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Sample records for baltic cod nursery

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Dewitz, B. von; Lehmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971–2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery...... important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles...... to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep...

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  3. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group Baltic cod are determined, and their nursery areas are localised according to the environmental factors affecting them. Comparative statistical analyses of biological, hydrographic and hydroacoustic data are carried out based on standard ICES demersal trawl surveys and special integrated trawl and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001-2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution patterns related to the seabed topography, water layer depth, and the presence of hydrographic frontal zones (pycnoclines as well as intraspecific patterns in relation to the presence of adult cod. The extent of the nursery areas also depends on the cod year class strength. Juvenile cod (≥3 cm are present in all areas of the central Baltic Sea (CBS, showing broad dispersal. However, their highest density in the Baltic Basins is found at localities with a 40-70 m bottom depth in waters with oxygen concentrations above 2 ml O₂.l⁻¹ and temperatures above 5°C. The smallest juveniles are also found in deep sea localities down to a 100 m depth and at oxygen concentrations between 2-4 ml O₂.l⁻¹. The vertical, diurnally stratified and repeated trawling and hydroacoustic target strength-depth distributions obtained from the special surveys show juvenile cod concentrations in frontal zone water layers (pycnocline. However, the analyses indicate that in the CBS, juvenile cod of all sizes do not appear to aggregate in dense schooling patterns, which differs

  4. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...

  5. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group...... and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...... (pycnocline). However, the analyses indicate that in the CBS, juvenile cod of all sizes do not appear to aggregate in dense schooling patterns, which differs from what has been reported from the North Sea...

  6. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  7. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  8. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    to fish age. At both localities, fish that hatched early in the season spent a shorter time in the pelagic stage than late-hatched fish. However, significant differences in growth rate during the pelagic stage were observed, where fish captured on the slope grew faster. On the bank, individuals with fast...... otolith growth rates before settling continued to grow fast after settling. On the slope, no relationship between growth before and after settling was found. These results indicate that the different settling habitats occupied by juvenile Baltic cod have different potential for settling and nursery areas....

  9. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2017-01-01

    and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...

  10. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    Microchemical otolith analyses have been shown to provide valuable information on the life history, dispersal and stock characteristics of teleost fish. In the present study, the suitability of this technique for identifying the origin and distribution of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from...... the Baltic Sea was examined using laser ablation-ICPMS. The capacity to distinguish individuals from different Baltic Sea stocks and from the adjacent North Sea stock based on incoporation of stock-specific elemental fingerprints along otolith growth axes was investigated. It was further tested if different...... origins led to spawning-site specific element concentrations in otolith cores. The results indicate that microchemical analyses of Baltic cod otoliths are applicable for differentiating individuals of different stocks. Analyses of similarities including 12 element/calcium ratios resulted in significant...

  11. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... caught larvae had RNA/DNA ratios between the mean values found for starving and fed laboratory larvae. Only larvae aged 8-11 days had higher mean RNA/DNA ratios above 45 m than below (t-test, P...

  12. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    , with progressively later spawning towards the east. Genetic stock structure and tagging indicate some degree of natal homing for spawning. The highly variable hydrodynamic conditions and the fact that cod eggs float in the water column cause their entrainment by currents, and their destination is determined...... requirement for neutral buoyancy. Superimposed on this, oxygen content and temperature have a significant effect on fertilization, egg/larva development, and survival. Within the Baltic Sea ecosystem, mixing of stocks may be anticipated and is particularly pronounced in the Arkona Basin because of its use...... by the prevailing winds and currents. Drift is almost exclusively to the east, but the magnitude and its impact on the structure of the affected stocks (Kattegat, western Baltic, and eastern Baltic) remains unresolved. Salinity limits the east–west exchange of eggs as a consequence of the stocks' differential...

  13. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management unit...... can mask the relatively poor state of the western Baltic cod population. Second, the current fishing mortality estimates for the entire western Baltic management unit, used as basis for fisheries management, are difficult to interpret as these are highly influenced by mixing of biological populations...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...

  14. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  15. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  16. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which...... they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century...... in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows...

  17. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity of pelagic, early life stages via transport by ocean currents may affect survival chances of offspring, recruitment success, and mixing of stocks across management units. Based on drift model studies, transport patterns of particles representing exogenously feeding cod larvae...... in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results...

  18. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  19. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since......Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid...

  20. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...... results from a survey carried out during the 1995 spawning period in the Bornholm Basin, at present the main spawning area of this stock. Cod distribution, abundance and population structure were estimated from hydroacoustic and trawl data and related to hydrographic parameters as well as to bottom depth...

  1. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  2. Trophic Interactions in the Baltic Sea: Predation on cod eggs by clupeids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola

    sprat and herring in terms of major taxonomic groups was generally similar in the 1990s and 2000s. Although higher proportions of cod eggs occurred in the diet in the 2000s, the overall quantities of cod eggs in the diet were generally lower in the 2000s compared to the 1990s (Paper I). This suggests......Cod (Gadus morhua), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) are key species of the upper trophic levels in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and are strongly interlinked: The piscivore cod is the main predator on the planktivores sprat and herring, which feed, amongst others, on cod eggs....... Egg predation by sprat and herring has earlier been suggested as one of the factors limiting cod recruitment success in the Baltic Sea in the 1990s. Since then, changes have taken place in cod recruitment as well as in the ecological factors potentially influencing egg predation. The overall aim...

