WorldWideScience

Sample records for baltic sea estonia

  1. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  2. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  3. A comparative analysis of two Early Palaeozoic marine impact structures in Estonia, Baltic Sea: Neugrund and Kärdla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Suuroja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kärdla and Neugrund are two Early Palaeozoic offshore impact structures located some 50 km apart along the Estonian coast of the Baltic Sea. They share many similarities but differing features are also found. The Kärdla impact structure is located at the NE coastof Hiiumaa Island (58°58’N, 22°46’E. The inner crater has a 4 km rim-to-rim diameter and a c. 130 m high central uplift, surrounded by a ring fault, c. 12 km in diameter. The well-preserved buried inner crater is outlined in the landscape by a circular ridge of upliftedbedrock. The perimeter of the outer crater is outlined on the seafloor by a semicircular ridge of narrow shoals. The variable height of the rim wall (50–240 m above the crystalline basement level and the asymmetric location of the inner crater is obviously a result of an oblique impact in a layered target and partial collapse of the rim wall. Shortly after the impact in a shallow epicontinental sea during Late Ordovician time (c. 455 My, calcareous biodetritic muds were deposited and the crater was buried. The Neugrund impact structure is located in the seabed at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland (59°20’N, 23°31’E. The inner crater has a 7 km rim-to-rim diameter and the outer limit of the structure passes through the Osmussaar Island to the southwest of the impact centre. The crater wasburied in a shallow epicontinental sea with siliciclastic deposition shortly after the impact at Early Cambrian time, c. 535 My. It was partially re-exposed by erosion during Pliocene. The target had a three-layered composition: Precambrian metamorphic rocks covered byEdiacaran and Early Cambrian siliciclastic rocks (c. 150 m and water (c. 100 m. The structure has been studied with seismoacoustic and sidescan sonar profiling, and by diving and sampling of submarine outcrops. Several hundred samples of impact breccias have been collected and investigated from erratic boulders distributed by glacial action in the west

  4. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...... concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large...

  5. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...... concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large...

  6. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  7. The geology of the southeastern Baltic Sea: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ūsaitytė, Daiva

    2000-06-01

    The Baltic Sea, particularly its southeastern part, is discussed in the paper. Investigations of regional character as well as specialized studies in the area are reviewed. General historical works are mentioned briefly. Previous surveys since the 1950s are presented by the subject studied. The compilation of geological structure of the SE Baltic Sea bottom and adjacent land of Balticum (Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) is based on considerable amounts of summarized materials. The crystalline basement, sedimentary cover and Quaternary deposits are characterized in the comprehensive survey of geological structure. From a stratigraphical point of view, geological sequence of the platformal cover is comparatively complete: deposits of all geological systems (from the Archean to Cenozoic) are present in the Baltic Syneclise. Considering geotectonical cycles, the sedimentary cover of the syneclise is subdivided into four structural complexes. The thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits are closely related to the recent bottom relief of the Baltic Sea that in turn is inherited from the Pre-Quaternary surface. Buried palaeo-valleys are characteristic of the Pre-Quaternary surface in the Baltic region and the Baltic Sea bottom. The Quaternary is characterized by layers of various geneses and by sharp changes of their thicknesses.

  8. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  9. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  10. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  11. Coastal Dunes of the Baltic Sea Shores: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabuz Tomasz Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises results of studies conducted along the Baltic Sea sandy coasts by scientists involved in coastal dune research, and presents an attempt to describe the types and distribution of dune coasts. The Baltic Sea coasts feature lower and higher foredunes. The lowland behind the coastal dune belt is covered by wandering or stabilised inland dunes – transgressive forms, mainly parabolic or barchans. The source of sediment for dune development includes fluvioglacial sands from eroded coasts, river-discharged sand, and older eroded dunes. Due to the ongoing erosion and coastal retreat, many dunes have been eroded, and some are withdrawing onto the adjacent land. There are visible differences between the south-eastern, western, and northern parts of the Baltic Sea coast with respect to dune development. The entire southern and eastern coast abounds in sand, so the coastal dunes are large, formerly or currently wandering formations. The only shifting dunes are found at the Polish and the Russian–Lithuanian coasts on the Łebsko Lake Sandbar as well as on the Vistula and Curonian Spits. The very diverse shoreline of the south-western coast experiences a scarcity of larger sandy formations. Substantial parts of the Baltic Sea sandy coasts have been eroded or transformed by humans. The northern part of the Baltic Sea coast features mainly narrow and low sandy coasts (e.g. in Estonia. Further north, sandy dunes are virtually absent.

  12. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Helcom (The Helsinki Comity), representing most of the countries around the Baltic, made an agreement for the future of the Baltic Sea, on reducing the nutrient input to the Baltic Sea and thereby avert further environmental damage, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). One...... of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  13. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental......The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  14. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; Mackenzie, Brian R; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-09-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  15. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  16. Saints and Sainthood around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of articles covers most of the Baltic Region with a special focus on the cult of saints in Russia, Prussia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Latvia (more commonly referred to in the Middle Ages as Livonia). The articles cover a wide range of topics, for example the introduction...... of foreign (and ‘old’) saints into new regions, the creation of new local cults of saints in newly Christianized regions, the role of the cult of saints in the creation of political and lay identities, the adaption of the cult of saints in folk poetry and the potential role of saints in times of war...

  17. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  18. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M; Ahlhaus, M [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster the energetic use

  19. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  20. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  1. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  2. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  3. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  4. St. Canute Lavard around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Baltic Sea-area manifestations of the cult of the Danish Royal saint, Canute the Duke, in Danish, Knud Lavard, during the Middle Ages. It also applies theories of cultural memory by Jan and Aleida Assmann in order to approach an understanding of how the cult of St. Canu...

  5. Recreational Value of the Baltic Sea:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    The Baltic Sea plays a significant role for recreational use in the nine littoral countries with more than 70% of the population visiting the coast, representing some 80 million recreation visits annually. Understanding the values associated with coastal recreation and the potential welfare chang...

  6. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-03-15

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  7. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  8. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  9. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Ardehed

    Full Text Available Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a

  10. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  11. Multimission satellite altimetric data validation in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of altimetric data is crucial for investigating the regional sea level variability. Few works has been performed to validate the altimetric data [1, 2] in the Baltic Sea. The exploring of multi-mission altimetric data in the Baltic Sea has yet to be published. The number of available...

  12. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  13. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  14. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  15. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  16. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  17. On the importance of Major Baltic Inflows for oxygenation of the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Radtke, Hagen; Seifert, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    In December 2014, the third strongest salt water inflow into the Baltic Sea occurred since 1880. It was assumed that the inflow would turn the entire bottom water of the Baltic Sea from anoxic into oxic conditions for an extended period. However, already in late 2015, the central Eastern Baltic Sea had turned back into anoxic conditions. This rapid oxygen decline was in fact surprising since a weaker inflow in 2003 ventilated the Baltic Sea for a longer period of time. With the aid of an ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea, the two inflows in 2003 and 2014 were analyzed in detail. Although the 2014 inflow event was twice as strong as the 2003 inflow event, oxygen transport continued after the latter one, supplying about the same amount of oxygen again. In addition to the major inflow event, a series of smaller inflows in 2003 supplied the extra oxygen transport. Therefore, the strength of a major inflow event alone cannot be used to predict the oxygenation impact. Instead, it is necessary to consider smaller events, in particular those occurring just before and after a major inflow event, as well. An element tagging method showed that the share of oxygen imported across the Danish Straits on the total oxygen arriving at the central Eastern Baltic Sea is between 10% and 20%. Therefore, the oxygen concentration of the inflowing water seems to be of less importance for the oxygenation effect on the central Baltic Sea due to the strong dilution effect.

  18. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2014-01-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  20. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-15

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  1. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    -rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...... degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization......The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  2. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  3. Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluka N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

  4. Geopolitics of Baltic Sea Communication- Linking the Periphenes with the Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Haggman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in this essay to explain the importanceof a new link around the Baltic Sea being constructed to thecore of Europe with a possible net of the Superspeed MaglevSystem Transrapid with a speed of 300 miles/hr.The geopolitics of Baltic Sea communication is to a greatextent based on the peripherial position of Europe's northeastemcountries. A Transrapid net around the Baltic Sea wouldlink these countries to the core of Europe. An imp01tant ingredientin the link are bridges and tunnels. The Oresund FixedLink with its fUnnel and bridge will be the first fiXed link betweenDenmark and the Scandinavian peninsula in hist01y andfully completed in the summer of 2000. A railway tunnel betweenElsinore (Denmark and Helsingborg (Sweden isneeded in the beginning of the 21st century as an additionallink. Other submarine tunnel projects of geopolitical importanceare the Fehmam Belt and Falster Belt [!X.ed links betweenGe1many and Scandinavia as well as Nontiilje (Sweden -Mariehamn (A land Islands -Abo/Turkku (Finland and Helsinki(Finland - Tallinn (Estonia tunnels.lmp01tant new possibilities exist for extending tunnel construction.The Symonds Group (an important London constructionand planning company is working on prefab submalinetunnels. These are expected to be used across the St.George Channel between Dublin and Holyhead (about 90km. The tunnel technique has been used for the Oresund FixedLink and the Danish tunnel section of the link was completedin March 1999. Sweden, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia,Lithuania and n01thwestem Russia would receive a structuralboost with substantial consequences with the new TransrapidNet and its submarine and bridge links.

  5. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  6. Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaga, Galina; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine; Stankevicius, Algirdas; Mora, Stephen de

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite in the Gotland Basin and national monitoring stations in the southeastern Baltic Sea. Arsenic concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.1 to 19.0 mg kg -1 , with an average of 3.4 mg kg -1 . Although there was evidence of slightly elevated arsenic content in sediments near the weapons dumpsite, arsenic concentrations were nevertheless quite low relative to other investigations in the Baltic and North Seas. - Arsenic concentrations in sediments near chemical weapons dumpsites were only slightly elevated

  7. Nutrient control of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Staal, M.J.; Villbrandt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea were investigated with respect to growth Limitation and nitrogen fixation. The community was composed predominantly of Synechococcus spp., and large, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon spp, and Nodularia spp.), that usually formed

  8. Streamlining cooperation between public authorities and civil society : Exclusive Baltinfo interview with Arnold Rüütel, president of Estonia and patron of the IV Baltic Sea NGO Forum in Pärnu 16-17 April / Arnold Rüütel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Arnold

    2004-01-01

    Intervjuu mittetulundusühingute seminari "IV BALTIC SEA NGO FORUM" patrooni Arnold Rüütliga kodanikeühenduste ja avaliku sektori koostööst, ühiskondlikust lepingust, 2002. aastal Riigikogus vastu võetud Eesti kodanikuühiskonna arengu kontseptsioonist

  9. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT) [de

  10. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat......-scale climate variability (North Atlantic Oscillation), Baltic Sea ice coverage, and water temperature. These relationships increase our understanding of sprat population dynamics and enable a desirable integration of fisheries ecology and management with climatology and oceanography....

  11. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  12. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  13. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Niemisto, L.

    2001-01-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km 2 of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep, they are of

  14. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  15. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L. M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  16. Metals, Metalloids and Radionuclides in the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.

    2002-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the distribution, bioavailability, biomagnification, discrimination, fate and sources of chemical pollutants (metals, metalloids, radionuclides and nutrients) in all compartments (atmosphere, water, deposits, biota) of the Baltic environment is presented. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. Budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea in the past, present and future are presented. Estimates of health risks to man in respect to some toxic metals and radionuclides in fish and seafood are briefly discussed. The content of the book makes possible the identification of gaps in our environmental knowledge of the Baltic Sea, with certain sections establishing possible priorities, key areas or strategies for future research

  17. Development of the reed bed in Matsalu wetland, Estonia: responses to neotectonic land uplift, sea level changes and human influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Meriste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reed bed development in Matsalu wetland and the Kasari River delta, Estonia, since the late 18th century using historical schemes, topographical maps and aerial photographs. Our aim was to understand the mechanisms controlling reed distribution in Matsalu wetland, the largest coastal wetland of the eastern Baltic Sea occupying an area of about 25 km2. Natural development of the reed bed in Matsalu Bay and the Kasari delta is mainly controlled by shoreline displacement due to post-glacial neotectonic land uplift. The dredging of the Kasari delta in the 1920s–1930s caused a rapid seaward migration of reed bed communities due to the dispersal of fragmented rhizomes on the shallow sea bottom and along the canal banks reaching Matsalu Bay, while the landward parts of the former wetland were occupied by meadow communities. The expansion of the reed bed started in between the 1951s and 1970s and a maximum extent of 27 km2 was gained by the late 1970s at the peak of eutrophication. In the last decades the reed bed development has been influenced by sea level rise and increased intensity of cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea, which has caused the deterioration of the reed bed that was weakened by eutrophication due to nutrient inflow from agricultural landscapes mainly in the 1960s–1980s.

  18. The results of artificial radionuclides monitoring in the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskiene, N.; Lukinskiene, M; Zemaitiene, G.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term radionuclides volume activity (v.a.) monitoring (1976-1990) data showed that measurement results obtained in steady observation station give reliable information of the coastal area of the Baltic sea radioactive equilibrium between atmosphere and surface water was observed in the coastal zone. Chernobyl Power Plant accident influenced upon the Baltic sea coastal water by radionuclides 137 Cs and 144 Ce. Radionuclide 90 Sr volume activity was practically unchangerable. The mechanism of radionuclides fallout from atmosphere are various. lt can be illustrated by 137 Cs and 144 Ce a.v. structure field variations in open sea and coastal zone near Juodkrante. The Baltic sea inhomogeneous contamination by radionuclide 137 Cs in 1988-1990 leads to equalization of 137 Cs v.a. in the surface waters and it causes v.a. increase in coastal waters. (author)

  19. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  20. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.

    1989-12-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and partly also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs were about 120 Bq/m 3 in the surface water of the Bothnian Bay, 220-320 Bq/m 3 in the Bothnian Sea, 120-230 Bq/m 3 in the Gulf of Finland and 150-170 Bq/m 3 in the Baltic Proper. In the open Gulf of Finland and Bothnian Sea the 137 Cs concentrations of surface water were about 20 and 55 % of the maximum values in 1986. The total amounts of 137 Cs in bottom sediments ranged from 1700 to 16000 Bq/m 2 . In the Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland the total amounts of 137 Cs were about 5-6 times higher in 1988 than before the Chernobyl accident and 3 times higher in the northern Baltic Proper. The 137 Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 20 to 37 Bq/kg fresh weight and in pike from 38 to 160 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose to Finnish people caused by the consumption of Baltic Sea fish in 1988 was about 0.009mSv. (orig.)

  1. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.; Velde, van der Y.; Dekker, S.C.; Lyon, S.W.; Dahlke, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Study region River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  2. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Rémon; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan; Lyon, Steve W.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    Study region River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  3. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Rémon; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.; Lyon, Steve W.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Study region: River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus: Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  4. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  5. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  6. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  7. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    acquired wide popularity (and probably snob appeal ). Kafka, Ionesco and Dostoyevsky were available to Soviet Estonians earlier than to the Russian reading...Estonia . chided as snob appeal ). Of Estonia’s 757 general schools, 556 (i.e. 71) use Estonian, 90 use Russian and 60 are mixed. 2 The same applies to...novels whicr combine literary quality with national appeal ro 2 ’), collective farm realism at its best (M. Traatl), realisti> lezcription of city life

  8. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  9. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  10. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, 1999-2006 HELCOM thematic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Kanisch, G.; Luning, M.; Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Outola, I.

    2009-01-01

    The report describes work carried out by HELCOM's (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Commission) project on the Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea (MORS-PRO) during the period 1999-2006. The main topics include: sources of man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; levels of man-made radionuclides in seawater, sediments and biota; work on modelling and evaluations of the riks to man caused by radioactivity in the Baltic Sea; comparison of man-made radionuclides in the Baltic Sea with levels in other sea regions. The concequent recommendations and work on data quality are presented in the Appendix

  11. Monitoring of the radioactive materials in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.; Baranski, A.; Grzybowska, D.; Pawlak, A.; Pietruszewski, A.; Suplinska, M.; Wardaszko, T.; Tomczak, J.; Skiba, D.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1984 the measurements of concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, H-3, K-40, Ra-226, Ta-232, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Pb, Cd and Sr have been determined in various components of the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were determined by radiochemical and gamma spectroscopic methods, and the stable nuclides by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The concentrations of Cs-137 in the Baltic seawater was up to 7 times lower than in the Northern sea but 20 times higher than in the water from the Polish rivers. The concentrations of Cs-137 were related to the salinity. In sediments Sr-90 levels were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of other nuclides. The radioactivity of fish was found 1 order of magnitude higher in the Baltic than in Polish lakes and rivers. (author)

  12. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132...

  13. Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This

  14. Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Boerée, L.A.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Temming, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the

  15. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  16. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.; Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2002), s. 331-343 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : lodine-129 * Baltic sea * neutron activation analysis * seawater Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2002

  17. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  18. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utili...

  19. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...

  20. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  1. Understanding the ecocline at shallow coasts of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartz, B.; Jurasinski, G.; Voss, M.; Janssen, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on results of the Research Training Group Baltic TRANSCOAST. The overall aim of Baltic TRANSCOAST is to enhance our knowledge of the shallow coast ecocline. How is the marine coastal zone influenced by terrestrial processes? How is the terrestrial coastal zone influenced by marine processes? These questions lead our research within the three research fields covering hydro-dynamic, (bio)geochemical and biological processes. Regarding the hydro-dynamics we assess how the peatland's water balance, the current dynamics and hydraulic properties of the marine sediments and the subsoil influence sea water intrusions into the peatland and/or submarine groundwater discharge into the Baltic Sea. With respect to (bio)geochemical processes we address how (bio)geochemical transformation processes both in the marine and the terrestrial part of the coast are influenced by water and matter inputs from the respective other coastal domain. Finally, reagrding the biological processes, we are interested in revealing how the primary production and the composition of the micro- and macro-phytobenthos in the shallow Baltic Sea influence matter transformation processes. The integrative approach of Baltic TRANSCOAST allows us to get to grips with questions that are otherwise hard to tackle. For instance, we address how the pore water constituents drive microbial processes and the deposition of nutrients and and how they are impacted by sediment resuspension and translocation. We investigate how the hydrology of the peat layers interferes with the generation of trace gases and investigate the role of the nearby Warnow river and its plume and how this changes under the impact of wind direction and wind strength. For the latter we rely on data and models. Further, as a common basis for all topics addressed in Baltic TRANSCOAST we established the geology of the study area and learned that regional variability may play a major role in shaping the processes under study.

  2. The Carbon Dioxide System in the Baltic Sea Surface Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslander, Karin

    2011-05-15

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere is steadily increasing because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning. To understand how this is affecting the planet, several pieces of knowledge of the CO{sub 2} system have to be investigated. One piece is how the coastal seas, which are used by people and influenced by industrialization, are functioning. In this thesis, the CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea surface water has been investigated using observations from the last century to the present. The Baltic Sea is characterized of a restricted water exchange with the open ocean and a large inflow of river water. The CO{sub 2} system, including parameters such as pH and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), has large seasonal and inter-annual variability in the Baltic Sea. These parameters are affected by several processes, such as air-sea gas exchange, physical mixing, and biological processes. Inorganic carbon is assimilated in the primary production and pCO{sub 2} declines to approx150 muatm in summer. In winter, pCO{sub 2} levels increase because of prevailing mineralization and mixing processes. The wind-mixed surface layer deepens to the halocline (approx60 m) and brings CO{sub 2}- enriched water to the surface. Winter pCO{sub 2} may be as high as 600 muatm in the surface water. The CO{sub 2} system is also exposed to short-term variations caused by the daily biological cycle and physical events such as upwelling. A cruise was made in the central Baltic Sea to make synoptic measurements of oceanographic, chemical, and meteorological parameters with high temporal resolution. Large short-term variations were found in pCO{sub 2} and oxygen (O{sub 2}), which were highly correlated. The diurnal variation of pCO{sub 2} was up to 40 muatm. The CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea changed as the industrialization increased around 1950, which was demonstrated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the CO{sub 2} system

  3. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies......, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern...

  4. The maritime law of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Before the end of the 13th century, the Baltic seamen created a law system codi ed in Bjarkey and Söderköping and then Schleswig laws. The increasing Germanic domination of Baltic navigation resulted in the creation of speci c maritime laws for Lübeck and Hamburg before the introduction of the Laws...... lois de Bjarkey et de Söderköping, puis de Schleswig. La progressive domination germanique sur la navigation en Baltique a pour conséquence la création de lois maritimes propres à Lübeck et à Hambourg, avant l’introduction des Rôles d’Oléron, traduits en bas-allemand pour former le Vonesse von Damme...

  5. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  6. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  7. Estimating the effective nitrogen import: An example for the North Sea-Baltic Sea boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Maar, M.

    2016-10-01

    Semienclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea are prone to eutrophication problems. If local nutrient abatement measures are taken to tackle these problems, their success may be limited if a strong nutrient exchange with the adjacent waters exists. The quantification of this exchange is therefore essential to estimate its impact on the ecosystem status. At the example of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, we illustrate that neither gross transports nor net transports of nutrients have a strong informative value in this context. Instead, we define an "effective import" as the import of nutrients which have not been inside the Baltic Sea before and estimate it in an ecological model with a nutrient-tagging technique. This effective import of bioreactive nitrogen from the Skagerrak to the Kattegat amounts to 103 kt/yr; from Kattegat to Belt Sea it is 54 kt/yr. The nitrogen exchange is therefore 30% stronger than other estimates, e.g., based on import in the deep water, suggest. An isolated view on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in terms of eutrophication, as it is practiced in management today, is therefore questionable. Nitrogen imported from the North Sea typically spreads eastward up to the Bornholm Basin but can be transported into the deep waters of the Gotland Basin during Major Baltic Inflows in a significant amount.

  8. Testing the performance of empirical remote sensing algorithms in the Baltic Sea waters with modelled and in situ reflectance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ligi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing studies published up to now show that the performance of empirical (band-ratio type algorithms in different parts of the Baltic Sea is highly variable. Best performing algorithms are different in the different regions of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, there is indication that the algorithms have to be seasonal as the optical properties of phytoplankton assemblages dominating in spring and summer are different. We modelled 15,600 reflectance spectra using HydroLight radiative transfer model to test 58 previously published empirical algorithms. 7200 of the spectra were modelled using specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs of the open parts of the Baltic Sea in summer and 8400 with SIOPs of spring season. Concentration range of chlorophyll-a, coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM and suspended matter used in the model simulations were based on the actually measured values available in literature. For each optically active constituent we added one concentration below actually measured minimum and one concentration above the actually measured maximum value in order to test the performance of the algorithms in wider range. 77 in situ reflectance spectra from rocky (Sweden and sandy (Estonia, Latvia coastal areas were used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms also in coastal waters. Seasonal differences in the algorithm performance were confirmed but we found also algorithms that can be used in both spring and summer conditions. The algorithms that use bands available on OLCI, launched in February 2016, are highlighted as this sensor will be available for Baltic Sea monitoring for coming decades.

  9. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  11. On the Baltic Sea Response to Climate Change: Model Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Leppaeranta, Matti

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Baltic Sea to climate change is reviewed on the basis of recent model studies. In general, the presently available models indicate that the Baltic Sea is a most sensitive system to climate change, particularly in air temperature, wind, fresh water inflow and the barotropic forcing in the entrance area. Available scenarios for ice conditions and climate warming around year 2100 show 2-3 months' shortening of the ice season in the Bothnian Bay and about 0.4 m decrease in the maximum annual ice thickness. Corresponding scenarios for climate cooling show 1-2 months' longer ice season in the Bothnian Bay and 0.2 - 0.5 m increase in the maximum annual ice thickness

  12. Radionuclides in the ecosystem of the southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that 210 Po and plutonium are significantly more concentrated in the Baltic Sea ecosystem than uranium . Bioaccumulation coefficients in flora and fauna (BCFs) of 210 Po are of the 2·10 3 - 2·10 5 range and plutonium - of the 1·10 2 - 1·10 4 . 238 Pu/ 239-240 Pu isotopic ratio shows for the increasing content in the living organisms of plutonium coming from the Chernobyl NPP accident. Content of 55 Fe and 63 Ni in the Baltic ecosystem (sea water, Fucus Vesilculous) is inverse proportional to the distance from the contamination place (e.g. from the NPP). Against to 55 Fe - 63 Ni is accumulated in the fish skin and flakes through passive diffusion

  13. The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Alissa; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Pfrengle, Saskia; Daubaras, Mantas; Zariņa, Gunita; Hallgren, Fredrik; Allmäe, Raili; Khartanovich, Valery; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Tõrv, Mari; Furtwängler, Anja; Andrades Valtueña, Aida; Feldman, Michal; Economou, Christos; Oinonen, Markku; Vasks, Andrejs; Balanovska, Elena; Reich, David; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Haak, Wolfgang; Schiffels, Stephan; Krause, Johannes

    2018-01-30

    While the series of events that shaped the transition between foraging societies and food producers are well described for Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here, we report genome-wide DNA data from 38 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~9500 to 2200 years before present. Our analysis provides genetic evidence that hunter-gatherers settled Scandinavia via two routes. We reveal that the first Scandinavian farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated. The range of Mesolithic Western hunter-gatherers extended to the east of the Baltic Sea, where these populations persisted without gene-flow from Central European farmers during the Early and Middle Neolithic. The arrival of steppe pastoralists in the Late Neolithic introduced a major shift in economy and mediated the spread of a new ancestry associated with the Corded Ware Complex in Northern Europe.

  14. Corrosion of ammunition dumped in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczak Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the preliminary results of a research aimed at preparation for the extraction of chemical ammunition immersed after the Second World War(WWII in the waters of the Baltic Sea (BS. It has been 70 years since the first steps aiming at elimination of mainly German chemical weapons were taken, while the expected durability (tightness of metal barrels construction or other containers was estimated at 50-60 years. Consequently there is a serious risk of contamination of the Baltic Sea waters, not only with toxic warfare agents but also with the products of their decomposition. The evaluation of barrels’ and containers’ with TWA corrosion processes progress will determine the possibility of these munitions extraction to the surface in order to perform their classic utilization.

  15. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  16. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management ...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  17. Seabed geodiversity in a glaciated shelf area, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskela, Anu Marii; Kotilainen, Aarno Tapio

    2017-10-01

    Geodiversity describes the heterogeneity of the physical terrain. We have performed basin-wide geodiversity analysis on a glaciated epicontinental seabed to assess geodiversity measures and patterns, locate areas with high geodiversity, and draw conclusions on contributing processes. Geodiversity quantification is a rather new topic and is mainly practiced in land areas. We applied geodiversity methods developed for terrestrial studies to a seabed environment. Three geodiversity parameters, including the richness, patchiness, and geodiversity index, of the Baltic Sea were assessed in a GIS environment based on broad-scale datasets on seabed substrates, structures, and bedrock. A set of environmental and geological variables, which were considered to reflect geological processes under seabed conditions, were compared with the geodiversity to identify some of its drivers. We observed differences in the geodiversity levels of the Baltic subbasins, which are mainly due to basement type/bedrock, roughness, shore density, and glacier-derived processes. The geodiversity of the Baltic Sea generally increases from South to North and from open-sea to high-shore density areas (archipelagos). Crystalline bedrock areas provide more diverse seabed environments than sedimentary rock areas. The analysis helps to inform scientists, marine spatial planners, and managers about abiotic conservation values, the dynamics of the seabed environment, and potential areas with elevated biodiversity.

  18. Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginning of 2011, using Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide mode and Envisat ASAR wide swath mode data. The resulting ice drift fields are publicly available as part of the MyOcean EC project. The SAR-based ice drift vectors have been compared to the drift vectors from drifter buoys in the Baltic Sea during the first operational season, and also these validation results are shown in this paper. Also some navigationally useful sea ice quantities, which can be derived from ice drift vector fields, are presented.

  19. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  20. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  1. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  2. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  3. Sedimentary alkenone distributions reflect salinity changes in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warden, L.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Moros, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Baltic Sea has had a complex salinity history since the last deglaciation. Here we show how distributions of alkenones and their δD values varied with past fluctuations in salinity in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene by examining a Holocene record (11.2–0.1 cal kyr BP) from the Arkona Basin.

  4. Transgranichnaja korporativnaja integracija v Baltijskom regione [Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  5. Modelling the atmospheric transport of trace metals from Europe to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G; Weber, H; Grassl, H [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht G.m.b.H., Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of a research contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency the long range transport of trace metals over Europe and the deposition of trace metals into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea are estimated using the EMEP- (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) trajectory model. The methodology for the model calculations is explained. Preliminary results for the total deposition of lead into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea show, that the calculated values are lower than previous estimates based on extrapolations from measurements at coastal sites and ship measurements in the southern Baltic Sea, respectively. (orig.).

  6. Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldre, I.A.; Itra, A.R.; Paal' me, L.P.; Kukk, Kh.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Kaesmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  7. The history of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, T; Kononen, K; Olsonen, R; Wallström, K

    2001-08-01

    Long-term information on possible changes in cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, formed mainly by Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp., was sought in published records in historical (years 1887-1938) and modern (years 1974-1998) phytoplankton data sets. Old and new sampling methods and fixatives were tested to improve the comparison of data that had been collected and analyzed in different ways. A hundred years ago, plankton was mainly of interest as a source of fish food; eutrophication problems were only locally reported from the coast, mainly in southern haffs and the receiving waters of larger cities. There were few recordings of open-sea blooms before World War II. Abundances of Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp. were low in the old material, and 137 summer samples from 1887-1938 showed no peak abundance. High abundances are common in the new material, and the range of the numbers of both taxa has increased markedly relative to the old material. Since the 1960s, cyanobacterial blooms have been common in the open sea in both the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland, indicating high availability of nutrients.

  8. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  9. Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Andersson, Helén C; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads...... and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period...

  10. Radiological emergency monitoring systems in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.; Lauritzen, B.

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the national systems for emergency monitoring of radioactivity in the five Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well as in the six Baltic Sea countries, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and the Russian Federation. Similarities and differences regarding strategy and equipment are shown briefly. The main feature for early warning is the national network of automatic gamma monitoring stations. This network is supplemented by manual stations and/or survey teams, often measuring at predetermined locations. Air filter stations are used for nuclide analyses of particles and gases. Dose rate maps and fallout maps of ground deposited nuclides, e.g., cesium-137, are produced based on data from airborne measurements, monitoring stations, survey teams and environmental samples. Most countries describe programs for checking food contamination. Whole body counting and organ measurements are used to determine internal contamination. External contamination of people, vehicles, goods etc is checked with survey meters and other equipment at checkpoint or as needed. Field measurements of various kinds complete the national systems. Possible future development and planned improvement are discussed. This report is an extension and update of a previous NKS report covering the Nordic countries. (au)

  11. Sea spray aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea region: Comparison of the WAM model with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Kosecki, Szymon; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol flux is an important element of sub-regional climate modeling. The majority of works related to this topic concentrate on open ocean research rather than on smaller, inland seas, e.g., the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, where major inflows of oceanic waters are rare. Furthermore, surface waves in the Baltic Sea have a relatively shorter lifespan in comparison with oceanic waves. Therefore, emission of sea spray aerosol may differ greatly from what is known from oceanic research and should be investigated. This article presents a comparison of sea spray aerosol measurements carried out on-board the s/y Oceania research ship with data calculated in accordance to the WAM model. The measurements were conducted in the southern region of the Baltic Sea during four scientific cruises. The gradient method was used to determinate aerosol fluxes. The fluxes were calculated for particles of diameter in range of 0.5-47 μm. The correlation between wind speed measured and simulated has a good agreement (correlation in range of 0.8). The comparison encompasses three different sea spray generation models. First, function proposed by Massel (2006) which is based only on wave parameters, such as significant wave height and peak frequency. Second, Callaghan (2013) which is based on Gong (2003) model (wind speed relation), and a thorough experimental analysis of whitecaps. Third, Petelski et al. (2014) which is based on in-situ gradient measurements with the function dependent on wind speed. The two first models which based on whitecaps analysis are insufficient. Moreover, the research shows strong relation between aerosol emission and wind speed history.

