is shown to be water-depth dependent, increasing with the severity of reducing conditions into the deep basins. Existing Redfield-based biogeochemical models of the Baltic may therefore underestimate the imbalance between N and P availability for primary production, and hence the vulnerability of the Baltic to sustained eutrophication via the fixation of atmospheric N. However, burial of organic P is also shown to increase during multidecadal intervals of expanded hypoxia, due to higher net burial rates of organic matter around the margins of the deep basins. Such intervals may be characterized by basin-scale acceleration of all fluxes within the P cycle, including productivity, regeneration and burial, sustained by the relative accessibility of the water column P pool beneath a shallow halocline.

  13. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanobacterium) Populations along a Baltic Sea Salinity Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Laamanen, Maria J.; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-01-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to...

  14. Radiocaesium from Chernobyl in benthic algae along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K were measured in samples taken from the upper littoral along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast in 1990 and 1991. The results were compared with earlier measurements carried out 1984-1989, and some unpublished data from these years are presented as well. The levels of radiocesium in algae that belong to different algal groups were compared, and the value of different algal species as monitoring organisms for radionuclides in the Baltic Sea was discussed. Suggestions for future monitoring and future research are given. 10 refs, 5 figs, 10 tabs

  15. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to...... the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one...

  16. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kostianoy A.G.; Bulycheva E.V.; Semenov A. V.; Krainyukov A.

    2015-01-01

    Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which inclu...

  17. A nuclear-weapon-free zone from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, at the Extension and Review Conference of the parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Belarus introduced the new idea of establishing the nuclear-weapon-free zone 'in the center of Europe', as an alternative to a military and nuclear expansion eastwards by the Western military alliance NATO. The geographical scope of the zone from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea could encompass the former Warsaw pact territory west of Russian federation including: the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), four Visegrad states (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary), newly independent states (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova), Romania and Bulgaria. The success of nuclear-weapon-free zone is dependent on how it would be accepted by the nuclear-weapon powers and the surrounding world. There would be four measures of central importance for the achievement of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in general and in European case: non-possession of nuclear weapons by zonal states; non-stationing of nuclear weapons within the zone by any state; non-use or no-threat of use of nuclear weapons throughout the zone or against targets within the zone; and verification that parties comply with their treaty obligations

  18. Comparison of Chlorophyll-A Algorithms for the Transition Zone Between the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Silvia; Hansen, Lars B.; Rasmussen, Mads O.; Kaas, Hanne

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring water quality of the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea from space is still a challenge because of the optically complex waters. The presence of suspended sediments and dissolved substances often interfere with the phytoplankton signal and thus confound conventional case-1 algorithms developed for the open ocean. Specific calibration to case-2 waters may compensate for this. In this study we compared chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations derived with three different case-2 algorithms: C2R, FUB/WeW and CoastColour using MERIS data as basis. Default C2R and FUB clearly underestimate higher chl-a concentrations. However, with local tuning we could significantly improve the fit with in-situ data. For instance, the root mean square error is reduced by roughly 50% from 3.06 to 1.6 μ g/L for the calibrated C2R processor as compared to the default C2R. This study is part of the FP7 project AQUA-USERS which has the overall goal to provide the aquaculture industry with timely information based on satellite data and optical in-situ measurements. One of the products is chlorophyll-a concentration.

  19. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  20. Impact of the emissions of international sea traffic on airborne deposition to the Baltic Sea and concentrations at the coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marke Hongisto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ship traffic emissions in the Baltic Sea on deposition and airborne concentrations of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in the period 2008--2011 was studied using the Hilatar chemistry transport model with a 0.068° latitude-longitude resolution. An accurate ship emission inventory based on AIS (automatic identification system security signals was used. The uncertainty of the European emission inventories are discussed, as is an inter-comparison of the Baltic Sea airborne load and concentrations with other model-based estimates and with air quality measurements and the effect of the EU sulphur directive for ship emissions on sulphate concentrations.

  1. Artificial radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the fall of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compare data from the literature with data taken in the fall of 1984 on the concentrations of cesium 137, strontium 90, cesium 144, and tritium in the waters of the Baltic and North seas. Sampling was conducted along the coastal regions as well as offshore and the consequent concentration and distribution profiles are mapped. They attempt to assess the weight of meteorological and water current as well as seasonal factors on the determined levels and also point to possible sources of the isotopes, including nuclear power plants situated along Baltic and North Sea shorelines and an atmospheric test of a thermonuclear bomb carried out by China

  2. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  3. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  4. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure.

    Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006–2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10, endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  5. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure.

    Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006–2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10, endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  6. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  7. Seasonality in vegetation biometrics and its effects on sediment characteristics and meiofauna in Baltic seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Emilia; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Balazy, Piotr; Kuliński, Karol

    2014-02-01

    Seagrass meadows can act as ecosystem engineers, i.e., organisms that modify the availability of resources to other organisms. However, their possible positive impacts depend on the characteristics of the vegetation, and these can vary strongly seasonally. This study assesses seasonal variability in macrophyte taxonomic composition and seagrass biometrics in the temperate Baltic Sea eelgrass meadows. We hypothesize that the anticipated strong seasonality in vegetation cover induces parallel seasonal changes in seagrass engineering effects as indicated by changes in sediment characteristics and meiozoobenthic abundance, composition and diversity. Macrophytes, sediments, and fauna were sampled at two locations in the Puck Bay from vegetated bottoms and bare sands five times in one year. Zostera marina vegetation occurred throughout the year and showed strong seasonality with the highest values of shoot density, leaf length, and biomass in July (202.3 ± 30.0 95% CI shoots m-2) and the lowest in March (55.4 ± 15.0 shoots m-2). POC was significantly higher in vegetated sands, and these effects were evident throughout the study period regardless of variability in macrophyte vegetation. The density and diversity of meiofauna did not differ between the seagrass beds and bare sands even in summer months when vegetation was best developed. The lack of an effect of the seagrass meadows on the meiofauna can be explained by the relatively low shoot density and biomass of the studied seagrass meadows and/or higher macrobenthic predation on the vegetated bottom compared to bare sands. However, both the canopies of macrophytes and the effects of the vegetation on benthic systems could increase substantially over the course of the gradual, natural restoration of the seagrass meadows.

  8. Environmental genotoxicity assessment along the transport routes of chemical munitions leading to the dumping areas in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Włodzimierz; Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Valskienė, Roberta; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Stankevičiūtė, Milda

    2016-02-15

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and nuclear buds on filament (NBf) were examined in 660 specimens of herring (Clupea harengus) collected in 2009-2014 at 65 study stations located mainly along the chemical munition transport routes in the Baltic Sea. The frequency of nuclear abnormalities was strongly increased in herring caught at four stations located close to chemical munition dumping sites, or CWAs - substances (chemical warfare agents) in sediments. Significant increase of MN, NB and NBf was observed in fish caught November 2010-2013 compared to 2009. The most significantly increased genotoxicity responses were recorded in fish caught at stations along CW (chemical weapons) transport routes, close to the Bornholm CW dumping area, in zones with CWAs in sediments and with oil-gas platforms. PMID:26763319

  9. Endocrine disruptors in blue mussels and sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowska, Anna; Lubecki, Ludwik

    2016-07-01

    Samples of blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and sediment were collected in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea) to assess the extent of their contamination with two groups of endocrine disruptors: 4-nonylphenols and organotins (butyl- and phenyltins). Five sampling stations were chosen along the coastline of the Tricity Agglomeration (Gdańsk, Sopot, Gdynia) in 2008, 2012, and 2013. No evident differences between the three campaigns were found in either the mussel or the sediment samples. The mussels were moderately contaminated with 4-nonylphenols (30-111 ng g(-1) d.w.), whereas the levels of these compounds in the sediment samples were very low (0.8-2.7 ng g(-1) d.w.). Total concentrations of butyltin compounds in the mussels and sediments ranged between 41 and 164 ng Sn g(-1) d.w., and from below the limit of detection to 22 ng Sn g(-1) d.w., respectively, whereas phenyltins were not detected in any of the samples. Butyltin degradation indices indicate an old tributyltin input into the coastal environment, which is characterized by intense maritime activity. The results obtained from this work demonstrate that 5 years after the total ban on using organotin-based antifouling paints was imposed, butyltins are still present in mussels and sediments of the Gulf of Gdańsk. PMID:27032637

  10. Nitrogen and greenhouse gas dynamics in rivers and estuaries of the Bothnian Bay (Northern Baltic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvennoinen, H.

    2008-07-01

    Denitrification (microbial reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen and nitrous oxide) can diminish the anthropogenic nitrogen (N) load in aquatic ecosystems. This thesis focuses on denitrification rates and associated nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) effluxes in boreal rivers discharging into the Bothnian Bay, in the northern Baltic Sea. The capacity of river sediment denitrification to diminish N loading to the Baltic Sea and the contribution of N{sub 2}O to the gaseous end-products of denitrification were evaluated. Additionally, emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and N{sub 2}O were measured from a boreal eutrophic river-estuary-bay continuum. Production of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O in denitrification and the environmental factors regulating the process were studied with undisturbed sediments in a continuous water flow laboratory microcosm, which allowed control of the temperature, oxygen status and nutrient load of the sediments. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Temmesjoki River and its estuary were also studied in situ. The results showed that denitrification rates in high latitude river sediments were low (330-905 mumol N m-2 d-1) and denitrification had minor importance in reducing NO{sub 3} - loading in the river water. At the nitrate concentrations currently prevailing in the Temmesjoki River (10 muM) no more than 8 % of the added nitrate was removed via denitrification. However, increased NO{sub 3} - loading and temperature, and decreased near-bottom oxygen concentrations, would increase the denitrification rates. The N{sub 2}O production in sediments also increased with increased NO{sub 3} - load, but decreased with increasing temperature. As the NO{sub 3}- concentration in high latitude rivers is highest in winter when the temperature is low, the N{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} ratio in denitrification is highest in winter. However, as the N{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} ratio in denitrification in high latitude rivers always remains low

  11. Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailidiene, I.; Tilickis, B.; Stankevicius, A. [Kalipeda Univ. Klaipeda (Lithuania); Davuliene, L. [Inst. of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania); Myrberg, K. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast during the last 100 years using all data available in Lithuania. The analysis, based on sea level data of the Klaipeda Strait for 1898-2002, clearly shows that the long-term sea level increased by about 13.9 cm. Furthermore, it is remarkable that the increase is not found to be linear during the study period. Only a negligible increase is found at every Lithuanian tide gauge until World War II. Starting from the middle of the last century the increase in sea level is more pronounced having a rate of about 3 mm per year since the 1970s. This rise leads to manifold practical problems concerning activities in the coastal areas. The water rise will intensify the intrusion of salty water into the Curonian Lagoon slowly changing the ecosystems in its northern part. The reasons behind this rise are related to enhanced and more frequent advection of warm and moist maritime air masses during the cold season (October-March). This is coupled with intensified air flow from the west with increasing air temperatures followed by rise in water temperatures and thermal expansion of sea water, the global rise of the sea level also playing an important role. The annual mean sea level fluctuation is found to be linked with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. When the NAO index is positive during winter, the dominating and enhanced westerly flow across the North Atlantic advects relatively warm maritime air over northern Europe. These strong westerly winds cause more frequent flooding events in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea at the Lithuanian coast. (orig.)

  12. Parasite diversity of sticklebacks from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In the brackish Baltic Sea, the species richness and diversity of parasite communities of three- (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) were investigated. The studies regarded four localities at the Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg coasts, northern Germany, where salinities were between 10 and 18 per thousand. Species richness was relatively high, attaining 15 parasite species in G. aculeatus and 16 in P. pungitius, which are only surpassed by former investigations that lasted a year or more. An analysis of parasite species identity revealed clear differences in diverse localities referring to different supracommunities. The infracommunity comprised maximally of eight species in G. aculeatus and seven in P. pungitius, which corresponds to former investigations. The mean value of infracommunity with 5.3 parasites is the highest value ever found in small-sized fish. An infracommunity index revealed that the digenean Podocotyle atomon and Magnibursatus caudofilamentosa and the copepod Thersitina gasterostei were the most abundant parasites. The relationship of component community to mean infracommunity can judge about the threshold level, which allows parasite to settle successfully. An important factor to form parasite communities is the season of their appearance, which depends also on their reproduction and on the presence of intermediate hosts. In addition, the choice of prey (for passive infection) and quality of habitats (for active infection) influences the constitution of the parasite communities. The diversity values of parasites were low in all hosts, which is due to the brackish milieu and by different levels of eutrophication, which both create extreme environments. These do not mirror in every case the biodiversity of the respective habitats. The parasite community was in a level of early heterotrophic succession where low diversity is combined with high population density, which is characteristic for extreme

  13. Benefits of meeting the Baltic Sea nutrient reduction targets - Combining ecological modelling and contingent valuation in the nine littoral states

    OpenAIRE

    Ahtiainen, H; Hasselström, L.; Artell, J; Angeli, D; Czajkowski, M; Meyerhoff, J.; Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Dahlbo, K; Fleming-Lehtinen, V.; Hasler, Berit; Hyytiäinen, K; Karlõseva, A; Khaleeva, Y; Maar, Marie; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious threats to the Baltic Sea and its ecosystem services is human-induced eutrophication. European Union legislation, in the form of the Marine Strategy and Water Framework Directives, requires information on the benefits of improving the condition of the sea to a good environmental status. Our study uses a unique dataset collected from all nine littoral countries of the Baltic Sea, in combination with state-of-the-art marine modelling of the area, to estimate the benefits...

  14. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Peck, M.A.; Barz, K.;

    2012-01-01

    multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on...

  15. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Remke; E. Brouwer; A. Kooijman; I. Blindow; H. Esselink; J.G.M. Roelofs

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  16. Life cycle and spring phenology of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Mohrholz, V.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal variation in abundance, biomass and vertical distribution of nauplii and copepodites of Temora longicornis in the Bornholm Basin was studied from March 2002 to May 2003 to understand the overwintering, spring development and life cycle of this species in the Baltic Sea. The analysis ...

  17. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Christoffersen, Mads; Clink, Sally; Florin, Ann-Britt; Gruszka, Piotr; Puntila, Riikka; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be...

  18. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias;

    2012-01-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an em...

  19. A lasting legacy for the Baltic and North Sea GLOBEC Germany program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Dutz, Jörg; Voss, R.

    2012-01-01

    This preface introduces four manuscripts that form a special theme section of the GLOBEC Germany program within Progress in Oceanography. The four manuscripts link changes in physical forcing to the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas. The target species of GLOBEC...... Germany included various species of calanoid copepods and a small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)...

  20. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  1. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.;

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values f...

  2. Arsenic concentrations correlate with salinity for fish taken from the North Sea and Baltic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Francesconi, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations were determined in three teleost species (herring Clupea harengus; cod Gadus morhua, and flounder Platichthys flesus) taken. from four locations in the Baltic and North Sea with salinities ranging from 8 to 32 psu. Individual arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.04 to...

  3. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  4. Diversity of pico- to mesoplankton along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue O.O. Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  5. Sedimentation rate in Ariake Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ariake Sea is a shallow and almost enclosed sea located in western Kyushu, Japan with an area of about 1,700 km2 and the deepest up to 30 m at north area. The most inner part of the bay area is very shallow and during low tide big mudflats tideland appears and extends up to several km. The tidal range is the highest in Japan with a maximum of about 6 m. The area is one of Japan's most important area for fishery, with over 40% of the total seaweed production in Japan In the year 2001, due to environmental conditions, the seaweed population decreased substantially with a production drop of about 50%. This was caused by an earlier winter outbreak of red tide that affected the seaweed quality. One proposed cause for this decline might be the land reclamation project in the western part of Ariake Sea, Isahaya Bay. This project started in April 1997 were more than 3,000 ha of the bay where closed by a 7 km long seawall. Contaminated water is regularly discharged from the reservoir inside the dike, which have resulted in changes in water flows and perhaps a decrease in tidal range. In 2002, the gates at the dike were open for two months for a survey campaign and the seaweed harvest in the winter 2002-2003 was quite good. However, the problem may be linked to totally different causes, e.g. increase in industrial pollution discharge, chemicals used in the disinfection methods of washing seaweed, or change in water pH after the volcanic eruptions of the Unzen mountain in 1992 and 1993. The purpose of the research is to elucidate present condition of the Ariake Sea and past history using by radiometric methods, and obtained useful information will resolve the environmental status of Ariake Sea and give us answers way to save the Ariake Sea. Sea sediment cores were taken on board in 2003 at several points covering the Ariake sea. Two cores taken in inner area of the sea were sectioned at every 2 cm intervals and subjected to gamma spectrometry to determine sedimentation

  6. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  7. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  8. Early 2015 Performance In Baltic Sea Ports: Forecasts Of Estonian Performance For Entire Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmola Olli-Pekka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many changes have appeared in year 2015. In Europe economic malaise has continued since debt crisis started in year 2010, and although its effects on Northern Europe have started to diminish, new economic dark clouds have appeared through sanctions set by both European Union and Russia to each other during year 2014. Together with these, shipping sector has been under pressure due to strict sulphur regulation implemented from early 2015 onwards in the entire Baltic Sea Region. Due to these factors, sea ports at Baltic Sea have been under pressure during the first months of 2015, this particularly concerning container handling. Based on our regression model forecast, Estonia and Port of Tallinn shall have clearly declining container handling year ahead. However, overall handling at sea port is not so easy to forecast.

  9. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  10. Relations between Environmentally Disturbing Establishments and three Invertebrate Indicator Species in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Anna-Emilia

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the knowledge about polluted areas in Sweden, Naturvårdsverket has compiled a list of all establishments and other anthropological activities, so called MIFOobjects, which emit harmful chemicals. Those activities which are placed on land might, depending on factors such as closeness to the sea, water solubility, degradability and toxicity of the chemicals have an impact on the biota in the Baltic Sea. In this study, spatial and statistical methods were used to explore pote...

  11. Towards Operational Data Assimilation in the North and Baltic Seas with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nerger, Lars; Loza, Svetlana; Schröter, Jens; Hiller, Wolfgang; F. Janssen

    2010-01-01

    Within the GMES-related project DeMarine Environment, the operational circulation model of the German Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) is extended into a data assimilation system. The aim of the data assimilation is to improve the forecast of sea surface height, temperatura, currents and salinity in the North and Baltic Seas. For the data assimilation component, the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF, http://pdaf.awi.de) is coupled to the operational circulation model. PDAF prov...

  12. The HBM-PDAF assimilation system for operational forecasts in the North and Baltic Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Nerger, Lars; Loza, Svetlana; Brüning, Thorger; Janssen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To improve hydrographic forecasts in the North and Baltic Seas, the HIROMB-BOOS Model (HBM) has been coupled with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework PDAF (http://pdaf.awi.de). The forecast system assimilates satellite sea surface temperature as well as in situ data of temperature and salinity profiles to initialize forecasts up to 5 days. The assimilation uses a fully-featured ensemble Kalman filter, which dynamically estimates the uncertainty of the state estimate with an ensemble mode...

  13. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5). An executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Pyhala, M.; Kotilainen, P.; Bartnicki, J.; Knuuttila, S.; Durkin, M.

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes and combines the main results of the Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (HELCOM 2011) which covers waterborne loads to the sea and data on atmospheric loads which are submitted by countries to the co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), which subsequently compiles and reports this information to HELCOM.

  14. Identifying potentially high risk areas for environmental pollution in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at the identification of areas in the Baltic Sea from where potential pollution is transported to vulnerable regions. Generally, there is higher risk of ship accidents along the shipping routes and along the approaching routes to the harbors. The spreading of harmful substances is mainly controlled by prevailing atmospheric conditions and wind-induced local sea surface currents. Especially, spawning, nursery and tourist areas are considered high-vulnerable areas. With sophistic...

  15. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  16. Dynamics of the Particulate Organic Carbon in the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Maciejewska, A.; Kuliński, K.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional Particulate Organic Carbon Dynamic Model 1D-POCD. The particulate organic carbon concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. Mathematically, the pelagic variables of 1D-POCD model are described by a second-order partial differential equation of the diffusion type with biogeochemical sources and sinks. The temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, respiration, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, respiration, fecal production, mortality, and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by input of: dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, natural mortality of predators, fecal pellets, and sinks: sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and decomposition. The 1D-POCD model was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of particulate organic carbon fluxes in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep). The results of the simulations were compared with the mean concentrations of particulate organic carbon recorded in situ at station situated at the Gdańsk Deep. Generally good agreement between the measured and modeled POC concentration was obtained.

  17. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    have been hampered by examination of only a few species in each study and differences in methods among studies. To permit interspecific comparisons and statistical evaluations of relations to distribution patterns we studied the ability of 44 macroalgal species from North Zealand, South Kattegat...... distribution in the inner Baltic Sea (r: 0.32). A broad tolerance and high abundance of species in the Kattegat were significantly related to the contemporary distribution of Baltic macroalgae. Nonetheless, a large proportion of the interspecific variability was unaccounted for, presumably because a range of...

  18. Magnetic quantification of Fe and S bound as magnetosomal greigite in laminated sapropels in deeper basins of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetite and/or greigite for navigation purposes and it have been suggested that their magnetosomes make a significant contribution to the burial of Fe (and S and O) in sedimentary environments. To test this hypothesis and improve our understanding of MTBs impact on the rate of burial of these two elements we have quantified the abundance of Fe and S bound as greigite magnetofossils in laminated Baltic Sea sapropels, which were formed during periods of hypoxia and anoxia, using mineral magnetic measurements. Fluxes of Fe and S in the form of preserved greigite magnetofossils were calculated for three sedimentary sequences. The magnetosomal Fe (and S) fluxes range between 0.19 and 1.46 × 10-6 g cm-2 yr-1 (0.15 and 1.12 × 10-6 g cm-2 yr-1), and varied in time and space. The contribution of magnetosomal Fe to total Fe fluxes is relatively low, < 0.2%, although its contribution can be important in other stratified waters that suffer from hypoxia/anoxia. We show that the magnetosomal fluxes of Fe in the Baltic Sea are, however, similar to fluxes of Fe derived from mineral magnetic studies of magnetite magnetosomes in organic rich, varved freshwater lake sediments in Sweden.

  19. Magnetic quantification of Fe and S bound as magnetosomal greigite in laminated sapropels in deeper basins of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reinholdsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB biomineralize magnetite and/or greigite for navigation purposes and it have been suggested that their magnetosomes make a significant contribution to the burial of Fe (and S and O in sedimentary environments. To test this hypothesis and improve our understanding of MTBs impact on the rate of burial of these two elements we have quantified the abundance of Fe and S bound as greigite magnetofossils in laminated Baltic Sea sapropels, which were formed during periods of hypoxia and anoxia, using mineral magnetic measurements. Fluxes of Fe and S in the form of preserved greigite magnetofossils were calculated for three sedimentary sequences. The magnetosomal Fe (and S fluxes range between 0.19 and 1.46 × 10−6 g cm−2 yr−1 (0.15 and 1.12 × 10−6 g cm−2 yr−1, and varied in time and space. The contribution of magnetosomal Fe to total Fe fluxes is relatively low, < 0.2%, although its contribution can be important in other stratified waters that suffer from hypoxia/anoxia. We show that the magnetosomal fluxes of Fe in the Baltic Sea are, however, similar to fluxes of Fe derived from mineral magnetic studies of magnetite magnetosomes in organic rich, varved freshwater lake sediments in Sweden.

  20. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  1. Anomalous secular sea-level acceleration in the Baltic Sea caused by glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Giorgio; Galassi, Gaia; Olivieri, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Observations from the global array of tide gauges show that global sea-level has been rising at an average rate of 1.5-2 mm/yr during the last ˜ 150 years (Spada & Galassi, 2012). Although a global sea-level acceleration was initially ruled out, subsequent studies have coherently proposed values of ˜1 mm/year/century (Olivieri & Spada, 2012). More complex non-linear trends and abrupt sea-level variations have now also been recognized. Globally, they could manifest a regime shift between the late Holocene and the current rhythms of sea-level rise, while locally they result from ocean circulation anomalies, steric effects and wind stress (Bromirski et al. 2011). Although isostatic readjustment affects the local rates of secular sea-level change, a possible impact on regional acceleration have been so far discounted (Woodworth et al., 2009) since the process evolves on a millennium scale. Here we report a previously unnoticed anomaly in the long-term sea-level acceleration of the Baltic Sea tide gauge records, and we explain it by the classical post-glacial rebound theory and numerical modeling of glacial isostasy. Contrary to previous assumptions, our findings demonstrate that isostatic compensation plays a role in the regional secular sea-level acceleration. In response to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), tide gauge records located along the coasts of the Baltic Sea exhibit a small - but significant - long-term sea-level acceleration in excess to those in the far field of previously glaciated regions. The sign and the amplitude of the anomaly is consistent with the post-glacial rebound theory and with realistic numerical predictions of GIA models routinely employed to decontaminate the tide gauges observations from the GIA effects (Peltier, 2004). Model computations predict the existence of anomalies of similar amplitude in other regions of the globe where GIA is still particularly vigorous at present, but no long-term instrumental observations are available to

  2. Benthic nutrient fluxes in the Eastern Gotland Basin (Baltic Sea) with particular focus on microbial mat ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffke, A.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Hall, P. O. J.; Pfannkuche, O.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic fluxes and water column distributions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and total dissolved phosphate (PO43 -) were measured in situ at 7 sites across a redox gradient from oxic to anoxic bottom waters in the Eastern Gotland Basin (Baltic Sea). The study area was divided into the oxic zone (60 to ca. 80 m water depth, O2 > 30 μM), the hypoxic transition zone (HTZ, ca. 80 to 120 m, O2 ca. 120 m). Sediments in the HTZ were covered by mats of vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Ammonium (NH4+) fluxes in the deep basin and the HTZ were elevated at 0.6 mmol m- 2 d- 1 and 1 mmol m- 2 d- 1, respectively. Nitrate (NO3-) fluxes were directed into the sediment at all stations in the HTZ and were zero in the deep basin. PO43 - release was highest in the HTZ at 0.23 mmol m- 2 d- 1, with a further release of 0.2 mmol m- 2 d- 1 in the deep basin. Up-scaling the benthic fluxes to the Baltic Proper equals 109 kt yr- 1 of PO43 - and 266 kt yr- 1 of DIN. This is eight- and two-fold higher than the total external load of P (14 kt yr- 1) and DIN (140 kt yr- 1) in 2006 (HELCOM 2009b). The HTZ makes an important contribution to the internal nutrient loading in the Baltic Proper, releasing 70% of P (76 kt yr- 1) and 75% of DIN (200 kt yr- 1) despite covering only 51% of area.

  3. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  4. N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, i.e., the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP taken by primary producers, varies in different basins and in different seasons in the Baltic Sea. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration fore and after spring blooms is not same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former can be regarded as an indicator for the later in the Baltic Sea. Based on the observed N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, we hypothesize a non-Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake. The 3D-ecosystem model ERGOM coupled with the circulation model DMI-BSHcmod was used to test the hypothesis. When the Redfield ratio was used in the model, the DIP surplus after spring blooms was too high and resulted in the overly growth of cyanobacteria and too much nitrogen fixation. When the non-Redfield ratio was used in the model, the corresponding problem tended to disappear. In summary, we show that: (1 the Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea tends to be too high; (2 a lower N/P ratio 10:1 appears to work better than the Redfield value; and (3 the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Proper during spring blooms is around 6:1.

  5. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help

  6. Role of sea-ice biota in nutrient and organic material cycles in the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuparinen, Jorma; Kuosa, Harri; Andersson, Agneta; Autio, Riitta; Granskog, Mats A; Ikävalko, Johanna; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Karell, Kimmo; Leskinen, Elina; Piiparinen, Jonna; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Tuomainen, Jaana

    2007-04-01

    This paper compiles biological and chemical sea-ice data from three areas of the Baltic Sea: the Bothnian Bay (Hailuoto, Finland), the Bothnian Sea (Norrby, Sweden), and the Gulf of Finland (Tvärminne, Finland). The data consist mainly of field measurements and experiments conducted during the BIREME project from 2003 to 2006, supplemented with relevant published data. Our main focus was to analyze whether the biological activity in Baltic Sea sea-ice shows clear regional variability. Sea-ice in the Bothnian Bay has low chlorophyll a concentrations, and the bacterial turnover rates are low. However, we have sampled mainly land-fast level first-year sea-ice and apparently missed the most active biological system, which may reside in deformed ice (such as ice ridges). Our limited data set shows high concentrations of algae in keel blocks and keel block interstitial water under the consolidated layer of the pressure ridges in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea. In land-fast level sea-ice in the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, the lowermost layer appears to be the center of biological activity, though elevated biomasses can also be found occasionally in the top and interior parts of the ice. Ice algae are light limited during periods of snow cover, and phosphate is generally the limiting nutrient for ice bottom algae. Bacterial growth is evidently controlled by the production of labile dissolved organic matter by algae because low growth rates were recorded in the Bothnian Bay with high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic matter. Bacterial communities in the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland show high turnover rates, and activities comparable with those of open water communities during plankton blooms, which implies that sea-ice bacterial communities have high capacity to process matter during the winter period. PMID:17520927

  7. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species to variations in sea salt emissions in the North and Baltic Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, D.; Matthias, V.; Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Quante, M.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the oceans' surfaces by wave breaking and bubble bursting processes. These particles impact atmospheric chemistry by affecting condensation of gas-phase species and nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with high air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North and Baltic Sea regions, Northwestern Europe, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and evaluated against European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. As model extension, sea salt emissions are scaled by water salinity because of low salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea and in certain river estuaries. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is separately considered. Additionally, the impact of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate, ammonium and sulfate concentrations is evaluated. The comparisons show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated when going inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. Dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to a minor increase of NH4+ and NO3- and a minor decrease of SO42- concentrations. However, the overall effect is very low and lower than the deviation from measurements. Size resolved measurements of Na+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- are needed for a more detailed analysis on the impact of sea salt particles.

  8. A 1D-ecosystem model for pelagic waters in the southern Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations (future decades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Maciejewska, A.; Osiński, R.; Jakacki, J.; Jędrasik, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional Ecosystem Model. Mathematically, the pelagic variables in the model are described by a second-order partial differential equation of the diffusion type with biogeochemical sources and sinks. The temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, respiration, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, respiration, fecal production, mortality, and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by input of: dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, natural mortality of predators, fecal pellets, and sinks: sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and decomposition. The nutrient concentration is caused by nutrient release, zooplankton excretion, predator excretion, detritus decomposition and benthic regeneration as sources and by nutrient uptake by phytoplankton as sinks. However, the benthic detritus is described by phytoplankton sedimentation, detritus sedimentation and remineralisation. The particulate organic carbon concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. The 1D ecosystem model was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of pelagic variables (phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and POC) in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep). The calculations were made assuming: 1) increase in the water temperature in the upper layer - 0.008oC per year, 2) increase in the available light - 0.2% per year. Based on this trend, daily, monthly and seasonal and annual variability of phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and particulate organic carbon in different areas of the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Borrnholm Deep and Gotland Deep) in the euphotic layer was calculated for the years: 2000, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050.

  9. Sea-level fluctuations and deep-sea sedimentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, T R; Davies, T A

    1979-02-01

    Sediment accumulation rate curves from 95 drilled cores from the Pacific basin and sea-level curves derived from continental margin seismic stratigraphy show that high biogenous sediment accumulation rates correspond to low eustatic sea levels for at least the last 48 million years. This relationship fits a simple model of high sea levels producing lower land/sea ratios and hence slower chemical erosion of the continents, and vice versa. PMID:17734144

  10. BABAR: Becoming Adult Educators in the Baltic-Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milana, Marcella; Andersson, Per; Gross, Marin; Jõgi, Larissa; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results from a comparative study of the qualification of adult educators in the Nordic-Baltic region. The study involved Denmark, Estonia and Sweden. The rationale behind the study is a growing interest in adult education resulting from a focus on lifelong learning in the public and political agendas, internationally and nationally. According to the authors of the report, an increased interest in adult education generates an increased interest in the professionalisati...

  11. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  12. Temperature profile and pressure data from CTD casts in the Baltic Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean from 25 February 1990 to 15 February 2006 (NODC Accession 0002681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts from several vessels in the Baltic Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  13. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  14. Long-term temperature and salinity records from the Baltic Sea transition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K. S.; Hoejerslev, N. K. (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    The digitization of temperature and salinity data from lightships and coastal stations in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone allows for multi-station and long-term studies of the oceanographic conditions of the last century. The salinity records, in combination with tide gauge records, are analyzed to demonstrate the development of a major inflow to the Baltic Sea, in terms of surface salinity, changes in stratification throughout the transition zone, and variations in the water level gradient in the zone. Also, temperature and salinity variations for years 1900-1998 are analyzed and show a 0.7 deg C warming at the Drogden station towards the end of the 20th century, and no large change in salinity. The temperature change is largest in the winter and spring. (orig.)

  15. Integrated Multi - Trophic Aquaculture of Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Seaweed (Saccharina latissima) in the Western Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rößner, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    This study observed the species interaction in different development stages of shellfish ( Mytilus edulis) and seaweed (Saccharina latissima) in an integrated system, and the respective species potential for extractive aquaculture in the western Baltic Sea.

  16. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj;

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...... to improving the state of the Baltic Sea. For future research, we propose a similar large-scale, coordinated study across all nine littoral countries using state-of-the art valuation methods to assess the monetary benefits of improving the state of the Baltic Sea....... set obtained from a coordinated survey across all nine littoral countries, we examine the recreational use and perceptions towards the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the Baltic Sea is an important recreation area for residents of the littoral states, as the majority of people spend leisure time...

  17. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa;

    2014-01-01

    in the northern Baltic Sea was used to evaluate the effect of very low salinities, down to 3.4 psu. The laboratory feeding experiments with M. trossulus at 7 psu showed that the growth in shell length was negligible, whereas the body dry weight nearly doubled during the 15 d experiment, with a weight...... increased condition index, as seen in the benthic Baltic Sea mussels transferred to cages suspended in the water column....

  18. The international association of teachers of russian language and literature (MAPRYAL) and its activity in the baltic sea states

    OpenAIRE

    Brunova, Natalia; Moskovkin, Leonid; Yurkov, Yevgeny

    2009-01-01

    The article offers general information about the International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature (MAPRYAL) and its main lines of activity. The authors focus on the activity of MAPRYAL in the Baltic Sea States offering a detailed description of the International Festival of Russian Language in the Baltic Sea States, and the events held by MAPRYAL in Germany, Poland, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.

  19. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Uutela, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304) from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional sta...