  12. Atomnaja jenergetika Pribaltiki: istorija vozniknovenija i politiko-jekonomicheskie osobennosti razvitija [Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  13. Rock encrusting assemblages: Structure and distribution along the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Monika; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kukliński, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Aquatic community structure and dynamics are generally controlled by a variety of biological and physical factors. Among these factors in marine ecosystems, salinity is known to have a significant effect on species occurrence and composition. In this study, we investigated the large-scale distribution and abundance of encrusting fauna along a salinity gradient on the shallow Baltic Sea rocky coast. Rock samples collected from 14 locations distributed between the Gulf of Bothnia (salinity 0.6) and Skagerrak (salinity 28) supported a total number of 24 encrusting species. The faunas were composed mostly of marine species with opportunistic life histories; however, some brackish water specialists were also present. The number of species and abundance counts is strongly positively correlated with increases in salinity. No encrusting faunas were recorded below salinity level 4. Multivariate analysis (nMDS) revealed three major groups based on species composition that differed in terms of abundance and number of species. Each group was associated with specific salinity conditions. The first assemblage type occurred within salinity 4-7, the second within salinity between 22 and 27, and the third type was a mixture between the two observed at a salinity of approximately 17. This study indicates that to determine the assemblage structure of the Baltic Sea encrusting fauna, analyses at the family level were found to be a reliable surrogate for species composition.

  14. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  15. Distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, K.; Dahlmann, G.; Gunkel, W.

    1993-01-01

    Data were collected in 1988 and 1989 on the distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Crude oil degrading bacteria and the number of bacteria which in particular degrade naphthalene were quantified using a modified dilution method (MPN). Crude oil degrading bacteria were present in all of about 100 water samples, with as many as 10 3 ml -1 in some samples. Numbers of naphthalene degrading bacteria were at least tenfold lower. There is obviously a greater connection between this bacteria group and petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination than between the more nonspecific group of crude oil degrading bacteria and PHC contamination. Data from the North Sea show an extremely high abundance of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, even in winter, while in the southern Baltic Sea low numbers of bacteria were found and slower crude oil degradation was observed. (orig.)

  16. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  17. Speciation of 137Cs in the Baltic sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Morkuniene, R.; Styra, D.

    1998-01-01

    A possibility of application of Filtrac 391 and Nuclepore filters, Ky-2-8-C exchanger and the Mtilon-T fiber impregnated with Fe, Co, Ni ferrocyanides for separation of particulate and ionic 137 Cs in the sea water was investigated. Physico-chemical forms of 137 Cs were investigated in the Baltic Sea water during 1995-1997. It was determined that 137 Cs was mainly present in ionic form (62-93 %) both in the near-shore and open waters. Concentration of particulate 137 Cs ranged from 255 to 625 Bq/kg (dry weight).The distribution coefficient (K d ) of radiocaesium reached values of 2100-9700. (author)

  18. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Saxen, R.

    1988-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The ratio 134 Cs/ 137 Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m -3 , in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m -3 , in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m -3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m -3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137 Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137 Cs was about 18 kBq m -3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137 Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  19. Situation in the sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Situationen i havsomraadet mellan Nordsjoen och Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybern, B.I.; Soederstroem, J.; Thorell, L.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the special topographical and hydrological features the seas surrounding Sweden are very sensitive to both natural changes and changes caused by man. The sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into focus during the last few decades due to problems with pollution and its impact on the ecosystems and to overfishing of some commer- cially important species. In order to elucidate the present situation from the Swedish viewpoint, the National Board of Fisheries, the National Environment Protection Board and the County Council of the County Goeteborg and Bohyslaen arranged a Symposium on the Situation in the Sea Area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in Goeteborg, 14-16 March, 1983. This volume contains lectures given at that Symposium. In most cases there are English summaries and English translations of texts to figures and tables.

  20. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria ...

  1. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    the last 50–100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we......Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as ‘affected by eutrophication’. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over...

  2. Ferry traffic in the Baltic Sea Region in south – north corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available All countries form the Baltic Sea Region are strongly economically connected with each other. International trade inbound the Region is usually realized by shipping lines, especially ro-ro and ferry lines. Ferry traffic on the BSR shows specific features, which draw a distinctions between other regions. In this article was tried to analized quantity and directions of maritime traffic in the BSR in years 2006 – 2008. Those period was excellent time for market growing for all owners. And more over – the analysis was made for main directions in the Baltic Sea Region – between Norway, Sweden and Finland – versus polish and german Baltic sea ports.

  3. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    2011-01-01

    sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  4. Assessment of the environmental status for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Fryer, Rob; Andersen, Jesper H.

    to or at background”, green for “no harmful effect to the environment” and red for unacceptable. The HELCOM goals set out in the Baltic Sea action plan are similar, “concentrations of hazardous substances close to natural levels”, “all fish safe to eat”, and “healthy wildlife”. The assessment criteria used......The two Conventions for the Baltic Sea (Helsinki, HELCOM) and the North Sea (Oslo-Paris, OSPAR) both are in the process of assessing the state of the marine environment and producing Quality Status reports for their regions for publication in 2010. These assessments will be part of the basis...... for Marine Strategy work in the EU. An overview of the time trends and status for metals, PCBs and PAHs in biota and sediment for the convention areas will be presented, and the scientific basis for the assessments and how results from different contaminant groups and wider areas are aggregated...

  5. Silicon dynamics in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Conley, Daniel J.; Humborg, Christoph; Witek, Zbigniew; Sitek, Stanisław

    2008-10-01

    Studies on dissolved silicate (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) dynamics were carried out in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea in 2000-2005. The Oder estuary proved to be an important component of the Oder River-Baltic Sea continuum where very intensive seasonal DSi uptake during spring and autumn, but also BSi regeneration during summer take place. Owing to the regeneration process annual DSi patterns in the river and the estuary distinctly differed; the annual patterns of DSi in the estuary showed two maxima and two minima in contrast to one maximum- and one minimum-pattern in the Oder River. DSi concentrations in the river and in the estuary were highest in winter (200-250 μmol dm - 3 ) and lowest (often less than 1 μmol dm - 3 ) in spring, concomitant with diatom growth; such low values are known to be limiting for new diatom growth. Secondary DSi summer peaks at the estuary exit exceeded 100 μmol dm - 3 , and these maxima were followed by autumn minima coinciding with the autumn diatom bloom. Seasonal peaks in BSi concentrations (ca. 100 μmol dm - 3 ) occurred during the spring diatom bloom in the Oder River. Mass balance calculations of DSi and BSi showed that DSi + BSi import to the estuary over a two year period was 103.2 kt and that can be compared with the DSi export of 98.5 kt. The difference between these numbers gives room for ca. 2.5 kt BSi to be annually exported to the Baltic Sea. Sediment cores studies point to BSi annual accumulation on the level of 2.5 kt BSi. BSi import to the estuary is on the level of ca. 10.5 kt, thus ca. 5 kt of BSi is annually converted into the DSi, increasing the pool of DSi that leaves the system. BSi concentrations being ca. 2 times higher at the estuary entrance than at its exit remain in a good agreement with the DSi and BSi budgeting presented in the paper.

  6. Baltic Sea hazardous substances management: results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Henrik; VanDeveer, Stacy D

    2004-05-01

    The introduction into the Baltic Sea of hazardous substances that are persistent, bioaccumulate, and are toxic is an important environmental and human health problem. Multilateral efforts to address this problem have primarily been taken under the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). This article examines past HELCOM efforts on hazardous substances, and discusses future challenges regarding their management. The article finds that past actions on hazardous substances have had a positive effect on improving Baltic environmental quality and reducing human health risks, although there are remaining issues and difficulties that need to be addressed. In particular, four related future challenges for HELCOM management of hazardous substances are identified and discussed: i) the need to engender further implementation and building public and private sector capacities; ii) the need to improve data availability, quality and comparability across the region and international fora; iii) the need to strengthen existing regulations and incorporate new issues; and iv) the need to effectively coordinate HELCOM activities with efforts on hazardous substances in other international fora.

  7. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  8. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings

    2017-04-01

    Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions In the framework of the BACC 2 (for the Baltic Sea) and NOSCCA projects (for the North Sea region), studies of past and present variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period (roughly the past 200 years) have been investigated. Findings on trends in temperature and precipitation have already been presented. Here we focus on data homogeneity issues and examine how reliable reanalyses are in this context. Unlike most other regions in the world, there is a wealth of old observations available for the Baltic and North Sea regions, most of it in handwritten form in meteorological journals and other publications. These datasets need to be carefully digitised and homogenized. For this, a thorough quality control must be applied; otherwise the digitised datasets may prove useless or even counterproductive. We present evidence that this step cannot be conducted without human interference and thus cannot be fully automated. Furthermore, inhomogeneities due to e.g. instrumentation and station relocations need to be addressed. A wealth of reanalysis products is available, which can help detect such inhomogeneities in observed time series, but at the same time are prone to biases and/or spurious trends themselves e.g. introduced by changes in the availability and quality of the underlying assimilated data. It therefore in general remains unclear in how far we can simulate the pre-satellite era with respect to homogeneity with reanalyses based only on parts of the observing system. Extreme events and changes in extreme situations are more important and of greater (societal) significance than changes in mean climate. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess not only because they are, per definition, rare events, but also due to the homogeneity issues outlined above. Taking these into account, we present evidence for changes

  9. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  10. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  11. Spectrophotometric studies of marine surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Drozdowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea constitute the organic matter from riverine waters discharges as well as the secondary degradation products of marine phytoplankton excretion. They reach the surface microlayer by the upwellings and turbulent motions of water and in the membranes of the vesicles as well as from the atmosphere. To assess concentration and spatial distribution of marine surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea, the steady-state spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric measurements of water samples taken from a surface film and a depth of 0.5 m were carried out. Water samples were collected during windless days of the cruise of r/v ‘Oceania’ in November 2012, from the open and the coastal waters having regard to the vicinity of the Vistula and Łeba mouths. In the present paper, fractions of dissolved organic matter having chromophores (CDOM or fluorophores (FDOM are recognized through their specific spectroscopic behavior, i.e., steady-state absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectra. The steady-state spectroscopic measurements revealed the CDOM and FDOM molecules characteristic to both the land and marine origin. Moreover, the concentration and spatial distribution of marine surfactants significantly depend on the distance from the river mouth. Finally, higher values of absorbance and fluorescence intensity observed in a surface film in comparison to these values in a depth of 0.5 m clearly suggest the higher concentration of organic matter in a marine film. On the other hand, our results revealed that a surface microlayer is composed of the same CDOM and FDOM as bulk water.

  12. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  13. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Daniel J; Carstensen, Jacob; Aigars, Juris; Axe, Philip; Bonsdorff, Erik; Eremina, Tatjana; Haahti, Britt-Marie; Humborg, Christoph; Jonsson, Per; Kotta, Jonne; Lännegren, Christer; Larsson, Ulf; Maximov, Alexey; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Lysiak-Pastuszak, Elzbieta; Remeikaité-Nikiené, Nijolé; Walve, Jakob; Wilhelms, Sunhild; Zillén, Lovisa

    2011-08-15

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955-2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat.

  14. ENTRERPRENEURIAL CATCH UP AND NEW INDUSTRIAL COMPETENCE BLOC FORMATION IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Gunnar; Braunerhjelm, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has been an institutionally homogeneous economy, integrated economically and culturally through the sea lanes of the Baltic. After WWII the BSR was broken up into a dual economy, consisting of a poor Soviet block of centrally planned economies, on the one hand, and the industrially advanced BSR economies Finland, Denmark, Germany and Sweden, on the other. 1990 saw the break up of the soviet political system. The liberated, but poor formerly planned ec...

  15. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  16. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    OpenAIRE

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  17. Large-scale environmental effects and ecological processes in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, F.

    1990-11-01

    A Swedish research programme concerning the Baltic Sea is initiated by the SNV to produce budgets and models of eutrophying substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, some organic substances) and toxic substances (PCB, lindane and PAH). A description of the distribution and turnover of these substances including their transformation will be necessary in the evaluation of critical processes controlling concentrations in relation to external load. A geographical information system will be made available as a database and analytical tool for all participants (BED, Baltic Ecosystem Data). This project is designed around cooperation between the Baltic Sea countries. (au)

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... for Climate (ARC) dataset and with in situ observations. A dynamical bias correction scheme adjusts the Pathfinder observations toward the ARC and in situ observations. Largest Pathfinder-ARC differences are found in the summer months, when the Pathfinder observations are up to 0.4 °C colder than the ARC...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years...

  19. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  20. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G

    2010-01-01

    . Most burial of P takes place as organic P. We find no evidence for significant authigenic Ca–P formation or biogenic Ca–P burial. The lack of major inorganic P burial sinks makes the Baltic Sea very sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased......In this study, redox-dependent phosphorus (P) recycling and burial at 6 sites in the Baltic Sea is investigated using a combination of porewater and sediment analyses and sediment age dating (210Pb and 137Cs). We focus on sites in the Kattegat, Danish Straits and Baltic Proper where present...... be accounted for in budgets and models for the Baltic Sea....

  1. Remote sensing the sea surface CO2 of the Baltic Sea using the SOMLO methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have noted the high variability of the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate estimation of these mechanisms. This is particularly pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been characterized in as much detail as in the open oceans. In addition, the joint availability of in situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, we used the SOMLO (self-organizing multiple linear output; Sasse et al., 2013) methodology, which combines two existing methods (i.e. self-organizing maps and multiple linear regression) to estimate the ocean surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. These outputs give a monthly map of the Baltic Sea at a very fine spatial resolution. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in situ measurements and a root mean square error of 36 μatm. Removing any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstructed CO2 flux, so we chose to supply any missing data using statistical imputation. The pCO2 maps produced using this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data, and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in coming years, given the predicted acquisition of new data.

  2. What we know about the Baltic Sea: a summary of BSSC 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Uścinowicz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction    The Baltic Sea, an internal sea of the European Community, isone of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. It isquite unique in many respects, particularly in its natural featuresand in the cultural, political and socio-economic patterns ofthe countries bordering it.    After nearly 40 years, during which Baltic marine physicists,chemists, biologists and geologists had been holding separatescientific meetings, it was decided the time was ripe to arrangejoint scientific conferences with the purpose of getting togetherto discuss general and specific aspects of the Baltic Sea, toexchange information, to integrate efforts, and to get to knowand understand each other better. The Sopot 2005 Congress, precededby the Baltic Sea Science Congresses in Rønne (1997, Warnemünde(1999, Stockholm (2001 and Helsinki (2003, was the fifth jointmeeting of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers (CBO, BalticMarine Biologists (BMB and Baltic Sea Geologists (BSG. Likeall the previous congresses, the one held in Sopot bore witnessto the idea that we all, members of CBO, BMB and BSG, shouldcontinue to work together even more closely.    The meeting in Sopot instigated discussion on a broad spectrumof problems, from large-scale climate change-related processesto local, small-scale specific Baltic Sea features. Further subjectsfor deliberation included modelling as a research tool and asa way of providing services and forecasting certain phenomena,operational oceanography, and man's impact on the Baltic Seaenvironment and its resources.    We are indebted to our Scientific Committee for their work duringthe past months to sort out and select interesting contributionsto all the oral and poster sessions, and thus for making theCongress an attractive and quality event. We also thank the PolishAcademy of Sciences and the City of Sopot for their financialsupport.    We hope that the joint Congress and fruitful scientific

  3. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  4. Risk and environmental impact assessments for the decommissioning of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) around the Baltic Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The removal and safe disposal of RTGs and their replacement with solar panel technology in the Baltic Sea is a priority area under the Norwegian Nuclear Action Plan. 26 of the 87 RTGs around the Baltic Sea have been removed as of 7th October 2009. The removal of RTGs around the Baltic Sea was initiated in 2009 as part of the Norwegian-Russian cooperation with funding from Norway, which requires that risk and environmental impact assessments are carried out during the planning phase. Finland and France will also be contributing to the work of removal and safe disposal of the RTGs around the Baltic Sea. (Author)

  5. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors influencing...... the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...

  6. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  7. Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmann, Artu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.

  8. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  9. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  10. Spatial sea-level reconstruction in the Baltic Sea and in the Pacific Ocean from tide gauges observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Olivieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the Delaunay interpolation, we present a newly implemented 2-D sea-level reconstruction from coastal sea-level observations to open seas, with the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the rate of sea-level change. To test the strengths and weaknesses of this method and to determine its usefulness in sea-level interpolation, we consider the case studies of the Baltic Sea and of the Pacific Ocean. In the Baltic Sea, a small basin well sampled by tide gauges, our reconstructions are successfully compared with absolute sea-level observations from altimetry during 1993-2011. The regional variability of absolute sea level observed across the Pacific Ocean, however, cannot be reproduced. We interpret this result as the effect of the uneven and sparse tide gauge data set and of the composite vertical land movements in and around the region. Useful considerations arise that can serve as a basis for developing sophisticated approaches.

  11. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  12. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid...... nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other...... anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since...

  13. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present 137 Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of 137 Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The 137 Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210 Pb geochronology to follow the history of 137 Cs accumulation. The 137 Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated 137 Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m −2 . The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by 137 Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m −2 . This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of 137 Cs inventories. The 137 Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m −2 and 527 Bq m −2 ) due to large Chernobyl 137 Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of 137 Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m −2 . The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. -- Highlights: • 137 Cs contamination in the Baltic Sea was studied before the new NPP is put into operation. • Bothnian Sea sediments are severely contaminated by 137 Cs (inventories up to 95,191 Bq m

  14. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...

  15. Radioactivity levels in some sediment samples from Red Sea and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahel Din, K.; Vesterbacka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Levels of 226, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 40 K in sediments from four monitoring areas, El Hamraween and Ras El Behar (Red Sea (Egypt)) and LL3A and JML (Baltic Sea (Finland)), have been investigated using alpha and gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations were 238±4 Bq kg -1 ( 226 Ra), 215±11 Bq kg -1 ( 210 Pb) and 311±18 Bq kg -1 ( 210 Po) for El Hamraween area. In Ras El Behar area, the corresponding values were 16±0.4, 18±1 and 20±5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po (uranium series) in El Hamraween bottom sediment are much high compared with those in Ras El Behar area, which indicates the enhanced levels due to the activities of phosphate mining and shipment operations in El Hamraween area. Excluding the influence of phosphate mining activities, it can be concluded that the levels of radioactivity in Baltic Sea sediments are higher than those in Red Sea sediments. (authors)

  16. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows....... The C-org stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m(-2) in Finland, while in Denmark the average C-org stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g Cm-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha(-1). Our results...... in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation...

  17. 18O/16O ratios of the pore water of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Two cores of Baltic Sea sediment were collected in 1975. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water enclosed in the sediment (pore water) was measured after the separation of the liquid from the solid phase. The results may support the discussion about the history of the Baltic Sea. At the top of the core the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water represents the oxygen isotope composition of the sea water above. Towards the deeper parts of the sediment, independently of the salt content, the 18 O/ 16 O ratio decreases towards values observed in the precipitation of the surrounding land areas. (author)

  18. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/MSC-W model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 yr: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13 %. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11 % in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13 % to +17 % of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly deposition pattern is similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13 % and Denmark 8–11 %. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–9 %, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5 %.

  19. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea : A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstrom, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Hakan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been

  20. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.

    2013-01-01

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is...

  1. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority...

  2. Transport and hydraulically-induced recycling of phosphorous in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Rikke; Struve, Anke; Christiansen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    to barotropic and tidal currents the gross transport is 5 times larger. The net transport is directed towards the North Sea mainly in the top 32 m of the water column but towards the Baltic Sea it occurs in the lower 5 m of the water column. The resulting transport of phosphorus is strongly affected by vertical...

  3. An Ichthyophonus hoferi epizootic in herring in the North Sea, the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    An epizootic caused by the internal parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi in herring Clupea harengus was recorded from 1991 to 1993 in the waters around Denmark. A surveillance programme from research vessels and commercial fishing boats was conducted in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea...

  4. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates.

  5. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V Lindh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2 and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6 water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating a higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating replacement. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating adjustment. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, the original triggering, or priming effect, resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment, and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial

  6. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Ikaeheimonen, T.; Saxen, R.; Klemola, S.

    1993-02-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and some also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. The general levelling of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs and 134 Cs in the water mass of the Baltic Sea, which had started soon after the fallout situation, continued in 1989. The activity concentration of 137 Cs was about the same level (120-160 Bq/m 3 ) in surface water throughout the Baltic Sea area except in some coastal areas. The cesium concentrations had levelled vertically as well as horizontally. In 1990, the cesium concentrations of surface water decreased further in other sea areas, but not in the Bothnian Sea, where somewhat higher values were detected once more. In bottom sediments the total amounts of 137 Cs had clearly increased between 1988 and 1990 which indicates that fresh fallout was still settling on the bottom. No increase was found in the total amounts of 239 , 240 Pu. Small amounts of 60 Co were detected in the surface sediment of our sampling station in the Northern Baltic proper. 137 Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 17 to 32 Bq/kg fresh weight and pike from 22 to 290 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in the samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose received by Finns from eating Baltic Sea fish was 0.01mSv both in 1989 and in 1990. (orig.)

  7. Primary production calculations for sea ice from bio-optical observations in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Müller

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bio-optics is a powerful approach for estimating photosynthesis rates, but has seldom been applied to sea ice, where measuring photosynthesis is a challenge. We measured absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM, algae, and non-algal particles along with solar radiation, albedo and transmittance at four sea-ice stations in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. This unique compilation of optical and biological data for Baltic Sea ice was used to build a radiative transfer model describing the light field and the light absorption by algae in 1-cm increments. The maximum quantum yields and photoadaptation of photosynthesis were determined from 14C-incorporation in photosynthetic-irradiance experiments using melted ice. The quantum yields were applied to the radiative transfer model estimating the rate of photosynthesis based on incident solar irradiance measured at 1-min intervals. The calculated depth-integrated mean primary production was 5 mg C m–2 d–1 for the surface layer (0–20 cm ice depth at Station 3 (fast ice and 0.5 mg C m–2 d–1 for the bottom layer (20–57 cm ice depth. Additional calculations were performed for typical sea ice in the area in March using all ice types and a typical light spectrum, resulting in depth-integrated mean primary production rates of 34 and 5.6 mg C m–2 d–1 in surface ice and bottom ice, respectively. These calculated rates were compared to rates determined from 14C incorporation experiments with melted ice incubated in situ. The rate of the calculated photosynthesis and the rates measured in situ at Station 3 were lower than those calculated by the bio-optical algorithm for typical conditions in March in the Gulf of Finland by the bio-optical algorithm. Nevertheless, our study shows the applicability of bio-optics for estimating the photosynthesis of sea-ice algae.

  8. Energy policy strategies of the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period - focusing on electricity and district heating generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of energy policy strategies for the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period. To this aim, the study provides scenarios for the region in order to develop a both secure and climate-compatible energy system for the year 2020 and beyond. The long-term development of the energy systems in the Baltic Sea Region is analysed, i.e. in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the north western part of Russia. The study focuses on the electricity and district heating sectors. The Baltic Sea Region is comprised of countries with very different economies and characteristics. Hydropower is an important source of electricity generation in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Biomass resources are significant throughout the region, deriving from both agricultural residues and large forested areas. Wind power already contributes considerably to electricity generation in countries such as Denmark and Germany, and is likely to play a much greater role in the region in the years to come, both onshore and offshore. In the longer term (2030 and beyond), solar power and geothermal energy could also provide notable contributions to the overall energy supply. The study shows that it is technically possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity and district heating sectors of the Baltic Sea Region by close to 100% using mainly renewable energy sources. The results indicate that this is a challenging, but manageable task. The associated costs are moderate and can be further decreased through regional cooperation. Once the various production technologies have the possibility to interact with district heating and flexible electricity consumption, and transmission connections are optimally utilised, it becomes realistic to integrate e.g. large volumes of wind power into the energy system as a whole. Furthermore, the hydro power reservoirs, particularly in Norway, play a key role in

  9. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics...... and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated...... to past and future environmental forcings provided by three ocean-biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Modeled temperature explained nearly as much variability in reproductive success of sprat (Sprattus sprattus; Clupeidae) as measured temperatures during 1973-2005, and both the spawner biomass...

  10. Transport interests and environmental regimes. The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Olav F.

    2010-01-01

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests. (author)

  11. The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Dierking, Jan; Andersson, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use...... transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches...... of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess...

  12. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  13. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  14. Life on the margin: genetic isolation and diversity loss in a peripheral marine ecosystem, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2006-07-01

    Marginal populations are often isolated and under extreme selection pressures resulting in anomalous genetics. Consequently, ecosystems that are geographically and ecologically marginal might have a large share of genetically atypical populations, in need of particular concern in management of these ecosystems. To test this prediction, we analysed genetic data from 29 species inhabiting the low saline Baltic Sea, a geographically and ecologically marginal ecosystem. On average Baltic populations had lost genetic diversity compared to Atlantic populations: a pattern unrelated to dispersal capacity, generation time of species and taxonomic group of organism, but strongly related to type of genetic marker (mitochondrial DNA loci had lost c. 50% diversity, and nuclear loci 10%). Analyses of genetic isolation by geographic distance revealed clinal patterns of differentiation between Baltic and Atlantic regions. For a majority of species, clines were sigmoid with a sharp slope around the Baltic Sea entrance, indicating impeded gene flows between Baltic and Atlantic populations. Some species showed signs of allele frequencies being perturbed at the edge of their distribution inside the Baltic Sea. Despite the short geological history of the Baltic Sea (8000 years), populations inhabiting the Baltic have evolved substantially different from Atlantic populations, probably as a consequence of isolation and bottlenecks, as well as selection on adaptive traits. In addition, the Baltic Sea also acts a refuge for unique evolutionary lineages. This marginal ecosystem is thus vulnerable but also exceedingly valuable, housing unique genes, genotypes and populations that constitute an important genetic resource for management and conservation.

  15. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  17. Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Piwosz

    Full Text Available Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02 to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea. Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment, or prefiltered and subsequently 1∶10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

  18. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps and from 10 meteorological masts, established specifically for wind energy in the study area, are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a root mean square error of 1.17 m s−1, bias of −0.25 m s−1, standard deviation of 1.88 m s−1 and correlation coefficient of R2 0.783. Wind directions from a global atmospheric model, interpolated in time and space, are used as input to the geophysical model function CMOD-5 for SAR wind retrieval. Wind directions compared to mast observations show a root mean square error of 6.29° with a bias of 7.75°, standard deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images show wind power density values to range from 300 to 800 W m−2 for the 14 existing and 42 planned wind farms.

  19. Radiocaesium from Chernobyl in benthic algae along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K were measured in samples taken from the upper littoral along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast in 1990 and 1991. The results were compared with earlier measurements carried out 1984-1989, and some unpublished data from these years are presented as well. The levels of radiocesium in algae that belong to different algal groups were compared, and the value of different algal species as monitoring organisms for radionuclides in the Baltic Sea was discussed. Suggestions for future monitoring and future research are given. 10 refs, 5 figs, 10 tabs

  20. The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Reile, Rainer; Rezeberga, Dace; Karnite, Anda; Logminiene, Zeneta; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Nygård, Mari

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported genital warts (GWs) among women and men aged 18-45 years in the Baltic countries. In 2011-2013 we performed a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on the history of clinically diagnosed GWs, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Probability sampling methods were used to invite 16,959 individuals representing the general population, of whom 7760 (45.8%) participated (Estonia: 1967 women, 1221 men; Latvia: 1525 women, 1525 men; Lithuania: 1522 women). The estimated lifetime prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs in women was 4.6% (95% CI 3.8 to 5.5) in Estonia, 2.9% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.6) in Latvia and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) in Lithuania. Among men, the corresponding values were 2.8% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) in Estonia and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in Latvia. The mean age at first episode of clinically diagnosed GW was 24.6 years (95% CI 23.6 to 25.5) for women and 24.5 years (95% CI 22.9 to 26.0) for men. A lifetime history of clinically diagnosed GW was associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections other than GW (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.3 for women; AOR 5.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.2 for men), and a higher number (5+) of lifetime sexual partners (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.2 for women; AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9 for men). Men living comfortably within their household income had higher odds for GW (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). Our estimated prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs was lower than estimates from the general population of other European countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Håkan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with

  2. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  3. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  4. Remote sensing algorithm for sea surface CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2014-08-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have brought forth the high variability in the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes makes their accurate estimation an arduous task. This is more pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been as highly detailed as in the open oceans. In adition, the joint availability of in-situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, a combination of two existing methods (Self-Organizing-Maps and Multiple Linear regression) is used to estimate ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from remotely sensed surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production and mixed layer depth. The outputs of this research have an horizontal resolution of 4 km, and cover the period from 1998 to 2011. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in-situ measurements, and a root mean square error is of 38 μatm. The removal of any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstruction of the CO2 flux, and we chose therefore to complete any missing data through statistical imputation. The CO2 maps produced by this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in the coming years, in view of the predicted acquisitions of new data.

  5. Structure and functioning of the acid-base system in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliński, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Szymczycha, Beata; Stokowski, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The marine acid-base system is relatively well understood for oceanic waters. Its structure and functioning is less obvious for the coastal and shelf seas due to a number of regionally specific anomalies. In this review article we collect and integrate existing knowledge of the acid-base system in the Baltic Sea. Hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Baltic Sea, as manifested in horizontal and vertical salinity gradients, permanent stratification of the water column, eutrophication, high organic-matter concentrations and high anthropogenic pressure, make the acid-base system complex. In this study, we summarize the general knowledge of the marine acid-base system as well as describe the peculiarities identified and reported for the Baltic Sea specifically. In this context we discuss issues such as dissociation constants in brackish water, different chemical alkalinity models including contributions by organic acid-base systems, long-term changes in total alkalinity, anomalies of borate alkalinity, and the acid-base effects of biomass production and mineralization. Finally, we identify research gaps and specify limitations concerning the Baltic Sea acid-base system.

  6. Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdańsk.