  20. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Hindcast simulations for the period 1902-1998 have been performed using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Daily sea level observations in Kattegat, monthly basin-wide discharge data, and reconstructed atmospheric surface data have been used to force the Baltic Sea model. The reconstruction utilizes a statistical model to calculate daily sea level pressure and monthly surface air temperature, dew point temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover fields on a 1 deg x 1 deg regular horizontal grid for the Baltic Sea region. An improved turbulence scheme has been implemented into the Baltic Sea model to simulate saltwater inflows realistically. The results are validated against available observational datasets for sea level, salinity, saltwater inflow, volume transport, and sea ice. In addition, a comparison is performed with simulations for the period 1980-1993 using 3-hourly gridded atmospheric observations from synoptic stations. It is shown that the results of the Baltic Sea model forced with the reconstructed data are satisfactory. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to explore the impact of internal mixing, fresh and saltwater inflows, sea ice, and the sea level in Kattegat on the salinity of the Baltic Sea. It is found that the decadal variability of mean salinity is explained partly by decadal volume variations of the accumulated freshwater inflow from river runoff and net precipitation and partly by decadal variations of the large-scale sea level pressure over Scandinavia. During the last century two exceptionally long stagnation periods are found, the 1920s to the 1930s and the 1980s to the mid 1990s. During these periods precipitation, runoff and westerly winds were stronger than normal. Stronger westerly winds caused increased eastward surface-layer transports. Consequently, the mean eastward lower layer transports through the Stolpe Channel is reduced. The response time scale of the Baltic Sea is of the order of 30-40 years. The large

  1. Mussels of a marginal population affect the patterns of ambient macrofauna: A case study from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauringson, Velda; Kotta, Jonne

    2016-05-01

    In contemporary ecosystems, organisms are increasingly confronted with suboptimal living conditions. We aimed to understand the role of ecosystem engineering species in suboptimal habitats from a population inhabiting the species range margin in naturally stressful conditions. We determined the impact of 2-4 cm sized patches of dwarfed mussels Mytilus trossulus close to its lower salinity limit in the North-Eastern Baltic Sea, on epibenthic community patterns. Mussels affected total macrofaunal abundance and biomass and the taxonomic and functional community structure based on abundances, as well as the species composition of macrofauna. Mussels did not affect ephemeral algae or sediment chlorophyll content, but increased the abundance, biomass, richness, and diversity of grazers, within a radius approximately twelve times the size of mussel patches. We can expect marginal populations of ecosystem engineers in suboptimal habitats to contribute to spatial heterogeneity in biotic patterns and eventual ecosystem stability. PMID:26970684

  2. Influence of coastal upwelling on the air-sea gas exchange of CO2 in a Baltic Sea Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Maria; Raj Parampil, Sindu; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2013-01-01

    During coastal upwelling cold water from the ocean interior with high CO2 concentration is brought up to the surface, allowing this water to interact with the atmosphere. This sets the stage for events with potentially altered sea–air CO2 fluxes. Four upwelling events off the east coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea were analyzed to assess the impact of upwelling on the air–sea exchange of CO2. For each event, the observed pCO2 were found to be a function of sea-surface temperature (SST) in th...

  3. Iodide and iodate (129I and 127I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Violeta; Yi, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Roos, Per; Possnert, Göran

    129I and 127I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass...... 127I−/127IO3− significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in 129I and 127I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in...... Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea....

  4. Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Jørgensen, N.O.G.; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau;

    2002-01-01

    Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely neglected in studies of coastal microbial food webs. We examined 50 rivers, draining a major part of...... the Baltic Sea watershed, with respect to summer concentrations, chemical composition, and biological availability of N and P. The broad spectrum of rivers studied enabled us to assess whether the input of terrigenous organic matter can be an important nutrient source, at various levels of...... anthropogenic loading of inorganic N and P. Concentrations of total N and P ranged from 9 to 220 mumol/L and from 0.14 to 5.56 mumol/L, respectively, with the highest concentrations in the southern part of the Baltic Sea drainage area and in several rivers on the Finnish western coast. Urea and dissolved...

  5. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in Baltic Sea water sample IAEA-299

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison exercise on IAEA-299 for the determination of 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs concentration in Baltic Sea Water. The participants belong to 8 laboratories located in 6 countries, members of the Helsinki commission. Statistical evaluation of the data reported yields to recommended values for these elements. The elements, their recommended values and confidence intervals are listed here: 90Sr: 13.6 Bq kg-1 (12.8-14.4); 134Cs: 6.7 Bq kg-1 (5-8.3); 137Cs: 70.9 Bq kg-1 (68-72.3). Reference date: 27 June 1991 (sampling date). The data reported by the laboratories of the Baltic Sea States are generally in very good agreement. (author)

  6. Laboratory analysis of the habitat occupancy of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) in an invaded ecosystem: The north-eastern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nurkse, Kristiina; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Pärnoja, Merli; Kuprijanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The Harris mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) arrived to the Baltic Sea in 1936. It was not until the late 2000es when the species considerably expanded its distribution area towards the northern Baltic Sea and formed a viable and expanding population. This introduction represents an appearance of a completely new function, as such larger epibenthic predators were previously missing from north-eastern Baltic Sea. In order to assess potential impacts of the crab to the invaded ecosystem, know...

  7. Modelling of marine radionuclide dispersion in IAEA MODARIA program: Lessons learnt from the Baltic Sea and Fukushima scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R; Bezhenar, R; Brovchenko, I; Duffa, C; Iosjpe, M; Jung, K T; Kobayashi, T; Lamego, F; Maderich, V; Min, B I; Nies, H; Osvath, I; Outola, I; Psaltaki, M; Suh, K S; de With, G

    2016-11-01

    State-of-the art dispersion models were applied to simulate (137)Cs dispersion from Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster fallout in the Baltic Sea and from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant releases in the Pacific Ocean after the 2011 tsunami. Models were of different nature, from box to full three-dimensional models, and included water/sediment interactions. Agreement between models was very good in the Baltic. In the case of Fukushima, results from models could be considered to be in acceptable agreement only after a model harmonization process consisting of using exactly the same forcing (water circulation and parameters) in all models. It was found that the dynamics of the considered system (magnitude and variability of currents) was essential in obtaining a good agreement between models. The difficulties in developing operative models for decision-making support in these dynamic environments were highlighted. Three stages which should be considered after an emergency, each of them requiring specific modelling approaches, have been defined. They are the emergency, the post-emergency and the long-term phases. PMID:27376914

  8. Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanauskas, R.; Jorgensen, N O G; Eigaard, O.R.; Zvikas, A; Tranvik, L. J.; Leonardson, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely neglected in studies of coastal microbial food webs. We examined 50 rivers, draining a major part of the Baltic Sea watershed, with respect to summer concentrations, chemical composition, and biological availability of N and P. The broad spectrum of rivers studied enabled us to assess whether the ...

  9. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1996-01-01

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statisticall...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  10. Isolation and Properties of Ferromanganese-Depositing Budding Bacteria from Baltic Sea Ferromanganese Concretions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiorse, William C.; Hirsch, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Hyphal budding bacteria were observed by electron microscopy in thin sections of surface material from Baltic Sea ferromanganese concretions. Similar bacteria were also observed in and isolated from enrichment cultures prepared from the same concretion material. Three morphologically similar strains of Mn-Fe-depositing budding bacteria were isolated from the enrichment cultures. Strain B-4 possessed extracellular anionic polymers that accumulated Mn oxides. Mn deposition by B-4 was inhibited ...

  11. Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John; Ekman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies, us...

  12. Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea : influence of allochthonous organic matter and salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the precipitation ~30% in higher latitudes during the next century, increasing the land runoff via rivers to aquatic ecosystems. The Baltic Sea will receive higher river discharges, accompanied by larger input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial ecosystems. The salinity will decrease due to freshwater dilution. The allochthonous DOM constitute a potential growth substrate for microscopic bacterioplankton and phytoplankton, wh...

  13. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrova O. Yu.; Mityagina M.I.; Kostianoy A.G.; Semenov A.V.

    2014-01-01

    From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Sp...

  14. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  15. Satellite mapping of Baltic Sea Secchi depth with multiple regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Andy

    2015-08-01

    Secchi depth is a measure of water transparency. In the Baltic Sea region, Secchi depth maps are used to assess eutrophication and as input for habitat models. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite data would be the most suitable data source for such maps. But the Baltic Sea's optical properties are so different from the open ocean that globally calibrated standard models suffer from large errors. Regional predictive models that take the Baltic Sea's special optical properties into account are thus needed. This paper tests how accurately generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) with MODIS/Aqua and auxiliary data as inputs can predict Secchi depth at a regional scale. It uses cross-validation to test the prediction accuracy of hundreds of GAMs and GLMs with up to 5 input variables. A GAM with 3 input variables (chlorophyll a, remote sensing reflectance at 678 nm, and long-term mean salinity) made the most accurate predictions. Tested against field observations not used for model selection and calibration, the best model's mean absolute error (MAE) for daily predictions was 1.07 m (22%), more than 50% lower than for other publicly available Baltic Sea Secchi depth maps. The MAE for predicting monthly averages was 0.86 m (15%). Thus, the proposed model selection process was able to find a regional model with good prediction accuracy. It could be useful to find predictive models for environmental variables other than Secchi depth, using data from other satellite sensors, and for other regions where non-standard remote sensing models are needed for prediction and mapping. Annual and monthly mean Secchi depth maps for 2003-2012 come with this paper as Supplementary materials.

  16. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statistically...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  17. Environmental spaces:a geopolitics of environmental interdependence in the Baltic Sea area

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2005-01-01

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects. 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension be...

  18. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present wo...

  19. Investigating a seabird hotspot : factors influencing the distribution of birds in the southern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The southern Baltic Sea in northeastern Europe has been described as one of the most important areas for seabirds in the Western Palaearctic, based on extraordinary high numbers of birds occurring in the area particularly during the winter half-year. Most studies, however, only comprise information about the distribution of birds, while the factors and mechanisms causing the observed distribution patterns are only seldom addressed. Prey distribution and abundance and foraging strategies are c...

  20. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Czerny, J.; Haunost, M.; Schulz, K.-G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically-fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ~ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 μatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in inorganic or organic N pools sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom plankton

  1. Ocean acidification and warming in the Baltic Sea : effects on diazotrophy and pelagic biogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Allanah J.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation presents the results from two independent mesocosm studies on naturally present summer plankton communities in the Baltic Sea. The aim was to investigate the impact of ocean acidification (increased CO2 concentration and decreased seawater pH) as well as the combination of ocean acidification and ocean warming (increased seawater temperature) on the abundance and activity of diazotrophic organisms and on N-limited plankton communities.

  2. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  3. Precautionary management of Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callaris) under different harvesting and environmental scenarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Isomaa, Marleena

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to increase knowledge of heavily harvested cod stock dynamics and attain information for more suitable and sustainable management strategies. Achieving sustainable management strategies requires sufficient knowledge about the population dynamics. One tool for research this is to introduce stochastic variation models in investigated species stock dynamics. As a model species we use eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callarias), where the population dynamics are...

  4. Suplphur Regulation – technology solutions and economic consequences for the Baltic Sea Region shipping market

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśnicki, Bogusz; Czermański, Ernest; Droździecki, Sławomir; Matczak, Maciej; Spangenberg, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to give an accurate overview of the shipping market, especially in the Baltic Sea Region, which we judge to be most seriously affected by the Sulphur Regulation. The overview consists of a technical part in which the most popular and most probable solutions that shipping owners will undertake and invest in are presented. The second part concerns the economic consequences of specific, chosen technologies with special attention given to the cost analysis of the...

  5. Nutrient Abatement Potential and Abatement Costs of Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for b...

  6. 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in the Baltic Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the 137Cs and 90Sr concentration measurements in the Baltic Sea coastal zone (near the settlement of Juodkrante) are presented. The concentration variation range is from 0.3 to 1.2 nCi/m3. The maximum 137Cs concentration is observed in autumn and the minimum one - in summer. 137Cs/90Sr concentration ratio in summer and autumn of 1977 was over 1, and that of April 1976 was less than 0.5

  7. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  8. 129I in the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea: application for estimation of water exchange and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here new data and a mass balance model for 129I in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea covering the period from November–December 2009. The results showed that the general 129I concentrations in the Bothnian Sea were two-four folds lower than in the Baltic Proper for both surface and deep water. Water exchange between the two basins based on the 129I mass balance model suggests fluxes from the Baltic Proper to the Bothnian Sea and vice versa at 980 km3/y (600–1400 km3/y) and 1180 km3/y (780–1600 km3/y) respectively. Water retention time (residence time) in the Bothnian Sea was estimated at up to 4 years. Applying the 129I exchange model, an estimate of total phosphorus and nitrogen inflow from the Baltic Proper to the Bothnian Sea indicates values of 20 ± 7 × 103 tons/y and 300 ± 50 × 103 tons/y respectively. The values for the outflow from the Bothnian Sea to the Baltic Proper hold 12 ± 3 × 103 tons/y for total phosphorus and 283 ± 55 × 103 tons/y for total nitrogen. These data and application of 129I as a tracer of water masses provide information on small scale salinity changes which are vital for accurate understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystems evolution through time. -- Highlights: ► Presenting new data on 129I in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. ► A model based on 129I was developed to estimate water exchange. ► An estimate of phosphorus and nitrogen exchange comparable with earlier estimates. ► Application of 129I as a tracer of water masses highlights minor salinity changes

  9. Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the...... cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present...... knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these...

  10. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m3/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m3/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  11. Differences in PCDD/F concentrations and patterns in herring (Clupea harengus) from southern and northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, P.J.; Parmanne, R. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)]|[Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Kiviranta, H.; Isosaari, P.; Vartiainen, T. [Dept. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)]|[Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Hallikainen, A. [National Food Agency, Helsinki (Finland)]|[Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow (mean depth 57 m) brackish-water sea with a wide drainage area and a long residence time. It is surrounded by 9 countries with ca. 90 million inhabitants. Thus the Baltic Sea is heavily loaded by domestic and industrial effluents and also through long-range transport, although the loading from surrounding countries has considerably reduced during the last decades. Quite high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been measured in Baltic fish species, and concentrations of organochlorines have been demonstrated to increase according to age of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus). In July 2002 the decision of the European Commission set a new maximum allowable concentration in fish edible part to 4 pg WHO-TEQ g{sup -1} (fresh weight) for human consumption. Finland and Sweden got an exemption order until end of 2006 for commercial exploitation of Baltic fish within their own markets. However, they were ordered to monitor the concentrations of those toxicants in fish and to advice their consumers. In Finland a large project was performed during 2002-2003 to study PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in fish, which were commercially most important species and caught from three most important Baltic Sea and inland fishing areas. The present paper investigates PCDD/F concentrations and congener profiles in Baltic herring of different size caught from southern and northern Baltic Sea in order to map differences and find out causes for them. Such a knowledge is important for setting regulations for fisheries, advising consumers and finding means to further reduce emissions of these toxicants.

  12. Evaluation of the operational SAR based Baltic sea ice concentration products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Juha

    Sea ice concentration is an important ice parameter both for weather and climate modeling and sea ice navigation. We have developed an fully automated algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval using dual-polarized ScanSAR wide mode RADARSAT-2 data. RADARSAT-2 is a C-band SAR instrument enabling dual-polarized acquisition in ScanSAR mode. The swath width for the RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR mode is about 500 km, making it very suitable for operational sea ice monitoring. The polarization combination used in our concentration estimation is HH/HV. The SAR data is first preprocessed, the preprocessing consists of geo-rectification to Mercator projection, incidence angle correction fro both the polarization channels. and SAR mosaicking. After preprocessing a segmentation is performed for the SAR mosaics, and some single-channel and dual-channel features are computed for each SAR segment. Finally the SAR concentration is estimated based on these segment-wise features. The algorithm is similar as introduced in Karvonen 2014. The ice concentration is computed daily using a daily RADARSAT-2 SAR mosaic as its input, and it thus gives the concentration estimated at each Baltic Sea location based on the most recent SAR data at the location. The algorithm has been run in an operational test mode since January 2014. We present evaluation of the SAR-based concentration estimates for the Baltic ice season 2014 by comparing the SAR results with gridded the Finnish Ice Service ice charts and ice concentration estimates from a radiometer algorithm (AMSR-2 Bootstrap algorithm results). References: J. Karvonen, Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Based on C-Band Dual-Polarized SAR Data, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, in press, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2290331, 2014.

  13. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  14. Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  15. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-09-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  16. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  17. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  18. Modelling the impact of Baltic Sea upwelling on the atmospheric boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Sproson, David; Sahlée, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Coastal upwelling, with a strong sea-surface temperature (SST) signal, is extremely common in the Baltic Sea during the summer months. Although the spatial scale of upwelling is small, its high frequency of occurrence in the semi-enclosed basin may allow the SST signature to have significant feedback onto the lower atmosphere. In this paper, we develop a method to remove the signature of upwelling from SST fields, and use these modified SST fields as the lower boundary condition of an atmosph...

  19. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  20. The effects on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute had been conducting intensive investigations of the radioactive contamination of the North and Baltic Seas ever since the accident occurred. The recorded radioactive fallout was determined from the increase of the measured values in the radiological monitoring network and with the help of the analysis of the water samples taken. The periodic and stereoscopic investigations proved that the deposition varied in terms of intensity and spatial distribution mixing processes led to a rapid decrease in the concentration of activity as early as a few hours after deposition. After a few days, direct γ spectroscopic determination of individual nuclides without chemical enrichment was no longer possible. This is why the contamination was later determined essentially from the radioactive tracers Cs-134 and Cs-137. A whole lot of samplings were restricted for the γ spectroscopy by means of evaporation. Owing to its characteristic nuclide mixture, the fallout should be clearly distinguished from the contaminations resulting from the reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague. The decrease in concentration observed, which results from mixing processes, also applies to other contaminants from the atmosphere. Despite the long courses of analysis, a series of Sr-90, Pu-239, Pu-238, Am-241 and Cm-242 determinations were carried out. T determinations were interrupted for the time being because the analysis of a rainwater sample with high radioactive contamination did not show any significant increase in the T concentration. On the whole, the data obtained do not reveal any direct external radioactive threat to the biosphere, as far as the sea areas are concerned. (orig./HP)

  1. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Daniel; Matthias, Volker; Bieser, Johannes; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- and a decrease in NO3- concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is underestimated by the model at most

  2. Development of a coastal upwelling front driven by advection and topographic effects in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition

    OpenAIRE

    Lund-hansen, Lc; Vang, T

    2003-01-01

    Upwelling of cold. saline, and nutrient rich water was observed in late September 1999 along an east-west transect in the SW Kattegat. The Kattegat forms part of the transitional zone between the high saline North Sea and the low saline Baltic Sea. The upwelling occurred after an extended period of northward flow and eastern winds in the Kattegat, that changed into a southward flow as wind ceased. The upwelling was the result of a combination of high current speeds and bottom topography where...

  3. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koistinen, Jaana [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: jaana.koistinen@helsinki.fi; Kiviranta, Hannu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: hannu.kiviranta@ktl.fi; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: paivi.ruokojarvi@ktl.fi; Parmanne, Raimo [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: raimo.parmanne@rktl.fi; Verta, Matti [Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: matti.verta@ymparisto.fi; Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority, Mustialankatu 3, FI-00790, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: anja.hallikainen@evira.fi; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: terttu.vartiainen@ktl.fi

    2008-07-15

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring.

  4. Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea - transport and transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A medium-sized inflow (about 200 km3 according to IOW data, - personal communication of saline water into the southern Baltic Sea occurred during January 2003. Unlike any previously observed inflow, this one brought very cold water, of temperatures around 1-2oC and less. Since the temperature of the deep water in the southern Baltic before the inflow was exceptionally high (11-12oC, the inflowing waters produced dramatic changes and a steep temperature gradient. The movement of the inflowing waters through the deep basins and channels of the Baltic Sea from the Arkona Basin to the Gdańsk Deep during next 4-8 months is described. Frequent mesoscale structures and intensive mixing followed the eastward transport of the inflow water, particularly in the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. The present paper is based on data collected during 6 cruises r/v "Oceania" between December 2002 and August 2003. The last cruise in August took place in order to assess the long-term consequences of the inflow.

  5. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  6. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  7. NORSEWIND – Mesoscale model derived Wind Atlases for the Irish Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend;

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the EU Framework 7 R&D Program NORSEWInD, Wind Atlases for the Irish Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been developed and made public available. In the present study the development of the offshore Wind Atlases is focused on the use of mesoscale model data since the access to...... measurements and satellite data have been limited. Mesoscale model runs were carried out for focus areas with high spatial model resolution (2 km) and the entire Wind Atlas domain with coarser resolution (6 km). The annual average wind speed data have been long-term adjusted. Through the NORSEWInD project we...... have experienced that mesoscale models are efficient and accurate tools for generating offshore Wind Atlases. Long-term annual average wind speeds are estimated to have a random uncertainty of ±4.2 % and a bias of -1.3 % which is lower than what is experienced onshore. For the Weibull k-parameter we...

  8. Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Stein-Bachinger; Moritz Reckling; Johann Bachinger; Johannes Hufnagel; Wijnand Koker; Artur Granstedt

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster t...

  9. Genetic species identification and low genetic diversity in Pseudocalanus acuspes of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Holmborn, Towe; Goetze, Erica; Põllupüü, Maria; Põllumäe, Arno

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Calanoid copepods of the genus Pseudocalanus are key species in temperate boreal marine pelagic ecosystems. Pseudocalanus species are difficult to distinguish morphologically and there is uncertainty regarding the species present in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigated the species composition of Pseudocalanus in the Baltic proper and Gulf of Finland using a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) approach. Screening of 888 individuals from 13 different st...

  10. Modelling the mixing of herring stocks between the Baltic and the North Sea from otolith data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Post, Søren Lorentzen; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks, mainly North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS) and western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS), which is managed through a single TAC. Catches of these two stocks are split using otolith microstructures from Danish and...... Swedish commercial landings and surveys samples for the purpose of stock assessment. But the split estimates from sampling data are highly variable and noisy. Better understanding of the migration and exploitation patterns involved could therefore potentially improve the stock assessment as well as...... provide solutions to the complex management of this mix. The stock‐specific seasonal trends in distribution of the two main stocks from otolith data were analysed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) of stock composition. The results show a clear seasonal and age‐related pattern and are...

  11. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  12. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Bier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  13. Iodide and iodate (129I and 127I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the common incorporation of iodine in the biological cycle and occurrence of huge contamination of the radioactive isotope 129I in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat, there is no data on chemical speciation of iodine in these waters. We here present first time data on iodine isotopes 129I and 127I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique for the 129I and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for 127I. High concentrations of both isotopes species were found in the Skagerrak–Kattegat basins, whereas the values in the Baltic Proper are low for both species. The ratios of 129I−/129IO3− and 127I−/127IO3− significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in 129I and 127I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea.

  14. NEMO-Nordic : A NEMO based ocean modelling configuration for Baltic & North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Gröger, Matthias; Dieterich, Christian; Liu, Ye; Höglund, Anders; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Ljungemyr, Patrik; Nygren, Petter; Jönsson, Anette; Meier, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Based on the NEMO ocean engine, three regional setups for the North Sea and Baltic Sea domain have been developed : the NEMO-Nordic configuration is declined in an operational setup, a stand-alone version used for climate and process studies, and a NEMO-Nordic-RCA4 atmosphere/ocean coupled configuration used for downscalling climate scenarios. We give a brief overview of the options chosen within the NEMO engine to design the configurations. Based on the results provided by each of the three configurations, we also provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of NEMO-Nordic. Finally, a validation of the configurations is provided based on an extensive comparison between in-situ measurements and model results for temperature, salinity, sea-ice extent, sea level and mean circulation.

  15. The inflow of 238Pu and 239+240Pu from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to estimate plutonium inflow from the Vistula River's catchments area to the Baltic Sea. There were differences in plutonium activities depending on season and sampling site. The highest activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu were transported from the Vistula River watershed to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched via the Vistula River with 10.3 MBq of 238Pu and 89.0 MBq of 239+240Pu. The enhanced concentration of plutonium in water from the Vistula River is the result of its runoff from the Vistula drainage area, mostly from snowmelt, enhanced rainfalls and leached materials from river bed. - Highlights: → We estimated plutonium inflow from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea. → We found differences in Pu activities depending on season and sampling site. → The highest amount of 239 + 240Pu was transported in spring and the lowest in summer. → Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched with 89.0 MBq of 239 + 240Pu. → Enhanced Pu amount in water came from snowmelt, rainfalls and leached materials.

  16. Some International Legal Aspects of the Enclosed Seas, especially the Baltic Sea, with Regard to their Protection Against Pollutive Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enclosed or intra-continental seas should be distinguished from lakes, because the systems of the international law of the sea and international water- law differ from each other. The definitions of the enclosed sea used in the literature are not satisfactory and in the paper a new and more appropriate definition is proposed. The main sources of the international law of the sea are four Conventions adopted by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958. Many of the problems concerning the Baltic are also characteristic of other intra-continental seas. In the paper reference is made to these problems and to the considerations that render the provisions of the Conventions on the Law of the Sea inadequate for the case of the enclosed seas. With regard to the prevention of pollution of the sea and the disposal of radioactive wastes, the rules of international law are still undeveloped. In the paper mention is made of the aspects that should be considered when drawing up regulations and taking measures for the prevention of pollution, especially of the enclosed seas. (author)

  17. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  18. Distribution of N2O in the Baltic Sea during transition from anoxic to oxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2003, a major inflow of cold and oxygen-rich North Sea Water terminated an ongoing stagnation period in parts of the central Baltic Sea. In order to investigate the role of North Sea Water inflow in the production of nitrous oxide (N2O, we measured dissolved and atmospheric N2O at 26 stations in the southern and central Baltic Sea in October 2003. At the time of our cruise, water renewal had proceeded to the eastern Gotland Basin, whereas the western Gotland Basin was still unaffected by the inflow. The deep water renewal was detectable in the distributions of temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentrations as well as in the distribution of the N2O concentrations: Shallow stations in the Kiel Bight and Pomeranian Bight were well-ventilated with uniform N2O concentrations near equilibrium throughout the water column. In contrast, stations in the deep basins, such as the Bornholm and the Gotland Deep, showed a clear stratification with deep water affected by North Sea Water. Inflowing North Sea Water led to changed environmental conditions, especially enhanced oxygen (O2 or declining hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentrations, thus, affecting the conditions for the production of N2O. Pattern of N2O profiles and correlations with parameters like oxygen and nitrate differed between the basins. Because of the positive correlation between ΔN2O and AOU in oxic waters the dominant production pathway seems to be nitrification rather than denitrification. Advection of N2O by North Sea Water was found to be of minor importance. A rough budget revealed a significant surplus of in situ produced N2O after the inflow. However, due to the permanent halocline, it can be assumed that the N2O produced does not reach the atmosphere. Hydrographic aspects therefore are decisive factors determining the final release of N2O produced to the atmosphere.

  19. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized with...... ground truth data of physical parameters obtained on the research cruises, and all simulations were forced with actual wind data. Outside the basin, generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized by incorporation of simulated hydrographic fields from previous model runs typical for the...

  20. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, Ian; Zillen, L.; Lenz, C.; D. J. Conley

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied t...

  1. {sup 241}Pu concentrations in water, plankton and fish from the southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, D.I.; Skwarzec, B. [Gdansk, Univ. (Poland). Facuty of Chemistry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the work was to determine {sup 241}Pu activities in different components (water, plankton and fish) of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. Measurement of {sup 241}Pu in the samples was done indirectly by determining the increment in {sup 241}Am from the decay of the {beta}-emitting {sup 241}Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of {sup 241}Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The highest {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish were found in Perciformes: benthic round goby (0.863 {+-} 0.066 mBq/g ww) and pelagic perch (0.666 {+-} 0.001 mBq/g ww). Plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed in the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. Most of {sup 241}Pu in flounder, herring and cod is located in soft tissues, especially digestive organs (stomach, intestine, liver). The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of {sup 241}Pu containing Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small. (orig.)

  2. Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldowska, M.; Saniewska, D.; Falkowska, L.; Lewandowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Important Hg transformations can occur at the air-water interface where polluted terrestrial air masses meet humid, halogen-rich marine air masses over the southern Baltic Sea. These chemical and physical processes include gas-to-particle conversion that led to an increase of Hg associated with coarse particles, which due to higher dry deposition rates, enhanced local scale deposition and limited the transport of this toxic trace metal. Daily (24 h) sampling of size-segregated atmospheric particles revealed the sea to be a sink for Hg during winter months and as a source of Hg during summer months. Poland is one of the major Hg emitters among the Baltic States according to International HELCOM Reports. Thus, important measurements in this region were conducted over a one-year period from December 18, 2007 to December 15, 2008. The range in concentrations of Hg in particulate matter (2-142 pg m -3) at the Polish site are comparable to other measurements at sites along the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Annual Hg(p) represents 1% of the total atmospheric Hg (Hg TOT) under unpolluted or background ambient conditions. A major source of atmospheric Hg in this area is the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning used for home heating. This was clearly seen in the statistically higher mean concentration of 24 pg m -3 observed during the heating season compared to the 15 pg m -3 measured during the non-heating season. Construction activities e.g., cement manufacturing, gravel extraction, and waste incineration during the warm season strongly influenced Hg concentrations and led to an increase in Hg(p) on working days compared to weekend days.

  3. Marine environment protection for the North and Baltic Seas. Special Report - February 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The marine environment of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is still heavily polluted. The marine ecosystems are under severe stress from overfishing, water pollution, raw materials production and tourism. Environmental protection in this region necessitates decisive political initiatives and strict corrections especially in fishery policy, agricultural policy and chemical substances control. This is the balance of the special expert opinion of the Council of Environmental Experts. The publication specifies the main problem areas, the current pollution situation, the fields where action is most urgently required - especially in fishery, chemical substances, agricultural and sea travel policies - and presents suggestions for an integrated European and national marine protection policy including a regional development concept for the marine environment. (orig.)

  4. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@emg.umu.s [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Andren, Thomas [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University, SE-141 89 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Maelaren - Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. - Pollution in Sweden during AD 900-1900 was often greater than modern industrial pollution.

  5. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. PMID:19268409

  6. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Maelaren - Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. - Pollution in Sweden during AD 900-1900 was often greater than modern industrial pollution.

  7. Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berndmeyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The water column of the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, is stratified into an oxic, suboxic and anoxic zone. This stratification controls the distributions of individual microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. In summer 2011, particulate organic matter was filtered from these zones using an in~situ pump. Lipid biomarkers were extracted from the filters to establish water column profiles of individual hydrocarbons, alcohols, phospholipid fatty acids, and bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs. As a reference, a cyanobacterial bloom sampled in summer 2012 in the central Baltic Sea Gotland Deep was analyzed for BHPs. The biomarker data from the surface layer of the oxic zone showed major inputs from different cyanobacteria and eukaryotes such as dinoflagellates and ciliates, while the underlying cold winter water layer was characterized by a low diversity and abundance of organisms, with copepods as a major group. The suboxic zone supported bacterivorous ciliates, type I aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and, most likely, methanogenic archaea. In the anoxic zone, sulfate reducers and archaea were the dominating microorganisms as indicated by the presence of distinctive branched fatty acids, archaeol and PMI derivatives, respectively. Our study of in situ biomarkers in the Landsort Deep thus provided an integrated insight into the distribution of relevant players and the related biogeochemical processes in stratified water columns of marginal seas.

  8. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K.; Aittoniemi, P.; Kaessi, T. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  9. Time changes in fishing power in the Danish cod fisheries of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Hovgård, Holger; Lassen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Using nominal fishing effort to control fishing mortality and using cpue data from commercial fisheries as abundance indices require ability to correct fishing power for temporal development. It is often assumed in ICES stock assessments that fishing power Is constant over time. However, experience....... Variations in IFP are analysed by a GLM (General Linear Model). Results suggest that fishing power has developed in the Eastern Baltic Sea cod fishery at an annual rate of 2% and 6% for trawlers and gillnetters respectively. Mechanisms of fishing power creeping may include increased technical efficiency and...

  10. Sustainable Production through Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Arbačiauskas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides brief information about the international project SPIN (Sustainable Productionthrough Innovation in SMEs that is under implementation in the Baltic Sea region to intensify ecoinnovationdevelopment and implementation. It presents initial findings from the study conducted in theframework of this project, particularly, an overview of the SME sector (including the structure of the SMEsector, contribution of SMEs to the national economy and the situation concerning innovationimplementation in Lithuania as well as the framework situation concerning eco-innovation development andimplementation (including available financial support. The key SME needs in development andimplementation of eco-innovations are also discussed in the article.

  11. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  12. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea by Satellite Remote Sensing Data in 2004-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Bulycheva Elena V.; Krek Aleksander V.; Kostianoy Andrey G.; Semenov Aleksander V.; Joksimovich Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2004-2015 are discussed in the paper. Interannual and seasonal variability of oil pollution is investigated. A steady decrease in total oil pollution was observed from 2004 to 2011. After a sharp increase of oil pollution in 2012, oil pollution level has established at 0.39 PI Index. Maximum of oil spills is observed in the spring and summer, which is probably due to favorable weather conditions for the det...

  13. Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, J.; Andersen, J.; Dromph, K. [and others

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the outcome of the project 'Review of the ecological targets for eutrophication of the HELCOM BSAP', also known as HELCOM TARGREV. The objectives of HELCOM TARGREV have been to revise the scientific basis underlying the ecological targets for eutrophication, placing much emphasis on providing a strengthened data and information basis for the setting of quantitative targets. The results are first of all likely to form the information basis on which decisions in regard to reviewing and if necessary revising the maximum allowable inputs (MAI) of nutrient of the Baltic Sea Action Plan, including the provisional country-wise allocation reduction targets (CART), will be made.

  14. Seasonal changes of 137Cs in benthic plants from the southern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewska, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    137Cs activity concentrations were determined in samples of macrophytes Polysiphonia fucoides (red algae) and Zostera marina (vascular plant) collected during the entire vegetation season in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea. The measurements showed considerable seasonality of 137Cs activity in both species; an increase of cesium concentrations was observed from spring to autumn with maximal levels 49.1 ± 1.4 Bq kgd.w. −1 (P. fucoides) and 14.5 ± 1.0 Bq kgd.w. −1 (Z. marina) in la...

  15. Changes in patterns of persistent halogenated compounds through a pelagic food web in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin;

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting of......-normalized concentrations were found in brown trout. Salmon and brown trout were similar in their PHC pattern suggesting similar food sources. Variation in PHC patterns among trophic levels was not smaller than that among geographically distinct locations, confirming the importance of comparable trophic levels for the...