  7. Future changes in the Baltic Sea acid–base (pH and oxygen balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Omstedt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Possible future changes in Baltic Sea acid–base (pH and oxygen balances were studied using a catchment–sea coupled model system and numerical experiments based on meteorological and hydrological forcing datasets and scenarios. By using objective statistical methods, climate runs for present climate conditions were examined and evaluated using Baltic Sea modelling. The results indicate that increased nutrient loads will not inhibit future Baltic Sea acidification; instead, the seasonal pH cycle will be amplified by increased biological production and mineralization. All examined scenarios indicate future acidification of the whole Baltic Sea that is insensitive to the chosen global climate model. The main factor controlling the direction and magnitude of future pH changes is atmospheric CO2 concentration (i.e. emissions. Climate change and land-derived changes (e.g. nutrient loads affect acidification mainly by altering the seasonal cycle and deep-water conditions. Apart from decreasing pH, we also project a decreased saturation state of calcium carbonate, decreased respiration index and increasing hypoxic area – all factors that will threaten the marine ecosystem. We demonstrate that substantial reductions in fossil-fuel burning are needed to minimise the coming pH decrease and that substantial reductions in nutrient loads are needed to reduce the coming increase in hypoxic and anoxic waters.

  8. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  10. Ice and AIS: ship speed data and sea ice forecasts in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löptien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are distributed as prognostic variables, but their actual usefulness is difficult to measure, and the ship captains must determine their relative importance and relevance for optimal ship speed and safety ad hoc. The present study provides a more objective approach by comparing the ship speeds, obtained by the automatic identification system (AIS, with the respective forecasted ice conditions. We find that, despite an unavoidable random component, this information is useful to constrain and rate fore- and nowcasts. More precisely, 62–67% of ship speed variations can be explained by the forecasted ice properties when fitting a mixed-effect model. This statistical fit is based on a test region in the Bothnian Sea during the severe winter 2011 and employs 15 to 25 min averages of ship speed.

  11. THE COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT OF THE POLISH AND GERMAN SEA PORTS AT THE SOUTHERN BALTIC SEA USING THE MULTICRITERIA METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Pac

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research conducted by the scientists of the Baltic Sea Logistics Research Centre in Gdansk Banking School. The aim of the research was to assess the competitiveness level of the indicated Polish and German sea ports at the Southern Baltic Sea on the base of their identified logistic capabilities. As the tool to make the assessment the Analitic Hierarchic Process (AHP method has been implemented. The sea port competitiveness has been directly referred to the total sea port logistic capabilities and presented as the number value. The research was focused on the logistics areas that is why it is difficult to take it as the interdisciplinary solution.

  12. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a

  13. Microplastics and biogeochemical relationships in sediments from Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    This study is a first attempt in Denmark on assessing the presence of microplastics in our open & coastal waters from Baltic to North Sea. Among the conclusions: - Microplastic particles can be found in sediment in Danish waters and is a potential indicator for MSFD. - Normalisation to %TOC...

  14. Species specific uptake of radio-labelled phytodetritus by benthic meiofauna from the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsson, E.; Modig, H.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The diatom Sheletonema costatum is one of the dominant phytoplankton species during spring in the northern Baltic Sea. We followed the uptake of radio-labelled S, costatum by all major meiofauna species in a laboratory experiment. The uptake of labelled diatom carbon varied greatly among major

  15. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  16. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  17. A lasting legacy for the Baltic and North Sea GLOBEC Germany program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Dutz, Jörg; Voss, R.

    2012-01-01

    This preface introduces four manuscripts that form a special theme section of the GLOBEC Germany program within Progress in Oceanography. The four manuscripts link changes in physical forcing to the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas. The target species of GLOBEC Ge...... Germany included various species of calanoid copepods and a small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)...

  18. Ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea. Part 1. Description of the ProDeMo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ProDeMo (Production and Destruction of Organic Matter Model, a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model, was formulated and applied to the whole Baltic Sea and the subregion of the Gulf of Gdansk. It describes nutrient cycles (phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon through the food web with 15 state variables, oxygen conditions and the parameterisation of water-sediment interactions. The present version of the model takes two groups of phytoplankton - diatoms and non-diatoms - as well as zooplankton into consideration. It covers the flow of matter and energy in the sea, including river discharges and atmospheric deposition. Numerical applications are embedded on a 1 NM grid for the Gulf of Gdansk and a 5 NM grid for the Baltic Sea.     Since the model results largely concur with observations, the model can be regarded as a reliable tool for analysing the behaviour of the Baltic ecosystem. Some examples of the spatial-temporal variability of the most important biological and chemical parameters are presented. The model results are compared with those of other modelling research in the Baltic Sea.     Both the ProDeMo model algorithm and its computing procedures need to be further developed. The next version should therefore enable more phytoplankton groups to be defined, for example cyanobacteria, which are able to take up molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere (nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the sediment phase should be divided into active and non-active layers.

  19. Diversity of pico- to mesoplankton along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue O.O. Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  20. Changes in patterns of persistent halogenated compounds through a pelagic food web in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting...... for the assessment of PHC patterns, e.g. for tracing migratory fish....

  1. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  3. Improving the assessment and management of the plaice stock complex between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Boje, Jesper; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Plaice in Kattegat and Skagerrak have traditionally been considered as one stock unit. However the collected information on biology and fishery in areas between the North and Baltic Seas suggest changes are needed in assessment units as well as in management areas. Plaice in Skagerrak (Division 20...

  4. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin

    2016-01-01

    in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results...

  5. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H E; Omstedt, Anders; Von Storch, Hans; Hünicke, Birgit; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993–2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003–12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  6. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  7. Modelling Potential Consequences of Different Geo-Engineering Treatments for the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.

    2017-12-01

    From 1950 onwards, the Baltic Sea ecosystem suffered increasingly from eutrophication. The most obvious reason for the eutrophication is the huge amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) reaching the Baltic Sea from human activities. However, although nutrient loads have been decreasing since 1980, the hypoxic areas have not decreased accordingly. Thus, geo-engineering projects were discussed and evaluated to artificially ventilate the Baltic Sea deep water and suppress nutrient release from the sediments. Here, we aim at understanding the consequences of proposed geo-engineering projects in the Baltic Sea using long-term scenario modelling. For that purpose, we utilize a 3d coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO E2E, a novel NPZD-Fish model approach that resolves hydrodynamics, biogeochemical cycling and lower and higher trophic level dynamics. We performed scenario modelling that consider proposed geo-engineering projects such as artificial ventilation of Baltic Sea deep waters and phosphorus binding in sediments with polyaluminium chlorides. The model indicates that deep-water ventilation indeed suppresses phosphorus release in the first 1-4 years of treatment. Thereafter macrobenthos repopulates the formerly anoxic bottom regions and nutrients are increasingly recycled in the food web. Consequently, overall system productivity and fish biomass increases and toxic algae blooms decrease. However, deep-water ventilation has no long-lasting effect on the ecosystem: soon after completion of the ventilation process, the system turns back into its original state. Artificial phosphorus binding in sediments in contrast decreases overall ecosystem productivity through permanent removal of phosphorus. As expected it decreases bacterial production and toxic algae blooms, but it also decreases fish production substantially. Contrastingly to deep water ventilation, artificial phosphorus binding show a long-lasting effect over decades after termination of the treatment.

  8. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5). An executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Pyhala, M.; Kotilainen, P.; Bartnicki, J.; Knuuttila, S.; Durkin, M.

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes and combines the main results of the Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (HELCOM 2011) which covers waterborne loads to the sea and data on atmospheric loads which are submitted by countries to the co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), which subsequently compiles and reports this information to HELCOM.

  9. A simple formula for the net long-wave radiation flux in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses problems of estimating the net long-wave radiation flux at the sea surface on the basis of easily measurable meteorological quantities (air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface water vapour pressure, cloudiness. Empirical data and existing formulae are compared. Additionally, an improved formula for the southern Baltic region is introduced, with a systematic error of less than 1 W -2 and a statistical error of less than 20 W -2.

  10. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    of investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful......Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  11. Towards an event stratigraphy for Baltic Sea sediments deposited since AD 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moros, Matthias; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    of anthropogenic radionuclides (137Cs/241Am/bomb14C), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead (Pb) and stable lead isotope (206/207Pb ratios), and radionuclide 210Pb and 14C decay dating methods. Marker horizons consisting of chemical precipitates formed by documented Major Baltic Inflow (MBIs) events...... and an extended diatom bloom period were also integrated into the model. The main time markers in Baltic Sea sediments that formed during the last 120 years were the following: (i) the deepest observation of 210Pbunsupp. (marking the 210Pb dating horizon) and departure of Hg from natural background levels at c...

  12. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  13. Daily Radiation Budget of the Baltic Sea Surface from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapadka Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently developed system for assessment of radiation budget for the Baltic Sea has been presented and verified. The system utilizes data from various sources: satellite, model and in situ measurements. It has been developed within the SatBałtyk project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - www.satbaltyk.eu where the energy radiation budget is one of the key element. The SatBałtyk system generates daily maps of the all components of radiation budget on every day basis. We show the scheme of making daily maps, applied algorithms and empirical data collection within the system. An empirical verification of the system has been carried out based on empirical data collected on the oil rig placed on the Baltic Sea. This verification concerned all the components of the surface radiation budget. The average daily NET products are estimated with statistical error ca. 13 Wm-2. The biggest absolute statistical error is for LWd component and equals 14 Wm-2. The relative error in relation to the average annual values for whole Baltic is the biggest for SWu and reaches 25%. All estimated components have correlation coefficient above 0.91.

  14. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be co......The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions...... to be considered for post-invasion management. Priority should be given to the establishment of a coordinated pan-Baltic monitoring programme and associated data storage and exchange, as well as the compilation of landing statistics of the round goby in commercial and recreational fisheries. While eradication...... is unrealistic, population control that leads to minimising the risk of transfer to yet uncolonised areas in the Baltic Sea and adjacent waterbodies is feasible. This should comprise the requirement that the species be landed in commercial fishery bycatch, the management of ships’ ballast water and sediments...

  15. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J.; Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H.; Harju, L.; Lindroos, A.; Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  16. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H. [Cell Biology, Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  17. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  18. Climate change studies in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallaste, Tiit; Kuldna, Piret

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of papers was compiled on the basis of research papers written by Estonian scientists during the United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environment Facility initiated climate change programme Country Case Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Assessments. The Estonian country case study was finally approved by UNEP/GEF in February 1996, practical work started in September. The priorities for Estonia in the study of global climate change impacts and adaptation have been in the following areas of interest: agriculture, water resources, forestry, the Baltic Sea and Estonian coast, also historical climate and socioeconomic background together with the biggest producer of greenhouse gases, the energy sector. Those areas have been studied more carefully during the one and half year period of the project

  19. The use of bathymetric data in society and science: a review from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Benjamin; Broman, Barry; Jakobsson, Lars; Jakobsson, Martin; Magnusson, Ake; Wiberg, Patrik

    2012-03-01

    Bathymetry, the underwater topography, is a fundamental property of oceans, seas, and lakes. As such it is important for a wide range of applications, like physical oceanography, marine geology, geophysics and biology or the administration of marine resources. The exact requirements users may have regarding bathymetric data are, however, unclear. Here, the results of a questionnaire survey and a literature review are presented, concerning the use of Baltic Sea bathymetric data in research and for societal needs. It is demonstrated that there is a great need for detailed bathymetric data. Despite the abundance of high-quality bathymetric data that are produced for safety of navigation purposes, the digital bathymetric models publicly available to date cannot satisfy this need. Our study shows that DBMs based on data collected for safety of navigation could substantially improve the base data for administrative decision making as well as the possibilities for marine research in the Baltic Sea.

  20. Distribution and reproduction of the Arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S

    2013-01-01

    , with highest abundances found in sea areas and water layers at temperatures 5.5 and oxygen levels >4 ml l-1. During summer, the highest abundances of ctenophores and their eggs were found near the halocline, while the distribution was more uniform throughout the water column during winter. Only ctenophores >3......Species identification based on morphological characteristics has caused misidentifications and led to twisted views of abundances and roles of ctenophores. Based on extensive field studies from 2007 to 2010, the occurrence of the arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum was genetically verified...... in the southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also...

  1. City of Helsinki and the evaluation of the Baltic Sea Challenge-actions; Helsingin kaupungin Itaemerihaaste-toimenpiteiden toteutumisen arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, I.

    2010-06-15

    The Baltic Sea Challenge initiative was made in June 2007 by the mayors of the cities of Helsinki and Turku in order to improve the state of the Baltic Sea. Its objective is to influence the status of the water, both locally and throughout the Baltic Sea. In addition to the concrete water protection measures, the cities of Helsinki and Turku are also committed to increase international co-operation on the environment, investigation of water protection and to provide general information and assistance. The challenge for improving the state of the Baltic Sea has already been sent to approximately 750 actors. In December 2009 about 165 positive responses have been received, of which 60 are cities, municipalities and joint local authorities in Finland, whereas 12 of them are cities in other Baltic Sea countries The actions of the city of Helsinki for saving the Baltic Sea are reducing the amount of point source loading and diffuse source loading (agriculture and scattered settlements), dredging of contaminated sediments, reducing discharges from shipping and boating, international environment cooperation, research projects and establishment of a professorship, and increasing awareness about the state of the Baltic Sea. Administrative branches of the city carry out the Baltic Sea Challenge. The administrative branches of the city of Helsinki are Port of Helsinki, Helsinki Water, Real Estate Department, Sports Department, City Planning Department, Public Works Department, Administration Centres department in the international operations and Environment centre. In addition, also other entities were summoned to participate in the voluntary improvement of the Baltic Sea. These were government agencies and research institutions, NGOs (nongovernmental organization) and associations, companies, schools and other organisations. The aim of this research was to examine the city of Helsinki's own Baltic Sea Challenge-actions from 2007 to 2009. The study dealt with all seven

  2. Variability and Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen in the Transition Zone of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Lars

    information about the seasonal to decadal oxygen variations in the bottom water of the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Sound and the Western Baltic Sea and investigates the relative importance of physical and biogeochemical processes, climate change and nutrient load reductions on the oxygen variability......The bottom water in the transition zone of the North Sea and Baltic Sea suffers from seasonal hypoxia, usually during late summer and autumn. Hypoxia is a natural phenomenon in this region because of the strong vertical stratification which prevents the bottom water to be ventilated by atmospheric...... concentrations by 15-30 μmol O2 l−1 yr−1 while the reduced nutrient concentration has increased the oxygen concentration with approximately the same amount. Thus, the positive effect on oxygen conditions from reduced nutrient concentrations have been counteracted by increased water temperatures. This has made...

  3. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Hindcast simulations for the period 1902-1998 have been performed using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Daily sea level observations in Kattegat, monthly basin-wide discharge data, and reconstructed atmospheric surface data have been used to force the Baltic Sea model. The reconstruction utilizes a statistical model to calculate daily sea level pressure and monthly surface air temperature, dew point temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover fields on a 1 deg x 1 deg regular horizontal grid for the Baltic Sea region. An improved turbulence scheme has been implemented into the Baltic Sea model to simulate saltwater inflows realistically. The results are validated against available observational datasets for sea level, salinity, saltwater inflow, volume transport, and sea ice. In addition, a comparison is performed with simulations for the period 1980-1993 using 3-hourly gridded atmospheric observations from synoptic stations. It is shown that the results of the Baltic Sea model forced with the reconstructed data are satisfactory. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to explore the impact of internal mixing, fresh and saltwater inflows, sea ice, and the sea level in Kattegat on the salinity of the Baltic Sea. It is found that the decadal variability of mean salinity is explained partly by decadal volume variations of the accumulated freshwater inflow from river runoff and net precipitation and partly by decadal variations of the large-scale sea level pressure over Scandinavia. During the last century two exceptionally long stagnation periods are found, the 1920s to the 1930s and the 1980s to the mid 1990s. During these periods precipitation, runoff and westerly winds were stronger than normal. Stronger westerly winds caused increased eastward surface-layer transports. Consequently, the mean eastward lower layer transports through the Stolpe Channel is reduced. The response time scale of the Baltic Sea is of the order of 30-40 years. The large

  4. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...

  5. A 35-year hindcast for the Baltic Sea (1980-2014) - a statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with limited water exchange. The most important process that leads to deep water renewal of the Baltic Sea are inflows of dense, saline North Sea water. These water masses have to pass narrow channels and sills in the Danish Straits and three basins with increasing depth. Along this path, the inflowing gravity currents are subject to entrainment, vertical and horizontal mixing. Thus, physical and numerical mixing are crucial for the proper propagation of these inflows. Additionally, a permanent halocline and a summer thermocline are challenging for state of the art ocean models. Moreover, Holtermann et al (2014) could show, that boundary mixing in the deep basins dominates the vertical mixing of tracers. To tackle these challenges, we used the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) to give a state estimate for the Baltic Sea for the period 1980-2014. The setup has a horizontal resolution of 1 nm. In the vertical, terain following coordinates are used. A special feature of GETM is that it can run with vertical adaptive coordinates. Here we use an adaptation towards stratification. The minimum layer thickness is limited to 30 cm. We also include the effects of wind waves (by radiation stresses, and changes in the bottom stresses) into our simulations. The atmospheric forcing is taken from the global reanalysis of the NCEP-CFSR (Saha et al 2011) with a spatial resolution of 30 km and hourly values. The model validation at selected stations in the Baltic Sea shows an average Bias of ±0.15 psu and a RMSE of 0.4 psu. These values are similar to the data assimilation runs of Fu et al (2011) or Liu et al (2013). However, one has to note that our simulations are free runs without any nudging or data assimilation. Driven by the good performance of the model, we use the model output to provide a state estimate of the actual climate period (1980-2010). The analysis includes a quantification and estimation of: surge levels with a 30-year

  6. On the behaviour of artificial radionuclides at the Baltic sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, D.B.; Astrauskene, N.P.; Kadzhene, G.I.; Lukinskene, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The measured results of the 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce radionuclide concentrations near the settlement of Juodkrante at the Baltic Sea coast have been considered. The instability of the mean values of the radionuclide concentrations, especially that of strontium-90, has been determined. A certain increase of the radionuclide concentration near the sea coast as compared to that in the open sea has been noted, as well as the influence of the stormy weather on the absolute values of the radionuclide concentration at the coastal zone. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  8. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  9. Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic sea after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Saxen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Taipale, T.K.

    1987-04-01

    After the Chernobyl accident extensive studies were started in the Baltic Sea area. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment, fish, plnkton, littoral algae and benthic animals were collected for radionuclide analyses. All the samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically. From some of the samples ''8''9Sr, ''9''0Sr and transuranic elements were determined. The fallout from the Chernobyl accident was areally unevenly distributed, contrary to the fallout situation in the 1960s. This also reflects in the results of the measurements in the marine environment. After the decay of short-lived radionuclides, ''1''3''7Cs and ''1''3''4Cs were the most important nuclides. The ''1''3''7Cs concentrations in sea water were considerably higher in 1986 than the values reported from the 1960s. Due to the low accumulation of caesium isotopes in brackish-water fish, the concentrations in Baltic Sea fish were clearly lower than in freshwater fish. Thus the consumption of Baltic fish contributes only insignificantly to internal radiation doses of Finnish people

  11. BASIC: Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. An investigation of the structure and dynamics of water blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea––responses to a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Albertano, P.; Bergman, B.; Von Bröckel, K.; Gallon, J.R.; Hayes, P.K.; Sivonen, K.; Walsby, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The blooms of cyanobacteria that develop each summer in the Baltic Sea are composed of two functional groups, namely the small-sized picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) and the larger, colony-forming, filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria. The former encompassed both red (phycoerythrin-rich) and

  12. Effects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015...

  13. An Ichthyophonus hoferi epizootic in herring in the North Sea, the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Mellergaard, Stig; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    An epizootic caused by the internal parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi in herring Clupea harengus was recorded from 1991 to 1993 in the waters around Denmark. A surveillance programme from research vessels and commercial fishing boats was conducted in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea. A total of 15769 hearts of adult herring were examined macroscopically for evidence of infection. The prevalence of the infection in this period decreased from 10.6 to 2.0% in the North Sea, from 8.0...

  14. Management-focused approach to investigating coastal water-quality drivers and impacts in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, G.; Destouni, G.; Chen, Y.; Bring, A.; Jönsson, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal areas link human-driven conditions on land with open sea conditions, and include crucial and vulnerable ecosystems that provide a variety of ecosystem services. Eutrophication is a common problem that is not least observed in the Baltic Sea, where coastal water quality is influenced both by land-based nutrient loading and by partly eutrophic open sea conditions. Robust and adaptive management of coastal systems is essential and necessitates integration of large scale catchment-coastal-marine systems as well as consideration of anthropogenic drivers and impacts, and climate change. To address this coastal challenge, relevant methodological approaches are required for characterization of coupled land, local coastal, and open sea conditions under an adaptive management framework for water quality. In this paper we present a new general and scalable dynamic characterization approach, developed for and applied to the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. A simple carbon-based water quality model is implemented, dividing the Baltic Sea into main management basins that are linked to corresponding hydrological catchments on land, as well as to each other though aggregated three-dimensional marine hydrodynamics. Relevant hydrodynamic variables and associated water quality results have been validated on the Baltic Sea scale and show good accordance with available observation data and other modelling approaches. Based on its scalability, this methodology is further used on coastal zone scale to investigate the effects of hydrodynamic, hydro-climatic and nutrient load drivers on water quality and management implications for coastal areas in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Vertical distribution of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The unique study on 241 Pu in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea was presented. • 241 Pu was determined using alpha spectrometry by indirect method. • The biggest amount of 241 Pu existed in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments. • The highest 241 Pu amount comes from the Chernobyl accident. - Abstract: The vertical distribution of plutonium 241 Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, 241 Pu/ 239+240 Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of 241 Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of 241 Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident

  16. Eutrophication assessment of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by available data and GIS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranft, Susanne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Boedeker, Dieter; Paulomäki, Hanna; Fagerli, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Concerning increased degradation of marine ecosystems, there is a great political and institutional demand for an array of different tools to restore a good environmental status. Thereby, eutrophication is acknowledged as one of the major human induced stressors which has to be monitored and reduced. The present study concentrates on an assessment of the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by use of available data and GIS technologies. Two geodata layers were used for analysis: (1) a map on the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea generated by the Helsinki Commission applying the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT), and (2) modelled data on atmospheric nitrogen deposition made available by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The results yielded comprehensive and conclusive data indicating that most of the BSPAs may be classified as being 'affected by eutrophication' and underlining the need to decrease the overall emissions of nutrients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Summer inputs of riverine nutrients to the Baltic Sea: Bioavailability and eutrophication relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Jørgensen, N.O.G.; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2002-01-01

    loading of inorganic N and P. Concentrations of total N and P ranged from 9 to 220 mumol/L and from 0.14 to 5.56 mumol/L, respectively, with the highest concentrations in the southern part of the Baltic Sea drainage area and in several rivers on the Finnish western coast. Urea and dissolved combined amino......Most nitrogen and phosphorus transported by world rivers to the oceans is associated with dissolved organic matter. However, organic matter as a potential source of N and P has hitherto been largely neglected in studies of coastal microbial food webs. We examined 50 rivers, draining a major part...... of the Baltic Sea watershed, with respect to summer concentrations, chemical composition, and biological availability of N and P. The broad spectrum of rivers studied enabled us to assess whether the input of terrigenous organic matter can be an important nutrient source, at various levels of anthropogenic...

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gaffke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region (BSR. It indicates the main emission sources of these substances, related to anthropogenic activity. These include incomplete combustion of fuels in engines on land and from marine transportation, as well as the burning of coal in the community sector. High PAH concentrations in the air are also related to increased industrial activity in urban areas. In the Baltic Sea Region, Germany and Poland have been determined to be responsible for the greatest proportion of PAH emissions. However, the highest number of exceedances of the accepted annual norm for benzo(apyrene concentrations was recorded in Poland.

  19. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... some of the uncertainties and complexities associated with forecasting how fish populations, communities and industries dependent on an estuarine ecosystem might respond to future climate change.......The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...

  20. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in Baltic Sea water sample IAEA-299

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison exercise on IAEA-299 for the determination of 90 Sr, 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentration in Baltic Sea Water. The participants belong to 8 laboratories located in 6 countries, members of the Helsinki commission. Statistical evaluation of the data reported yields to recommended values for these elements. The elements, their recommended values and confidence intervals are listed here: 90 Sr: 13.6 Bq kg -1 (12.8-14.4); 134 Cs: 6.7 Bq kg -1 (5-8.3); 137 Cs: 70.9 Bq kg -1 (68-72.3). Reference date: 27 June 1991 (sampling date). The data reported by the laboratories of the Baltic Sea States are generally in very good agreement. (author)

  1. Projected change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    this is projected to decrease to 48 %. For some countries the projected decrease in N deposition arising from the implementation of the NEC-II directive will be a considerable part of the reductions agreed on in the provisional reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This underlines the importance......The ecological status of the Baltic Sea has for many years been affected by the high input of both waterborne and airborne nutrients. The focus is here on the airborne input of nitrogen (N) and the projected changes in this input, assuming the new National Emission Ceilings directive (NEC...... scenario, giving a projected reduction of 38 k tonnes N in the annual load in 2020. This equals a decline in N deposition of 19 %. The results from 20 model runs using the tagging method show that of the total N deposition in 2007, 52 % came from emissions within the bordering countries. By 2020...

  2. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.

    1997-01-01

    The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary...... on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical......-pressure areas over the North Atlantic in more recent times. The last three events have also been observed by hydrographic measurements. During the long time stagnation periods, Fe and Mn will be segregated into a particulate phase (iron sulfide) which accumulates at the seafloor and a dissolved phase (Mn2...

  3. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  4. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay)

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland’s formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P 

  5. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  6. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1996-01-01

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statistically...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  7. Literature review on future development of the Baltic Sea and recommendations for safety modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2006-12-01

    The report represents the summary of the main factors, which affects the future development and state of the Baltic Sea. The emphasis is on land uplift, shoreline displacement, and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the sea. In addition, historical evolution of the Baltic Sea after the last ice age and potential impacts of the different climate scenarios are presented. The Baltic Sea has an important influence on the development of the geospherebiosphere interface zone at Olkiluoto. Thus, it is important to take account all these factors in the Safety Modelling of the nuclear waste repository. Different models have been used to evaluate land uplift at Olkiluoto and changes in the sea and land area, especially in the interface zone. The main parameters have been monitored satisfactory way at the Olkiluoto offshore. Based on the present sea sediment stratigraphy, overburden, topography and vegetation it has been fairly well estimated coming future land and sea areas of the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. According to the results, Olkiluoto will be part of the continent during the next decade. In the shallow shores of Olkiluoto, the amounts of common reed are increasing naturally, resulting in paludification. The spatial and temporal changes at Olkiluoto can be estimated and modelled more detailed by using the well focused research sites and more accurate results. In addition, more information is needed on development of the watershed areas, lakes, rivers and vegetation and on sedimentation and erosion processes, hydrology, quality and quantity of seabed sediments and stratigraphy, element budgets and recharge and discharge areas, especially at the geosphere-biosphere interface zones. (orig.)

  8. Mechanisms Causing Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea at Different Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, D. J.; Carstensen, J.; Gustafsson, B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2016-02-01

    A number of synthesis efforts have documented the world-wide increase in hypoxia, which is primarily driven by nutrient inputs with consequent organic matter enrichment. Physical factors including freshwater or saltwater inputs, stratification and temperature also play an important role in causing and sustaining hypoxia. The Baltic Sea provides an interesting case study to examine changes in oxygen dynamics over time because of the diversity of the types of hypoxia that occur, which ranges from episodic to seasonal hypoxia to perennial hypoxia. Hypoxia varies spatially across the basin with differences between open water bottoms and coastal systems. In addition, the extent and intensity of hypoxia has also varied greatly over the history of the basin, e.g. the last 8000 years. We will examine the mechanisms causing hypoxia at different spatial and temporal scales. The hydrodynamical setting is an important governing factor controlling possible time scales of hypoxia, but enhanced nutrient fluxes and global warming amplify oxygen depletion when oxygen supply by physical processes cannot meet oxygen demands from respiration. Our results indicate that climate change is counteracting management efforts to reduce hypoxia. We will address how hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is terminated at different scales. More importantly, we will explore the prospects of getting rid of hypoxia with the nutrient reductions that have been agreed upon by the countries in the Baltic Sea basin and discuss the time scales of improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions.

  9. Sensitivity of the overturning circulation of the Baltic Sea to climate change, a numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Pemberton, Per; Schimanke, Semjon

    2018-02-01

    An ocean model covering the Baltic Sea area is forced by several climate scenarios for a period extending from 1961 to 2100. The Baltic Sea overturning circulation is then analyzed. The analysis shows that this circulation decreases between the end of the 20th century and the end of the 21st century, and that the decrease is amplified in the case of the strongest greenhouse gas emission scenarios, which corresponds with the highest warming cases. The reasons behind this decrease in overturning circulation are investigated. A strong increase of thermal stratification is noticed at the level of the Baltic Sea mixed layer. Based on buoyancy flux considerations, we demonstrate that the decrease in overturning circulation coincides with the increase of thermal stratification. Evidence shows that the underlying process is linked to a smaller erosion of the halocline due to a higher shielding, itself linked with a stronger and longer seasonal thermocline. This theory works if surface wind mixing is not taken into account directly in the computation of buoyancy fluxes.

  10. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-03-01

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  11. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  12. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m 3 /s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m 3 /s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  13. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Bo G. [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m{sup 3}/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say {+-}1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m{sup 3}/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the

  14. Statistical analysis of the acceleration of Baltic mean sea-level rise, 1900-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Hünicke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyse annual mean sea-level records from tide-gauges located in the Baltic and parts of the North Sea with the aim of detecting an acceleration of sea-level rise over the 20textsuperscript{th} and 21textsuperscript{st} centuries. The acceleration is estimated as a (1 fit to a polynomial of order two in time, (2 a long-term linear increase in the rates computed over gliding overlapping decadal time segments, and (3 a long-term increase of the annual increments of sea level.The estimation methods (1 and (2 prove to be more powerful in detecting acceleration when tested with sea-level records produced in global climate model simulations. These methods applied to the Baltic-Sea tide-gauges are, however, not powerful enough to detect a significant acceleration in most of individual records, although most estimated accelerations are positive. This lack of detection of statistically significant acceleration at the individual tide-gauge level can be due to the high-level of local noise and not necessarily to the absence of acceleration.The estimated accelerations tend to be stronger in the north and east of the Baltic Sea. Two hypothesis to explain this spatial pattern have been explored. One is that this pattern reflects the slow-down of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. However, a simple estimation of this effect suggests that this slow-down cannot explain the estimated acceleration. The second hypothesis is related to the diminishing sea-ice cover over the 20textsuperscript{th} century. The melting o of less saline and colder sea-ice can lead to changes in sea-level. Also, the melting of sea-ice can reduce the number of missing values in the tide-gauge records in winter, potentially influencing the estimated trends and acceleration of seasonal mean sea-level This hypothesis cannot be ascertained either since the spatial pattern of acceleration computed for winter and summer separately are very similar. The all-station-average-record displays an

  15. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  16. Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riina Klais

    Full Text Available The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper, and (ii substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004 the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4 and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6 which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms.

  17. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2009-09-01

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  18. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  19. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele

    2017-01-01

    , both displaying ecological and physiological adaptations to the low-salinity environment of this young inland sea. In this study we have addressed three main research questions: 1) What environmental conditions characterize the spatial distribution and abundance of adult flounder during the spawning...... a decrease in habitat availability for the pelagic spawning flounder over the last 20 years in the central part of the Baltic Sea, which may explain part of the observed changes in populations' biomass. We conclude that spatiotemporal modelling of habitat availability can improve our understanding of fish...