  16. Nationality and ethnicity among young people as mental borders in the construction of the Baltic Sea as an imagined community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndigegn, Carsten

    The paper addresses borders and spatial identity from the perspective of transgressing borders and developing supranational identities. It differs from the approach of nationality and nationalism research that works up the specificities of historical and cultural artefacts. It also differs from the...... tradition on research in spatial identity, especially the multifaceted works and long-term discussion about European Identity. The specific aim is to discuss a Baltic Sea identity among young people in the region. The paper draws on existing literature in addressing the theme of constructing the Baltic Sea...

  17. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age – a case study from the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Snowball, I.; Lougheed, B. C.; H. L. Filipsson

    2013-01-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R(t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R(t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, ...

  18. Improving the assessment and management of the plaice stock complex between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Boje, Jesper; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Gatti, Paul; le Bras, Quentin; Andersen, Michael; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hintzen, Niels T.; Jacobsen, Jonathan B.; Jonsson, Patrik; Miller, David C.M.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan; Svedäng, Henrik; Wennhage, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    stock unit and is proposed to be assessed and managed as such. Pragmatic options are suggested for empirical harvest control rules accounting for the dynamic of local abundance, using a survey‐based biomass indicator. For the future, new scientific analyses should be developed to better inform the......Plaice in Kattegat and Skagerrak have traditionally been considered as one stock unit. However the collected information on biology and fishery in areas between the North and Baltic Seas suggest changes are needed in assessment units as well as in management areas. Plaice in Skagerrak (Division 20......) is now considered to be closely associated with plaice in the North Sea and is proposed to be included in the North Sea plaice stock assessment, although it is recognized that local populations are present in the area. Therefore, specific management of the Skagerrak plaice is suggested. Plaice in...

  19. A nitrogen source in spring in the surface mixed-layer of the Baltic Sea: Evidence from total nitrogen and total phosphorus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, A.; Schneider, B.

    2015-08-01

    The combined mass balance for total nitrogen (TN: concentrations of organic + inorganic nitrogen compounds) and total phosphorus (TP: concentrations of organic + inorganic phosphorus compounds) at 12 stations in the Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2013 clearly indicated the existence of a significant nitrogen source in the surface mixed layer in May of up to 86 mmol m- 2 month- 1 at the Baltic Proper stations. The analysis is based on monthly changes in TN with reference to the concentrations in April, and taking into account the atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds and the sedimentation of particulate organic nitrogen. The nitrogen source is closely linked to the consumption of excess phosphate and thus to the production of organic matter in the surface mixed-layer. Processes such as early nitrogen fixation and nitrogen transport by migrating plankton organisms are discussed as possible causes for the nitrogen input into the surface mixed layer in May. The long-term mean of the nitrogen source amounted to 55 mmol m- 2 in the Baltic Proper corresponding to a regional nitrogen input of 83 kt. We also obtained data for the mid-summer nitrogen fixation of 141 mmol m- 2 which corresponds to an input of 202 kt.

  20. Biomagnification of PBDEs and PCBs in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in food webs from the Baltic Sea and the northern Atlantic Sea was investigated. For this, we used PCB and PBDE concentration data, together with data on fish body weight and δ 15N of fish and zooplankton as a measure of trophic position. In the Baltic Sea material, consisting of zooplankton, sprat, herring and salmon, we report biomagnification of all PCB congeners but PCB no. 209 and of PBDEs with 3-6 or 7 bromine atoms. Higher brominated PBDEs and PCB 209 did not biomagnify likely due to their high molecular weights or sizes and subsequent inefficient dietary uptake in fish. If salmon was excluded from the statistical analysis, strong biomagnification of PCB no. 209 was evident, indicating species differences in biomagnification. In the Baltic Sea material δ 15N and body weight covaried. In the Atlantic Sea material, consisting of fish samples (herring and salmon) of larger body sizes, we show positive correlation between concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs and body weight without increasing δ 15N. This shows that biomagnification in some cases depends on body size and not trophic position. We conclude that there probably is trophic position dependence in biomagnification, which was manifested in a food chain from zooplankton to piscivores, but no further trophic position influence on biomagnification in fish at the highest trophic levels. In these fish, there was a body size effect leading to biomagnification, probably due to slower clearance in larger fish. PCB concentrations were generally between 2 and 6 times higher in Baltic Sea salmon than in Atlantic Sea salmon. Higher PBDE concentrations in the Baltic compared to the Atlantic Sea salmon were also found, but with a larger variation between congeners. Nona- to deca-BDEs were found in most investigated samples, which illustrates the bioavailability of these compounds. Unidentified penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and

  1. Variability and Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen in the Transition Zone of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Lars

    information about the seasonal to decadal oxygen variations in the bottom water of the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Sound and the Western Baltic Sea and investigates the relative importance of physical and biogeochemical processes, climate change and nutrient load reductions on the oxygen variability...... concentrations by 15-30 μmol O2 l−1 yr−1 while the reduced nutrient concentration has increased the oxygen concentration with approximately the same amount. Thus, the positive effect on oxygen conditions from reduced nutrient concentrations have been counteracted by increased water temperatures. This has made...

  2. GIS analysis of effects of future Baltic sea level rise on the island of Gotland, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Karin; Ekstedt, Karin; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2016-07-01

    Future sea level rise as a consequence of global warming will affect the world's coastal regions. Even though the pace of sea level rise is not clear, the consequences will be severe and global. Commonly the effects of future sea level rise are investigated for relatively vulnerable development countries; however, a whole range of varying regions needs to be considered in order to improve the understanding of global consequences. In this paper we investigate consequences of future sea level rise along the coast of the Baltic Sea island of Gotland, Sweden, with the aim to fill knowledge gaps regarding comparatively well-suited areas in developed countries. We study both the quantity of the loss of features of infrastructure, cultural, and natural value in the case of a 2 m sea level rise of the Baltic Sea and the effects of climate change on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, which indirectly cause saltwater intrusion in wells. We conduct a multi-criteria risk analysis by using lidar data on land elevation and GIS-vulnerability mapping, which gives the application of distance and elevation parameters formerly unimaginable precision. We find that in case of a 2 m sea level rise, 3 % of the land area of Gotland, corresponding to 99 km2, will be inundated. The features most strongly affected are items of touristic or nature value, including camping places, shore meadows, sea stack areas, and endangered plants and species habitats. In total, 231 out of 7354 wells will be directly inundated, and the number of wells in the high-risk zone for saltwater intrusion in wells will increase considerably. Some valuable features will be irreversibly lost due to, for example, inundation of sea stacks and the passing of tipping points for seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers; others might simply be moved further inland, but this requires considerable economic means and prioritization. With nature tourism being one of the main income sources of Gotland, monitoring and

  3. Computation of energy for diapycnal mixing in the Baltic Sea due to internal wave drag acting on wind-driven barotropic currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohr Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathways of energy supply for mixing the deep waters of the Baltic Sea is largely unknown. In this paper, a parameterization of the internal wave drag forces on barotropic motion is developed and implemented into a two-dimensional shallow water model of the Baltic Sea. The model is validated against observed sea levels. The dissipation of barotropic motion by internal wave drag that is quantified from the model results show that breaking internal waves generated by wind forced barotropic motions can contribute significantly to diapycnal mixing in the deep water of the Baltic Sea.

  4. Sedimentation rate control on diagenesis, East China Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Diagenesis of ferrimagnetic minerals can alter the magnetic properties, erasing partially or entirely the original paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic signals, especially on continental margins where sedimentation rates are usually high. Understanding the mechanisms by which magnetic particles are affected by diagenesis is therefore critical for retrieving paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic information from sediments. High-resolution magnetic analysis was carried out on rapidly deposited (0.4-20 mm/year) Holocene sediments from the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf. The primary magnetic mineral assemblage in the sediment core contains ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite, with minor contributions from hematite. The magnetic properties vary down-core in two steps, due to post-depositional reductive diagenesis. The first occurs at depths of 0.15-1.1 m and is characterized by reduction of both magnetite and hematite in suboxic sediments. The suboxic-sulfate boundary (SSB) is therefore located at 1.1 m. We demonstrate that the depth of the SSB has negative relation to the average sedimentation rate in Chinese marginal seas. The second step change in magnetic properties occurs at 3.2-5.8 m, and contains two intervals with extremely low magnetic mineral content, each corresponding to dissolution fronts associated with the former and present position of the sulfate-methanic transition (SMT). These two intervals correlate well with abrupt changes in sedimentation rate and separate the anoxic zone into two parts: the sulfidic zone and the methanic zone. Our study suggests that sedimentation rate provides a dominant control on magnetic mineral diagenesis, at least in the Chinese marginal seas, which controls not only the type of redox zonation, but also the thicknesses of diagenetic zones.

  5. Falia strategică Marea Neagră – Marea Baltică (The strategic Black SeaBaltic Sea ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe VĂDUVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a moment when it seemed that the East-West dimension of the ontology of Euro-Asian space was beginning to emerge out of its traditional conflicting character and do something in order to bridge the gaps. This would have been excellent, since Western Europe has finance and technology, while Asia is rich in resources. The civilizations to be found on the largest geophysical platform of the Earth are not contradictory and conflicting; they are just different, by area, culture, and interests. Many of the truths that sounded like dogmata or things which were well known and had become chronic were ignored both by the triumphalist and the pessimist analysts. Whatever had happened seemed to be water under the bridge. The Summit of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, in the autumn of 2013, showed, however, the real face of things. The undercurrents were revealed, frustrations became evident, the strategic Black SeaBaltic Sea ridge was reactivated and, consequently, the forces, the means, the plans and the resources were re-positioned. The war started again. Actually, it had never stopped because the war between the East and the West is unfortunately a continuous one. Like a road without beginning, without end, and with no exit.

  6. Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and servicesin the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be usedfor economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiarresources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the ProductivityMethod, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem suchas biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the ReplacementCost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marineecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding,including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paperemphasises the importance of using valuation methods to helpmake better-educated decisions for the sustainability of theBaltic Sea.

  7. Bioavailability of lead in North Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, M.; Kröncke, I.

    1991-12-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research programme, lead contents were measured in the polychaete Nephtys spp. and in the sea-urchin Echinocardium cordatum as well as in the respective sediment fractions <20 μm taken from the Dogger Bank proper and the eastern coastal North Sea. A lower lead content was generally observed in the organisms taken from the German Bight than in those from the Dogger Bank, especially from its northeastern part. It is possible to divide both areas according to the slope found in the linear regression of lead versus total organic carbon contents in sediments, which is twice as steep for the Dogger Bank as for the eastern North Sea. This criterium points to a difference in sediment quality with regard to toxic metal contamination. The sediment quality of the Dogger Bank seems to be twice as bad compared with that of the eastern North Sea. This is in good agreement with the differences found in lead contamination of the sediment-dwelling polychaetes from both areas. The results indicate that lead is primarily accumulated by food ingestion.

  8. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  9. Proceedings of Conference of Ministers of Energy on co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference of the Ministers of Energy on Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region held in Helsinki on 24-25 October has been regarded as a success. The European Commission and eleven countries adopted a communique that outlined goals for the regional energy sector, defined tasks for the cooperation for the next few years and decided how to organise the cooperation. In December 1999, the Energy Council discussed the Northern Dimension (ND) policy and the energy sector cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. The work in the energy sector was stated to be important for the whole EU, and the Commission was charged with the task of following the developments and reporting to the Council on the progress. The Foreign Ministers' Conference on the Northern Dimension, held in Helsinki on 11-12 November 1999, identified - in addition to the energy sector - also many other prioritised ND policy action fields, such as the forest sector, transportation systems, environmental challenges, the cooperation for new solutions of many social, health-related and administrative problems and research work, just to mention some sectors. The European Commission is preparing an action plan for the ND policy on the basis of the results of the Foreign Ministers' Conference and the Commission Communications on the ND policy activities. Energy cooperation will certainly have a central role in this action programme provided that the international political atmosphere gives the framework and support for further integration and cooperation in the region

  10. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  11. Application of a sigma-coordinate baroclinic model to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D sigma-coordinate baroclinic model is used to investigate water circulation and thermohaline variability in the Baltic Sea. Two versions of the horizontal resolution of ~ 10 km and ~ 5 km with 24 sigma-levels in the vertical are considered. The model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model code of Blumberg & Mellor (1987 and Mellor (1993, known as POM. This paper presents details of simulation strategies and briefly discusses the 'reality' of the results of modelling. The model's capabilities of simulating the characteristic hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were tested for 3 months (August-October 1995, a simulation related to the period of the PIDCAP'95 experiment (Pilot Study for Intensive Data Collection and Analysis and Precipitation (Isemer 1996. The model results are compared with the in situ measurements of temperature and salinity at selected hydrographic stations, collected during cruises of r/v 'Oceania' in September and October 1995. Comparison of computed and measured temperature and salinity shows that the model reproduces the vertical structure of seawater temperature and salinity in relatively good accordance with the in situ observations. The differences between the calculated and observed values of temperature and salinity are c. 1-2oC and c. 1-2 PSU, depending on the location of the hydrographic station.

  12. Newly Digitized Historical Climate Data of the German Bight and the Southern Baltic Sea Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrbein, Dörte; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The detection of historical climate information plays an important role with regard to the discussion on climate change, particularly on storminess. The German Meteorological Service houses huge archives of historical handwritten journals of weather observations. A considerable number of original observation sheets from stations along the coast of the German Bight and the southern Baltic Sea exists which has been until recently almost unnoticed. These stations are called signal stations and are positioned close to the shore. However, for this region meteorological observation data of 128 stations exist from 1877 to 1999 and are partly digitized. In this study we show an analysis of firstly newly digitized wind and surface air pressure data of 15 stations from 1877 to 1939 and we also present a case study of the storm surge at the coast of the southern Baltic Sea in December 1913. The data are quality controlled by formal, climatological, temporal and consistency checks. It is shown that these historical climate data are usable in consistency and quality for further investigations on climate change, e.g. as input for regional and global reanalysis.

  13. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq 210Po kg-1 fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statistically significant, whereas no effect of salinity could be observed. There is a high variation giving SD values in the range 70-100%. Mytilus edulis soft parts were analysed for 210Po from 11 Danish locations ranging from full North Sea salinity to Baltic 8 per mille water. Significantly increasing 210Po concentrations with a decreasing 'condition index' were observed. Concentrations at two former phosphate industry sites were not statistically different from the other locations. The average 210Po concentration in the M.edulis soft parts was 149 Bq kg-1 dry ± 55% SD (n = 41). The present levels of 210Po in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. (author)

  14. Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (2...... km x 2 km) model, and the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20-km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary-layer height. In this situation the...... high-resolution simple applied model reproduces the characteristics of the boundary-layer height over the measuring site. Richardson-number based methods using data from simulations with the HIRLAM model fail, most likely because the island and the water fetch to the measuring site are about the size...

  15. Seasonal and diel variability of the underwater noise in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Zygmunt; Lisimenka, Aliaksandr

    2016-04-01

    The results of ambient sea noise measurements performed in strongly stratified shallow basins in the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The experiments were conducted with an autonomous hydroacoustic buoy that was equipped with two omnidirectional hydrophones located inside and outside the seasonal waveguide. Data were collected in two areas with contrastingly diverse sound propagation conditions-at the Bornholm Deep in winter and at the Gdansk Deep in summer. The noise spectrum levels indicate a strong dependence on the sound propagation conditions (season, location) and show significant differences with the observation depth. At frequencies f synchronized with the vertical migration of marine organisms and correspond to the resonant frequencies of the fishes' swim bladders. PMID:27106302

  16. Species interactions in the western Baltic Sea: With focus on the ecological role of whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann

    , implementation of the models in strategic management advice for commercially important fish stocks and protected marine mammals is not common practice. This is due to the lack of sufficient information about species interactions including knowledge about the diet, food intake and growth dynamics. This thesis...... predominant forage fishes. The growth dynamics and feeding ecology of whiting in the western Baltic Sea has not previously been investigated, despite the fact that it is an important species both in the commercial fishery and in the food web of the North Sea. Due to differences in hydrography, species....... Disentangling food web dynamics is important for both ecologists and conservationists involved with management. Multispecies assessment models and ecosystem-based trophic models are becoming increasingly used as tools to investigate and assess biological interactions and predation impacts of key species in the...

  17. Kinetics of marine surfactant adsorption at an air water interface. Baltic Sea studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis³aw J. Pogorzelski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of studies of natural surface film adsorption kinetics carried out in inland waters and in shallow offshore regions of the Baltic Sea during 2000-01 under calm sea conditions. The novel approach presented here for the adsorption dynamics is based on the mixed kinetic-diffusion model and analyses of the surface pressure-time plots at short (t ->0 and long( t -> ∞ adsorption time intervals. Values of the effective relative diffusion coefficient Deff / D (= 0.008-0.607 and energy barrier for adsorption Ea / RT (= 0.49-7.10 agree well with the data reported for model non-ionic surfactant solutions of pre-cmc concentrations. Wind speed is one of the factors affecting the adsorption barrier via the increased surface pressure of the natural film exposed to wind shear stress (~ U102, and enters the relation Ea / RT = 1.70 U101/3.