  20. Conception of the Maritime Transport Safety in the Baltic Sea in 2009 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caban Jacek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The maritime transport is particularly exposed to danger due to the environment of its operations. These are the threat dependent and independent of human e.g. environmental, safety health and life of humans or belongings. In spite of attempts to limit the risk of danger, it is impossible to completely eliminate it. The article presents some aspects of the state of transportation safety in the Baltic Sea from Statistical Yearbook of Maritime Economy and Helcom as well as attempt the undertaken to analyses the security state of this sea area in 2009 to 2015.

  1. A transnational and holistic breeding approach is needed for sustainable wheat production in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawade, Aakash; Armoniené, Rita; Berg, Gunilla; Brazauskas, Gintaras; Frostgård, Gunilla; Geleta, Mulatu; Gorash, Andrii; Henriksson, Tina; Himanen, Kristiina; Ingver, Anne; Johansson, Eva; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Koppel, Mati; Koppel, Reine; Makela, Pirjo; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Podyma, Wieslaw; Roitsch, Thomas; Ronis, Antanas; Svensson, Jan T; Vallenback, Pernilla; Weih, Martin

    2018-03-14

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region. Implementing new technologies for climate-friendly breeding and digital farming across all surrounding countries should promote sustainable intensification of agriculture in the region. In this review, we highlight major challenges for wheat cultivation in the Baltic Sea region and discuss various solutions integrating transnational collaboration for pre-breeding and technology sharing to accelerate development of low input wheat cultivars with improved host plant resistance to pathogen and enhanced adaptability to the changing climate. © 2018 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Matrilinear phylogeography of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in Europe and postglacial colonization of the Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, J.; Gross, R.; Asplund, T.

    2001-01-01

    was analysed by RFLP of ND3/4/5/6. Representative RFLP haplotypes from different parts of the distribution area were sequenced and the phylogeny of European haplotypes and their relations to the North American lineage was described. The four common European haplotypes derive from the ancestral ND1-BBBA...... (rooting the European clade to the North American) by one-step substitutions: AAAA BBBB. The Swedish west- coast populations differ from the geographically close southern Baltic, indicating absence of inward and limited outward gene flow through the Danish straits during the last 8000 years....... Within the Baltic Sea, only three ND1 haplotypes were detected and there was no variation for ND3/4/5/6. In the whole southern Baltic and in lakes Vanern, Ladoga and Onega the haplotype AABA dominated. Proposed postglacial colonization routes to the Baltic Sea are discussed in relation to the haplotype...

  3. Artificial radionuclides 90Sr and 241Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: Total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The inventories of 137 Sr and 241 Am in the Baltic Sea is studied. • About 20 sediment cores around the Baltic Sea were analyzed. • The results show that 90 Sr distribution is uneven and effected by the Chernobyl fallout. • 241 Am is more evenly distributed in the sediments. • The Baltic Sea is the most contaminated sea with respect to 137 Cs in sediments. -- Abstract: The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of 90 Sr and 241 Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of 90 Sr in the same areas where the increase of 137 Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for 241 Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea

  4. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  5. Comparative study of air quality by the North Sea and Baltic Sea; Vergleichsuntersuchungen der Luftqualitaet an Nord- und Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, H.J.; Turowski, E.; Klar, A.; Schoendube, M.; Ebert, G.; Konieczny, L. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    2000-01-01

    Air quality measurements were carried out in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions. The results are summarized in this contribution from the hygienic view. [German] Im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojektes des Umweltbundesamtes, das zwischen 1996 und 1998 mit dem Titel 'Erfassung gasfoermiger und partikelfoermiger Bestandteile der Umgebungsluft an Nord- und Ostsee - Untersuchungen zur hygienischen Bedeutung des maritimen Aerosols' durchgefuehrt wurde, sollte die Frage unterschiedlicher Luftqualitaet an Nord- und Ostsee beantwortet werden und eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme vorgenommen werden. Der Artikel fasst die Forschungsergebnisse aus hygienischer Sicht zusammen. (orig./SR)

  6. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  7. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  8. Estimation of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus diet composition in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lundström

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the digestive tract contents from 145 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus collected between 2001 and 2004 in the Baltic Sea. We compensated for biases introduced by erosion of otoliths, both by using additional hard-part structures other than otoliths, and species-specific size and numerical correction factors. In the absence of numerical correction factors based on feeding experiments for some species, we used correction factors based on a relationship between otolith recoveryrate and otolith width. A total of 24 prey taxa were identified but only a few species contributed substantially to the diet. The estimated diet composition was, independently of the prey number estimation method and diet composition estimation model used, dominated by herring (Clupea harengus, both by numbers and biomass. In addition to herring, common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus and sprat (Sprattus sprattus were important prey, but cyprinids (Cyprinidae, eelpout (Zoarces viviparus, flounder (Platichtys flesus and salmon (Salmo salar also contributed significantly. Our results indicated dietary differences between grey seals of different age as well as between seals from the northern (Gulf of Bothnia and the southern (Baltic Proper Baltic Sea.

  9. 137Cs dating of laminated sediments in Swedish archipelago areas of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meili, M.; Jonsson, P.; Carman, R.

    1998-01-01

    In deep off-shore areas of the Baltic Sea, sediment accumulation rates are typically on the order of one or a few millimeters per year, and even less in consolidated sediments, based on laming counts and radiometric dating. In lacustrine and marine basins, the highest sedimentation rates are usually found in the deepest part, since sediments and associated contaminants are known to be gradually 'focused' from shallow to deep areas by resuspension. Accordingly, net sedimentation in coastal areas is usually low or absent due to strong erosion forces. On the other hand, coastal sediments are likely to be important in controlling the fate and turnover of contaminants that are released into coastal waters. Since little is known about the turnover of coastal sediments, in particular for heterogeneous semi-enclosed areas such as the Baltic archipelagos, a study of sediment accumulation rates has been initaited, with a focus on areas where erosion is likely to be minimal. The study is part of a project focusing on the relationship between eutrophication and contaminant cycling (EUCON). 88 sediment cores were collected during summer 1996 from accumulation bottoms of 18 more or less protected bays in archipalgo areas along the swedish coast of the Baltic Sea

  10. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, E. Therese; Kratzer, Susanne; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all differed between the two coastal areas studied; the W Gulf of Bothnia with high terrestrial input and the NW Baltic Proper with ...

  11. No increase in marine microplastic concentration over the last three decades – A case study from the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Sabrina; Garm, Anders; Huwer, Bastian; Dierking, Jan; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: • First long-term study on microplastic in the marine environment • Case study based on a unique sample set from the highly human impacted Baltic Sea • Water column microplastic concentration constant over past three decades • Microplastic concentration in forage fish constant over past three decades • We hypothesise that household waste is the dominant source of Baltic marine plastics. Abstract Microplastic is considered a potential threat to marine life as i...

  12. A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; McLachlan, Michael S; Wiberg, Karin; Jonsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  13. Outdoor model simulating a Baltic Sea littoral ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notini, M; Nagell, B; Hagstroem, A; Grahn, O

    1977-01-01

    Plastic pools (surface 6.6 m/sup 2/, volume 4.2 m/sup 3/) were equipped with a flow-through system providing 2.51 min/sup -1/. Except for fish predators the main components of the flora and fauna of the Baltic littoral zone were introduced into the pools to form a model of the ecosystem. During 8 weeks the macroscopic epifauna and infauna of the bladder wrack Fucus vesiculosus L. were found to be qualitatively and quantitatively fairly stable, and the number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria showed little variation. Oxygen concentration, temperature and pH were recorded and compared with values measured in the littoral zone. The results indicate good agreement between the characters of the model system and of the natural littoral ecosystem. This together with the observed stability and the possibilities for controlling and measuring the conditions in the system makes us believe that the model is a valuable tool for assessing toxic effects on the littoral ecosystem.

  14. Magnetic Repeat Station Network on the Baltic Sea — Why So Needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welker Elżbieta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of navigation systems requires more and more accurate base data. Currently, attention is paid to utilization of geophysical fields — gravitational and magnetic ones — for navigation purposes. The Earth’s magnetic field distribution — both onshore and offshore — is complicated and variable in time. Hence, it is essential to precisely know the secular variations in the area of interest. In the case of Baltic Sea, this involves establishing (re-establishing of a marine network of secular points (repeat stations and regular magnetic measurements of the three independent components of the Earth’s magnetic field. Such measurements require equipment that ensures not only high stability, but also information about sensors’ orientation in relation to geographic north and to the level. This article presents a new project of the Baltic network of repeat stations and gives a solution for the instruments usable for quasi-absolute magnetic measurements.

  15. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Bier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  16. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  17. Estimating areas threatened by contamination from leaking chemical warfare agents dumped into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 60,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War II (the exact amount is unknown and some sources estimate it as more than 200,000 tons). Dumped munitions still pose a risk of leakage caused by erosion and corrosion, and it is important to know the danger areas. Because of wide dispersion of the dumped munitions, modelling is only one tool that could provide wide image of physical state of the sea at all locations and which could also be used for analysing contamination during a potential leakage. Obviously, it is possible to take samples at each dumpsite, but modelling also allows to develop possible scenarios of leakages under specific physical conditions. For the purpose of analysis of potential leakage a high-resolution model (HRM) of the contamination will be embedded in the hydrodynamic model (HM) of the Baltic Sea. The HRM will use data from general circulation model results of estimated resolution of nearly 2 km. The Parallel Ocean Program will be implemented as the HM for the whole Baltic Sea. Atmospheric data from regional implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) have been used as the top boundary conditions of the HM, and sea level data from Gothenburg had been included into model barotropic equation as lateral boundary conditions. Passive tracer will represent the contamination in the HRM and horizontal resolution of the HRM will be close to 50 meters. Passive tracers will also be implemented in the HM - for comparison of the results. For proper representation of potential leakage of chemical warfare agents the HRM will have included diffusion and advection processes. The results from the HM are going to be interpolated into the HRM domain and then integration will be performed. Based on the implemented simulations, estimated contaminated area and its comparison from the HRM as well as from the HM will be presented. The research work was fund by the European Union (European

  18. Sea salt in aerosols over the southern Baltic. Part 2. The neutralizing properties of sea salt and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Urszula Lewandowska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2001-2007 aerosols were measured in the coastal zone (11 campaigns and over the open waters of the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic (5 campaigns. The marine aerosols contained nitrogen and sulphur compounds, which increased their acidity. This situation intensified during the cool months of the year, when fossil fuel emissions were higher, proportionate to energy and heat requirements. Irrespective of the season, these acidic aerosols were neutralized in the reaction with sea salt. The likelihood of sodium nitrate being formed increased at air humidities > 80% and nitrate concentrations > 30 nmol m-3. Sodium sulphate was present in aerosols mostly in autumn and winter, with northerly advection, and at the highest wind speeds. The excess of free ammonia resulted in the formation of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate in aerosols over the southern Baltic.

  19. Microplastics in sea coastal zone: Lessons learned from the Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, Irina; Stepanova, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days. Analysis of underlying hydrophysical processes suggests that sea coastal zone under stormy winds plays a role of a mill for plastics, and negatively buoyant pieces seem to repeatedly migrate between beaches and underwater slopes until they are broken into small enough fragments that can be transported by currents to deeper areas and deposited out of reach of stormy waves. Direct observations on microplastics migrations are urged to prove the hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  1. Berliner Zeitung annab Estonia-filmile hävitava hinnangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukaja Saksa ajakirjanduses

  2. Baltic Sea Maritime Spatial Planning for Sustainable Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    in the marine and maritime sectors with great potential for innovation and economic growth. Holistic spatial planning systems supporting sustainable development have proved themselves in terrestrial planning and are also needed at sea. Due to this reason, the BONUS BASMATI project is based on the ecosystem...... services approach to assist in assessing sustainable solutions corresponding to policy goals.......The current and potential use of the seas and oceans is often called the ‘Blue Economy’. Recently, the European Commission launched its Blue Growth Strategy on the opportunities for marine and maritime sustainable growth. The European Commission considers that Blue Growth is a long-term strategy...

  3. Effect of ocean acidification and elevated fCO2 on trace gas production by a Baltic Sea summer phytoplankton community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, A.L.; Leedham-Elvidge, E.; Hughes, C.; Hopkins, F.E.; Malin, G.; Bach, L.T.; Schulz, K.; Crawfurd, K.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.; Liss, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a unique environment as the largest body of brackish water in the world. Acidification of the surface oceans due to absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is an additional stressor facing the pelagic community of the already challenging Baltic Sea. To investigate its impact on

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by bottle on multiple cruises in the Baltic Sea, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, the North Atlantic Ocean, and the North Sea from 02 January 1985 to 13 November 1989 (NODC Accession 0000056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from DANA and other platforms in Baffin Sea, Baltic Sea, Davis Strait, North Sea, and North...

  5. Innovacionnaja jekonomika v regione Baltijskogo morja [Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  6. Distribution of N2O in the Baltic Sea during transition from anoxic to oxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2003, a major inflow of cold and oxygen-rich North Sea Water terminated an ongoing stagnation period in parts of the central Baltic Sea. In order to investigate the role of North Sea Water inflow in the production of nitrous oxide (N2O, we measured dissolved and atmospheric N2O at 26 stations in the southern and central Baltic Sea in October 2003. At the time of our cruise, water renewal had proceeded to the eastern Gotland Basin, whereas the western Gotland Basin was still unaffected by the inflow. The deep water renewal was detectable in the distributions of temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentrations as well as in the distribution of the N2O concentrations: Shallow stations in the Kiel Bight and Pomeranian Bight were well-ventilated with uniform N2O concentrations near equilibrium throughout the water column. In contrast, stations in the deep basins, such as the Bornholm and the Gotland Deep, showed a clear stratification with deep water affected by North Sea Water. Inflowing North Sea Water led to changed environmental conditions, especially enhanced oxygen (O2 or declining hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentrations, thus, affecting the conditions for the production of N2O. Pattern of N2O profiles and correlations with parameters like oxygen and nitrate differed between the basins. Because of the positive correlation between ΔN2O and AOU in oxic waters the dominant production pathway seems to be nitrification rather than denitrification. Advection of N2O by North Sea Water was found to be of minor importance. A rough budget revealed a significant surplus of in situ produced N2O after the inflow. However, due to the permanent halocline, it can be assumed that the N2O produced does not reach the atmosphere. Hydrographic aspects therefore are decisive factors determining the final release of N2O produced to the atmosphere.

  7. Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Kari K; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas; Strand, Jakob

    2014-02-01

    The need to develop biological effects monitoring to facilitate a reliable assessment of hazardous substances has been emphasized in the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. An integrated chemical-biological approach is vitally important for the understanding and proper assessment of anthropogenic pressures and their effects on the Baltic Sea. Such an approach is also necessary for prudent management aiming at safeguarding the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and Services. The BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health) set out to address this topic within the BONUS Programme. BEAST generated a large amount of quality-assured data on several biological effects parameters (biomarkers) in various marine species in different sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. New indicators (biological response measurement methods) and management tools (integrated indices) with regard to the integrated monitoring approach were suggested.

  8. Implementing ecosystem-based fisheries management: from single-species to integrated ecosystem assessment and advice for Baltic Sea fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Christian; Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    -economic factors, in relation to specified management objectives. Here, we focus on implementing the IEA approach for Baltic Sea fish stocks. We combine both tactical and strategic management aspects into a single strategy that supports the present Baltic Sea fish stock advice, conducted by the International...... Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). We first review the state of the art in the development of IEA within the current management framework. We then outline and discuss an approach that integrates fish stock advice and IEAs for the Baltic Sea. We intentionally focus on the central Baltic Sea...... and its three major fish stocks cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus), but emphasize that our approach may be applied to other parts and stocks of the Baltic, as well as other ocean areas...

  9. {sup 241}Pu concentrations in water, plankton and fish from the southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, D.I.; Skwarzec, B. [Gdansk, Univ. (Poland). Facuty of Chemistry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the work was to determine {sup 241}Pu activities in different components (water, plankton and fish) of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. Measurement of {sup 241}Pu in the samples was done indirectly by determining the increment in {sup 241}Am from the decay of the {beta}-emitting {sup 241}Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of {sup 241}Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The highest {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish were found in Perciformes: benthic round goby (0.863 {+-} 0.066 mBq/g ww) and pelagic perch (0.666 {+-} 0.001 mBq/g ww). Plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed in the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. Most of {sup 241}Pu in flounder, herring and cod is located in soft tissues, especially digestive organs (stomach, intestine, liver). The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of {sup 241}Pu containing Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small. (orig.)

  10. Nitrification and the ammonia-oxidizing communities in the central Baltic Sea water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Helena; Ward, Bess B.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Hietanen, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    The redoxclines that form between the oxic and anoxic water layers in the central Baltic Sea are sites of intensive nitrogen cycling. To gain better understanding of nitrification, we measured the biogeochemical properties along with potential nitrification rates and analyzed the assemblages of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea using functional gene microarrays. To estimate nitrification in the entire water column, we constructed a regression model for the nitrification rates and applied it to the conditions prevailing in the area in 2008-2012. The highest ammonia oxidation rates were found in a thin layer at the top of the redoxcline and the rates quickly decreased below detection limit when oxygen was exhausted. This is probably because extensive suboxic layers, which are known to harbor pelagic nitrification, are formed only for short periods after inflows in the Baltic Sea. The nitrification rates were some of the highest measured in the water columns, but the thickness of the layer where conditions were favorable for nitrification, was very small and it remained fairly stable between years. However, the depth of the nitrification layer varied substantially between years, particularly in the eastern Gotland Basin (EGB) due to turbulence in the water column. The ammonia oxidizer communities clustered differently between the eastern and western Gotland Basin (WGB) and the composition of ammonia-oxidizing assemblages correlated with the environmental variables. The ammonia oxidizer community composition was more even in the EGB, which may be related to physical instability of the redoxcline that does not allow predominance of a single archetype, whereas in the WGB, where the position of the redoxcline is more constant, the ammonia-oxidizing community was less even. Overall the ammonia-oxidizing communities in the Baltic Sea redoxclines were very evenly distributed compared to other marine environments where microarrays have been applied previously.

  11. Marine environment protection for the North and Baltic Seas. Special Report - February 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The marine environment of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is still heavily polluted. The marine ecosystems are under severe stress from overfishing, water pollution, raw materials production and tourism. Environmental protection in this region necessitates decisive political initiatives and strict corrections especially in fishery policy, agricultural policy and chemical substances control. This is the balance of the special expert opinion of the Council of Environmental Experts. The publication specifies the main problem areas, the current pollution situation, the fields where action is most urgently required - especially in fishery, chemical substances, agricultural and sea travel policies - and presents suggestions for an integrated European and national marine protection policy including a regional development concept for the marine environment. (orig.)

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  13. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K.; Aittoniemi, P.; Kaessi, T. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  14. Arsenic concentrations correlate with salinity for fish taken from the North Sea and Baltic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Francesconi, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations were determined in three teleost species (herring Clupea harengus; cod Gadus morhua, and flounder Platichthys flesus) taken. from four locations in the Baltic and North Sea with salinities ranging from 8 to 32 psu. Individual arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.......04 to 10.9 mg/kg wet mass, and there was a positive linear relationship between arsenic concentration and salinity for all three species (r(2) 0.44 to 0.72, all P arsenic than do freshwater fish, the data reported...... here are the first showing a relationship between the total arsenic concentration in fish and salinity....

  15. Species interactions in the western Baltic Sea: With focus on the ecological role of whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann

    , which potentially prey on and compete for food with whiting. Here, the growth dynamics and feeding ecology of whiting in the western Baltic Sea is investigated and discussed in an ecosystem context. Furthermore, the diet of the harbour porpoise is examined and the interactions between whiting, cod......, implementation of the models in strategic management advice for commercially important fish stocks and protected marine mammals is not common practice. This is due to the lack of sufficient information about species interactions including knowledge about the diet, food intake and growth dynamics. This thesis...

  16. Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea - an assessment of patterns and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Tomczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    in the north, covers between two to five trophic levels per area, and include time series dating back to the early 1990s. Using multivariate analyses, we assess the temporal development of species abundance or biomass at different trophic levels in relation to the development of variables related to local...... and regional climate, hydrology, nutrient loading and fishing pressure. Our results highlight the relative timing of change in ecosystem structure and the development of key biological elements across areas. Besides describing the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea during the past two...

  17. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values...... for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation...

  18. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper...... with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life...

  19. Iron oxide reduction in methane-rich deep Baltic Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Matthias; Hagens, Mathilde; Sapart, Celia J.

    2017-01-01

    /L transition. Our results reveal a complex interplay between production, oxidation and transport of methane showing that besides organoclastic Fe reduction, oxidation of downward migrating methane with Fe oxides may also explain the elevated concentrations of dissolved ferrous Fe in deep Baltic Sea sediments...... profiles and numerical modeling, we propose that a potential coupling between Fe oxide reduction and methane oxidation likely affects deep Fe cycling and related biogeochemical processes, such as burial of phosphorus, in systems subject to changes in organic matter loading or bottom water salinity....

  20. Assessing PCB pollution in the Baltic Sea - An equilibrium partitioning based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Mayer, Philipp; Hursthouse, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted...... with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity...

  1. Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea over the past two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jens; Tomczak, Maciej; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-01-01

    Coastal areas are among the most biologically productive aquatic systems worldwide, but face strong and variable anthropogenic pressures. Few studies have, however, addressed the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. This study represents an assessment of the develo...... in the capacity of currently available monitoring data to support integrated assessments and the implementation of an integrated ecosystem-based approach to the management of the Baltic Sea coastal ecosystems......Coastal areas are among the most biologically productive aquatic systems worldwide, but face strong and variable anthropogenic pressures. Few studies have, however, addressed the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. This study represents an assessment...

  2. Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, J.; Andersen, J.; Dromph, K. [and others

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the outcome of the project 'Review of the ecological targets for eutrophication of the HELCOM BSAP', also known as HELCOM TARGREV. The objectives of HELCOM TARGREV have been to revise the scientific basis underlying the ecological targets for eutrophication, placing much emphasis on providing a strengthened data and information basis for the setting of quantitative targets. The results are first of all likely to form the information basis on which decisions in regard to reviewing and if necessary revising the maximum allowable inputs (MAI) of nutrient of the Baltic Sea Action Plan, including the provisional country-wise allocation reduction targets (CART), will be made.

  3. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K; Aittoniemi, P; Kaessi, T [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Marine Biodiversity and Habitats in the Baltic Sea - and Possible Human Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula; Christensen, Jesper Phillip Aagaard

    Climate change is likely to induce substantial changes in the Baltic Sea, as it is a species-poor ecosystem where virtually all species live close to their environmental tolerance range. The vitality of the fish stocks and viability of fisheries should be supported by consideration of global change...... in the management of environment (protection, sustainable use and restoration) and of fisheries. A shift away from sector-by-sector management towards the integrated management of land, water and living resources may be necessary to sustain the productivity of fish stocks. The climate change and other concomitant...

  5. NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zeleneva

    2013-01-01

    NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT By 2050, we can expect dramatic changes in the global energy balance. At the beginning of 21st century, the configuration of the global energy market has begun to change due to a wide variety of both political and economic reasons. The formation of a European common gas market in the world of fierce competition among world exporters for short-term and long-term contracts, the growth of energy consumption in China, J...

  6. Technetium-99 in Fucus and seawater samples in the Finnish coastal area of the Baltic Sea, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Vartti, V.P.; Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.

    2002-01-01

    Liquid discharges of 99 Tc from the Sellafield nuclear facilities increased largely in the mid 90's. These releases are transported to the Nordic sea areas by the ocean currents. Results of the 99 Tc activities along the Norwegian coastal areas and in the North Sea have been reported but then again, the spreading of 99 Tc into Baltic Sea has not been studied thoroughly. Fucus vesiculosus and seawater samples were collected in the summer 1999 from the Finnish coastal areas for measuring 99 Tc in the Baltic Sea area. A modified analytical method for measuring 99 Tc in the environmental samples was developed at that time. The method based on extraction chromatography and liquid scintillation measurement of 99 Tc. The 99 Tc concentration in the Fucus vesiculosus in the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea varied from 1.6 to 11.6 Bq/kg (dry weight) being highest at the most northern sampling sites. These values were considerable lower than those in the Danish and Norwegian coasts. The variation in the concentrations observed are probably due to biological factors. The 99 Tc concentration in the Baltic Sea water studied was below 0.2 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  7. Strontium concentration in the Baltic Sea in 1974-1975 and its correlation with some hydrodynamic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankajtis, A.K.; Styro, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    Strontium concentration data in the surface and deep layers of the Baltic Sea water are presented. Strontium concentration in the surface layer varies from 1.6 mg/1 to 2.2 mg/1 and that at a depth of 50 m - from 2.0 to 3.2 mg/1. Maximum concentration (4.5 mg/1) is at a depth of 440 m. Strontium concentration data are correlated with some hydrometeorological parameters (wind velocity and direction, water temperature, salinity). It has been indicated that water mass transfer in the Baltic Sea may be traced using the data on strontium concentration variations

  8. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Western Baltic Sea, and implications for assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Boje, Jesper; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    and management. Plaice in Kattegat and Skagerrak have traditionally been considered as one stock unit. Current understanding indicates that several plaice components may exist in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A comprehensive review of all available biological knowledge on plaice...

  9. The Baltic Sea Macro-Regional Transport Cluster as an Element of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the opportunities of the Chinese initiative “One Belt, One Road”, for the development of the Baltic Sea macro-region (BSR, as a single transport cluster. One of the objectives of the initiative is to strengthen transport linkages from the Pacific Ocean to the Baltic Sea Region. Thus, the contemporary macro-regional approach to the development of EU macro-regions can provide an additional impulse to the creation of formal macro-regional inter-cooperation, via in this case, the project that will advance the transport infrastructure of the region. This study examines the situation of the railway sector in the BSR in the period 2004–2015, through hierarchical cluster analysis, to identify countries with similar trends in cargo flow turnover. Taking into account the favorable geographical position of Poland, its transport performance and advanced (in comparison to other Baltic Sea region countries relations with China, it is concluded that Poland’s conditions are more suitable to promote economic integration with its closest neighbors – the Baltic countries-through the creation of formal macro-regional railway transport within the Rail Baltic project.

  10. Atmospheric input of trace substances into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Stoffeintrag in Nord- und Ostsee ueber die Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H; Eppel, D; Petersen, G; Schneider, B; Weber, H; Gandrass, J; Reinhardt, K H; Wodarg, D; Fliess, J

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations and deposition of atmospheric trace substances were measured over the Kiel Bight and the Southern North Sea. A European longrange-transport model was used to calculate the atmospheric concentrations of trace metals and their deposition into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Natural and anthropogenic emitted element concentrations could be separated definitely by the measurements, and preferred transport directions of anthropogenic contributions could be found. Concentrations measured over the North Sea could be related to the surrounding emission areas by airmass trajectory analyses. The deposition measurements show that the main removal process is due to deposition by precipitation. Calculated and measured concentrations at several receptor points agreed well. The model results confirm the dominating role of wet deposition. It could be shown that extrapolations from measurements at coastal stations to the whole sea area tend to overestimate the total deposition into North Sea and Baltic Sea. (orig.) With 78 refs., 26 tabs., 85 figs.

  11. Hypoxia and cyanobacteria blooms - are they really natural features of the late Holocene history of the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zillén

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last century (1900s industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased, especially during the last 50 years, and has caused severe ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (< 2 mg/l O2 both during the last c. 100 years (since c. 1900 AD and the Medieval Period. By contrast, investigations of the degree of anthropogenic forcing on the ecosystem on long time-scales (millennial and greater have not been thoroughly addressed. This paper examines evidence for anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment beyond the last century through the analysis of the human population growth, technological development and land-use changes in the drainage area. Natural environmental changes, i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills, were probably the main driver for large-scale hypoxia during the early Holocene (8000–4000 cal yr BP. We show that hypoxia during the last two millennia has followed the general expansion and contraction trends in Europe and that human perturbation has been an important driver for hypoxia during that time. Hypoxia occurring during the Medieval Period coincides with a doubling of the population (from c. 4.6 to 9.5 million in the Baltic Sea watershed, a massive reclamation of land in both established and marginal cultivated areas and significant increases in soil nutrient release. The role of climate forcing on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has yet to be demonstrated convincingly, although it could have helped to sustain hypoxia through enhanced salt water inflows or through changes in hydrological inputs. In addition, cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously deduced, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release from the seabed that occurs during

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Acanthocephala in pinnipedia of the North and Baltic Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Waindok

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus are final hosts of acanthocephalans in the German North and Baltic Seas. Parasitic infections in seals can cause pathological changes, which may result in deteriorated health of the host. Common gastrointestinal parasites of harbour and grey seals are acanthocephalans and a number of 275 of 2460 (11.2% investigated seals from 1996 to 2013 were infected with Corynosoma spp. (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. The prevalence showed a wave-like pattern: it increased from 1.2% and 0.4% in 1996 and 1997, respectively, to 23.9% during the second phocine distemper epizootic in 2002 and decreased to 6.2% in 2004. In 2005, prevalence peaked again with 25.0% followed by a decrease to 9.3% in 2009 and an increase to 38.5% in 2012. Statistical analysis revealed that harbour seals originating from the North Sea showed a higher prevalence than grey seals, whereas no significant difference between grey and harbour seals from the Baltic Sea was observed. Furthermore, juvenile pinnipedia from the North Sea were significantly less infected with Corynosoma spp. than seals older than seven month. Molecular species identification as well as phylogenetic relationship analysis among the detected Corynosoma species were achieved by sequencing and comparisons of the ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-complex and cytochrome-c-oxidase I gene. Molecular analysis resulted in a newly arranged distribution of Acanthocephala in the North Sea as in contrast to previous studies, C. strumosum could not be confirmed as predominant species. Instead, C. magdaleni and a C. magdaleni isolate (isolate Pv1NS with an atypical number of longitudinal rows of hooks at the proboscis were detected. Furthermore, morphological and molecular analyses indicate the possible finding of a cryptic species (Candidatus Corynosoma nortmeri sp. nov.. Keywords: Acanthocephala, Acantocephalans, Corynosoma, Seals, ITS, Cytochrome-c-oxidase, Marine parasites

  13. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  14. A Eulerian nutrient to fish model of the Baltic Sea — A feasibility-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Hagen; Neumann, Thomas; Fennel, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    A nutrient-to-fish-model with an explicit two-way interaction between a biogeochemical model of the lower food web and a fish model component is presented for the example of the Baltic Sea, demonstrating the feasibility of a consistent coupling of the upper and lower parts of the food web in a Eulerian model system. In the Baltic Sea, the fish stock is dominated by two prey species (sprat and herring) and one predator (cod). The dynamics of the fish model is driven by size (mass-class) dependent predator-prey interactions while the interaction between the biogeochemical and Fish model component is established through feeding of prey fish on zooplankton and recycling of fish biomass to nutrients and detritus. The fish model component is coupled to an advanced three dimensional biogeochemical model (ERGOM, Neumann et al., 2002). A horizontally explicit representation of fish requires the implementation of fish behavior. As a first step, we propose an algorithm to stimulate fish migration by letting the fish follow the food. Moreover, fish species are guided to their respective spawning areas. Results of first three-dimensional simulations are presented with emphasis on the transport of matter by moving fish. The spawning areas of cod and sprat are in the deep basins, which are not well reached by advective transport. Hence the deposition of matter in these areas by spawning fish could play some role in the distribution of matter. The approach is not limited to applications for the Baltic and the model can be transferred also to other systems.

  15. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Baltic Sea: seasonal phenology and hydrographic influence on spatio-temporal distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, M.; Haslob, H.; Huwer, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    In the Western Baltic, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was recorded for the first time in autumn 2006. An eastward propagation of the ctenophore into the central Baltic, and thus into important spawning grounds of major Baltic fish stocks, was observed in 2007. The focus of the present...... distribution was mostly confined to water layers below the permanent halocline and significantly influenced by ambient temperature. Our results indicate that there is no self-sustaining population of M. leidyi in the central Baltic Sea. Instead, the species is most likely re-introduced into the Bornholm Basin...... every year via lateral advection from source populations in the Western Baltic. These findings are important not only to further assess the potential impact of M. leidyi on the pelagic ecosystem of the central Baltic Sea, but also for a better understanding of the mechanisms of its invasion into other...

  16. Falia strategică Marea Neagră – Marea Baltică (The strategic Black SeaBaltic Sea ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe VĂDUVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a moment when it seemed that the East-West dimension of the ontology of Euro-Asian space was beginning to emerge out of its traditional conflicting character and do something in order to bridge the gaps. This would have been excellent, since Western Europe has finance and technology, while Asia is rich in resources. The civilizations to be found on the largest geophysical platform of the Earth are not contradictory and conflicting; they are just different, by area, culture, and interests. Many of the truths that sounded like dogmata or things which were well known and had become chronic were ignored both by the triumphalist and the pessimist analysts. Whatever had happened seemed to be water under the bridge. The Summit of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, in the autumn of 2013, showed, however, the real face of things. The undercurrents were revealed, frustrations became evident, the strategic Black SeaBaltic Sea ridge was reactivated and, consequently, the forces, the means, the plans and the resources were re-positioned. The war started again. Actually, it had never stopped because the war between the East and the West is unfortunately a continuous one. Like a road without beginning, without end, and with no exit.

  17. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E Therese; Kratzer, Susanne; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all differed between the two coastal areas studied; the W Gulf of Bothnia with high terrestrial input and the NW Baltic Proper with relatively little terrestrial input. The CDOM:DOC ratio was higher in the Gulf of Bothnia, where CDOM had a greater influence on the Secchi depth, which is used as an indicator of eutrophication and hence important for Baltic Sea management. Based on the results of this study, we recommend regular CDOM measurements in monitoring programmes, to increase the value of concurrent Secchi depth measurements.

  18. Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and servicesin the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be usedfor economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiarresources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the ProductivityMethod, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem suchas biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the ReplacementCost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marineecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding,including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paperemphasises the importance of using valuation methods to helpmake better-educated decisions for the sustainability of theBaltic Sea.

  19. Determination of phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a) in the optically complex inland water - The Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoxi; Lavender, Samantha; Muller, Jan-Peter; Walton, David; Karlson, Bengt; Kronsell, Johan

    2017-12-01

    A novel approach, termed Summed Positive Peaks (SPP), is proposed for determining phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a or Chl-a) and surface phytoplankton bloom extent in the optically complex Baltic Sea. The SPP approach is established on the basis of a baseline subtraction method using Rayleigh corrected top-of-atmosphere data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) measurements. It calculates the reflectance differences between phytoplankton related signals observed in the MERIS red and near infrared (NIR) bands, such as sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SICF) and the backscattering at 709nm, and considers the summation of the positive line heights for estimating Chl-a concentrations. The SPP algorithm is calibrated against near coincident in situ data collected from three types of phytoplankton dominant waters encountered in the Baltic Sea during 2010 (N=379). The validation results show that the algorithm is capable of retrieving Chl-a concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3mgm -3 , with an RMSE of 0.24mgm -3 (R 2 =0.69, N=264). Additionally, the comparison results with several Chl-a algorithms demonstrates the robustness of the SPP approach and its sensitivity to low to medium biomass waters. Based on the red and NIR reflectance features, a flagging method is also proposed to distinguish intensive surface phytoplankton blooms from the background water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pesic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea, from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean, and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea. The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a. As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a, additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2. Champacyclin (1a is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, because of its high content of (d-amino acids. The compound (1a showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants.

  1. The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Dierking, Jan; Andersson, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are diff......Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use...... are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history...... of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess...

  2. Submerged terrestrial landscapes in the Baltic Sea: Evidence from multiproxy analyses of sediment cores from Fehmarnbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen; Blume, Katharina; Segschneider, Martin; Lücke, Andreas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hübener, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Five sediment cores were taken from the southern part of the Fehmarn Belt (Baltic Sea) in the context of an environmental impact study for the intended fixed traverse between Germany and Denmark. The lithologies of the 8m long cores reveal dramatic changes in sedimentary environments which reflect the early Holocene history of the southern Baltic Sea. A succession of terrestrial, semiterrestrial and limnic facies from glacial sediments to peat, lacustrine/estuarine deposits and finally marine sediments document the interplay of eustatic sea level rise and isostatic rebound, which finally lead to the establishment of marine conditions during the Littorina transgression. An age control of the observed changes was established by dating over 50 C-14 samples of different fractions. During the Lateglacial minerogenic varves with thicknesses of several centimeters verify the existence of a proglacial lake in the Fehmarnbelt. Peat development started around 11.250 cal. BP and terminated ca. 10.600 cal. BP which is roughly contemporaneous with the end of the Yoldia Phase in the central Baltic Sea. The oldest peat layers consist of undecomposed sedges and reed. Woody remains of willows appear not before 10.700 cal BP and indicate a stagnant or slowly decreasing water table. This semi-terrestrial phase is followed by a shallow inland lake which existed until the Littorina transgression around 8.300 cal. BP. Initially the lacustrine sediments exhibit high C/N ratios, low low δ13Corg values and contain numerous wood fragments as well as other botanical macro remains. This indicates shallow conditions close to the lake shore. Later, the occurrence of planktonic diatom species such as Aulacoseira ambigua suggest greater water depths. We did not find any indications of the often postulated catastrophic outburst of the Ancylus Lake via Fehmarnbelt and the Great Belt into the North Sea. Likewise, XRF scanning does not show conspicuous peaks in Ti or K which would have been

  3. The morphology and sculpture of ossicles in the Cottidae (Teleostei of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Špilev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Small to very small ossified structures (ossicles such as cephalic horns, dermal tubercles, fin-ray rods, lateral-line canal segments, branchial tooth plates and gill-raker tubercles of three species of the teleostean fish family Cottidae inhabiting the Baltic Sea are described and for the first time illustrated with SEM images, with emphasis on their microscopic external features. The morphology and sculpture of these small ossicles notably differ in the three genera, but differences can also occur between males and females, as documented here in Myoxocephalus scorpius (Linnaeus. The detailed features of such ossicles are potentially useful for taxonomic identification in sea-floor sediments or gut contents, in a manner similar to their use in many modern and fossil fishes, and may also prove useful as phylogenetically important characters at generic and familial levels.

  4. Mercury in precipitation at an urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-11-01

    Wet deposition is an important source of metals to the sea. The temporal variability of Hg concentrations in precipitation, and the impact of air masses of different origins over the Polish coastal zone were assessed. Samples of precipitation were collected (August 2008-May 2009) at an urbanized coastal station in Poland. Hg analyses were conducted using CVAFS. These were the first measurements of Hg concentration in precipitation obtained in the Polish coastal zone. Since Poland was identified as the biggest emitter of Hg to the Baltic, these data are very important. In the heating and non-heating season, Hg concentrations in precipitation were similar. Hg wet deposition flux dominated in summer, when the production of biomass in the aquatic system was able to actively adsorb Hg. Input of metal to the sea was attributed to regional and distant sources. Maritime air masses, through transformation of Hg(0), were an essential vector of mercury in precipitation.

  5. Kinetics of marine surfactant adsorption at an air water interface. Baltic Sea studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis³aw J. Pogorzelski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of studies of natural surface film adsorption kinetics carried out in inland waters and in shallow offshore regions of the Baltic Sea during 2000-01 under calm sea conditions. The novel approach presented here for the adsorption dynamics is based on the mixed kinetic-diffusion model and analyses of the surface pressure-time plots at short (t ->0 and long( t -> ∞ adsorption time intervals. Values of the effective relative diffusion coefficient Deff / D (= 0.008-0.607 and energy barrier for adsorption Ea / RT (= 0.49-7.10 agree well with the data reported for model non-ionic surfactant solutions of pre-cmc concentrations. Wind speed is one of the factors affecting the adsorption barrier via the increased surface pressure of the natural film exposed to wind shear stress (~ U102, and enters the relation Ea / RT = 1.70 U101/3.

  6. Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (2...... km x 2 km) model, and the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20-km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary-layer height. In this situation...... the high-resolution simple applied model reproduces the characteristics of the boundary-layer height over the measuring site. Richardson-number based methods using data from simulations with the HIRLAM model fail, most likely because the island and the water fetch to the measuring site are about the size...

  7. Vertical migration and dispersion of sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) and herring ( Clupea harengus ) schools at dusk in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lars Anders Fredrik; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Lundgren, Bo

    2003-01-01

    , and that the dissolution of schools can be modelled by diffusion, i.e. active repulsion is not required. The field measurements were obtained during 3 days in March at one location in the Baltic Sea and included continuous hydroacoustical monitoring, trawl samples, and hydrographical CTD data. Echogram patterns were...

  8. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Research; Gustafsson, Bo [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden); Omstedt, Anders [SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times.

  9. Multi-Layered Stratification in the Baltic Sea: Insight from a Modeling Study with Reference to Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Dargahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic and transport characteristics of the Baltic Sea in the period 2000–2009 were studied using a fully calibrated and validated 3D hydrodynamic model with a horizontal resolution of 4.8 km. This study provided new insight into the type and dynamics of vertical structure in the Baltic Sea, not considered in previous studies. Thermal and salinity stratification are both addressed, with a focus on the structural properties of the layers. The detection of cooler regions (dicothermal within the layer structure is an important finding. The detailed investigation of thermal stratification for a 10-year period (i.e., 2000–2009 revealed some new features. A multilayered structure that contains several thermocline and dicothermal layers was identified from this study. Statistical analysis of the simulation results made it possible to derive the mean thermal stratification properties, expressed as mean temperatures and the normalized layer thicknesses. The three-layered model proposed by previous investigators appears to be valid only during the winter periods; for other periods, a multi-layered structure with more than five layers has been identified during this investigation. This study provides detailed insight into thermal and salinity stratification in the Baltic Sea during a recent decade that can be used as a basis for diverse environmental assessments. It extends previous studies on stratification in the Baltic Sea regarding both the extent and the nature of stratification.

  10. TBT and its metabolites in sediments: Survey at a German coastal site and the central Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Marion; Westphal, Lina; Hand, Ines; Lerz, Astrid; Jeschek, Jenny; Bunke, Dennis; Leipe, Thomas; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2017-08-15

    Since the 1950s the organotin compound tributyltin (TBT) was intensively used in antifouling paints for marine vessels and it became of concern for the marine environment. Herein, we report on a study from 2015 on TBT and its metabolites monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) in sediments from the central Baltic Sea and a Baltic Sea coastal site with strong harbor activities (Warnemünde). Sublayers from a sediment core from the Arkona Basin were analyzed to investigate the long term organotin pressure for the Baltic Sea. For the central Baltic Sea total organotin (MBT+DBT+TBT) ranged from 100 to 500ng/g TOC with distinct areas of high organotin content probably due to historical inputs. For the coastal site total organotin ranged from 10,000 to 60,000ng/g TOC. MBT and DBT were the predominant organotin species detected. Overall, the data obtained indicate the progress of TBT degradation at the investigated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was applied to provide the first large scale dataset of freely dissolved concentrations for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Baltic Sea sediment cores. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers were used for ex-situ equilibrium sampling followed...

  12. A comparison between predicted and observed levels of 137Cs and 90Sr in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    A model based on compartmental analysis has been developed to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The model is intended for the prediction of annual average concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment. The quality of the model predictions has been investigated by comparing predicted levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, top sediment and biota with observed levels covering the period 1960-1992. The sources of radioactivity into the Baltic region that have been considered are fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, fallout from the Chernobyl accident, liquid discharges to sea from the European reprocessing plants, and discharges from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. The predicted water concentrations are in good agreement with the observations for both radionuclides; the mean predictive accuracy of the model is close to unity. For the top sediment and biota concentrations the agreement is less favourable. The predicted water inventory data compare well with the observed data for the two radionuclides. The inventories of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Baltic Sea in 1994 have been estimated at 3200 TBq and 370 TBq, respectively. (author)

  13. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835714; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  14. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  15. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, E., E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, E., E-mail: erik.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G., E-mail: bo.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate.

  16. Phenology of cryptomonads and the CRY1 lineage in a coastal brackish lagoon (Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piwosz, Kasia; Kownacka, J.; Ameryk, A.; Zalewski, M.; Pernthalter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2016), s. 626-637 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11281S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Baltic Sea * chromalveolate hypothesis * coastal waters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  17. Migration of 90Sr in the cooling basin of the Ignalina atomic power plant and the Baltic sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushauskiene-Duzh, R.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a long-time radiation monitoring of the Ignalina APP and the Baltic sea ecosystems determined regularities of the 90 Sr distribution in the main components of the ecosystems (water, bottom sediments, biota). It was established that 90 Sr accumulation coefficient in the aquatic plants of the warmed up water zone of the Ignalina APP is 2.6 lower than that of the stable water suction zone. The accumulation of 90 Sr in molluscs is higher in the warmed up water zone than in the stable water zone. It was determined that the mean concentration of 90 Sr in surface water of near-shore areas of the Baltic sea are higher than that in the open Baltic. Concentration of the 90 Sr in the biota in the Baltic sea is about 300-500 times higher than in the water. The accumulation level of 90 Sr in zoobenthos varies in different species being in organs and tissues of fishes consuming actively calcium for building up their skeletons. 90 Sr levels in bottom sediments of bays are higher than those in sediments of the open sea. Accumulation of 90 Sr in muds is about 11 times higher than in sands. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  18. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coa...

  19. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian; Omstedt, Anders

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times

  20. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele; Erlandsson, Mårten; Eschbaum, Redik; Hüssy, Karin; Lehmann, Andreas; Ložys, Linas; Ustups, Didzis; Florin, Ann-Britt

    2017-08-01

    Identification of essential fish habitats (EFH), such as spawning habitats, is important for nature conservation, sustainable fisheries management and marine spatial planning. Two sympatric flounder (Platichthys flesus) ecotypes are present in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawning flounder, both displaying ecological and physiological adaptations to the low-salinity environment of this young inland sea. In this study we have addressed three main research questions: 1) What environmental conditions characterize the spatial distribution and abundance of adult flounder during the spawning season? 2) What are the main factors defining the habitats of the two flounder ecotypes during the spawning season? 3) Where are the potential spawning areas of flounder? We modelled catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of flounder from gillnet surveys conducted over the southern and central Baltic Sea in the spring of 2014 and 2015 using generalized additive models. A general model included all the stations fished during the survey while two other models, one for the demersal and one for the pelagic spawning flounder, included only the stations where each flounder ecotype should dominate. The general model captured distinct ecotype-specific signals as it identified dual salinity and water depth responses. The model for the demersal spawning flounder revealed a negative relation with the abundance of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and a positive relation with Secchi depth and cod abundance. Vegetation and substrate did not play an important role in the choice of habitat for the demersal ecotype. The model for the pelagic spawning flounder showed a negative relation with temperature and bottom current and a positive relation with salinity. Spatial predictions of potential spawning areas of flounder showed a decrease in habitat availability for the pelagic spawning flounder over the last 20 years in the central part of the Baltic Sea, which may explain part of the observed

  1. Development of interdisciplinary model of microplastics transport and transformation in the Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Chubarenko, Irina; Mizyuk, Artem; Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Isachenko, Igor; Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, anthropogenic pressure from the coastal areas comes up in many aspects of marine environment changes, decreasing the aesthetics of the underwater world, threatening the sustainability of marine ecosystems and influencing the quality of human life. Microplastics are pervasive throughout the marine environment, are ingested by many marine organisms, and enter a food chain that includes humans. A certain fraction of microplastics in marine environment results from breakdown of larger items in numerous tiny fragments due to mechanical forces and photochemical processes, as well as from other degradation sources. Microplastics can absorb high levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and other toxins. Deep-sea sediments are a likely, but yet unquantified, sink for microplastics (Cole et al., 2011). Since the MARBLE ('MicroplAstics Research in the BaLtic Environment') project started, three expeditions and multiple on-shore field experiments have been conducted in the South-Eastern Baltic. The samples were collected from the surface, deep water layers and bottom sediments. The samples were processed and physical parameters of the microparticles were established. In parallel, laboratory experiments under controllable conditions over the particles of regular shapes were conducted in order to test the empirical formulas for the sinking velocity. PLEX ('PLastics EXplorer') -- a device for efficiently collecting microparticles in marine environment -- was developed, built and tested. An attempt was made to quantify some geometrical properties of particles, to compare their surface areas, fouling rates, sinking velocities, and finally provide some estimates for the main spatial and temporal scales, describing the behaviour of the particles of different densities and shapes in the Baltic Sea (Chubarenko et al., 2016). An original 3D model of Microplastics dynamics is under development now. Its aim is to provide a robust numerical predictive tool to study pathways

  2. Optical measurements in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone. I. On the origin of the deep water in the Kattegat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højerslev, N. K.; Holt, N.; Aarup, T.

    1996-08-01

    In the North Sea-Baltic Sea region, several studies have shown that yellow substance can be treated as a quasi-conservative parameter that is negatively correlated with salinity. A review of more than 5000 historic and recently gathered yellow substance absorption and salinity measurements from the transition zone between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been analyzed for the purpose of water mass identification. Salinity-yellow substance scatter plots show that three water masses can be identified in the area: (1) North Sea water (high salinity, low yellow substance content); (2) Baltic Sea water (low salinity, intermediate-high yellow substance content); and (3) German Bight/Southern North Sea water (intermediate-high salinity, high yellow substance content). Based on the volume flow estimates used in a two-layer box-model of the Kattegat (Jørgensen, Continental Shelf Research, 12, 103-114, 1992) and conservation of yellow substance, it is argued that the long-term average composition of the bottom layer inflow to the Kattegat from the Skagerrak consists of about 90% North Sea/Atlantic water and 10% German Bight/Southern North Sea water. The German Bight content estimate is substantially lower than the ones given in earlier studies (50-67%) and implies that the Jutland Coastal Current only has a small impact on the water quality of the Kattegat.

  3. Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: a discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moellmann, C; Diekmann, Rabea; Muller-Karulis, B

    2009-01-01

    the Baltic Sea, the largest brackish water body in the world ocean, and its ecosystems are strongly affected by atmospheric and anthropogenic drivers. Here, we present results of an analysis of the state and development of the Central Baltic Sea ecosystem integrating hydroclimatic, nutrient, phyto......Marine ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea are currently under strong atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure. Besides natural and human-induced changes in climate, major anthropogenic drivers such as overfishing and anthropogenic eutrophication are significantly affecting ecosystem structure...

  4. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Oehlenschlaeger, M. [National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Broenshoej (Denmark); Karlberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.).

  5. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Karlberg, O.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.)

  6. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Laß

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE, southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  7. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.

    2013-08-01

    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  8. Simulation of nitrate reduction in groundwater - An upscaling approach from small catchments to the Baltic Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. L.; Donnelly, C.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Karlsson, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach proposed to simulate the impact of local-scale, spatially targeted N-mitigation measures for the Baltic Sea Basin. Spatially targeted N-regulations aim at exploiting the considerable spatial differences in the natural N-reduction taking place in groundwater and surface water. While such measures can be simulated using local-scale physically-based catchment models, use of such detailed models for the 1.8 million km2 Baltic Sea basin is not feasible due to constraints on input data and computing power. Large-scale models that are able to simulate the Baltic Sea basin, on the other hand, do not have adequate spatial resolution to simulate some of the field-scale measures. Our methodology combines knowledge and results from two local-scale physically-based MIKE SHE catchment models, the large-scale and more conceptual E-HYPE model, and auxiliary data in order to enable E-HYPE to simulate how spatially targeted regulation of agricultural practices may affect N-loads to the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the use of E-HYPE with this upscaling methodology enables the simulation of the impact on N-loads of applying a spatially targeted regulation at the Baltic Sea basin scale to the correct order-of-magnitude. The E-HYPE model together with the upscaling methodology therefore provides a sound basis for large-scale policy analysis; however, we do not expect it to be sufficiently accurate to be useful for the detailed design of local-scale measures.

  9. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  10. Application of Radioactive and Stable Isotopes to Trace Anthropogenic Pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Valiulis, D.; Remeikaitė-Nikienė, N.; Barisevičiūtė, R.; Stankevičius, A.; Kulakauskaitė, I.; Mažeika, J.; Petrošius, R.; Jokšas, K.; Li, H.-C.; Garnaga, G.; Povinec, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the seas most contaminated by various pollutants including the chemical munitions dumped after the Second World War. Pu isotopes, Δ 14 C and δ 13 C of total organic carbon (TOC) as well as lipid and phospholipids (PL) fractions of the sediments were applied to study sources of pollutants including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The compound-specific δ 13 C analysis, PL–derived fatty acid biomarkers and an end-member mixing model were used to estimate a relative contribution of the marine, terrestrial and fossil as well as petroleum hydrocarbons (measured directly) sources to organic carbon in the sediments, to assess a possible effect of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on radiocarbon signatures and to elucidate a possible leakage of CWA at the Gotland Deep dumpsite. Data on spatial distribution of As, Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations as well as 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the surface sediments indicated the highest concentrations of Pb with their different pattern of distribution and insignificant variations of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios. The obtained data revealed the possible application of the Chernobyl-derived Pu to trace the pollutants of the terrestrial origin. Wide TOC variations with the strong impact of the terrestrial and fresh waters in the coastal areas were observed. Variations of Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values with the most depleted values of the Δ 14 C TOC (-453%) and Δ 14 C of total lipid extracts (-812.4%) at the CWA dumpsite were found. An excess (after subtracting the petroleum hydrocarbon) of fossil sources at the CWA dumpsite as compared to those at other stations in the Baltic Sea was detected. The obtained results indicated a possible effect of CWA on depleted Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values. This study was supported by the Research Council of Lithuania, contract No. MIP-080/2012. (author)

  11. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  12. Vaccination improves survival of Baltic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts in delayed release sea ranching (net-pen period)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    1997-01-01

    Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Finnish Iijoki stock were hatched and reared in freshwater in a salmon hatchery on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic sea. Salmon parr were divided in three groups each comprising 22 000 fish. One group was vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection....... In contrast, no increase of titres was seen in the bath vaccinated and untreated groups. Marked cellular reactions in the abdominal cavity of injected fish were registered. A total of 3000 fish have been tagged and released to evaluate the effect of vaccination on the recapture rate. The implications...

  13. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  14. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  15. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  16. Monitoring benthic foraminiferal dynamics at Bottsand coastal lagoon (western Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera from Bottsand coastal lagoon, western Baltic Sea, have been studied since the mid-1960s. They were monitored annually in late autumn since 2003 at the terminal ditch of the lagoon. There were 12 different species recognised, of which three have not been recorded during earlier investigations. Dominant species showed strong interannual fluctuations and a steady increase in population densities over the last decade. Elphidium incertum, a stenohaline species of the Baltic deep water fauna, colonised the Bottsand lagoon in 2016, most likely during a period of salinities >19 units and water temperatures of 18 °C on average in early autumn. The high salinities probably triggered their germination from a propagule bank in the ditch bottom sediment. The new E. incertum population showed densities higher by an order of magnitude than those of the indigenous species. The latter did not decline, revealing that E. incertum used another food source or occupied a different microhabitat. Elphidium incertum survived transient periods of lower salinities in late autumn 2017, though with reduced abundances, and became a regular faunal constituent at the Bottsand lagoon.

  17. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remke, Eva; Brouwer, Emiel; Kooijman, Annemieke; Blindow, Irmgard; Esselink, Hans; Roelofs, Jan G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6 kg N ha -1 yr -1 wet deposition. - Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts Baltic dune vegetation promoting a dominance of taller graminoids

  18. Nitrogen and the Baltic Sea: Managing Nitrogen in Relation to Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elmgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic is a large, brackish sea (4 x 105 km2 extending from 54ÅN to ~66ÅN, with a fourfold larger drainage area (population 8 x 107. Surface salinity (2 to 8 PSU and hence biodiversity is low. In the last century, annual nutrient loads increased to 106 metric tons N and 5 x104 ton P. Eutrophication is evident in the N-limited south, where cyanobacteria fix 2 to 4 x 105 ton N each summer, Secchi depths have been halved, and O2-deficient bottom areas have spread. Production remains low in the P-limited north. In nutrient-enriched coastal areas, phytoplankton blooms, toxic at times, and filamentous macroalgae reduce amenity values. Loads need to be reduced of both N, to reduce production, and P, to limit N-fixing cyanobacterial blooms. When large N-load reductions have been achieved locally, algal biomass has declined. So far, P loads have been reduced more than N loads. If this continues, a P-limited Baltic proper may result, very different from previous N-limited conditions. Reaching the management goal of halved anthropogenic N and P loads at minimum cost will require better understanding of biogeochemical nutrient cycles, economic evaluation of proposed measures, and improved stakeholder participation.

  19. Trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic food chain from the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.; Jaervinen, Olli; Mukherjee, Arun B.; Verta, Matti; Broman, Dag

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and 13 other trace elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were measured in phytoplankton, zooplankton, mysis and herring in order to examine the trophodynamics in a well-studied pelagic food chain in the Baltic Sea. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes (δ 15 N) was used to evaluate food web structure and to estimate the extent of trophic biomagnification of the various trace elements. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for each trace element were determined from the slope of the regression between trace element concentrations and δ 15 N. Calculated TMFs showed fundamental differences in the trophodynamics of the trace elements in the pelagic food chain studied. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd showed statistically significant decreases (TMF 1) in concentration with trophic level i.e. Hg biomagnifies in this Baltic food chain. The estimated TMF for Hg in this food chain was comparable to TMFs observed elsewhere for diverse food chains and locations.

  20. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  1. Isotopic signatures of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as bioindicator of anthropogenic nutrient input in the western Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Philipp R.; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B.H.; Dierking, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs are a global problem, but difficult to quantify. • We tested the use of eelgrass δ 15 N as proxy of such inputs in the Baltic Sea. • The method revealed distinct spatial patterns in sewage N across a eutrophic bay. • Traditional eutrophication measures corroborated the results from δ 15 N values. • Eelgrass δ 15 N ratios have high potential as proxy of sewage-derived N in the Baltic. -- Abstract: Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass δ 15 N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows

  2. Ocean acidification and desalination: climate-driven change in a Baltic Sea summer microplanktonic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Angela; Karlberg, Maria; Olofsson, Malin; Torstensson, Anders; Riemann, Lasse; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Mohlin, Malin; Ekstrand, Nina; Chierici, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Helcom scenario modelling suggests that the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish-water bodies in the world, could expect increased precipitation (decreased salinity) and increased concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the next 100 years. These changes are expected to affect the microplanktonic food web, and thereby nutrient and carbon cycling, in a complex and possibly synergistic manner. In the Baltic Proper, the extensive summer blooms dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon sp., Dolichospermum spp. and the toxic Nodularia spumigena contribute up to 30% of the yearly new nitrogen and carbon exported to the sediment. In a 12 days outdoor microcosm experiment, we tested the combined effects of decreased salinity (from 6 to 3) and elevated CO 2 concentrations (380 and 960 µatm) on a natural summer microplanktonic community, focusing on diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria. Elevated p CO 2 had no significant effects on the natural microplanktonic community except for higher biovolume of Dolichospermum spp. and lower biomass of heterotrophic bacteria. At the end of the experimental period, heterotrophic bacterial abundance was correlated to the biovolume of N. spumigena. Lower salinity significantly affected cyanobacteria together with biovolumes of dinoflagellates, diatoms, ciliates and heterotrophic bacteria, with higher biovolume of Dolichospermum spp. and lower biovolume of N. spumigena , dinoflagellates, diatoms, ciliates and heterotrophic bacteria in reduced salinity. Although the salinity effects on diatoms were apparent, they could not clearly be separated from the influence of inorganic nutrients. We found a clear diurnal cycle in photosynthetic activity and pH, but without significant treatment effects. The same diurnal pattern was also observed in situ ( p CO 2 , pH). Thus, considering the Baltic Proper, we do not expect any dramatic effects of increased p CO 2 in combination with decreased salinity on the microplanktonic food web

  3. Dissolved organic phosphorus and its bioavailable fraction in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, M.; Nausch, G.; Setzkorn, D.; Welz, Ä.

    2009-04-01

    In general, it is accepted that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) is besides dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) a source for phosphorus nutrition of phyto- and bacterioplankton. If available, DIP is usually preferred to DOP. DOP becomes the most important source under DIP depleted conditions occurring in the Baltic Sea in summer. However, its contribution to nutrition and consequently its significance is very difficult to appraise because only the bioavailable fraction (BAP = bioavailable phosphorus) can be used by organisms. DOP comprises also inert compounds which persist over longer periods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to quantify the bioavailable DOP. In 2004 and 2005, DOP and BAP concentrations were detected in surface water at three stations in the central Baltic Sea from May until July. In June/July 2008 an intensive measuring campaign was performed throughout the whole Baltic Sea. DOP measurements were done from the entrance to the North Sea in the West until the innermost parts of the Gulf of Bothnia in the North and the Gulf of Finland in the East. BAP was determined at 14 stations in the central and northern parts. DOP was determined using the alkaline potassium peroxidisulphate oxidation method followed by the manual DIP determination. BAP has been detected in time course experiments using 0.8 µm filtered sea water containing free-living heterotrophic bacteria and amended with 7 µM ammonium chloride and 1mg l-1 D-(+) glucosemonohydrate to prevent nitrogen and carbon limitation and increase the phosphorus demand in bacteria. BAP is defined as that proportion of DOP which is used by bacteria and calculated as the difference of DOP concentrations at the beginning and the lowest concentrations during an incubation for 4-6 days. In 2004 and 2005, most DOP concentrations ranged between 0.18 and 0.32 µM, with a declining tendency from spring to summer probably due to elevated uptake compared to its release caused by higher temperatures and DIP

  4. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Alheit, J.; Conley, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    - documented long-term fisheries in this region are the herring (Clupea harengus) fisheries near Bohuslan, western Sweden, and in the Oresund. These fisheries have been important since at least the 1200s and appear to be partly climatically driven. However, in the rest of the Baltic, information about......Fish and marine mammal populations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak have undergone major fluctuations over the past five centuries. We summarize how these fluctuations may have depended on various forms of predation (e.g., cannibalism, fishing, hunting) and environmental processes. The best...... fisheries for herring and other fish species is rare until after 1900. During the 20th century, while the Baltic underwent eutrophication, the biomass and landings of three fish species (cod (Gadus morhua), herring, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus)) all increased, whereas the biomass of marine mammals (grey...

  5. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  6. Vertical distribution of (241)Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2014-12-15

    The vertical distribution of plutonium (241)Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, (241)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of (241)Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of (241)Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between inherent optical properties in the Baltic Sea for application to the underwater imaging problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.