  18. Trends in storm surge probability of occurrence along the Polish Baltic Sea coast

    CERN Document Server

    Paprotny, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    When assessing the hazard brought by storm surges on the coast, a frequency analysis is often conducted. An issue of particular concern is the sea level rise (SLR), thought to have an impact on maximum water levels. In this study, three gauge stations with long records dating back to the 19th century and located along the Polish Baltic Sea coast were analyzed. Different theoretical distributions were tested in order to find the best-fitting one. Gumbel distribution was chosen and estimated for 40-year moving periods. The location parameter soared in all tide gauges, but the shape parameter was stable in Gdansk and decreased in the other two. In effect, theoretical annual maximum water levels followed the SLR in Gdansk, whereas most extreme storm surges had no trend in Swinoujscie and a negative one in Kolobrzeg. A possible explanation for this was investigated (change in atmospheric circulation measured by NAO index).

  19. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Research; Gustafsson, Bo [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden); Omstedt, Anders [SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times.

  20. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Alheit, J.; Conley, D.J.;

    2002-01-01

    Fish and marine mammal populations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak have undergone major fluctuations over the past five centuries. We summarize how these fluctuations may have depended on various forms of predation (e.g., cannibalism, fishing, hunting) and environmental processes. The best...

  1. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia;

    2005-01-01

    A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  2. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and...

  3. Free amino acids in the clam Macoma balthica (L.) (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from brackish waters of southern Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen acidic and neutral free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in soft tissue of Macoma balthica from different depth zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) over a full seasonal cycle. The dry weight of the bivalves and physico-chemical parameters of overlying bottom water and surface sedime

  4. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times

  5. Implementing ecosystem-based marine management as a process of regionalisation: Some lessons from the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegland, T.J.; Raakjaer, J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the implementation of ecosystem-based marine management in the Baltic Sea. It explores and documents in particular the preliminary lessons from environmental and fisheries management with reference to the Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach

  6. Long-term stability and effective population size in North Sea and Baltic Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Schierup, M.H.; Loeschcke, V.; Grønkjær, P.

    2006-01-01

    DNA from archived otoliths was used to explore the temporal stability of the genetic composition of two cod populations, the Moray Firth (North Sea) sampled in 1965 and 2002, and the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) sampled in 1928 and 1997. We found no significant changes in the allele frequencies for...... the Moray Firth population, while subtle but significant genetic changes over time were detected for the Bornholm Basin population. Estimates of the effective population size (N-e) generally exceeded 500 for both populations when employing a number of varieties of the temporal genetic method. However...... the number of alleles commonly reported at microsatellite loci in Atlantic cod is best explained by N-e's exceeding thousand. Recent fishery-induced bottlenecks can, however, not be ruled out as an explanation for the apparent discrepancy between high levels of variability and recently reported...

  7. Radioactivity of the Ionian sea sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured specific activities in the clay-sediment sample originated from the Corfu island in the north part of the Ionian sea are presented in this paper. Samples were took during the 2010, and measured by means of semiconductor HPGe spectrometer. Using the measured specific activities, the annual effective dose, due to presence of 238U, 232Th i 40K, was calculated.

  8. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.)

  9. Second periodic assessment of the state of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea, 1984-1988; general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, S.A. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The present assessment of the Baltic Sea Area concerning primarily the years 1984-1988 deals mainly with observations made in the open Baltic Sea and consequently, the statements do not reflect findings in coastal areas, which will be assessed separately. Due to the ban in the use of some harmful substances, positive changes were observed; DDT and PCB concentrations in biota have decreased since the 1970s and are now on a lower and steady level, although comparable data on herring indicate that the levels are still higher in the Baltic than in the Skagerrak area. After the ban on technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), the decrease of {alpha} -HCH concentrations in water is still continuing. COncentrations of organochlorine residues in fish from the Baltic Proper are still 3 to 10 times higher than in fish from around the Shetland Islands. Among the 'new contaminants', there has been an increasing number of organic substances identified which are potentially harmful to the environment. Trace element concentrations in fish and shellfish have not changed remarkably since the early 1980s. Generally, it can be stated that mercury concentrations in biota do not significantly differ now from those in the North Sea and the North-East Atlantic. Sallinity continued to decrease mainly due to lack of major inflows of highly saline water from the North Sea during the last 13 years. The area with insufficient oxygen conditions for macrofauna (about 70 000 km{sup 2} with less than 2ml/l oxygen in bottom water) has fluctuated in extent from year to year, but has not increased for 25 years in the Central Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland.

  10. Oil Pollution Of The Southeastern Baltic Sea By Satellite Remote Sensing Data And In-Situ Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bulycheva Elena V.; Krek Aleksander V.; Kostianoy Andrey G.; Semenov Aleksander V.; Joksimovich Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Results of operational satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface together with in-situ measurements of the oil products concentration in the water column for the first time allowed to establish relation between the surface pollution originated from ships, and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the water column in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with heightened concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers wer...

  11. Difference in Particle Transport Between Two Coastal Areas in the Baltic Sea Investigated with High-Resolution Trajectory Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particle-tracking model based on high-resolution ocean flow data was used to investigate particle residence times and spatial distribution of settling sediment for two geo-morphologically different Swedish coastal areas. The study was a part of a safety assessment for the location of a future nuclear-waste repository, and information about the particle-transport patterns can contribute to predictions of the fate of a possible leakage. It is also, to our knowledge, the first time particle-transport differences between two coastal areas have been quantified in this manner. In Forsmark, a funnel-shaped bay shielded by a number of islands, the average residence time for clay particles was 5 times longer than in the modeled part of Simpevarp, which is open to the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, <10 % of the released particles left the domain compared to 60-80 % in Simpevarp. These site-specific differences will increase over time with the differences in land uplift between the areas

  12. Dissolved methane during hypoxic events at the Boknis Eck time series station (Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Bange

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved CH4 was measured in the water column at the Boknis Eck (BE time series station in the Eckernförde Bay (SW Baltic Sea on a monthly basis from June 2006 to November 2008. The water column at BE was always supersaturated with CH4 and, therefore, CH4 was released to the atmosphere throughout the sampling period: the mean CH4 surface (1 m saturation at BE was 554±317%. A pulse of enhanced CH4 emissions occurs when the CH4 accumulation in the hypoxic bottom layer during summer is terminated in late summer/autumn. We did not detect a straightforward relationship between periods of enhanced CH4 in the bottom layer and hypoxic events at BE: the sedimentary release of CH4 seemed to be mainly triggered by sedimenting organic material from phytoplankton blooms. We conclude that future CH4 emissions from BE will be determined by the intensity of phytoplankton blooms, which in turn will be influenced by eutrophication. However, hypoxic events seem to have only a modulating effect on the enhancement of sedimentary methanogenesis and the subsequent release of CH4 to the water column.

  13. Quantifying the heterogeneity of hypoxic and anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea by a simplified coupled hydrodynamic-oxygen consumption model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus; Myrberg, Kai

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea deep waters suffer from extended areas of hypoxia and anoxia. Their intra- and inter-annual variability is mainly determined by saline inflows which transport oxygenated water to deeper layers. During the last decades, oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have generally worsened and thus, the extent of hypoxic as well as anoxic bottom water has increased considerably. Climate change may further increase hypoxia due to changes in the atmospheric forcing conditions resulting in less deep water renewal Baltic inflows, decreased oxygen solubility and increased respiration rates. Feedback from climate change can amplify effects from eutrophication. A decline in oxygen conditions has generally a negative impact on marine life in the Baltic Sea. Thus, a detailed description of the evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas is particularly required when studying oxygen-related processes such as habitat utilization of spawning fish, survival rates of their eggs as well as settlement probability of juveniles. One of today's major challenges is still the modeling of deep water dissolved oxygen, especially for the Baltic Sea with its seasonal and quasi-permanent extended areas of oxygen deficiency. The detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the oxygen concentrations in the entire Baltic Sea have been simulated for the period 1970-2010 by utilizing a hydrodynamic Baltic Sea model coupled to a simple pelagic and benthic oxygen consumption model. Model results are in very good agreement with CTD/O2-profiles taken in different areas of the Baltic Sea. The model proved to be a useful tool to describe the detailed evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas in the entire Baltic Sea. Model results are further applied to determine frequencies of the occurrence of areas of oxygen deficiency and cod reproduction volumes.

  14. Reconstructing historical stock development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea before the beginning of intensive exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Köster, Fritz; MacKenzie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The landings of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea in the early decades of the 20th century were below 50 thousand tonnes and therefore lower than in recent years at very low stock size. These low landings have largely contributed to a perception that the stock size was also low...... mortality before the 1940s was below 0.2, but reached moderate levels during the Second World War. The stock size before the war may be considered as a reference level of biomass at low fishing impact, providing important information for the management of fisheries and the Baltic ecosystem....

  15. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  16. Microbial decomposition of terrigenic organic matter discharged into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manecki, M.; Herlemann, D.; Pollehne, F.; Labrenz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, T.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    The permafrost soils in arctic regions contain a large amount of the worldwide organic carbon and global warming is expected to increase drainage of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the adjacent oceans. It is yet unclear how this terrigenic organic matter will influence the global carbon cycle and the feedback effects to the climate. We used the Baltic Sea as a model system to investigate the role of abiotic factors on the degradation of terrigenic dissolved organic matter (tDOM) upon discharge into a brackish system as well as the response of the microbial community. Water from the Kalix River in Northern Sweden, which drains also permafrost soils, was used as the tDOM source in incubation experiments with Baltic Sea water. Different qualities of tDOM were compared by applying concentration procedures: tDOM was added to fresh Baltic Sea water as untreated Kalix River water or concentrated by commonly use DOC concentration procedures (lyophilization, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction). We investigated the TDOC degradation by parallel measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, DOM composition (using a 15 Tesla Fourier Transformation Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)), microbial activities and microbial community structure. FT-ICR-MS measurements showed qualitative differences in the DOM compositions for the different treatments and a drastic change in DOM composition between the third and fourth week of the incubation experiment. Despite the qualitative differences in DOM composition, the results obtained so far revealed that the added tDOC had, independent of the previous enrichment procedure, only little influence on bacterial activities, bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This indicates that the major portion of the added tDOC is of refractory nature. Instead, bacterial predation by heterotrophic protists had a strong impact on both bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition

  17. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6 kg N ha-1 yr-1 wet deposition. - Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts Baltic dune vegetation promoting a dominance of taller graminoids

  18. Deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on the Baltic Sea: seasonal patterns and nitrogen isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on the central Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper was estimated monthly at two coastal stations and two isolated islands in 2001 and 2002. Yearly nitrogen deposition ranged between 387 and 727 mg N m−2 yr−1 (average 617 and was composed of ~10% organic N and approximately equal amounts of ammonium and nitrate. Winter nitrate peaks at the isolated islands possibly indicated ship emissions. Load weighted δ15N of deposited N was 3.7‰ and 0.35‰ at the coastal stations and the isolated islands respectively. Winter δ15N was ~3‰ lighter than in summer, reflecting winter dominance of nitrate. The light isotopic composition of deposited nitrogen may cause overestimates of nitrogen fixation in basin-wide isotopic budgeting, whereas relatively heavy deposition of ammonium during summer instead may cause underestimates of fixation in budgets of the upper mixed layer. δ15N in atmospherically deposited nitrate and ammonium was estimated by regression to −7.9 and 13.5‰ respectively. Phosphorus deposition showed no clear seasonal pattern and was considerably lower at the isolated islands. Organic P constituted 20–40% of annual P deposition. P deposition is unlikely to be a major source for cyanobacterial blooms but may potentially prolong an ongoing bloom.

  19. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remke, Eva [Biological Station of Hiddensee, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Biologenweg 15, 18565 Kloster (Germany); Bargerveen Foundation, Department of Animal Ecology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: remke@science.ru.nl; Brouwer, Emiel [Research Center B-WARE B.V., Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.brouwer@ocbw.nl; Kooijman, Annemieke [Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Physical Geography, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.m.kooijman@uva.nl; Blindow, Irmgard [Biological Station of Hiddensee, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Biologenweg 15, 18565 Kloster (Germany)], E-mail: blindi@uni-greifswald.de; Esselink, Hans [Bargerveen Foundation, Department of Animal Ecology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.esselink@science.ru.nl; Roelofs, Jan G.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.roelofs@science.ru.nl

    2009-03-15

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} wet deposition. - Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts Baltic dune vegetation promoting a dominance of taller graminoids.

  20. Trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic food chain from the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) and 13 other trace elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were measured in phytoplankton, zooplankton, mysis and herring in order to examine the trophodynamics in a well-studied pelagic food chain in the Baltic Sea. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) was used to evaluate food web structure and to estimate the extent of trophic biomagnification of the various trace elements. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for each trace element were determined from the slope of the regression between trace element concentrations and δ15N. Calculated TMFs showed fundamental differences in the trophodynamics of the trace elements in the pelagic food chain studied. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd showed statistically significant decreases (TMF 1) in concentration with trophic level i.e. Hg biomagnifies in this Baltic food chain. The estimated TMF for Hg in this food chain was comparable to TMFs observed elsewhere for diverse food chains and locations.

  1. Isotopic signatures of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as bioindicator of anthropogenic nutrient input in the western Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs are a global problem, but difficult to quantify. • We tested the use of eelgrass δ15N as proxy of such inputs in the Baltic Sea. • The method revealed distinct spatial patterns in sewage N across a eutrophic bay. • Traditional eutrophication measures corroborated the results from δ15N values. • Eelgrass δ15N ratios have high potential as proxy of sewage-derived N in the Baltic. -- Abstract: Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass δ15N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows

  2. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  3. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Jeppesen, Jens Peder; Teilmann, Jonas; Kinze, Carl C.

    2012-01-01

    –porpoise density season and seven in the low-density season. The distribution of occurrence and the distribution of number of Wsh species were diVerent between seasons, indicating a shift in prey intake between seasons. Furthermore, during the highdensity season, the mean and total prey weight per stomach as well...... Atlantic herring and Atlantic cod were equally important during the low-density season. Prey availability and predictability are suggested as the main drivers for harbour porpoise distribution, and this could be caused by the formation of frontal zones in spring in the northern part of the Sound, leading......Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...

  4. Climate change in the Baltic sea region: a cross-country analysis of institutional stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Hansson, Anders; Hjerpe, Mattias; Chubarenko, Boris; Karmanov, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Before climate change is considered in long-term coastal management, it is necessary to investigate how institutional stakeholders in coastal management conceptualize climate change, as their awareness will ultimately affect their actions. Using questionnaires in eight Baltic Sea riparian countries, this study examines environmental managers' awareness of climate change. Our results indicate that problems related to global warming are deemed secondary to short-term social and economic issues. Respondents agree that problems caused by global warming will become increasingly important, but pay little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Current environmental problems are expected to continue to be urgent in the future. We conclude that an apparent gap exists between decision making, public concerns, and scientific consensus, resulting in a situation in which the latest evidence rarely influences commonly held opinions. PMID:22926886

  5. A study of episodic events in the Baltic Sea - combined in situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A project was developed concerning the operational system of surveillanceand the recording of episodic events in the Baltic Sea.In situ information was to be combined with multi-sensory satelliteimagery to determine the extent of algal blooms, to track their evolutionand that of rapid environmental events like hydrological fronts. The mainelement of the system was an autonomous Ferry Box module on a ferry operatingbetween Gdynia and Karlskrona, automatically measuring temperature,salinity and chlorophyll a fluorescence. At pre-selected locations,discrete water samples were collected, which were subsequently analysedfor their phytoplankton content, and algal hepato- and neurotoxins;they were also used in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana}.

  6. A 20-yr reanalysis Experiment in the Baltic Sea Using three Dimensional Variational (3DVAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year retrospective reanalysis of the ocean state in the Baltic Sea is constructed using three dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation combining an operational numerical model with available historical temperature (T and salinity (S profiles. To determine the accuracy of the reanalysis, the authors present a series of comparisons with independent observations on a monthly mean basis. The performance of the assimilation in deep/shallow waters is investigated.

    With assimilation, temperature and salinity in the reanalysis fit better than the free run with independent measurements at different depths. Overall, the mean biases of temperature and salinity are reduced by 0.32 °C and 0.34 psu, respectively. Similarly, the mean root mean square error (RMSE of the reanalysis is decreased by 0.35 °C and 0.3 psu compared to the free run. In space, the model error is inhomogeneous and strongly steered by the model error dynamics. Seasonally varying error of the modeled sea surface temperature is mainly controlled by the weather forcing, and shows the least improvements due to sparse observations. Deep layers, on the other hand, witness significant and stable model error improvements. In particular, the salinity related to saline water intrusions into the Baltic Proper is largely improved in the reanalysis. The major inflow events such as in 1993 and 2003 are captured more accurately in the reanalysis as the model salinity in the bottom layer is increased by 2–3 psu. Sea level is also improved due to an improved density field. The correlation between model and observation is increased by 2 %–5 %, and the RMSE is generally reduced by 10 cm in the reanalysis compared to the free run. The reduction of RMSE is mainly due to the reduction of mean bias. Assimilation of T/S contributes little to the barotropic transport in the shallow Danish Transition zone.

    The mixed layer depth exhibits strong seasonal

  7. In-air spectral signatures of the Baltic Sea macrophytes and their statistical separability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Remm, Kalle; Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Orav-Kotta, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Many macroalgal species potentially have distinctive spectral signatures detectable using remote sensing. In order to map the spatial distribution of these species, their spectral properties have to be quantified and statistical differences between species need to be assessed. In the present study, we collected a spectral library of the key benthic macrophyte species in the Baltic Sea area and presented the methodology that allows quantifying statistical differences between their reflectance spectra. The results indicate that three broad groups of algae-green, brown, and red algae-can be separated based on their optical signatures. In general, the between-species differences are too small to allow easy recognition of benthic algae based on their untransformed reflectance spectra. However, the distinctness of the studied species and taxa improves if standardized reflectance values are used. The best indicative spectral range was at 530 to 570 nm for the separation of species and of larger taxonomic units.