  8. Competition for marine space: modelling the Baltic Sea fisheries and effort displacement under spatial restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2015-01-01

    DISPLACE model) to combine stochastic variations in spatial fishing activities with harvested resource dynamics in scenario projections. The assessment computes economic and stock status indicators by modelling the activity of Danish, Swedish, and German vessels (.12 m) in the international western Baltic...... Sea commercial fishery, together with the underlying size-based distribution dynamics of the main fishery resources of sprat, herring, and cod. The outcomes of alternative scenarios for spatial effort displacement are exemplified by evaluating the fishers’s abilities to adapt to spatial plans under...... various constraints. Interlinked spatial, technical, and biological dynamics of vessels and stocks in the scenarios result in stable profits, which compensate for the additional costs from effort displacement and release pressure on the fish stocks. The effort is further redirected away from sensitive...

  9. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-306 radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1989-10-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Baltic Sea sediment sample, coded as IAEA-306, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected in the fall 1986. It was anticipated that the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides in this sediment would be higher than the environmental levels usually found and, therefore, would constitute an excellent intercomparison sample. The data from 84 laboratories representing 34 countries have been evaluated. The most frequently measured radionuclides are: 90 Sr, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 40 K, 210 Pb- 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U and 238 U. 6 refs, 13 tabs

  10. Radiocesium and polonium in seals from the Baltic Sea. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Leisvik, M.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs and 210 Po in muscle, liver and kidney from 5 seals from the Baltic Sea have been studied. Assuming that the seals consume 5% of their own body weight each day and by using previously obtained data for the doses in fish, the biological half time has been estimated to 20 days for Cesium and 35 days for Polonium. The maximum yearly doses are calculated to 76 μGy from 137 CS to muscle and 3 500 μGy to kidneys from 210 Po. These data are very preliminary, the number of individuals being so small, and it is difficult to estimate how much food other than fish the seals consume. Furthermore only few data for radioactive concentrations in whole fish exist, which especially impacts the results for Polonium. (LN)

  11. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  12. Evaluation and selection of test methods for assessment of contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari; Ahvo, Aino; Berezina, Nadya

    The purpose of the CONTEST project (2014-15) is to test, develop, evaluate and select suitable biological methods to be applied in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of toxicity of anthropogenically contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea marine region. Here is presented results from...... showed large variability in the sensitivity of the different biotests. Most of the tests applied showed concentration-dependent effects on the test organisms. New experiments will be carried out in 2015. The CONTEST project is funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Finnish Ministry...... a set of pilot experiments, which were performed by the participating laboratories. Chemical analysis of the contaminated harbour sediment chosen as the test matrix confirmed the presence of high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organotins and trace metals, and the sediment...

  13. Life cycle and spring phenology of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Mohrholz, V.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal variation in abundance, biomass and vertical distribution of nauplii and copepodites of Temora longicornis in the Bornholm Basin was studied from March 2002 to May 2003 to understand the overwintering, spring development and life cycle of this species in the Baltic Sea. The analysis...... of the life cycle by means of stage structure, copepodite length and stage duration revealed that T. longicornis produced 5 to 6 generations yr–1. The species overwintered in low abundance as an active, slowly developing generation with adults appearing from February/March onwards. The onset of the spring...... bloom in April triggered reproduction and initiated the first spring generation (G1) with a strong rise in nauplii abundance. The stock biomass increased in May with the occurrence of the copepodites of G1 and remained high during the succeeding generations G2 and G3 until August. The stock...

  14. Size and Carbon Content of Sub-seafloor Microbial Cells at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Littmann, Sten

    2016-01-01

    determined the volume and the carbon content of microbial cells from a marine sediment drill core retrieved by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), Expedition 347, at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density......-specific carbon content was 19–31 fg C cell−1, which is at the lower end of previous estimates that were used for global estimates of microbial biomass. The cell-specific carbon density increased with sediment depth from about 200 to 1000 fg C μm−3, suggesting that cells decrease their water content and grow...... small cell sizes as adaptation to the long-term subsistence at very low energy availability in the deep biosphere. We present for the first time depth-related data on the cell volume and carbon content of sedimentary microbial cells buried down to 60 m below the seafloor. Our data enable estimates...

  15. An assessment of nutrient conditions in the southern Baltic Sea between 1994 and 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta £ysiak-Pastuszak

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations (1994-98 in nutrient distribution were analysed in the break Polish sector of the Baltic Sea with reference to long-term (1979-98 fluctuations of hydrological and chemical factors. Between 1994 and 1998 the winter accumulation of phosphate declined noticeably in most of the regions with the exception of the Gulf of Gdansk. The winter peaks of silicate were also reduced in the offshore region and in the waters along the central Polish coast, but continued to accumulate in the bays owing to riverine input. In the offshore region a decrease in the winter accumulation of nitrate was noted in the surface water layer whereas in the bays nitrate concentrations continued to increase. Large quantities of nitrate continue to accumulate in the Gulf of Gdansk, although at a slower rate than in 1979-93.

  16. Competition for the fish - fish extraction from the Baltic Sea by humans, aquatic mammals and birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Sture; Bergström, Ulf; Bonsdorff, E.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of fish eating mammals (primarily seals) and birds have increased in the Baltic Sea and there is concern that their consumption reduces fish stocks and has negative impact on the fishery. Based primarily on published data on fisheries’ landings and abundances, consumption and diets...... to be addressed in basic ecosystem research, management and conservation. This requires improved quantitative data on wildlife diets, abundances and fish production...... of birds and seals around year 2010, we compare consumption of commercial fish species by seals (1*105 metric tons per year) and birds (1*105 tons) to the catch in the commercial and recreational fishery (7*105 tons), and when applicable at the geographical resolution of ICES subdivisions. The large...

  17. Investigation and evaluation of airborne pollution in the framework of PARCOM (North Sea) and HELCOM (Baltic Sea) - subproject: Measurements of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the deposition and concentrations of atmospheric trace metals the annual input of some selected elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, V) into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was estimated. For the Baltic Sea, deposition measurements with a buoy system in the Kiel Bight and data from the EGAP(HELCOM)-monitoring network were used. Data from the measurement stations were extrapolated to related sub-basins according to the deposition fields obtained from model calculations (EMEP). For the North Sea, a mean atmospheric trace metal distribution was determined from numerous measurements at a coastal site and over the central North Sea and the annual input was calculated by multiplication with corresponding deposition velocities and scavenging ratios. A comparison of the deposition data based on measurements with those from model calculations show good agreement in the case of Pb in the Baltic Sea as well as in the North Sea. However, for Zn and Cd large discrepancies are observed. Additionally, deposition processes were studied. Scavenging ratios were determined and dry deposition velocities were estimated by the use of a new method for high time resolution measurements of atmospheric trace metal concentrations (impactor/TXRF). (orig.). 9 figs., 14 tabs [de

  18. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  19. Co-existence of electricity, TEP, and TGC markets in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Nybroe, Malene Hein; Ravn, Hans F.; Schmidt, Rune

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the application of two policy instruments, tradable emission permits (TEPs) and tradable green certificates (TGCs) to the electricity sector in an international context. The paper contains an explicit modelling at two levels of abstraction, one suitable for defining and analysing basic functionalities and one suitable for numerical analysis in relation to countries in the Baltic Sea Region. Emphasis is on estimating implications in quantitative terms for countries in the Baltic Sea Region in 2010 when the TEP market in the analysis extends to four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), and the TGC market extends to North European EU countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Germany). The study concludes that within the range of goals stipulated in the EU draft directive (23.6% renewable energy) and the Kyoto targets for emissions, the following prices are affected significantly: from -2 to +10 Euro/MWh for electricity spot prices, TGC prices up to 50 Euro/MWh, TEP prices up to 18 Euro/t CO 2 and up to +15 Euro/MWh on the consumer cost. It is shown that such price changes have important consequences for the production and investment patterns in the electricity sector, and the resulting patterns will be clearly different according to the specific numerical targets for the two goals. An immediate consequence is increased pressure on transmission lines. Further, the introduction of TEP and TGC markets will imply a restructuring of the electricity sector, e.g. (depending on the specific combination of targets) by a significant increase in wind power capacities. However, this will have to be counterbalanced by access to production technologies that have fast regulation properties and/or that may maintain voltage stability. However, the price signals of TGCs (and to some extent also TEPs) that will enhance wind power investments will simultaneously hamper investments in technologies that are a precondition for extensive use of wind power

  20. Dissection of Microbial Community Functions during a Cyanobacterial Bloom in the Baltic Sea via Metatranscriptomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Berg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine and brackish surface waters are highly dynamic habitats that undergo repeated seasonal variations in microbial community composition and function throughout time. While succession of the various microbial groups has been well investigated, little is known about the underlying gene-expression of the microbial community. We investigated microbial interactions via metatranscriptomics over a spring to fall seasonal cycle in the brackish Baltic Sea surface waters, a temperate brackish water ecosystem periodically promoting massive cyanobacterial blooms, which have implications for primary production, nutrient cycling, and expansion of hypoxic zones. Network analysis of the gene expression of all microbes from 0.22 to 200 μm in size and of the major taxonomic groups dissected the seasonal cycle into four components that comprised genes peaking during different periods of the bloom. Photoautotrophic nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria displayed the highest connectivity among the microbes, in contrast to chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, while heterotrophs dominated connectivity among pre- and post-bloom peaking genes. The network was also composed of distinct functional connectivities, with an early season balance between carbon metabolism and ATP synthesis shifting to a dominance of ATP synthesis during the bloom, while carbon degradation, specifically through the glyoxylate shunt, characterized the post-bloom period, driven by Alphaproteobacteria as well as by Gammaproteobacteria of the SAR86 and SAR92 clusters. Our study stresses the exceptionally strong biotic driving force executed by cyanobacterial blooms on associated microbial communities in the Baltic Sea and highlights the impact cyanobacterial blooms have on functional microbial community composition.

  1. Modeling pathways of riverine nitrogen and phosphorus in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Neumann, T.; Voss, M.; Fennel, W.

    2012-09-01

    A better understanding of the fate of nutrients entering the Baltic Sea ecosystem is an important issue with implications for environmental management. There are two sources of nitrogen and phosphorus: riverine input and atmospheric deposition. In the case of nitrogen, the fixation of dinitrogen by diazotrophic bacteria represents a third source. From an analysis of stable nitrogen isotope ratios it was suggested that most of the riverine nitrogen is sequestered in the coastal rim, specifically along the southern Baltic Sea coast with its coarse sediments, whereas nitrogen from fixation dominates the central basins. However, pathways of nutrients and timescales between the input of the nutrients and their arrival in different basins are difficult to obtain from direct measurements. To elucidate this problem, we use a source attribution technique in a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM, to track nutrients originating from various rivers. An “age” variable is attributed to the marked elements to indicate their propagation speeds and residence times. In this paper, we specifically investigate the spreading of nitrogen and phosphorus from the riverine discharges of the Oder, Vistula, Neman and Daugava. We demonstrate which regions they are transported to and for how long they remain in the ecosystem. The model results show good agreement with source estimations from observed δ15N values in sediments. The model results suggest that 95% of nitrogen is lost by denitrification in sediments, after an average time of 1.4 years for riverine nitrogen. The residence time of riverine phosphorus is much longer and exceeds our simulated period of 35 years.

  2. Strengthening of radiation protection in the Baltic Sea Region and North west-Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ake Persson, B.; Olof Snihs, Jan

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of strong radiation sources in the Baltic Sea Region and Northwest Europe (Northwest Russia). They include more than 30 nuclear power reactors, various other operating facilities with radiation sources, a number of radioactive waste repositories and several stores for spent nuclear fuel. Many of these facilities are in good shape and under good control from the authorities. Others are in a very poor condition and there is a need of immediate actions to be taken. This is particular the case in the Northwest part of Russia. The strengthening of radiation protection in the two regions mentioned above is made by national efforts and through international co-operation including various support activities. The close geographical position with common seas, the developing economical and cultural co-operation between the countries as well as connections with historical background means that there is an interest and common benefit to strengthen the co-operation in the field of radiation protection and radiological emergency planning. Sweden has since the disintegration of the Soviet Union a policy to assist and support the Baltic States and the Russian Federation in the field of radiation protection and to strengthen the preparedness for co-operation between the countries in the event of a severe nuclear accident or radiological emergency. The problems, strategies, results and failures up to now will be described as well as how these efforts are integrated in and put into perspective of the development of radiation protection in the donor countries. There are also efforts to integrate most of the countries in common policy work, research and technical development in the field of radiation protection. Some perspectives into the next millennium are discussed. (author)

  3. The Baltic Sea experiment BALTEX: a brief overview and some selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschke, E.; Karstens, U.; Nolte-Holube, R.; Brandt, R.; Isemer, H.J.; Lohmann, D.; Lobmeyr, M.; Rockel, B.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The mechanisms responsible for the transfer of energy and water within the climate system are under worldwide investigation within the framework of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) to improve the predictability of natural and man-made climate changes at short and long ranges and their impact on water resources. Five continental-scale experiments have been established within GEWEX to enable a more complete coupling between atmospheric and hydrodlogical models. One of them is the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). In this paper, the goals and structure of BALTEX are outlined. A short overview of measuring and modelling strategies is given. Atmospheric and hydrological model results of the authors are presented. This includes validation of precipitation using station measurements as well as validation of modelled cloud cover with cloud estimates form satellite data. Furthermore, results of a large-scale grid based hydrological model to be coupled to atmospheric models are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Programmes GEWEX (Globales Energie- und Wasserkreislauf-Experiment) werden weltweite Untersuchungen derjenigen Mechanismen unternommen, die die Uebertragung von Energie und Wasser innerhalb des Klimasystems bestimmen. Dadurch soll die Vorhersagebarkeit von natuerlichen und anthropogenen Klimaaenderungen in kurzen und laengeren Zeitraeumen und deren Wirkung auf die verfuegbaren Wasservorraete verbessert werden. Insgesamt fuenf kontinentweite Experimente wurden innerhalb von GEWEX fuer diese Zwecke begonnen. In ihnen soll vordringlich eine Kopplung von Hydrologiemodellen an Atmosphaermodelle erfolgen. Eines dieser Experimente ist das BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment). In dieser Arbeit werden die Ziele und die Struktur von BALTEX vorgestellt. Es wird auch ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Mess- und Modellierstrategie vermittelt. Ferner werden erste Ergebnisse der Autoren vorgestellt. Diese schliessen auch einen Vergleich zwischen gemessenen und

  4. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  5. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Joakim P.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  6. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  7. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  8. Diatom stratigraphy and long-term dissolved silica concentrations in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kalle; Clarke, Annemarie; Danielsson, Åsa; Aigars, Juris; Conley, Daniel J.; Tamminen, Timo

    2008-10-01

    In many parts of the world coastal waters with anthropogenic eutrophication have experienced a gradual depletion of dissolved silica (DSi) stocks. This could put pressure on spring bloom diatom populations, e.g. by limiting the intensity of blooms or by causing shifts in species composition. In addition, eutrophication driven enhanced diatom growth is responsible for the redistribution of DSi from the water phase to the sediments, and changes in the growth conditions may be reflected in the sediment diatom stratigraphy. To test for changes in diatom communities we have analyzed four sediment cores from the Baltic Sea covering approximately the last 100 years. The sediment cores originate from the western Gulf of Finland, the Kattegat, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Riga. Three out of the four cores reveal only minor changes in composition of diatom assemblages, while the Gulf of Riga core contains major changes, occurring after the second World War. This area is set apart from the other Baltic Sea basins by a high frequency of low after spring bloom DSi concentrations (< 2 µmol L - 1 ) during a relatively well defined time period from 1991-1998. In 1991 to 1993 a rapid decline of DSi spring concentrations and winter stocks (down to 5 µmol L - 1 ) in the Gulf was preceded by exceptionally intense diatom spring blooms dominated by the heavily silicified species Thalassiosira baltica (1991-1992; up to 5.5 mg ww L - 1 ). T. baltica has been the principal spring bloom diatom in the Gulf of Riga since records began in 1975. DSi consumption and biomass yield experiments with cultured T. baltica suggest that intense blooms can potentially exhaust the DSi stock of the water column and exceed the annual Si dissolution in the Gulf of Riga. The phytoplankton time series reveals another exceptional T. baltica bloom period in 1981-1983 (up to 8 mg L - 1 ), which, however, took place before the regular DSi measurements. These periods may be reflected in the conspicuous

  9. Bacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish-marine basins, established after deglaciation of Scandinavia about 17 000 to 15 000 yr ago. In the changeable history of the Baltic Sea, the initial freshwater system was connected to the North Sea about 8000 yr ago and the modern brackish-marine setting (Littorina Sea was established. Today, a relatively stable stratification has developed in the water column of the deep basins due to salinity differences. Stratification is only occasionally interrupted by mixing events, and it controls nutrient availability and growth of specifically adapted microorganisms and algae. We studied bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs, lipids of specific bacterial groups, in a sediment core from the central Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and found considerable differences between the distinct stages of the Baltic Sea's history. Some individual BHP structures indicate contributions from as yet unknown redoxcline-specific bacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol isomer, methanotrophic bacteria (35-aminobacteriohopanetetrol, cyanobacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether isomer and from soil bacteria (adenosylhopane through allochthonous input after the Littorina transgression, whereas the origin of other BHPs in the core has still to be identified. Notably high BHP abundances were observed in the deposits of the brackish-marine Littorina phase, particularly in laminated sediment layers. Because these sediments record periods of stable water column stratification, bacteria specifically adapted to these conditions may account for the high portions of BHPs. An additional and/or accompanying source may be nitrogen-fixing (cyanobacteria, which is indicated by a positive correlation of BHP abundances with Corg and δ15N.

  10. Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tolli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.

  11. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  12. Osnovnye jekologicheskie problemy Baltijskogo morja i puti ih reshenija [The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  13. Osnovnye jekologicheskie problemy Baltijskogo morja i puti ih reshenija [The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    OpenAIRE

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  14. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - revisiting BASIS ice, a~historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal sea, situated in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by sea ice, the local weather services have been monitoring sea ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice types), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for sea ice in the Baltic Sea. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-prossed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science PANGEA (doi:10.1594/PANGEA.832353).

  15. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - revisiting BASIS ice, a historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal sea in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by sea ice, the local weather services have been monitoring sea ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961 to 1978/1979. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised in 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice types), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for sea ice in the Baltic Sea. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website http://www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-processed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.832353).

  16. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: Density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Bartolino

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we used an extensive trawl survey dataset in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial dynamics of the distribution of the Eastern Baltic cod during the past three decades using Generalized Additive Models. The results showed that adult cod distribution was mainly affected by cod population size, and to a minor degree by small-scale hydrological factors and the extent of suitable reproductive areas. As population size decreases, the cod population concentrates to the southern part of the Baltic Sea, where the preferred more marine environment conditions are encountered. Using the fitted models, we predicted the Baltic cod distribution back to the 1970s and a temporal index of cod spatial occupation was developed. Our study will contribute to the management and conservation of this important resource and of the ecosystem where it occurs, by showing the forces shaping its spatial distribution and therefore the potential response of the population to future exploitation and environmental changes.

  18. Modeling the combined impact of changing climate and changing nutrient loads on the Baltic Sea environment in an ensemble of transient simulations for 1961-2099

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E.M.; Hordoir, R.; Andersson, H.C.; Dieterich, C.; Hoeglund, A.; Schimanke, S. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Department of Research and Development, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Eilola, K. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Department of Research and Development, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G. [Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    The combined future impacts of climate change and industrial and agricultural practices in the Baltic Sea catchment on the Baltic Sea ecosystem were assessed. For this purpose 16 transient simulations for 1961-2099 using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the Baltic Sea were performed. Four climate scenarios were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Annual and seasonal mean changes of climate parameters and ecological quality indicators describing the environmental status of the Baltic Sea like bottom oxygen, nutrient and phytoplankton concentrations and Secchi depths were studied. Assuming present-day nutrient concentrations in the rivers, nutrient loads from land increase during the twenty first century in all investigated scenario simulations due to increased volume flows caused by increased net precipitation in the Baltic catchment area. In addition, remineralization rates increase due to increased water temperatures causing enhanced nutrient flows from the sediments. Cause-and-effect studies suggest that both processes may play an important role for the biogeochemistry of eutrophicated seas in future climate partly counteracting nutrient load reduction efforts like the BSAP. (orig.)

  19. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L.) recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Joachim P; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part

  20. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L. recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim P Gröger

    Full Text Available Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring. To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO, respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management

  1. Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegłowska, Marta; Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna; Kowalewska, Grażyna; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna

    2018-04-04

    In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current study, the presence of species-specific chemical and genetic markers in deep sediments were analyzed to increase the existing knowledge on the history of toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the Baltic Sea. As chemical markers, three cyclic nonribosomal peptides were applied: the hepatotoxic nodularin, which in the sea was detected solely in N. spumigena , and two anabaenopeptins (AP827 and AP883a) characteristic of two different chemotypes of this species. From the same sediment samples, DNA was isolated and the gene involved in biosynthesis of nodularin, as well as the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS), were amplified. The results of chemical and genetic analyses proved for the first time the thousands-year presence of toxic N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea. They also indicated that through all this time, the same two sub-populations of the species co-existed.

  2. Future export of particulate and dissolved organic carbon from land to coastal zones of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strååt, Kim Dahlgren; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Undeman, Emma

    2018-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed brackish sea in Northern Europe with a drainage basin four times larger than the sea itself. Riverine organic carbon (Particulate Organic Carbon, POC and Dissolved Organic Carbon, DOC) dominates carbon input to the Baltic Sea and influences both land-to-sea transport of nutrients and contaminants, and hence the functioning of the coastal ecosystem. The potential impact of future climate change on loads of POC and DOC in the Baltic Sea drainage basin (BSDB) was assessed using a hydrological-biogeochemical model (CSIM). The changes in annual and seasonal concentrations and loads of both POC and DOC by the end of this century were predicted using three climate change scenarios and compared to the current state. In all scenarios, overall increasing DOC loads, but unchanged POC loads, were projected in the north. In the southern part of the BSDB, predicted DOC loads were not significantly changing over time, although POC loads decreased in all scenarios. The magnitude and significance of the trends varied with scenario but the sign (+ or -) of the projected trends for the entire simulation period never conflicted. Results were discussed in detail for the "middle" CO2 emission scenario (business as usual, a1b). On an annual and entire drainage basin scale, the total POC load was projected to decrease by ca 7% under this scenario, mainly due to reduced riverine primary production in the southern parts of the BSDB. The average total DOC load was not predicted to change significantly between years 2010 and 2100 due to counteracting decreasing and increasing trends of DOC loads to the six major sub-basins in the Baltic Sea. However, predicted seasonal total loads of POC and DOC increased significantly by ca 46% and 30% in winter and decreased by 8% and 21% in summer over time, respectively. For POC the change in winter loads was a consequence of increasing soil erosion and a shift in duration of snowfall and onset of the spring flood

  3. Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In

  4. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Prerequisites for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Sweden - a synthesis of the Baltic Sea Project; Foerutsaettningar foer avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) i Sverige - En syntes av Oestersjoeprojektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Stigson, Peter; Hoeglund, Jonas; Bingel, Eva

    2011-07-01

    This publication summarizes a project on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the Baltic region conducted at the initiative of the Energy Agency. The project is called 'the Baltic Project' and the aim has been to highlight the prospects for CCS in Sweden and how the Baltic Sea region affects this

  6. Mesozooplankton grazing on picocyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea as inferred from molecular diet analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha H Motwani

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge on the microbial component of zooplankton diet is limited, and it is generally assumed that bacteria-sized prey is not directly consumed by most mesozooplankton grazers in the marine food webs. We questioned this assumption and conducted field and laboratory studies to examine picocyanobacteria contribution to the diets of Baltic Sea zooplankton, including copepods. First, qPCR targeting ITS-1 rDNA sequence of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. was used to examine picocyanobacterial DNA occurrence in the guts of Baltic zooplankton (copepods, cladocerans and rotifers. All field-collected zooplankton were found to consume picocyanobacteria in substantial quantities. In terms of Synechococcus quantity, the individual gut content was highest in cladocerans, whereas biomass-specific gut content was highest in rotifers and copepod nauplii. Moreover, the gut content in copepods was positively related to the picocyanobacteria abundance and negatively to the total phytoplankton abundance in the water column at the time of sampling. This indicates that increased availability of picocyanobacteria resulted in the increased intake of this prey and that copepods may rely more on picoplankton when food in the preferred size range declines. Second, a feeding experiments with a laboratory reared copepod Acartia tonsa fed a mixture of the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris and microalga Rhodomonas salina confirmed that copepods ingested Synechococcus, even when the alternative food was plentiful. Finally, palatability of the picocyanobacteria for A. tonsa was demonstrated using uptake of (13C by the copepods as a proxy for carbon uptake in feeding experiment with (13C-labeled S. bacillaris. These findings suggest that, if abundant, picoplankton may become an important component of mesozooplankton diet, which needs to be accounted for in food web models and productivity assessments.

  7. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in general and in particular from Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Federal Research Centre For Nutrition and Food, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Commission Regulation No 466/2001 establishes maximum levels for dioxins in foodstuffs, foreseeing to review the maximum levels by 31 December 2006 and to include dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Fish is known to accumulate dioxins and dioxin related compounds in the lipid phase of their tissue. To collect information of the actual contamination levels in fish species on the German market, samples were taken from fishing grounds important for the supply and in particular from the Baltic Sea. Sampling concentrates on fish species with higher fat content like mackerel (Scomber scombrus), salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), red fish (Sebastes sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus), because lean fish species are known to be less contaminated. Herring is the most important fat fish species for the German fish processing industry with a market share of 19% in 2001. The annual demand is approximately 149.000 t. Herring and other fish species accumulate PCDD/Fs with increasing age and dioxin levels in the edible part of eastern Baltic herring exceeds the maximum limit of 4 ng WHOPCDD/ F-TEQ/kg wet weight (w.w.) at ages of 4 - 6 years, corresponding to sizes of approximately 17 - 18 cm and a weight of 40 g, respectively. Hence Isosaari recommended to use preferably young fish from this area for human consumption. However, the German herring industry is based on the processing of large herring with a minimum weight of > 85g up to 250g. Therefore our interest focused on herring sizes of potential interest for the German processing industry. Samples were collected in September 1999 within two weeks covering an area from the Skagerrak to the Coast of Latvia. Additionally the contamination levels in sprat (Sprattus sprattus), flounder, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and in spring spawning herring from commercial landings around the area of Ruegen have been analysed.

  8. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  9. Dating and assessing the recent sediments of three deep basins of the Baltic Sea: Indication of natural and anthropogenic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, H.

    1999-01-01

    -Mn are followed by about 300 years lasting sections with low Ca-Mn. Mo accumulations with peak valuesexceeding 300 mg/kg are found in all cores. The Mo transport to the seafloor is thought to be coupled with the nitrogen fixation processes by cyanobacteria being known for their need of Mo as central element......A 3-years EU-MAST-3 project (Baltic Sea System Study, BASYS) recovered short and long sediment cores from 3 deep basins of the Baltic Sea (Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin and North Central Basin). During a paleoenvironmental study, lead-210 dating andgeochemical data were generated.Dating of cores...... to rhodochrosite formation which is thought to be coupled to saltwater inflows in that oxygen and HCO_3- rich saltwater converts bacterially re-dissolved Mninto the carbonate mineral. There is a clear indication for cyclic rhodochrosite deposition in that about 300 year long periods with relatively high Ca...

  10. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized...... for the time periods considered. Larval drift was simulated either by incorporation of passive drifters, or as the initial horizontal distribution of larvae implemented into the model. Drift model simulations of larval transport agreed relatively well with field observations. The influence of variations...

  11. Water quality management and climate change mitigation: cost-effectiveness of joint implementation in the Baltic Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainggolan, Doan; Hasler, Berit; Andersen, Hans Estrup

    2018-01-01

    of contrasting strategies: single environmental objective management versus joint implementation strategy. The results show that implementing land-based measures with a sole focus on water quality (to meet the HELCOM's 2013 Baltic Sea Action Plan nutrient abatement targets) can produce climate change mitigation......This paper explores the scope for simultaneously managing nutrient abatement and climate change mitigation in the Baltic Sea (BS) region through the implementation of a selection of measures. The analysis is undertaken using a cost-minimisation model for the entire BS region, the BALTCOST model....... In the present research, the model has been extended to include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effects, enabling us to analyse the tradeoffs between cost-effective GHG and nutrient load reductions. We run the model for four different scenarios in order to compare the environmental and economic consequences...

  12. Occurrence of diverse alkane hydroxylase alkB genes in indigenous oil-degrading bacteria of Baltic Sea surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggor, Signe; Jõesaar, Merike; Vedler, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Pärnpuu, Liis; Heinaru, Ain

    2015-12-30

    Formation of specific oil degrading bacterial communities in diesel fuel, crude oil, heptane and hexadecane supplemented microcosms of the Baltic Sea surface water samples was revealed. The 475 sequences from constructed alkane hydroxylase alkB gene clone libraries were grouped into 30 OPFs. The two largest groups were most similar to Pedobacter sp. (245 from 475) and Limnobacter sp. (112 from 475) alkB gene sequences. From 56 alkane-degrading bacterial strains 41 belonged to the Pseudomonas spp. and 8 to the Rhodococcus spp. having redundant alkB genes. Together 68 alkB gene sequences were identified. These genes grouped into 20 OPFs, half of them being specific only to the isolated strains. Altogether 543 diverse alkB genes were characterized in the brackish Baltic Sea water; some of them representing novel lineages having very low sequence identities with corresponding genes of the reference strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Daily temperature and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region derived from the BaltAn65+ reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Post, Piia

    2018-04-01

    Daily 2-m temperature and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region for the time period of 1965-2005 is studied based on data from the BaltAn65 + high resolution atmospheric reanalysis. Moreover, the ability of regional reanalysis to capture extremes is analysed by comparing the reanalysis data to gridded observations. The shortcomings in the simulation of the minimum temperatures over the northern part of the region and in the simulation of the extreme precipitation over the Scandinavian mountains in the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data are detected and analysed. Temporal trends in the temperature and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region, with the largest increases in temperature and precipitation in winter, are detected based on both gridded observations and the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data. However, the reanalysis is not able to capture all of the regional trends in the extremes in the observations due to the shortcomings in the simulation of the extremes.

  14. Ensemble-based evaluation of extreme water levels for the eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo

    2016-04-01

    The risks and damages associated with coastal flooding that are naturally associated with an increase in the magnitude of extreme storm surges are one of the largest concerns of countries with extensive low-lying nearshore areas. The relevant risks are even more contrast for semi-enclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea where subtidal (weekly-scale) variations in the water volume of the sea substantially contribute to the water level and lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using large ensembles of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. Single projections of the ensemble are constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima with various extreme value distributions. The ensemble is based on two simulated data sets produced in the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model is sampled with a resolution of 6 h and a similar hindcast by the circulation model NEMO with a resolution of 1 h. As the annual maxima of water levels in the Baltic Sea are not always uncorrelated, we employ maxima for calendar years and for stormy seasons. As the shape parameter of the Generalised Extreme Value distribution changes its sign and substantially varies in magnitude along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the use of a single distribution for the entire coast is inappropriate. The ensemble involves projections based on the Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distributions. The parameters of these distributions are evaluated using three different ways: maximum likelihood method and method of moments based on both biased and unbiased estimates. The total number of projections in the ensemble is 40. As some of the resulting estimates contain limited additional information, the members of pairs of projections that are highly correlated are assigned weights 0.6. A comparison of the ensemble-based projection of

  15. Geodiversity and biodiversity assessment of the Słupsk Bank, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najwer, Alicja; Zelewska, Izabela; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    Recognizing the most diversified parts of the territory turns out to be very crucial for management and planning of natural protected areas. There is an increasing number of studies concerning assessing geodiversity and biodiversity of the land areas. However, there is noticeable lack of such publications for submerged zones. The study area consists of 100km2 Słupsk sandy shoal sporadically covered with boulder layers, located in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. It is characterised by landscapes of a significant nature value protected by Natura 2000 and is as well designated as an open sea by Helsinki Commission Baltic Sea Protected Area (HELCOM BSPA). The main aim of the presentation is an attempt to integrate geodiversity and biodiversity assessments of the submerged area using GIS platform. The basis for the diversity assessment is the proper selection of features of the marine environment, its reclassification and integration by the map algebra analysis. The map of geodiversity is based on three factor maps: a relief energy map (classification based on bathymetric model, a landform fragmentation/geomorphological map (expert classification using BPI - Bathymetric Position Index), and a lithological map (classification of the average size of grain fraction). The map of biodiversity is based on the following factor maps: a map of biomass distribution of Ceraminum Diaphanum, a map of biomass distribution of Coccotylus Truncatus, a map of biomass distribution of Polysiphonia Fucoides, a map of biomass distribution of Mytilus Edulis Trossulus, a map of distribution of macroalgae, and finally a map of distribution of macrozoobenthos. It was decided to use four classes of diversity (from low through medium and high, up to very high). The designation of the lowest class was abandoned because it characterizes areas with high anthropopressure. Maps of geodiversity and biodiversity may prove to be helpful in determining the directions for management of the most

  16. Methane anomalies in the oxygenated upper waters of the central Baltic Sea associated with zooplankton abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Oliver; Wäge, Janine; Morholz, Volker; Rehder, Gregor; Wasmund, Norbert; Gräwe, Ulf; Labrenz, Matthias; Loick-Wilde, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Apart from the sediment as the dominant source of methane in the aquatic realm the process of methane production in well-oxygenated waters has received considerable attention during the last years. The paradox of methane accumulation in these relatively shallow waters, commonly termed as "oceanic methane paradox", has been sporadically observed in lakes as well as in marine ecosystems like the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, Arctic waters or above the continental shelf off the coast of Spain and Africa. Even if this phenomenon has been described in the literature over the last decades, the potential sources of shallow methane accumulation are still controversially discussed. We report on methane enrichments that were observed during summer in the upper water column of the Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea. In the eastern part of the basin methane concentrations just below the thermocline (in about 30 m water depth) varied between 15 and 77 nM, in contrast to the western part of the basin where no methane enrichments could be detected. Stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (delta 13C-CH4 of -67.6‰) clearly indicated its in situ biogenic origin. This is supported by clonal sequences from the depth with high methane concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin, which cluster with the clade Methanomicrobiacea, a family of methanogenic Archaea. Hydroacoustic observation in combination with plankton net tows displayed a seston enrichment (size >100 micro meter) in a layer between 30-50 m depth. The dominant species in the phytoplankton, Dinophysis norvegica, was concentrated at 10-20 m depth, and showed higher concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin in comparison with the western part of the basin. In contrast to the western Gotland Basin, the zooplankton community in the eastern part was dominated by the copepod species Temora longicornis. Laboratory incubations of a T. longicornis dominated seston fraction (>100 micro meter) sampled in the depth

  17. Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmanov A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is creating a global culinary space where culinary traditions of different countries interact and compete. The author sets out to explore characteristic features of the culinary space of nine Baltic States as part of the global culinary space. The author uses empirical data on the number of restaurants serving different national cuisines in the main cities of the region. The Baltic culinary space incorporates the world’s leading cuisines (Italian, Japanese, Chinese, etc. as well as the local cuisines of the BSR countries. The world’s leading cuisines prove to be more influential in the region than the local ones. Some countries of the Baltic Sea region (Russia, Poland, Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania, the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and American — over the local ones. The non-capital Baltic cities of Poland and Germany, as well as St. Petersburg, display a greater sense of culinary patriotism than Warsaw, Berlin, and Moscow respectively. This article attempts to explore the features of the Baltic culinary space. The author considers the environmental and socio- historical factors key determinants of the countries’ cuisines.

  18. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  19. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Parmanne, Raimo; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2006-01-01

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHO PCDD/F -TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 ± 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  1. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F; Marana, M H; Buchmann, K

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since the year 2000 a marked increase in the population has been observed, reaching more than 40,000 individuals at present. Ecological consequences of the increased seal abundance may result from increased predation on fish stocks, but recent evidence also points to the influence of elevated parasitism on fish performance. Contracaecum osculatum larvae preferentially infect the liver of Baltic cod, considered a vital organ of the host. Whereas low prevalences and intensities in cod were reported during the 1980s and 1990s, the present study documents 100% prevalence and a mean intensity of above 80 worms per fish. Recent studies have also indicated the zoonotic potential of C. osculatum larvae in fish, following the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish. Therefore the present work discusses the impact of parasitism on the cod stock and the increasing risk for consumer health, and lists possible solutions for control.

  2. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrova O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS. The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Remotely sensed data in visual and infrared (IR bands acquired by sensors MERIS Envisat, MODIS-Terra and -Aqua, and AVHRR NOAA nearly simultaneously with the ASAR images, were processed and analysed in order to facilitate the discrimination between different types of surface pollutants, to understand a comprehensive features of meteorological and hydrodynamic processes in the sea area of investigation, and to reveal factors determining pollutants spread and drift. The regions of the most intense oil pollution are outlined.

  3. Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewert, Berit; Ogonowski, Martin; Barth, Andreas; MacLeod, Matthew

    2017-07-15

    We collected plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago using a manta trawl, and additionally along a transect in the Baltic Sea from the island of Gotland to Stockholm in a citizen science study. The samples were concentrated by filtration and organic material was digested using hydrogen peroxide. Suspected plastic material was isolated by visual sorting and 59 of these were selected to be characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the most abundant plastics identified among the samples (53% and 24% respectively). We found nearly ten times higher abundance of plastics near central Stockholm than in offshore areas (4.2×10 5 plastics km -2 compared to 4.7×10 4 plastics km -2 ). The abundance of plastic debris near Stockholm was similar to urban areas in California, USA, and the overall abundance in the Stockholm Archipelago was similar to plastic abundance reported in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental niche separation between native and non-native benthic invertebrate species: Case study of the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Holger; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge and understanding of geographic distributions of species is crucial for many aspects in ecology, conservation, policy making and management. In order to reach such an understanding, it is important to know abiotic variables that impact and drive distributions of native and non-native species. We used an existing long-term macrobenthos database for species presence-absence information and biomass estimates at different environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea. Region specific abiotic variables (e.g. salinity, depth) were derived from previously constructed bathymetric and hydrodynamic models. Multidimensional ordination techniques were then applied to investigate potential niche space separation between all native and non-native invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea. Such an approach allowed to obtain data rich and robust estimates of the current native and non-native species distributions and outline important abiotic parameters influencing the observed pattern. The results showed clear niche space separation between native and non-native species. Non-native species were situated in an environmental space characterized by reduced salinity, high temperatures, high proportion of soft seabed and decreased depth and wave exposure whereas native species displayed an opposite pattern. Different placement of native and non-native species along the studied environmental niche space is likely to be explained by the differences in their evolutionary history, human mediated activities and geological youth of the Baltic Sea. The results of this study can provide early warnings and effectively outline coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea that are prone to further range expansion of non-native species as climate change is expected to significantly reduce salinity and increase temperature in wide coastal areas, both supporting the disappearance of native and appearance of non-native species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote sensing of chlorophyll in the Baltic Sea at basin scale from 1997 to 2012 using merged multisensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, J.; Volpe, G.; Colella, S.; Krasemann, H.; Santoleri, R.

    2015-09-01

    Fifteen-year (1997-2012) time series of chlorophyll a (CHL) in the Baltic Sea, based on merged multisensor satellite data provided by the European projects Globcolour and ESA-OC-CCI were analysed. Several available CHL algorithms were sea-truthed against a large in situ CHL dataset consisting of data by Seadatanet, HELCOM and NOAA. Matchups were calculated for three separate areas (1) Skagerrak and Kattegat, (2) Baltic Proper plus gulfs of Riga and Finland, called here "Central Baltic", (3) Gulf of Bothnia, and for the three areas as a whole. Statistics showed low linearity. The OC4v6 algorithm (R2 = 0.46, BIAS = +60 %, RMS = 79 % for the whole dataset) was linearly transformed by using the best linear fit (OC4corr). By construction, the bias was corrected, but RMS was increased instead. Despite this shortcoming, we demonstrated that errors between OC4corr and in situ data were log-normally distributed and centred at zero. Consequently, unbiased estimators of the horizontally-averaged CHL could be obtained, the error of which tends to zero when a large amount of pixels is averaged. From the basin-wide time series, the climatology and the annual anomalies were separated. The climatologies revealed completely different CHL dynamics among regions: in Skagerrak and Kattegat, CHL strongly peaks in late winter, with a minimum in summer and a secondary peak in spring. In the Central Baltic, CHL follows a dynamics of a spring CHL peak, followed by a much stronger summer bloom, with decreasing CHL towards winter. The Gulf of Bothnia shows a similar CHL dynamics as the central Baltic, although the summer bloom is absent. Across years, CHL showed great variability. Supported by auxiliary satellite sea-surface temperature (SST) data, we found that phytoplankton growth was inhibited in the central Baltic Sea in the years of colder summers or when the SST happened to increase later in the season. Extremely high CHL in spring 2008 was detected and linked to an exceptionally warm

  6. Comparative Genomics of the Baltic Sea Toxic Cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 and Its Response to Varying Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teikari, Jonna E; Hou, Shengwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Hess, Wolfgang R; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2018-01-01

    Salinity is an important abiotic factor controlling the distribution and abundance of Nodularia spumigena , the dominating diazotrophic and toxic phototroph, in the brackish water cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea. To expand the available genomic information for brackish water cyanobacteria, we sequenced the isolate Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 using an Illumina-SMRT hybrid sequencing approach, revealing a chromosome of 5,294,286 base pairs (bp) and a single plasmid of 92,326 bp. Comparative genomics in Nostocales showed pronounced genetic similarity among Nodularia spumigena strains evidencing their short evolutionary history. The studied Baltic Sea strains share similar sets of CRISPR-Cas cassettes and a higher number of insertion sequence (IS) elements compared to Nodularia spumigena CENA596 isolated from a shrimp production pond in Brazil. Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 proliferated similarly at three tested salinities, whereas the lack of salt inhibited its growth and triggered transcriptome remodeling, including the up-regulation of five sigma factors and the down-regulation of two other sigma factors, one of which is specific for strain UHCC 0039. Down-regulated genes additionally included a large genetic region for the synthesis of two yet unidentified natural products. Our results indicate a remarkable plasticity of the Nodularia salinity acclimation, and thus salinity strongly impacts the intensity and distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.

  7. Comparative Genomics of the Baltic Sea Toxic Cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 and Its Response to Varying Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna E. Teikari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important abiotic factor controlling the distribution and abundance of Nodularia spumigena, the dominating diazotrophic and toxic phototroph, in the brackish water cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea. To expand the available genomic information for brackish water cyanobacteria, we sequenced the isolate Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 using an Illumina-SMRT hybrid sequencing approach, revealing a chromosome of 5,294,286 base pairs (bp and a single plasmid of 92,326 bp. Comparative genomics in Nostocales showed pronounced genetic similarity among Nodularia spumigena strains evidencing their short evolutionary history. The studied Baltic Sea strains share similar sets of CRISPR-Cas cassettes and a higher number of insertion sequence (IS elements compared to Nodularia spumigena CENA596 isolated from a shrimp production pond in Brazil. Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 proliferated similarly at three tested salinities, whereas the lack of salt inhibited its growth and triggered transcriptome remodeling, including the up-regulation of five sigma factors and the down-regulation of two other sigma factors, one of which is specific for strain UHCC 0039. Down-regulated genes additionally included a large genetic region for the synthesis of two yet unidentified natural products. Our results indicate a remarkable plasticity of the Nodularia salinity acclimation, and thus salinity strongly impacts the intensity and distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.

  8. People, lakes and seashores: Studies from the Baltic Sea basin and adjacent areas in the early and Mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Daniel; Zander, Annabell; Boethius, Adam; Dreibrodt, Stefan; Grøn, Ole; Hansson, Anton; Jessen, Catherine; Koivisto, Satu; Larsson, Lars; Lübke, Harald; Nilsson, Björn

    2018-04-01

    During the Early and Mid-Holocene significant changes in the ecology and socio-cultural spheres occurred around the Baltic Sea. Because of the underlying climatic changes and thus environmental alterations, the area was the scene for various cultural developments during the period under investigation. In the course of the melting of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age, isostatic and eustatic movements caused continual changes to the Baltic Sea basin. Changes in water level, however, affected not only the Early and Mid-Holocene coastlines, but also the whole Baltic Sea drainage system, including large lakes, rivers and watersheds in the hinterland were also dramatically impacted by these ecological changes. Prehistoric people were thus affected by changes in resource availability and reduction or enlargement of their territories, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of changes in the water and land networks on the environment, resource availability, and human behaviour, and to reconstruct human responses to these changes, we pursue an interdisciplinary approach connecting environmental and archaeological research highlighted through different case studies.

  9. Hierarchy of factors exerting an impact on nutrient load of the Baltic Sea and sustainable management of its drainage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Jóźwik, Adam; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zalewski, Maciej

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate 23 catchment factors that determine total phosphorus and total nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. Standard correlation analysis and clustering were used. Both phosphorus and nitrogen loads were found to be positively related to the number of pigs and the human population associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) per km(2), while the number of cattle and agricultural area were found to influence nitrogen rather than phosphorus load, and the area of forests is negatively related to loads of both nutrients. Clustering indicates an overall north-south pattern in the spatial co-occurrence of socio-ecological factors, with some exceptions discussed in the paper. Positive steps in the Baltic Sea region have already been taken, but much remains to be done. The development of coherent response policies to reduce eutrophication in the Baltic Sea should be based on a comprehensive knowledge base, an appropriate information strategy and learning alliance platform in each drainage river catchments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodological challenges in assessing the environmental status of a marine ecosystem: case study of the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity, less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances. The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure.

  11. On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chubarenko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cascades down the coastal slopes and intra-layer convection are considered as the two additional mechanisms contributing to the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer (CIL formation along with conventional seasonal vertical mixing. Field measurements are presented, reporting for the first time the possibility of denser water formation and cascading from the Baltic Sea underwater slopes, which take place under fall and winter cooling conditions and deliver waters into intermediate layer of salinity stratified deep-sea area. The presence in spring within the CIL of water with temperature below that of maximum density (Tmd and that at the local surface in winter time allows tracing its formation: it is argued that the source of the coldest waters of the Baltic CIL is early spring (March–April cascading, arising due to heating of water before reaching the Tmd. Fast increase of the open water heat content during further spring heating indicates that horizontal exchange rather than direct solar heating is responsible for that. When the surface is covered with water, heated above the Tmd, the conditions within the CIL become favorable for intralayer convection due to the presence of waters of Tmd in intermediate layer, which can explain its well-known features – the observed increase of its salinity and deepening with time.

  12. Culturing Heterotrophic Protists from the Baltic Sea: Mostly the "Usual Suspects" but a Few Novelties as Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Felix; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Jürgens, Klaus; Wylezich, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The study of cultured strains has a long tradition in protistological research and has greatly contributed to establishing the morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of many protist species. However, cultivation-independent techniques, based on 18S rRNA gene sequences, have demonstrated that natural protistan assemblages mainly consist of hitherto uncultured protist lineages. This mismatch impedes the linkage of environmental diversity data with the biological features of cultured strains. Thus, novel taxa need to be obtained in culture to close this knowledge gap. In this study, traditional cultivation techniques were applied to samples from coastal surface waters and from deep oxygen-depleted waters of the Baltic Sea. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing, 126 monoclonal cultures of heterotrophic protists were identified. The majority of the isolated strains were affiliated with already cultured and described taxa, mainly chrysophytes and bodonids. This was likely due to "culturing bias" but also to the eutrophic nature of the Baltic Sea. Nonetheless, ~ 12% of the isolates in our culture collection showed highly divergent 18S rRNA gene sequences compared to those of known organisms and thus may represent novel taxa, either at the species level or at the genus level. Moreover, we also obtained evidence that some of the isolated taxa are ecologically relevant, under certain conditions, in the Baltic Sea. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Distribution of 137Cs in samples of ocean bottom sediments of the baltic sea in 1982-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedenov, L.I.; Flegontov, V.M.; Ivanova, L.M.; Kostandov, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of Cs-137 in samples of ocean bottom sediments picked up in 1979 in the Gulf of Finland with a geological nozzle pipe varied within a wide interval of values. The results could indicate nonuniformity of the Cs-137 distribution in ocean bottom sediments as well as the penetration of significant amounts of Cs-137 to large depths. The main error resulted from the sampling technique employed because the upper part of the sediment could be lost. In 1982, a special ground-sampling device, with which the upper layer of sediments in the water layer close to the ocean bottom could be sampled, was tested in the Gulf of Finland and the Northeastern part of the Baltic Sea. The results of a layerwise determination of the Cs-137 concentration in samples of ocean bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland and of the Baltic Sea are listed. The new soil-sampling device for picking samples of ocean sediments of undisturbed stratification will allow a correct determination of the radionuclide accumulation in the upper layers of ocean bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea

  14. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  15. A comprehensive validation toolbox for regional ocean models - Outline, implementation and application to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Simon; Laagemaa, Priidik; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The systematic and objective comparison between output from a numerical ocean model and a set of observations, called validation in the context of this presentation, is a beneficial activity at several stages, starting from early steps in model development and ending at the quality control of model based products delivered to customers. Even though the importance of this kind of validation work is widely acknowledged it is often not among the most popular tasks in ocean modelling. In order to ease the validation work a comprehensive toolbox has been developed in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. The objective of this toolbox is to carry out validation integrating different data sources, e.g. time-series at stations, vertical profiles, surface fields or along track satellite data, with one single program call. The validation toolbox, implemented in MATLAB, features all parts of the validation process - ranging from read-in procedures of datasets to the graphical and numerical output of statistical metrics of the comparison. The basic idea is to have only one well-defined validation schedule for all applications, in which all parts of the validation process are executed. Each part, e.g. read-in procedures, forms a module in which all available functions of this particular part are collected. The interface between the functions, the module and the validation schedule is highly standardized. Functions of a module are set up for certain validation tasks, new functions can be implemented into the appropriate module without affecting the functionality of the toolbox. The functions are assigned for each validation task in user specific settings, which are externally stored in so-called namelists and gather all information of the used datasets as well as paths and metadata. In the framework of the MyOcean-2 project the toolbox is frequently used to validate the forecast products of the Baltic Sea Marine Forecasting Centre. Hereby the performance of any new product

  16. Ecologically relevant choanoflagellates collected from hypoxic water masses of the Baltic Sea have untypical mitochondrial cristae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylezich Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protist communities inhabiting oxygen depleted waters have so far been characterized through both microscopical observations and sequence based techniques. However, the lack of cultures for abundant taxa severely hampers our knowledge on the morphology, ecology and energy metabolism of hypoxic protists. Cultivation of such protists has been unsuccessful in most cases, and has never yet succeeded for choanoflagellates, even though these small bacterivorous flagellates are known to be ecologically relevant components of aquatic protist communities. Results Quantitative data for choanoflagellates and the vertical distribution of Codosiga spp. at Gotland and Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea indicate its preference for oxygen-depleted zones. Strains isolated and cultivated from these habitats revealed ultrastructural peculiarities such as mitochondria showing tubular cristae never seen before for choanoflagellates, and the first observation of intracellular prokaryotes in choanoflagellates. Analysis of their partial 28S rRNA gene sequence complements the description of two new species, Codosiga minima n. sp. and C. balthica n. sp. These are closely related with but well separated from C. gracilis (C. balthica and C. minima p-distance to C. gracilis 4.8% and 11.6%, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses the 18S rRNA gene sequences branch off together with environmental sequences from hypoxic habitats resulting in a wide cluster of hypoxic Codosiga relatives so far only known from environmental sequencing approaches. Conclusions Here, we establish the morphological and ultrastructural identity of an environmental choanoflagellate lineage. Data from microscopical observations, supplemented by findings from previous culture-independent methods, indicate that C. balthica is likely an ecologically relevant player of Baltic Sea hypoxic waters. The possession of derived mitochondria could be an adaptation to life in hypoxic environments

  17. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Höglund, Johan; Lundström, Karl; Strömberg, Annika; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002–2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2%) than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2%) and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted. PMID:27755567

  18. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksija S Neimanis

    Full Text Available The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9% examined from 2002-2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2% than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2% and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted.

  19. The radioactive contamination of the Baltic Sea during the years 1983 to 1987 and its radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, H.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial radioactivity in the Baltic Sea mainly originates from three sources: 1) the fallout by the nuclear weapon tests of the sixties, 2) inflow of contaminated water by the European nuclear reprocessing plants through the Danish Straits, and 3) the Chernobyl fallout. Data and distribution of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in sea water and seafood are presented for the period 1983 to 1985 and compared to data obtained after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Assuming an annual consumption of marine fish of 14 kg per adult and an CF of 300 for Cs, the annual effective dose equivalent would amount to 0.1 mSv (10 mrem). (orig./HP)

  20. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  1. Baltic Grid for e-Science Development in Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmars, S.; Olgerts, B.

    2007-01-01

    Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania as new members of European Union now are involved in e- Science projects. The Baltic Grid (BG) project is a first step to infrastructure development for e-Science grid computing. Together with the universities of Baltic States some universities and organisations of neighbouring countries are involved in BG project to disseminate their experience and management skills. This paper presents achievements and experiences of BG project in e-infrastructure development in Baltic States and in Latvia and Riga Technical University, in particular. (Author)

  2. Baltic Sea ice and environmental and societal implications from the comparative analysis of the Bay of Bothnia and the Gulf of Riga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Lépy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to many studies on sea ice often carried out by geophysicists and rarely by geographers. Thus, it aims to understand climatic and marine processes of ice formation and break-up of littoral waters and coastal sea, and their environmental, economic and societal consequences in the Baltic Sea. The interest of this research lies in the comparative analysis of two regions: the Bay of Bothnia and the Gulf of Riga. These two case studies are politically, economically and culturally different and help to understand the diversity of reactions and adaptations to the human management of the natural constraint imposed by sea ice phenomena. By using a systemic approach, quite common when studying geographical issues of nature and societies, the work has contributed to a better knowledge of the natural environment of Baltic Sea ice showing a significant interannual variability and a spatial internal diversity of sea ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. It also raises the questions of the environmental determinism which is rejected by the remarkable adaptability of coastal population. Finally, the socio-economic implications of historical changes of sea ice features are emphasized showing that future Baltic Sea ice conditions should be carefully considered when talking about global evolution.

  3. The Path to and Lessons from the Economic Crisis in Estonia: Employee Compensation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe Estonia’s economic development strategy in the Baltic Sea region primarily from the perspective of labour costs as a factor in international competitiveness. Estonia’s position in the international division of economic activities will be explored based on expert assessments in the context of a study of theoretical literature about labour compensation as a factor in international competitiveness. The differences between the impact of the economic boom and crisis periods on the level and dynamics of employee compensation (labour related expenditures, and gross and net salary in Estonia at the national level will be empirically analysed. An empirical analysis will also be performed to describe the changes in the structure of economic activities (NACE-classification in Estonia

  4. Response of water temperature to surface wave effects in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The effects of wind waves on the Baltic Sea water temperature has been studied by coupling the hydrodynamical model NEMO with the wave model WAM. The wave forcing terms that have been taken into consideration are: Stokes-Coriolis force, seastate dependent energy flux and sea-state dependent momentum flux. The combined role of these processes as well as their individual contributions on simulated temperature is analysed. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwellinǵs. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data. The warming is primarily caused by sea-state dependent energy flux. Wave induced cooling is mostly observed in near coastal areas and is mainly due to Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The latter triggers effect of intensifying upwellings near the coasts, depending on the direction of the wind. The effect of sea-state dependent momentum flux is predominantly to warm the surface layer. During the summer the wave induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C.

  5. The Soviet-Polish expedition on the study of natural radioactivity of the Baltic sea sediments (June-July 1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, A.A.; Vypykh, K.; Nevesskij, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the work of the common Soviet-Polish expedition on natural radioactivity of the Baltic Sea ground during June-July 1975 are presented. The work was aimed at revealing higher concentrations of heavy minerals and certain valuable mineral complexes and at establishing the rules of their localization at the sea bottom by means of radiometric and radiospectral survey of sea bottom. Spectrometric surveying made it possible to collect simultaneously with the ship's movement continuous information on distribution and contents of natural radioactive minerals, i.e. uranium, thorium and potassium in the upper layers of marine sediments. The level of gamma-activity of the sea grounds was being recorded. A correlation was found between the ground radioactivity level in certain areas of Eastern Baltics and the contents of some minerals, in particular, zircon. The maps of bottom concretion fields for some areas was composed. 'Splashes' of gamma-activity which is primarily due to thorium were found to be associated with the presence of local morphological elements of buried ancient relief covered by thin layers of silt at the sea bottom. It was established that iso-lines of gamma-radiation field run primarily along the latitudes; that the total intensity of soil radiation and its richness in heavy elements increase from the West to the East and the enriched band apparently becomes narrower in the same direction

  6. Evaluation of the coupled COSMO-CLM+NEMO-Nordic model with focus on North and Baltic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, J.; Pham, T. V.; Früh, B.; Brauch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The region east of the Baltic Sea has been identified as a hot-spot of climate change by Giorgi, 2006, on the base of temperature and precipitation variability. For this purpose, the atmosphere model COSMO-CLM has been coupled to the ocean model NEMO, including the sea ice model LIM3, via the OASIS3-MCT coupler (Pham et al., 2014). The coupler interpolates heat, fresh water, momentum fluxes, sea level pressure and the fraction of sea ice at the interface in space and time. Our aim is to find an optimal configuration of the already existing coupled regional atmospheric-ocean model COSMO-CLM+NEMO-Nordic. So far results for the North- and Baltic seas show that the coupled run has large biases compared with the E-OBS reference data. Therefore, additional simulation evaluations are planned by the use of independent satellite observation data (e.g. Copernicus, EURO4M). We have performed a series of runs with the coupled COSMO-CLM+NEMO-Nordic model to find out about differences of model outputs due to different coupling time steps. First analyses of COSMO-CLM 2m temperatures let presume that different coupling time steps have an impact on the results of the coupled model run. Additional tests over a longer period of time are conducted to understand whether the signal-to-noise ratio could influence the bias. The results will be presented in our poster.

  7. The atmospheric boundary layer over land and sea: Focus on the off-shore Southern Baltic and Southern North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    Lecture notes for a short course on the ideal atmospheric boundary layer and its characteristics for different types of real boundary layers, aiming at a discussion of the coastal conditions at the Southern Baltic and North Sea region. The notes are aimed at young scientists (e.g. PhD students......) that study the physics of the atmospheric boundary layer with the purpose of applying this knowledge for remote sensing techniques within offshore wind energy....

  8. Active subsurface cellular function in the Baltic Sea Basin, IODP Exp 347

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, B. K.; Zinke, L. A.; Bird, J. T.; Lloyd, K. G.; Marshall, I.; Amend, J.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Baltic Sea Basin is a unique depositional setting that has experienced periods of glaciation and deglaciation as a result of global temperature fluctuations over the course of several hundred thousand years. This has resulted in laminated sediments formed during periods with strong permanent salinity stratification. The high sedimentation rates (100-500 cm/1000 y) make this an ideal setting to understand the microbial structure of a deep biosphere community in a high-organic matter environment. The responses of deep sediment microbial communities to variations in conditions during and after deposition are poorly understood. Samples were collected through scientific drilling during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 347 on board the Greatship Manisha, September-November 2013. We examined the active microbial community structure using the 16S rRNA gene transcript and active functional genes through metatranscriptome sequencing. Major biogeochemical shifts have been observed in response to the depositional history between the limnic, brackish, and marine phases. The microbial community structure in the BSB is diverse and reflective of the unique changes in the geochemical profile. These data further define the existence life in the deep subsurface and the survival mechanisms required for this extreme environment.

  9. Active microbial community structure of deep subsurface sediments within Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, B. K.; Zinke, L.; Carvalho, G.; Lloyd, K. G.; Marshall, I.; Shumaker, A.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea Basin (BSB) is a unique depositional setting that has experienced periods of glaciation and deglaciation as a result of climatic fluctuations over past tens of thousands of years. This has resulted in laminated sediments formed during periods with strong permanent salinity stratification. The high sedimentation rates make this an ideal setting to understand the microbial structure of a deep biosphere community in a relatively high carbon, and thus high-energy environment, compared to other deep subsurface sites. Samples were collected through scientific drilling during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 347 on board the Greatship Manisha, September-November 2013. We examined the active microbial community structure using the 16S rRNA gene transcript and active functional genes through metatranscriptome sequencing. Major biogeochemical shifts have been observed in response to the depositional history between the limnic, brackish, and marine phases. The active microbial community structure in the BSB is diverse and reflective of the unique changes in the geochemical profile. These data further refine our understanding of the existence life in the deep subsurface and the survival mechanisms required for this extreme environment.

  10. The Baltic Sea Diet Score: a tool for assessing healthy eating in Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2014-08-01

    The health-related effects of the Nordic diet remain mostly unidentified. We created a Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) for epidemiological research to indicate adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. We examined associations between the score and nutrient intakes that are considered important in promoting public health. We also examined the performance of the BSDS under two different cut-off strategies. The cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated using in-house software. Nine components were selected for the score. Each component was scored according to both sex-specific consumption quartiles (BSDS-Q) and medians (BSDS-M), and summed to give the final score values. A large representative sample of the Finnish population. Men (n 2217) and women (n 2493) aged 25 to 74 years. In the age- and energy-adjusted model, adherence to the diet was associated with a higher intake of carbohydrates (E%), and lower intakes of SFA (E%) and alcohol (E%, where E% is percentage of total energy intake; P diet (P healthy Nordic diet to assess diet-health relationships in public health surveys in Nordic countries.

  11. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland's formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P PERMANOVA distance-based linear model (DISTLM) procedures and showed that the main factors explaining bacteria characteristics are bottom type (vegetated vs. unvegetated) and meiofauna density. These two factors explained together 48.3% of variability in TBN and 40.5% in BBM, and their impacts did not overlap (as indicated by DISTLM sequential tests) demonstrating the different natures of these relationships. The effects of seagrass were most probably related to the increase of organic matter and providing habitat while higher numbers of meiofauna organisms may have stimulated the bacterial growth by increased grazing.