  8. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. PMID:24291528

  9. Radiocesium and polonium in seals from the Baltic Sea. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137Cs and 210Po in muscle, liver and kidney from 5 seals from the Baltic Sea have been studied. Assuming that the seals consume 5% of their own body weight each day and by using previously obtained data for the doses in fish, the biological half time has been estimated to 20 days for Cesium and 35 days for Polonium. The maximum yearly doses are calculated to 76 μGy from 137CS to muscle and 3 500 μGy to kidneys from 210Po. These data are very preliminary, the number of individuals being so small, and it is difficult to estimate how much food other than fish the seals consume. Furthermore only few data for radioactive concentrations in whole fish exist, which especially impacts the results for Polonium. (LN)

  10. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239+240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes

  11. Relationships between inherent optical properties in the Baltic Sea for application to the underwater imaging problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.

  12. Ecological network indicators of ecosystem status and change in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej T Tomczak

    Full Text Available Several marine ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure have experienced shifts from one ecological state to another. In the central Baltic Sea, the regime shift of the 1980s has been associated with food-web reorganization and redirection of energy flow pathways. These long-term dynamics from 1974 to 2006 have been simulated here using a food-web model forced by climate and fishing. Ecological network analysis was performed to calculate indices of ecosystem change. The model replicated the regime shift. The analyses of indicators suggested that the system's resilience was higher prior to 1988 and lower thereafter. The ecosystem topology also changed from a web-like structure to a linearized food-web.

  13. Long-term trends in abundance of cladocerans in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, C.; Köster, Fritz; Kornilovs, G.;

    2002-01-01

    on the abundance of cladoceran species was investigated. A clear affinity to higher temperature was found for B. coregoni maritima in summer as well as for E. nordmanni and Podon spp. in spring. In addition to temperature, association tests with salinity revealed besides species-specific preferences, regional......Long-term dynamics (1960-1997) of the cladoceran species Bosmina coregoni maritima, Evadne nordmanni and Podon spp. are described for the Gdansk Deep and the Gotland Basin (Central Baltic Sea). By using correlation analyses on seasonal time- series, the influence of temperature and salinity...... and temporal differences. Contrary to B. coregoni maritima, both other species were positively associated to salinity in summer and autumn in the Gdansk Deep. In the Gotland Basin only E. nordmanni was positively correlated to salinity in autumn. Differences in the response to hydrographic variables...

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Marine Biodiversity and Habitats in the Baltic Sea - and Possible Human Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula; Christensen, Jesper Phillip Aagaard;

    Climate change is likely to induce substantial changes in the Baltic Sea, as it is a species-poor ecosystem where virtually all species live close to their environmental tolerance range. The vitality of the fish stocks and viability of fisheries should be supported by consideration of global change...... in the management of environment (protection, sustainable use and restoration) and of fisheries. A shift away from sector-by-sector management towards the integrated management of land, water and living resources may be necessary to sustain the productivity of fish stocks. The climate change and...... other concomitant human pressures induce substantial uncertainties for the future, especially as responses of marine ecosystems to changes in temperatures and in other forcing factors may not be linear, but abrupt changes may occur, which also need to be considered in exploitation of fish resources....

  15. Fecundity regulation by atresia in turbot Scophthalmus maximus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, A.; Thorsen, A.; da Silva, Filipa

    2016-01-01

    spawned) v. potential fecundity (number of developing oocytes), suggesting significant variability in reproductive potential. The extent of fecundity regulation in relation to fish condition (Fulton’s condition factor) is discussed, suggesting an association between levels of atresia and fish condition......Down-regulation of fecundity through oocyte resorption was assessed in Baltic Sea turbot Scophthalmus maximus at three locations in the period from late vitellogenesis in April to spawning during June to July. The mean±s.d. total length of the sampled fish was 32⋅7±3⋅1 cm and mean±s.d. age was 6......⋅2±1⋅5 years. Measurements of atresia were performed using the ‘profile method’ with the intensity of atresia adjusted according to the ‘dissectormethod’ (10⋅6% adjustment; coefficient of determination was 0⋅675 between methods). Both prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the...

  16. The Anomalously High Pole Tide in the North and Baltic Seas Estimated by the PSMSL Tide Gauge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Igor; Rabinovich, Alexander; Kulikov, Evgueni

    2014-05-01

    Pole tide driven by the Chandler wobble, has the period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ~ 0.5 cm. However, in the North and Baltic Seas they are anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long monthly sea level records from 80 stations with the length up to 212 years. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of seas. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance of the Baltic Sea (Danish Straits) to the northeast end of the Baltic Sea. The largest amplitudes - up to 4.5-7 cm - were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during XIX and XX centuries.

  17. Distribution and interelement correlation between chemical elements and radionuclides in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissues of marine mammals (Phocoena phocoena, Halichoerus grypus, Phoca hispida and Stenella coeruleoalba) from the southern Baltic Sea were analysed for concentration of 26 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sr, Tl, V, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P) and radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 210Po). The trace and macroelements were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-AES while radionuclides using γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry. To find statistically significant relationship between hepatic concentrations of chemical elements and radionuclides, if any exist, the data obtained were processed by correlation analysis. Significant interelemental correlations (p137Cs were negatively correlated with those of K and Si while 210Po showed positive correlation with Mo. The radioactivity data obtained in the present study are compared to those reported for marine mammals from the North Sea, Norwegian and Barents Sea. It is observed that levels of 137Cs in porpoises from the southern Baltic are mostly attributable to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 while major source of this radionuclide in North Sea porpoises are discharges released from processing plants at Sellafield, England. Unlike the naturally occurring isotope 40K, the 137Cs displays tendency to accumulate significantly in mammals from Polish coast of the Baltic Sea

  18. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  19. Investigation and evaluation of airborne pollution in the framework of PARCOM (North Sea) and HELCOM (Baltic Sea) - subproject: Measurements of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of measurements of the deposition and concentrations of atmospheric trace metals the annual input of some selected elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, V) into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was estimated. For the Baltic Sea, deposition measurements with a buoy system in the Kiel Bight and data from the EGAP(HELCOM)-monitoring network were used. Data from the measurement stations were extrapolated to related sub-basins according to the deposition fields obtained from model calculations (EMEP). For the North Sea, a mean atmospheric trace metal distribution was determined from numerous measurements at a coastal site and over the central North Sea and the annual input was calculated by multiplication with corresponding deposition velocities and scavenging ratios. A comparison of the deposition data based on measurements with those from model calculations show good agreement in the case of Pb in the Baltic Sea as well as in the North Sea. However, for Zn and Cd large discrepancies are observed. Additionally, deposition processes were studied. Scavenging ratios were determined and dry deposition velocities were estimated by the use of a new method for high time resolution measurements of atmospheric trace metal concentrations (impactor/TXRF). (orig.). 9 figs., 14 tabs

  20. Microbial methane oxidation at the redoxcline of the Gotland Deep (Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schmale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane concentrations in the stratified water column of the Gotland Deep (Central Baltic Sea show a strong gradient from high values in the saline deep water (max. 504nM to low concentrations in the less dense, brackish surface water (about 4 nM. The steepest gradient is present within the redoxcline (between 115 and 135 m water depth that separates the anoxic deep part from the oxygenated surface water, implying a methane consumption rate of 0.28 nM d−1. The process of microbial methane oxidation within the redoxcline is mirrored by a shift of the stable carbon isotope ratio of methane between the bottom water (δ13C CH4 = −82.4‰ and the suboxic depth interval (δ13C CH4 = −38.7‰. A water column sample from 100 m water depth was studied to identify the microorganisms responsible for the methane turnover at the redoxcline. Notably, methane monoxygenase gene expression analyses for the specific water depth demonstrated that accordant methanotrophic activity was due to only one microbial phylotype. An imprint of these organisms on the particular organic matter was revealed by distinctive lipid biomarkers showing bacteriohopanepolyols and lipid fatty acids characteristic for aerobic type I methanotrophic bacteria (e.g. 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol. In conjunction with earlier findings, our results support the idea that biogeochemical cycles in Central Baltic Sea redoxclines are mainly driven by only a few microbial key species.

  1. Aerobic methanotrophy within the pelagic redox-zone of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schmale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water column samples taken in summer 2008 from the stratified Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea showed a strong gradient in dissolved methane concentrations from high values in the saline deep water (max. 504 nM to low concentrations in the less dense, brackish surface water (about 4 nM. The steep methane-gradient (between 115 and 135 m water depth within the redox-zone, which separates the anoxic deep part from the oxygenated surface water (oxygen concentration 0–0.8 mL L−1, implies a methane consumption rate of 0.28 nM d−1. The process of microbial methane oxidation within this zone was evident by a shift of the stable carbon isotope ratio of methane between the bottom water (δ13C CH4 = −82.4‰ and the redox-zone (δ13C CH4 = −38.7‰. Water column samples between 80 and 119 m were studied to identify the microorganisms responsible for the methane turnover in that depth interval. Notably, methane monooxygenase gene expression analyses for water depths covering the whole redox-zone demonstrated that accordant methanotrophic activity was probably due to only one phylotype of the aerobic type I methanotrophic bacteria. An imprint of these organisms on the particular organic matter was revealed by distinctive lipid biomarkers showing bacteriohopanepolyols and lipid fatty acids characteristic for aerobic type I methanotrophs (e.g., 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol, corroborating their role in aerobic methane oxidation in the redox-zone of the central Baltic Sea.

  2. Aerobic methanotrophy within the pelagic redox-zone of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, O.; Blumenberg, M.; Kießlich, K.; Jakobs, G.; Berndmeyer, C.; Labrenz, M.; Thiel, V.; Rehder, G.

    2012-12-01

    Water column samples taken in summer 2008 from the stratified Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea) showed a strong gradient in dissolved methane concentrations from high values in the saline deep water (max. 504 nM) to low concentrations in the less dense, brackish surface water (about 4 nM). The steep methane-gradient (between 115 and 135 m water depth) within the redox-zone, which separates the anoxic deep part from the oxygenated surface water (oxygen concentration 0-0.8 mL L-1), implies a methane consumption rate of 0.28 nM d-1. The process of microbial methane oxidation within this zone was evident by a shift of the stable carbon isotope ratio of methane between the bottom water (δ13C CH4 = -82.4‰ and the redox-zone (δ13C CH4 = -38.7‰. Water column samples between 80 and 119 m were studied to identify the microorganisms responsible for the methane turnover in that depth interval. Notably, methane monooxygenase gene expression analyses for water depths covering the whole redox-zone demonstrated that accordant methanotrophic activity was probably due to only one phylotype of the aerobic type I methanotrophic bacteria. An imprint of these organisms on the particular organic matter was revealed by distinctive lipid biomarkers showing bacteriohopanepolyols and lipid fatty acids characteristic for aerobic type I methanotrophs (e.g., 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol), corroborating their role in aerobic methane oxidation in the redox-zone of the central Baltic Sea.

  3. Colorful microdiversity of Synechococcus strains (picocyanobacteria) isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Schouten, Daphne; Doeleman, Marije; Wollenzien, Ute; Huisman, Jef; Stal, Lucas J

    2009-04-01

    Synechococcus is a cosmopolitan genus of picocyanobacteria living in the photic zone of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Here, we describe the isolation of 46 closely related picocyanobacterial strains from the Baltic Sea. The isolates showed considerable variation in their cell size and pigmentation phenotypes, yielding a colorful variety of red, pink and blue-green strains. These pigmentation phenotypes could not be differentiated on the basis of their 16S rRNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Thirty-nine strains, designated BSea, possessed 16S rRNA-ITS sequences almost identical with Synechococcus strain WH5701. Despite their similar 16S rRNA-ITS sequences, the BSea strains separated into several different clusters when comparing the phycocyanin (cpcBA) operon. This separation was largely consistent with the phycobiliprotein composition of the different BSea strains. The majority of phycocyanin (PC)-rich Bsea strains clustered with WH5701. Remarkably, the phycoerythrin (PE)-rich strains of BSea formed an as yet unidentified cluster within the cpcBA phylogeny, distantly related to other PE-rich groups. Detailed analysis of the cpcBA operon using neighbour-net analysis indicated that the PE-rich BSea strains are probably endemic for the Baltic Sea. Comparison of the phylogenies obtained by the 16S rRNA-ITS, the cpcBA, and the concatenated 16S rRNA-ITS and cpcBA operon sequences revealed possible events of horizontal gene transfer among different Synechococcus lineages. Our results show that microdiversity is important in Synechococcus populations and that it can reflect extensive diversification of different pigmentation phenotypes into different ecological niches. PMID:19052629

  4. The Baltic Sea experiment BALTEX: a brief overview and some selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschke, E.; Karstens, U.; Nolte-Holube, R.; Brandt, R.; Isemer, H.J.; Lohmann, D.; Lobmeyr, M.; Rockel, B.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The mechanisms responsible for the transfer of energy and water within the climate system are under worldwide investigation within the framework of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) to improve the predictability of natural and man-made climate changes at short and long ranges and their impact on water resources. Five continental-scale experiments have been established within GEWEX to enable a more complete coupling between atmospheric and hydrodlogical models. One of them is the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). In this paper, the goals and structure of BALTEX are outlined. A short overview of measuring and modelling strategies is given. Atmospheric and hydrological model results of the authors are presented. This includes validation of precipitation using station measurements as well as validation of modelled cloud cover with cloud estimates form satellite data. Furthermore, results of a large-scale grid based hydrological model to be coupled to atmospheric models are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Programmes GEWEX (Globales Energie- und Wasserkreislauf-Experiment) werden weltweite Untersuchungen derjenigen Mechanismen unternommen, die die Uebertragung von Energie und Wasser innerhalb des Klimasystems bestimmen. Dadurch soll die Vorhersagebarkeit von natuerlichen und anthropogenen Klimaaenderungen in kurzen und laengeren Zeitraeumen und deren Wirkung auf die verfuegbaren Wasservorraete verbessert werden. Insgesamt fuenf kontinentweite Experimente wurden innerhalb von GEWEX fuer diese Zwecke begonnen. In ihnen soll vordringlich eine Kopplung von Hydrologiemodellen an Atmosphaermodelle erfolgen. Eines dieser Experimente ist das BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment). In dieser Arbeit werden die Ziele und die Struktur von BALTEX vorgestellt. Es wird auch ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Mess- und Modellierstrategie vermittelt. Ferner werden erste Ergebnisse der Autoren vorgestellt. Diese schliessen auch einen Vergleich zwischen gemessenen und

  5. Co-existence of electricity, TEP, and TGC markets in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the application of two policy instruments, tradable emission permits (TEPs) and tradable green certificates (TGCs) to the electricity sector in an international context. The paper contains an explicit modelling at two levels of abstraction, one suitable for defining and analysing basic functionalities and one suitable for numerical analysis in relation to countries in the Baltic Sea Region. Emphasis is on estimating implications in quantitative terms for countries in the Baltic Sea Region in 2010 when the TEP market in the analysis extends to four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), and the TGC market extends to North European EU countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Germany). The study concludes that within the range of goals stipulated in the EU draft directive (23.6% renewable energy) and the Kyoto targets for emissions, the following prices are affected significantly: from -2 to +10 Euro/MWh for electricity spot prices, TGC prices up to 50 Euro/MWh, TEP prices up to 18 Euro/t CO2 and up to +15 Euro/MWh on the consumer cost. It is shown that such price changes have important consequences for the production and investment patterns in the electricity sector, and the resulting patterns will be clearly different according to the specific numerical targets for the two goals. An immediate consequence is increased pressure on transmission lines. Further, the introduction of TEP and TGC markets will imply a restructuring of the electricity sector, e.g. (depending on the specific combination of targets) by a significant increase in wind power capacities. However, this will have to be counterbalanced by access to production technologies that have fast regulation properties and/or that may maintain voltage stability. However, the price signals of TGCs (and to some extent also TEPs) that will enhance wind power investments will simultaneously hamper investments in technologies that are a precondition for extensive use of wind power

  6. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  7. Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: a discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moellmann, C; Diekmann, Rabea; Muller-Karulis, B;

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea are currently under strong atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure. Besides natural and human-induced changes in climate, major anthropogenic drivers such as overfishing and anthropogenic eutrophication are significantly affecting ecosystem structure...

  8. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  9. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs. PMID:27061778

  10. A Less Saline Baltic Sea Promotes Cyanobacterial Growth, Hampers Intracellular Microcystin Production, and Leads to Strain-Specific Differences in Allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellul...

  11. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age – a case study from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Lougheed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t, associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R (t was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t, although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t, suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t, due to the δ18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when δ18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t is also likely to

  12. Contamination of North Sea and Baltic Sea with long-living iodine-129 and other anthropogenic radionuclides; Kontamination von Nord- und Ostsee mit langlebigem Iod-129 und anderen anthropogenen Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, Luebbert

    2010-10-12

    a {sup 129}I contamination from both La Hague and Sellafield. The global fallout and emissions from Chernobyl do not contribute significantly to the situation in Western Europe. Water samples from the Baltic Sea show lower iodine-127 concentrations (10-25 ng/g) than other seawater samples. The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios in the Baltic Sea range between 7.4 . 10{sup -8} and 2.8 . 10{sup -7}. The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios and iodine-127 concentrations increase with a shorter distance to the North Sea, as the Baltic Sea exchanges water with the contaminated North Sea. A sediment core taken from the German Bight shows that iodine-129 expands rapidly into deep layers. Prenuclear sediments have been contaminated during their long storage. Iodine-127 was determined by ICP-MS at Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, iodine-129 was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ETH Zurich.

  13. iodine diagenesis in pelagic deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of sediment geochemistry and porewater speciation and fluxes, made using nineteen sediment cores from the Madeira, Seine, Tagus and Nares Abyssal plains and the Alboran Sea, and a benthic flux experiment in the San Clemente Basin have been used to evaluate the early diagenesis of iodine in the deep sea. The observations result from a quasi-closed cycle for I at the sediment-seawater interface involving release of I from decomposing marine organic matter, oxidation of porewater I- to molecular 2 which is rapidly removed by reactive organic matter and the build up of I/C regeneration ratios of up to 200 x 10-4. Below this surficial zone the absence of reactive organic matter allows disproportionation of I2 leading to a net interconversion of porewater I- to 103-. Iodate reduction occurs during suboxic diagenesis, after denitrification and before MnO2 reduction, consistent with the sequence of reactions predicted from the free energy yields for organic matter oxidation. There is some further I-production in the anoxic section of sediments but at much smaller rates than occur during the interfacial diagenetic cycling. (author)

  14. Time series decomposition for assessing long-term changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Donner, Reik

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle accounts for about 40% of the total sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies suggested the existence of long-term changes in the seasonal cycle, in particular a possible increase of the annual amplitude. In order to assess long-term changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level, and derive robust estimates of the annual amplitudes and cycle phases, century-long tide gauge records in the Baltic Sea are decomposed by applying a multitude of complementary methods including continuous wavelet filtering, multi-resolution decomposition based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), autoregressive-based decomposition, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The results show that all methods generally trace a similar long-term variability of the annual cycle amplitudes. Additional variables such as atmospheric pressure, surface air temperature, and precipitation are analysed using the same approach in order to investigate potential mechanisms for the identified changes in the seasonal cycle.

  15. Occurrence of benthic microbial nitrogen fixation coupled to sulfate reduction in the seasonally hypoxic Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertics, V. J.; Löscher, C. R.; Salonen, I.; Dale, A. W.; Gier, J.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide occurrence of marine hypoxic regions, benthic nitrogen (N) cycling within these areas is poorly understood and it is generally assumed that these areas represent zones of intense fixed N loss from the marine system. Sulfate reduction can be an important process for organic...... oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate if N2 fixation, possibly by SRB, plays a role in N cycling within the seasonally hypoxic sediments from the Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea. Monthly samplings were performed over the course of one year to measure nitrogenase activity (NA) and sulfate......-fixing community was examined via molecular tools. Integrated rates of N2 fixation (approximated from NA) and sulfate reduction showed a similar seasonality pattern, with highest rates occurring in August (approx. 22 and 880 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42−, respectively) and October (approx. 22 and 1300 nmol cm...

  16. Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In

  17. Prerequisites for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Sweden - a synthesis of the Baltic Sea Project; Foerutsaettningar foer avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) i Sverige - En syntes av Oestersjoeprojektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Stigson, Peter; Hoeglund, Jonas; Bingel, Eva

    2011-07-01

    This publication summarizes a project on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the Baltic region conducted at the initiative of the Energy Agency. The project is called 'the Baltic Project' and the aim has been to highlight the prospects for CCS in Sweden and how the Baltic Sea region affects this

  18. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia

  19. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman; Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Thiriot-Quievreux, Catherine; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  20. The effect of regulation changes and influential factors on Atlantic cod discards in the Baltic Sea demersal trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter; Madsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    juveniles and thus discards. One method that has been widely adopted in the Baltic Sea has been to improve gear selectivity, subsequently allowing young individuals to escape capture. To understand the effects that changes to gear selectivity and minimum landing size have had on discard rates, as well as...... the effects of a range of additional explanatory factors, generalized additive mixed models were used. Gear regulation changes enforced in the Danish demersal trawl fishery in the Baltic Sea and other factors, such as minimum landings size, juvenile abundance, catch mass, price, and their spatial and...... temporal distribution, were found to significantly affect discard rates. The newest and currently legislated gears were identified as having the lowest discard rates. The increase in minimum landing size from 35 to 38 cm has increased discard rates...

  1. Occurrence of diverse alkane hydroxylase alkB genes in indigenous oil-degrading bacteria of Baltic Sea surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggor, Signe; Jõesaar, Merike; Vedler, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Pärnpuu, Liis; Heinaru, Ain

    2015-12-30

    Formation of specific oil degrading bacterial communities in diesel fuel, crude oil, heptane and hexadecane supplemented microcosms of the Baltic Sea surface water samples was revealed. The 475 sequences from constructed alkane hydroxylase alkB gene clone libraries were grouped into 30 OPFs. The two largest groups were most similar to Pedobacter sp. (245 from 475) and Limnobacter sp. (112 from 475) alkB gene sequences. From 56 alkane-degrading bacterial strains 41 belonged to the Pseudomonas spp. and 8 to the Rhodococcus spp. having redundant alkB genes. Together 68 alkB gene sequences were identified. These genes grouped into 20 OPFs, half of them being specific only to the isolated strains. Altogether 543 diverse alkB genes were characterized in the brackish Baltic Sea water; some of them representing novel lineages having very low sequence identities with corresponding genes of the reference strains. PMID:26541986

  2. Isotopic signatures of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as bioindicator of anthropogenic nutrient input in the western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Dierking, Jan

    2013-07-15

    Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass δ(15)N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows. PMID:23711843

  3. Distribution and abundance of surface water microlitter in the Baltic Sea: A comparison of two sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Norén, Fredrik

    2016-09-15

    Two methods for marine microlitter sampling were compared in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea: manta trawl (333μm) and a submersible pump (300 or 100μm). Concentrations of microlitter (microplastics, combustion particles, non-synthetic fibres) in the samples collected with both methods and filter sizes remained filter gave higher microlitter concentrations compared to manta trawl or pump with 300μm filter. Manta sampling covers larger areas, but is potentially subjected to contamination during sample processing and does not give precise volumetric values. Using a submerged pump allows method controls, use of different filter sizes and gives exact volumetric measures. Both devices need relatively calm weather for operation. The choice of the method in general depends on the aim of the study. For monitoring environmentally relevant size fractions of microlitter the use of 100μm or smaller mesh size is recommended for the Baltic Sea. PMID:27339742

  4. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in general and in particular from Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Federal Research Centre For Nutrition and Food, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Commission Regulation No 466/2001 establishes maximum levels for dioxins in foodstuffs, foreseeing to review the maximum levels by 31 December 2006 and to include dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Fish is known to accumulate dioxins and dioxin related compounds in the lipid phase of their tissue. To collect information of the actual contamination levels in fish species on the German market, samples were taken from fishing grounds important for the supply and in particular from the Baltic Sea. Sampling concentrates on fish species with higher fat content like mackerel (Scomber scombrus), salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), red fish (Sebastes sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus), because lean fish species are known to be less contaminated. Herring is the most important fat fish species for the German fish processing industry with a market share of 19% in 2001. The annual demand is approximately 149.000 t. Herring and other fish species accumulate PCDD/Fs with increasing age and dioxin levels in the edible part of eastern Baltic herring exceeds the maximum limit of 4 ng WHOPCDD/ F-TEQ/kg wet weight (w.w.) at ages of 4 - 6 years, corresponding to sizes of approximately 17 - 18 cm and a weight of 40 g, respectively. Hence Isosaari recommended to use preferably young fish from this area for human consumption. However, the German herring industry is based on the processing of large herring with a minimum weight of > 85g up to 250g. Therefore our interest focused on herring sizes of potential interest for the German processing industry. Samples were collected in September 1999 within two weeks covering an area from the Skagerrak to the Coast of Latvia. Additionally the contamination levels in sprat (Sprattus sprattus), flounder, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and in spring spawning herring from commercial landings around the area of Ruegen have been analysed.

  5. Satellite detection of multi-decadal time series of cyanobacteria accumulations in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahru

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scum. We describe the compilation of a 35 year (1979–2013 long time series of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on increased remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria, followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA and the total accumulated area affected (TA were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. FCA was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July–August. TA was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. FCA and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55 and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the 2nd half of the time series (13.8%, 1997–2013 than for the first half (8.6%, 1979–1996. However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11–17%, but rare (FCA below 4% from 1985 to 1990; they increased again from 1991 and particularly from 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25% and TA (~ 210 000 km2 in 2005 and 2008. After 2008 FCA declined to more moderate levels (6–17%. The timing of the accumulations has become earlier in

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHOPCDD/F-TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 ± 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@vtt.fi; Hallikainen, Anja [National Food Agency, P.O. Box 28, FI-00581 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: anja.hallikainen@elintarvikevirasto.fi; Kiviranta, Hannu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: hannu.kiviranta@ktl.fi; Vuorinen, Pekka J. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: pekka.vuorinen@rktl.fi; Parmanne, Raimo [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: raimo.parmanne@rktl.fi; Koistinen, Jaana [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: jaana.koistinen@ktl.fi; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland) and University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1267, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: terttu.vartiainen@ktl.fi

    2006-05-15

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHO{sub PCDD/F}-TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 {+-} 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

  8. Evaluation of the operational SAR based Baltic Sea ice concentration products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Juha

    2015-07-01

    Sea ice concentration is an important ice parameter both for weather and climate modeling and sea ice navigation. We have developed an fully automated algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval using dual-polarized ScanSAR wide mode RADARSAT-2 data. RADARSAT-2 is a C-band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument enabling dual-polarized acquisition in ScanSAR mode. The swath width for the RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR mode is about 500 km, making it very suitable for operational sea ice monitoring. The polarization combination used in our concentration estimation is HH/HV. The SAR data is first preprocessed; the preprocessing consists of geo-rectification to Mercator projection, incidence angle correction for both the polarization channels, and SAR mosaicking. After preprocessing a segmentation is performed for the SAR mosaics, and some features are computed for each SAR segment. Finally the SAR concentration is estimated based on these segment-wise features. The algorithm is basically similar as introduced in Karvonen 2014. The ice concentration is computed daily using a daily RADARSAT-2 SAR mosaic as its input, and it thus gives the concentration estimated at each grid cell (pixel) based on the most recent SAR data at the location. The algorithm has been run in an operational test mode since January 2014. We present evaluation of the SAR-based concentration estimates for the Baltic ice season 2014 by comparing the SAR results with gridded Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) ice charts and ice concentration estimates from a radiometer algorithm.

  9. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrova O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS. The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Remotely sensed data in visual and infrared (IR bands acquired by sensors MERIS Envisat, MODIS-Terra and -Aqua, and AVHRR NOAA nearly simultaneously with the ASAR images, were processed and analysed in order to facilitate the discrimination between different types of surface pollutants, to understand a comprehensive features of meteorological and hydrodynamic processes in the sea area of investigation, and to reveal factors determining pollutants spread and drift. The regions of the most intense oil pollution are outlined.

  10. Sustainability Aspects of Bioenergy and Nutrient Recovery from Marine Biomass : Baltic Sea case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Risén, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas around the world are experiencing environmental problems such as climate change and eutrophication. These, in turn, lead to emerging challenges with excessive amounts of biomass that impact coastal communities. Developing utilisation strategies for marine biomass is therefore highly relevant and forms part of the blue growth research field. In response to environmental concerns, as a waste management strategy and as part of blue growth research initiatives, several Baltic Sea co...

  11. Differences in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Virulence Factor Genes in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Lillo; Kristiine Pai; Arta Balode; Mariia Makarova; Kristi Huik; Siiri Kõljalg; Marina Ivanova; Lidia Kaftyreva; Jolanta Miciuleviciene; Paul Naaber; Kristel Parv; Anastasia Pavelkovich; Tiiu Rööp; Karolin Toompere; Ludmila Suzhaeva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of different virulence factor (VF) genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from the Baltic Sea region. A total of 432 strains of phenotypically ESBL positive E. coli were collected from 20 institutions located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the region of St. Petersburg in Russia from January to May 2012 and analyzed for phylogenetic group and prevalence of 23 VF genes. The strains were...

  12. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Reader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potential influence of terrestrially derived DOM on the Baltic Sea, a year-long study of dissolved organic matter (DOM was performed in three river catchments in Sweden. One catchment drains into the Bothnian Sea, while two southern catchments drain into the Baltic Proper. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were positively correlated with discharge from forested catchments over the year and while the overall concentrations of DOC were several times higher in the southern two catchments, annual loading of DOC was on the same order for all three catchments, due to differences in discharge. Biological oxygen demand (BOD was used as a proxy for the lability of carbon in the system. The range of BOD values was similar for all three catchments, however, the ratio of BOD to DOC (an indication of the labile fraction in Ume älv was four times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help to explain the higher concentrations of labile carbon in the northern catchment. Lower lability of DOM as well as higher colour in the southern catchments suggest that wetlands (i.e. peat bogs may be the dominant source of DOM in these catchments, particularly in periods of low flow. With climate change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially have a lower bioavailability.

  13. Air Transport Network Specialization in a Multi-Hub Area : A Case Study of the Baltic Sea Area

    OpenAIRE

    PyyhtiÀ, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This master s thesis is concerned with the airline network geography of the Baltic Sea Area. The developments in economical liberties in the area and new liberties in air transport give special interest in researching this matter. Also the requirements of airlines to consolidate their activities give a reason to predict the possible outcomes of the geography of airlines in the area. Airlines networks organize themselves according to economic principles, most often attempting to reconcil...

  14. Abundance, depth distribution, and composition of aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria in four basins of the central Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salka, I.; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Koblížek, Michal; Jost, G.; Jürgens, K.; Labrenz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 14 (2008), s. 4398-4404. ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0307; GA ČR GA206/07/0241; GA AV ČR 1QS500200570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aerobic bacteriochlorophyll * baltic sea * epifluorescence microscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.801, year: 2008

  15. Cultural Chameleons and Teamwork Terminators − Promoting Intercultural Management in the Baltic Sea Region PIM 2009 as Intercultural Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Kirjavainen, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis discusses intercultural teamwork in the intensive programme Promoting Intercultural Management in the Baltic Sea Region (PIM) 2009. The aim is to answer the research problem “How did cultural differences appear and affect teamwork in PIM 2009”. The need for this research and discussion of this topic can be found in the growing importance of both in-terculturalism and teamwork in working life. The research was implemented as a qualitative research using the observati...

  16. The Use of Satellite Data in the Operational 3D Coupled Ecosystem Model of the Baltic Sea (3D Cembs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicki Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an automatic monitoring system for the 3D CEMBS model in the operational version. This predictive, eco hydrodynamic model is used as a tool to control the conditions and bio productivity of the Baltic sea environment and to forecast physical and ecological changes in the studied basin. Satellite-measured data assimilation is used to constrain the model and achieve higher accuracy of its results.

  17. Magnetic quantification of Fe and S bound as magnetosomal greigite in laminated sapropels in deeper basins of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetite and/or greigite for navigation purposes and it have been suggested that their magnetosomes make a significant contribution to the burial of Fe (and S and O) in sedimentary environments. To test this hypothesis and improve our understanding of MTBs impact on the rate of burial of these two elements we have quantified the abundance of Fe and S bound as greigite magnetofossils in laminated Baltic Sea sapropels, which were f...

  18. Guideline on the System Vulnerability : Analysis of the Baltic Sea Region Vulnerability to the Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Schauser, Inke; Alberth, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This report elaborates an integrated vulnerability assessment concept, intended as a knowledge brokerage tool for decision-makers in the Baltic Sea Region. By developing an integrated vulnerability concept, in line with advances in regional and local vulnerability and adaptation research and based on the project’s review of the scope and quality of current vulnerability assessments, the report supports discussions on what is needed for a systematic assessment of vulnerability in the region. T...

  19. Baltic Sea underwater soundscape. Weather and ship induced sounds and the effect of shipping on harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sairanen, Eeva Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Sound travels faster and further in water than in air while electromagnetic radiation, among it visible light, attenuates fast. Marine animals have adapted to use sound in foraging, predator avoidance, orientation and communication with conspecifics. The underwater soundscape of the Baltic Sea remains largely undiscovered. The area is a unique acoustic environment due to its variant hydrography, broken coastline, shallowness, low salinity and the resulting strong stratifications. The harbor p...

  20. Spatial variation in transcript and protein abundance of Atlantic salmon during feeding migration in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Mirella; Vehmas, Anni; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Vuori, Kristiina A

    2014-12-01

    The fitness and reproductive output of fishes can be affected by environmental disturbances. In this study, transcriptomics and label-free proteomics were combined to investigate Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) sampled from three different field locations within the Baltic Sea (Baltic Main Basin (BMB), Gulf of Finland (GoF), and Bothnian Sea (BS)) during marine migration. The expression of several stress related mRNAs and proteins of xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death were increased in salmon from GoF compared to salmon from BMB or BS. Respiratory electron chain and ATP synthesis related gene ontology-categories were upregulated in GoF salmon, whereas those associated with RNA processing and synthesis, translation, and protein folding decreased. Differences were seen also in metabolism and immune function related gene expression. Comparisons of the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles between salmon from GoF and salmon from BMB or BS suggest environmental stressors, especially exposure to contaminants, as a main explanation for differences. Salmon feeding in GoF are thus “disturbed by hazardous substances”. The results may also be applied in evaluating the conditions of pelagic ecosystems in the different parts of Baltic Sea. PMID:25356801