  12. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely

  13. Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes - Highlights from the Baltic Sea Science Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea Science Congress was held at Rostock University, Germany, from 19 to 22 March 2007. In the session entitled"Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes" 20 presentations were given,including 7 talks and 13 posters related to the theme of the session.This paper summarises new findings of the upwelling-related studies reported in the session. It deals with investigationsbased on the use of in situ and remote sensing measurements as well as numerical modelling tools. The biogeochemicalimplications of upwelling are also discussed.Our knowledge of the fine structure and dynamic considerations of upwelling has increased in recent decades with the advent ofhigh-resolution modern measurement techniques and modelling studies. The forcing and the overall structure, duration and intensity ofupwelling events are understood quite well. However, the quantification of related transports and the contribution to the overall mixingof upwelling requires further research. Furthermore, our knowledge of the links between upwelling and biogeochemical processes is stillincomplete. Numerical modelling has advanced to the extent that horizontal resolutions of c. 0.5 nautical miles can now be applied,which allows the complete spectrum of meso-scale features to be described. Even the development of filaments can be describedrealistically in comparison with high-resolution satellite data.But the effect of upwelling at a basin scale and possible changes under changing climatic conditions remain open questions.

  14. Size-selective microzooplankton grazing on the phytoplankton in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Grinienė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates at two sites: freshwater (Nida and brackish water (Smiltyne in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea. Using the size-fractionation approach and dilution experiments, we found that the microzooplankton community was able to remove up to 78% of nanophytoplankton (2–20 μm standing stock and 130% of the total daily primary production in the brackish waters of the lagoon, and up to 83% of standing stock and 76% of the primary production of picophytoplankton (0.2–2 μm in the freshwater part. The observed differences were attributed to the changes in ciliate community size and trophic structure, with larger nano-filterers (30–60 μm dominating the brackish water assemblages and pico-nano filterers (<20 μm and 20–30 μm prevailing in the freshwater part of the lagoon.

  15. Internal wave mixing in the Baltic Sea: Near-inertial waves in the absence of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, E. M.; Umlauf, L.

    2011-10-01

    The dynamics of near-inertial motions, and their relation to mixing, is investigated here with an extensive data set, including turbulence and high-resolution velocity observations from two cruises conducted in 2008 (summer) and 2010 (winter) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. In the absence of tides, it is found that the basin-scale energetics are governed by inertial oscillations and low-mode near-inertial wave motions that are generated near the lateral slopes of the basin. These motions are shown to be associated with persistent narrow shear-bands, strongly correlated with bands of enhanced dissipation rates that are the major source of mixing inside the permanent halocline of the basin. In spite of different stratification, near-inertial wave structure, and atmospheric forcing during summer and winter conditions, respectively, the observed dissipation rates were found to scale with local shear and stratification in a nearly identical way. This scaling was different from the Gregg-Henyey-type models used for the open ocean, but largely consistent with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling developed for the continental shelf.

  16. Ship-Based Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hoglind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic pollutant emitted from both natural sources and through human activities. A global interest in atmospheric mercury has risen ever since the discovery of the Minamata disease in 1956. Properties of gaseous elemental mercury enable long range transport, which can cause pollution even in pristine environments. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured from winter 2016 to spring 2017 over the Baltic Sea. A Tekran 2357A mercury analyser was installed aboard the research and icebreaking vessel Oden for the purpose of continuous measurements of gaseous mercury in ambient air. Measurements were performed during a campaign along the Swedish east coast and in the Bothnian Bay near Lulea during the icebreaking season. Data was evaluated from Gothenburg using plotting software, and back trajectories for air masses were calculated. The GEM average of 1.36 ± 0.054 ng/m3 during winter and 1.29 ± 0.140 ng/m3 during spring was calculated as well as a total average of 1.36 ± 0.16 ng/m3. Back trajectories showed a possible correlation of anthropogenic sources elevating the mercury background level in some areas. There were also indications of depleted air, i.e., air with lower concentrations than average, being transported from the Arctic to northern Sweden, resulting in a drop in GEM levels.

  17. Screening for biohydrogen production by cyanobacteria isolated from the Baltic Sea and Finnish lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Leino, Hannu; Shunmugam, Sumathy; Aro, Eva-Mari [Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Tykistokatu 6 A, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Saari, Lyudmila; Fewer, David P.; Sivonen, Kaarina [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    Cyanobacteria are the only bacteria capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis in which they harness solar energy and convert it into chemical energy stored in carbohydrates. Under specific conditions, cyanobacteria can use solar energy to produce also molecular hydrogen. Biodiversity among cyanobacteria for H{sub 2} production has not been efficiently studied. Here we report the screening of 400 cyanobacterial strains isolated from the Baltic Sea and Finnish lakes for efficient H{sub 2} producers. Approximately 50% of these strains produced detectable amounts of H{sub 2}. Ten strains produced similar or up to 4 times as much of H{sub 2} as the hydrogenase mutants of Anabaena PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 specifically engineered in different laboratories to produce higher amounts of H{sub 2}. All ten H{sub 2} producers are N{sub 2}-fixing filamentous, heterocystous strains, seven of them are benthic and three are planktonic strains. Different culturing parameters, such as light intensity, cell density, pH and temperature had a pronounced effect on the H{sub 2} production rates of the two good H{sub 2} producers, Calothrix 336/3 and XPORK 5E strains. Notably, the culture conditions for optimal H{sub 2} production varied between different cyanobacterial strains. (author)

  18. Corrosion tests in Baltic sea water on heat exchanger tubes of various metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, S.; Knutsson, L.

    1975-05-01

    Seventeen different tube materials have been exposed to continuous and intermittent flow in Baltic Sea water (0.4 % Cl - ) at 50 deg C for a maximum of 15 000 hours. During testing the specimens have been examined at certain intervals. After testing the specimens have been examined visually and metallographically. The following materials were completely resistant: titanium, CuNi30Mn1Fe, Alloy 825 and the austenitic steels Cr18Ni24Mo4.5, Cr20Ni25Mo4.5Cu and Cr24Ni24Mo2Ti. The ferritic-austenitic steels Cr18Ni5Mo2Si and Cr25Ni5Mo1.5 on the other hand, seem to be attacked by local intercrystalline corrosion in the vicinity of the welds. The same type of attack occurs, against expectations, even in the entirely ferritic steels, especially in Cr21Mo3Ti; this attack was however shown to be caused by surface carburization. Admiralty brass (2.5 m/s), aluminium brass (3.0 m/s) and CuNi10Fe1Mn (3.5 m/s) have been attacked by erosion corrosion. The same type of attack, although to a considerably smaller extent, has also been observed for the three aluminium materials (2.5 m/s). (author)

  19. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Abaunza, J. M.; Kratzer, S.; Brockmann, C.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http://vattenkvalitet.se). The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL) processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improves the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors. Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin) processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18-26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in the presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  20. Seasonal changes of 137Cs in benthic plants from the southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamara Zalewska

    2012-01-01

    137 Cs activity concentrations were determined in samples of macrophytes Polysiphonia fucoides (red algae) and Zostera marina (vascular plant) collected during the entire vegetation season in the Gulf of Gdansk in the southern Baltic Sea. The measurements showed considerable seasonality of 137 Cs activity in both species; an increase of cesium concentrations was observed from spring to autumn with maximal levels 49.1 ± 1.4 Bq kg d.w. -1 (P. fucoides) and 14.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg d.w. -1 (Z. marina) in late autumn. 137 Cs concentrations observed in a given season are the result of a number of processes, the intensity of which can differ depending on external environmental conditions. The effects of these processes can differ and their directions can frequently be opposite to one another. The examined macrophytobenthic plant species could serve as bioindicators of radionuclide pollution for monitoring purposes on condition that the samples of plants are taken within a strictly defined period of the year to give comparable results and to supply realistic information about pollution levels. (author)

  1. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  2. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories

  3. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Himberg, M. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L.; Ek, P. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Wiklund, T. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Hägerstrand, H. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  4. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories.

  5. Environmental reconstructions of Eemian Stage interglacial marine records in the Lower Vistula area, southern Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karen Luise; Jiang, Hui; Gibbard, Philip L

    2012-01-01

    is established on the basis of correlation with the annually laminated Bispingen sequence. Diatoms, foraminifera and ostracods are used as marine environmental proxies at both sites. An indication of marine conditions as early as pollen zone E1 or E2 at Licze and close to the E2–E3 boundary at Obrzynowo reflects......A multiproxy study of Eemian Stage sediments in two core records, Licze and Obrzynowo, in the Gulf of Gdańsk area of northern Poland, shows that the brackish-marine interglacial conditions were determined partly by regional environmental changes and partly by local changes of the river outflow from...... the Vistula into the southern Baltic Sea. Correlation of the sediments with the Eemian is based on pollen analysis of the Obrzynowo record, showing the presence of regional pollen zones (RPAZ) E2–E6, combined with previously published pollen analyses from Licze (RPAZ E1–E7). A floating chronology...

  6. First report of endosymbionts in Dreissena polymorpha from the brackish Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Chuševė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of a parasitological study ofDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels from the brackishCuronian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea. Zebra mussels were collected monthlyfrom May to October 2011 from a site near the mouth of the River Nemunas.Three types of endosymbionts were found in the mantle cavity andvisceral mass of the molluscs during dissections, i.e. thecommensal ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus and parasitic ciliateOphryoglena sp., and rarely encountered, unidentified nematodes.The abundances of C. cuminatus and Ophryoglena sp.were positively associated with host shell length and watertemperature, but no effect of water salinity was detected.As the endosymbionts are either highly host-specific to zebra mussels(C. acuminatus and Ophryoglena sp. or are probablyfree-living organisms that inadvertently infect the molluscs (nematodes,we conclude that the presence of D. polymorpha in theCuronian Lagoon does not pose any serious parasitologicalrisk to native biota. We emphasize, however, that this conclusionshould be treated with caution as it is based on a study conductedonly at a single location. Our work extends the currentlyscarce records of D. polymorpha parasites and commensals frombrackish waters, and adds to a better understanding of the ecologicalimpact this highly invasive mollusc causes in the areas it has invaded.

  7. Ecosystem changes in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea): natural dynamics or response to anthropogenic impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey; Alimov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The Neva Estuary situated in the eastern Gulf of Finland is one of the largest estuaries of the Baltic Sea with a large conurbation, St. Petersburg, situated on its coast. Eutrophication, alien species and large-scale digging and dumping of bottom sediment are the most prominent anthropogenic impacts on its ecosystem. However, many ecosystem responses, which are traditionally attribute to these impacts, are related to natural dynamics of the ecosystem. Fluctuations in discharge of the Neva River, intrusions of bottom hypoxic waters from the western part of the Gulf of Finland, higher summer temperatures and a shorter period of ice cover are climatic mediated factors inducing adverse changes in its ecosystem from the 1980s onwards. The main ecosystem responses to these factors are 2-3-fold increase of trophic status, deterioration of native zoobenthic communities and establishment of alien species, as well as the many fold decrease of fish catch and the population of ringed seal in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal and antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskot, Marta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena; Fari, Karolina; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Borys

    2012-09-01

    The resistance of 49 strains of bacteria isolated from surface Baltic Sea waters to 11 antibiotics was analyzed and the resistance of selected strains to three metal ions (Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) was tested. Most isolates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (78%), while Alphaproteobacteria (8%), Actinobacteria (10%), and Bacteroidetes (4%) were less abundant. Even though previous reports suggested relationships between resistance and the presence of plasmids or the ability to produce pigments, no compelling evidence for such relationships was obtained for the strains isolated in this work. In particular, strains resistant to multiple antibiotics did not carry plasmids more frequently than sensitive strains. A relation between resistance and the four aminoglycosides tested (gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin), but not to spectinomycin, was demonstrated. This observation is of interest given that spectinomycin is not always classified as an aminoglycoside because it lacks a traditional sugar moiety. Statistical analysis indicated relationships between resistance to some antibiotics (ampicillin and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, erythromycin and tetracycline), suggesting the linkage of resistance genes for antibiotics belonging to different classes. The effects of NiSO4, ZnCl2 and MnCl2 on various media suggested that the composition of Marine Broth might result in low concentrations of Mn2+ due to chemical interactions that potentially lead to precipitation.

  9. Strategic Networking in the Technical HEI‘s of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Nugaras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the empirical research of the networking of Technical Higher Education Institutions (HEI‘S of the Baltic Sea region. The research was conducted in order to understand how the Social Network Analysis (SNA and network mapping methods could help to strengthen institution’s strategic perspective through networking. The author analyse the interaction phenomena in the Higher education sector; its’ impact for networking of institutions and for the network itself; the role of the position in the networks; abilities to strengthen the node’s perception of the network for the strategizing purposes. The research was based on the SNA of the Erasmus programme student mobility data. The results of the research cover the implications of aspects of the network centrality, clustering and ego networks let to identify the node’s position in the network, and to understand surrounding network. The research disclosed that the SNA could be applied in supporting the strategizing process by: increasing of understanding of embedded networks, having more realistic network picture, also could be used as supplement evaluation and development planning method for the relationships portfolio management for HEI’s.

  10. Contrasting seasonality in optical-biogeochemical properties of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simis, Stefan G H; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Kallio, Kari Y; Spilling, Kristian; Kutser, Tiit

    2017-01-01

    Optical-biogeochemical relationships of particulate and dissolved organic matter are presented in support of remote sensing of the Baltic Sea pelagic. This system exhibits strong seasonality in phytoplankton community composition and wide gradients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), properties which are poorly handled by existing remote sensing algorithms. Absorption and scattering properties of particulate matter reflected the seasonality in biological (phytoplankton succession) and physical (thermal stratification) processes. Inherent optical properties showed much wider variability when normalized to the chlorophyll-a concentration compared to normalization to either total suspended matter dry weight or particulate organic carbon. The particle population had the largest optical variability in summer and was dominated by organic matter in both seasons. The geographic variability of CDOM and relationships with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are also presented. CDOM dominated light absorption at blue wavelengths, contributing 81% (median) of the absorption by all water constituents at 400 nm and 63% at 442 nm. Consequentially, 90% of water-leaving radiance at 412 nm originated from a layer (z90) no deeper than approximately 1.0 m. With water increasingly attenuating light at longer wavelengths, a green peak in light penetration and reflectance is always present in these waters, with z90 up to 3.0-3.5 m depth, whereas z90 only exceeds 5 m at biomass < 5 mg Chla m-3. High absorption combined with a weakly scattering particle population (despite median phytoplankton biomass of 14.1 and 4.3 mg Chla m-3 in spring and summer samples, respectively), characterize this sea as a dark water body for which dedicated or exceptionally robust remote sensing techniques are required. Seasonal and regional optical-biogeochemical models, data distributions, and an extensive set of simulated remote-sensing reflectance spectra for testing of remote sensing algorithms are

  11. Contrasting seasonality in optical-biogeochemical properties of the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G H Simis

    Full Text Available Optical-biogeochemical relationships of particulate and dissolved organic matter are presented in support of remote sensing of the Baltic Sea pelagic. This system exhibits strong seasonality in phytoplankton community composition and wide gradients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM, properties which are poorly handled by existing remote sensing algorithms. Absorption and scattering properties of particulate matter reflected the seasonality in biological (phytoplankton succession and physical (thermal stratification processes. Inherent optical properties showed much wider variability when normalized to the chlorophyll-a concentration compared to normalization to either total suspended matter dry weight or particulate organic carbon. The particle population had the largest optical variability in summer and was dominated by organic matter in both seasons. The geographic variability of CDOM and relationships with dissolved organic carbon (DOC are also presented. CDOM dominated light absorption at blue wavelengths, contributing 81% (median of the absorption by all water constituents at 400 nm and 63% at 442 nm. Consequentially, 90% of water-leaving radiance at 412 nm originated from a layer (z90 no deeper than approximately 1.0 m. With water increasingly attenuating light at longer wavelengths, a green peak in light penetration and reflectance is always present in these waters, with z90 up to 3.0-3.5 m depth, whereas z90 only exceeds 5 m at biomass < 5 mg Chla m-3. High absorption combined with a weakly scattering particle population (despite median phytoplankton biomass of 14.1 and 4.3 mg Chla m-3 in spring and summer samples, respectively, characterize this sea as a dark water body for which dedicated or exceptionally robust remote sensing techniques are required. Seasonal and regional optical-biogeochemical models, data distributions, and an extensive set of simulated remote-sensing reflectance spectra for testing of remote sensing

  12. Contrasting seasonality in optical-biogeochemical properties of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylöstalo, Pasi; Kallio, Kari Y.; Spilling, Kristian; Kutser, Tiit

    2017-01-01

    Optical-biogeochemical relationships of particulate and dissolved organic matter are presented in support of remote sensing of the Baltic Sea pelagic. This system exhibits strong seasonality in phytoplankton community composition and wide gradients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), properties which are poorly handled by existing remote sensing algorithms. Absorption and scattering properties of particulate matter reflected the seasonality in biological (phytoplankton succession) and physical (thermal stratification) processes. Inherent optical properties showed much wider variability when normalized to the chlorophyll-a concentration compared to normalization to either total suspended matter dry weight or particulate organic carbon. The particle population had the largest optical variability in summer and was dominated by organic matter in both seasons. The geographic variability of CDOM and relationships with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are also presented. CDOM dominated light absorption at blue wavelengths, contributing 81% (median) of the absorption by all water constituents at 400 nm and 63% at 442 nm. Consequentially, 90% of water-leaving radiance at 412 nm originated from a layer (z90) no deeper than approximately 1.0 m. With water increasingly attenuating light at longer wavelengths, a green peak in light penetration and reflectance is always present in these waters, with z90 up to 3.0–3.5 m depth, whereas z90 only exceeds 5 m at biomass < 5 mg Chla m-3. High absorption combined with a weakly scattering particle population (despite median phytoplankton biomass of 14.1 and 4.3 mg Chla m-3 in spring and summer samples, respectively), characterize this sea as a dark water body for which dedicated or exceptionally robust remote sensing techniques are required. Seasonal and regional optical-biogeochemical models, data distributions, and an extensive set of simulated remote-sensing reflectance spectra for testing of remote sensing algorithms

  13. Transfer-function modelling between environmental variation and mesozooplankton in the Baltic Sea [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, I.; Hänninen, J.; Kornilovs, G.

    2003-12-01

    Time series of freshwater runoff, seawater salinity, temperature and oxygen were used in transfer functions (TF) to model changes of mesozooplankton taxa in the Baltic Sea from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. The models were then compared with long term zooplankton monitoring data from the same period. The TF models for all taxa over the whole Baltic proper and at different depth layers showed statistically significant estimates in t-tests. TF models were further compared using parsimony as a criterion. We present models showing 1) r2 > 0.4, 2) the smallest residual standard error with the combination of exploratory variables, 3) the lowest number of parameters and 4) the highest proportional decrease in error term when the TF model residual standard error was compared with those of the univariate ARIMA model of the same response variable. Most often (7 taxa out of a total of 8), zooplankton taxa were dependent on freshwater runoff and/or seawater salinity. Cladocerans and estuarine copepods were more conveniently modelled through the inclusion of seawater temperature and oxygen data as independent variables. Our modelling, however, explains neither the overall increase in zooplankton abundance nor a simultaneous decrease found in the neritic copepod, Temora longicornis. Therefore, biotic controlling agents (e.g. nutrients, primary production and planktivore diets) are suggested as independent variables for further TF modelling. TF modelling enabled us to put the controlling factors in a time frame. It was then possible, despite the inherent multiple correlation among parameters studied to deduce a chain-of-events from the environmental controls and biotic feedback mechanisms to changes in zooplankton species. We suggest that the documented long-term changes in zooplankton could have been driven by climatic regulation only. The control by climate could be mediated to zooplankton through marine chemical and physical factors, as well as biotic factors if all of these

  14. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  15. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  16. Spatiotemporal Variations of the 90Sr in the Southern Part of the Baltic Sea over the Period of 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Saniewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is one of the most contaminated seas by the radioactive isotope of strontium in the world; therefore the activity of 90Sr is regularly controlled. Due to that fact, seawater samples for 90Sr determination were collected at 16 stations located in the southern Baltic Sea between 2005 and 2010. In this period average activity of 90Sr was 7.8 Bq m−3 and varied within the range from 3.0 Bq m−3 to 11.9 Bq m−3. Because the higher activity of 90Sr was measured in the Baltic Sea than in the North Sea and rivers, inflows from the North Sea and the riverine runoff decreased 90Sr activity in the Baltic Sea. The average 90Sr activity in the bottom water along the offshore profile was 18% lower than that in the surface water and it was caused by an inflow of salt water from the North Sea. In the Vistula River mouth the average activity of 90Sr in the surface water was about 15% lower than the average activity in the bottom waters. Coastal areas, relatively shallow with good mixing condition in the water column, were characterized by low variability in 90Sr activity.

  17. Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from sedimentary records, hydrography and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bartholdy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Short sediment cores from the eastern Gotland Basin were investigated using a multi-proxy approach in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions of the area during the past 1000 years. Sediment data and facies were discussed in relation to hydrographic features (salinity, oxygen and climate change. During the medieval warm period (MWP, from about 900 to 1250 AD, the hydrographic and environmental conditions were similar to those of the present time (modern warm period, since about 1850: a temporally stable halocline, caused by regular saline water inflows from the North Sea, prevents vertical mixing and leads to bottom water anoxia and the deposition of laminated, organic-rich sapropels. During the period from about 1250 to 1850, referred to as the cold phase (including the Little Ice Age, the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly different: the lower salinity, resulting from reduced North Sea water inflows, allowed vertical convection of the water column and long-term stable ventilation of the sea bed (oxic stage. Both the productivity of the planktonic ecosystem as well as the preservation of organic matter in the sediments improved during the warm periods. The anthropogenic impact can be identified within the recent laminated sequence by a temporal reconstruction of pollutant deposition. Our findings imply a climate-change driven shift in the environmental conditions and the ecosystem of the Baltic from the north to the south and back to the north.

  18. Correlation analyses of Baltic Sea winter water mass formation and its impact on secondary and tertiary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Schmidt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stratification of the upper water layers in the BalticSea varies seasonally in response to the annual cycle of solarheating and wind-induced mixing. In winter, the stratificationdown to the halocline is almost completely eroded by convectionand strong wind mixing. Monthly averaged temperature profilesobtained from the ICES hydrographic database were used to studythe long-term variability (1950 to 2005 of winter water massformation in different deep basins of the Baltic Sea east ofthe island of Bornholm. Besides strong interannual variabilityof deep winter water temperatures, the last two decades showa positive trend (increase of 1-1.5°C. Correlationsof winter surface temperatures to temperatures of the winterwater body located directly above or within the top of the haloclinewere strongly positive until the autumn months. Such a closecoupling allows sea surface temperatures in winter to be usedto forecast the seasonal development of the thermal signaturein deeper layers with a high degree of confidence. The most significantimpact of winter sea surface temperatures on the thermal signaturein this depth range can be assigned to February/March. Strongersolar heating during spring and summer results in thermal stratificationof the water column leading to a complete decoupling of surfaceand deep winter water temperatures. Based on laboratory experiments,temperature-dependent relationships were utilised to analyseinterannual variations of biological processes with special emphasison the upper trophic levels (e.g., stage-specific developmentalrates of zooplankton and survival rates of fish eggs.

  19. Modelling the 13C and 12C isotopes of inorganic and organic carbon in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, 12C and 13C contents of all carbon containing state variables (dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, detrital carbon, and the carbon content of autotrophs and heterotrophs) have for the first time been explicitly included in a coupled physical-biogeochemical Baltic Sea model. Different processes in the carbon cycling have distinct fractionation values, resulting in specific isotopic fingerprints. Thus, in addition to simulating concentrations of different tracers, our new model formulation improves the possibility to constrain the rates of processes such as CO2 assimilation, mineralization, and air-sea exchange. We demonstrate that phytoplankton production and respiration, and the related air-sea CO2 fluxes, are to a large degree controlling the isotopic composition of organic and inorganic carbon in the system. The isotopic composition is further, but to a lesser extent, influenced by river loads and deep water inflows as well as transformation of terrestrial organic carbon within the system. Changes in the isotopic composition over the 20th century have been dominated by two processes - the preferential release of 12C to the atmosphere in association with fossil fuel burning, and the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea related to increased nutrient loads under the second half of the century.

  20. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  1. Simulation of a class of hazardous situations in the ICS «INM RAS - Baltic Sea»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Aseev, Nikita; Parmuzin, Eugene; Sheloput, Tateana; Shutyaev, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Development of Informational Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in mathematical modeling, theory of adjoint equations and optimal control, inverse problems, numerical methods theory, numerical algebra, scientific computing and processing of satellite data. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Baltic Sea" are presented. We discuss practical problems studied by ICS. The System includes numerical model of the Baltic Sea thermodynamics, the new oil spill model describing the propagation of a slick at the Sea surface (Agoshkov, Aseev et al., 2014) and the optimal ship route calculating block (Agoshkov, Zayachkovsky et al., 2014). The ICS is based on the INMOM numerical model of the Baltic Sea thermodynamics (Zalesny et al., 2013). It is possible to calculate main hydrodynamic parameters (temperature, salinity, velocities, sea level) using user-friendly interface of the ICS. The System includes data assimilation procedures (Agoshkov, 2003, Parmuzin, Agoshkov, 2012) and one can use the block of variational assimilation of the sea surface temperature in order to obtain main hydrodynamic parameters. Main possibilities of the ICS and several numerical experiments are presented in the work. By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic "functional of cost" is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations. The solution of this problem is

  2. Assessment extreme hydrometeorological conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Anton; Martyanov, Stanislav; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Eremina, Tatjana; Isaev, Alexey; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrometeorological conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, are estimated paying a special attention to the area of the future construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) "Hanhikivi-1" (24° 16' E, 64° 32' N). To produce these estimates, long-term observations and results from numerical models of water and ice circulation and wind waves are used. It is estimated that the average annual air temperature in the vicinity of the station is +3° C, summer and winter extreme temperature is equal to 33.3° C and -41.5° C, respectively. Model calculations of wind waves have shown that the most dangerous (in terms of the generation of wind waves in the NPP area) is a north-west wind with the direction of 310°. The maximum height of the waves in the Gulf of Bothnia near the NPP for this wind direction with wind velocity of 10 m/s is 1.2-1.4 m. According to the model estimates, the highest possible level of the sea near the NPP is 248 cm, the minimum level, -151 cm, respectively for the western and eastern winds. These estimates are in good agreement with observations on the sea level for the period 1922-2015 at the nearest hydrometeorological station Raahe (Finland). In order to assess the likely impact of the NPP on the marine environment numerical experiments for the cold (2010) and warm year (2014) have been carried out. These calculations have shown that permanent release of heat into the marine environment from the operating NPP for the cold year (2010) will increase the temperature in the upper layer of 0-250m zone by 10°C in winter - spring and by 8°C in summer - early autumn, and in the bottom layer of 0-250m zone by 5°C in winter - spring and 3°C in summer - early autumn. For the warm year (2014), these temperature changes are smaller. Ice cover in both cases will disappear in two - kilometer vicinity of the NPP. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future

  3. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate profiles from bottle and CTD taken in the Baltic Sea from 1900-04-04 to 2005-08-06 (NODC Accession 0121681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from April 1900 to August 2005 in the Baltic Sea. Vessels from various countries were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were used...

  4. Ecological niche partitioning of the invasive dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and its native congeners in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesh, Irena V; Schubert, Hendrik; Skarlato, Sergei O

    2016-11-01

    This study analyses three decades of the peculiar bloom-formation history of the potentially toxic invasive planktonic dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller in the SW Baltic Sea. We tested a research hypothesis that the unexpectedly long delay (nearly two decades) in population development of P. minimum prior to its first bloom was caused by competition with one or several closely related native dinoflagellate species due to ecological niche partitioning which hampered the spread and bloom-forming potential of the invader. We applied the ecological niche concept to a large, long-term phytoplankton database and analysed the invasion history and population dynamics of P. minimum in the SW Baltic Sea coastal waters using the data on phytoplankton composition, abundance and biomass. The ecological niche dimensions of P. minimum and its congener P. balticum were identified as the optimum environmental conditions for the species during the bloom events based on water temperature, salinity, pH, concentration of nutrients (PO 4 3- ; total phosphorus, TP; total nitrogen, TN; SiO 4 4- ), TN/TP-ratio and habitat type. The data on spatial distribution and ecological niche dimensions of P. minimum have contributed to the development of the "protistan species maximum concept". High microplankton diversity at critical salinities in the Baltic Sea may be considered as a possible reason for the significant niche overlap and strong competitive interactions among congeners leading to prolonged delay in population growth of P. minimum preceding its first bloom in the highly variable brackishwater environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of prospective sites for geological storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, R.; O' Neil, N.; Pasquali, R. [SLR Consulting, Dublin (Ireland); Nieminen, M.

    2013-05-15

    The BASTOR project focuses on identifying and characterising potential sites for CO{sub 2} storage in the southern Baltic Sea region. A compilation of available digital data from well logs, seismic line data interpretations, mapped structure outlines and published material from existing hydrocarbon fields and identified and mapped structures from Sweden, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad have been incorporated into a regional GIS for the Baltic Sea region. A detailed screening of regional sedimentary basins identified the Slupsk Border Zone as having suitable structures for storage of CO{sub 2} in depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. Cambrian sandstone saline aquifers below 900 m have been identified as the principal regional potential storage target with the Dalders Monocline as the most promising area. Eight individual structures were identified as having greatest potential. Detailed 3D geological static models were developed for three of these structures located in offshore Latvia (E6 and E7) and one cross-border structure (Dalders Structure). A theoretical regional CO{sub 2} storage capacity calculation based on the GeoCapacity methodology was undertaken. A regional storage capacity for Cambrian sandstones below 900 m was estimated at a total of 16 Gt, with 2 Gt for the Dalders Monocline. Theoretical storage estimates for individual structures for the Baltic Sea regions includes 760 Mt for the Latvian structures and the Dalders Structure, 9.1 Mt for the structures located in Poland, 31 Mt in Lithuania and 170 Mt in Kaliningrad. These estimates are based on the best available data at the time of writing. However these estimates will be improved upon as new data becomes available from other sources. (orig.)

  6. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (<63 μm, mud) from more than 600 surficial samples, combined with recalculations for the bulk sediment. For the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  7. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years...... into the interglacial). This sea-level rise might therefore have a basinwide extent, and has been attributed to an opening of the Danish Belts. Whereas dinoflagellate cysts reflect sustained high salinites within the upper water column, a concomitant increase in abundance of the chlorococcalean alga Pediastrum within......A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  8. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E.

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics

  9. Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Konrad; Puiac, Simona; Winder, Monika

    2018-01-01

    To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58°48.19', 17°37.52'; 65°10.14', 23°14.41'; 58°21.67', 24°30.83'). Using individuals with known family structure, we investigated within population variation of the reaction norm (genotype and salinity interaction) as a means to measure adaptive capacity. Our main finding was that low salinity has a detrimental effect on development time, the additive effects of high temperature and low salinity have a negative effect on survival, and their interaction has a negative effect on hatching success. We observed no variation in survival and development within populations, and all genotypes had similar reaction norms with higher survival and faster development in higher salinities. This suggests that there is no single genotype that performs better in low salinity or high salinity; instead, the best genotype in any given salinity is best in all salinities. Genotypes with fast development time also had higher survival compared to slow developing genotypes at all salinities. Our results suggest that E. affinis can tolerate close to freshwater conditions also in high temperatures, but with a significant reduction in fitness.

  10. Emission Trading as a Basis for new Bioenergy Business Concepts in the Baltic Sea Region