  3. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace elem...

  4. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    . The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard......A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend...... tool to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod fishery is discussed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  6. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    Cod (Gadus morhua L.) recruitment success in the central Baltic Sea is influenced by various abiotic and biotic factors, which include ambient salinity and oxygen conditions as well as predation pressure on early life stages by planktivore clupeids, such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring...... pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  7. Otolith microstructure analysis to resolve seasonal patterns of hatching and settlement in western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehberg-Haas, Sabine; Hammer, Cornelius; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) settle to demersal life at a given size, while the annulus is formed seasonally, irrespective of size. The goal of this study was to examine the timing of check formation in juvenile Baltic cod otoliths to validate macrostructural ageing...... and to differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back...

  8. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C) origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orton, D.C.; Makowiecki, D.; de Roo, T.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern...... of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years...

  9. Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

  10. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  11. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...

  12. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two disinfectants on eggs and larvae of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, was investigated. The eggs were disinfected for 10 min using various concentrations of either glutaraldehyde (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L−1) or iodophor (10, 50, 100 and 150 mg L−1), 1–4-days post-fertilization. B...

  13. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  14. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate distinct changes in otolith increment width observed in demersal juveniles...... by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...... on otolith growth rates of juvenile cod reared in the laboratory under different conditions. In this model, otolith growth rate was expressed as a function of rearing temperature and fish dry weight. Otolith growth of the field samples was calculated using ambient temperatures obtained from a 3D...

  15. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... (WMS) as that of a standard codend. The L50 of the standard codends decreased with catch weight. An unexplained port- starboard effect was found for the window codends where the L50 depended on which of the two trawls the codend was attached to. The potential of these escape windows as a management...

  16. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    in the Western Baltic. On average, 19% of the 0-group and 9% of the 1-group are consumed per year, i.e. 24% of the initial cohort is eaten before reaching age 2. Predation was most intense in 1978-1984, a period with high juvenile abundance and large adult stock sizes in both areas. Subsequently, stock......Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis....... In the Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower...

  17. Improved management based on stock identification of eastern and western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Bastardie, Francois; Eero, Margit

    The objective of this project was to establish an empirically founded knowledge base for the sustainable exploitation of the western Baltic cod stock by including the complex stock structure and migration patterns. Stock mapping: Extensive immigration of “Eastern” cod into the Arkona Basin (SD 24......) within the “Western” cod’s management unit was documented using high-powered genetic tools. The majority (91%) of all spawning fish caught in SD 24 in 2011 were “Eastern” cod and only 9% were from the “Western” stock. The results suggest that the stock structure in the Arkona Basin is highly influenced......, older fish. The changes in biological characteristics (mean size at age, condition and maturity) observed in that area since 2005 are thus a direct consequence of the extensive immigration of “Eastern” cod. As no seasonal signals in stock mixing were observed, the immigration is not associated...

  18. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    to stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...... the uncorrected ones. At the currently low predator stock size, however, the effect of oxygen-reduced consumption on the total amount of eaten prey biomass and thus predation mortalities was only marginal. But should successful management lead to higher cod stock sizes in the future, then total predation...

  19. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    ovaries and decreased in late maturing and spawning fish, most likely due to their antioxidant protection activity. The fatty acid composition of cod liver reflected its clupeid prey. The ratio of 18:1n-9 to DHA was almost twice as high in sprat as in herring and indicated the ratio of sprat and herring...... with cod ovarian development in the central Baltic Sea, and may be associated with the delay in spawning and affect egg and larval survival; however, this needs further verification in experimental studies....

  20. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    to a consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain......The aim of this study was to evaluate the consistency of three methods for assigning annuli in adult Baltic cod otoliths. The methods examined were (i) daily increment patterns, (ii) opacity profiles, and (iii) traditional age reading. Frequency distributions of the distance from the nucleus...... to the different zones showed that the first annulus of traditional age reading missed the first zone of both increment and opacity methods, but overlapped with the second zone identified by these methods. This pattern did not continue over subsequent zones. Frequency distributions of increment patterns were...

  1. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...... affecting survival of eggs, predation by clupeids on eggs, larval transport, and cannibalism. Results showed that recruitment in the most important spawning area, the Bornholm Basin, during 1976-1995 was related to egg production; however, other factors affecting survival of the eggs (oxygen conditions...

  2. Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, K.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    are exclusively characterized by ambient water temperatures below the critical survival threshold. Despite the strong influence of water temperature on habitat suitability, the impact of habitat suitability on recruitment was not clearly defined, suggesting that other mechanisms regulate year class strength...... different western Baltic cod spawning grounds for egg survival. Habitat identification was based on environmental threshold levels for egg survival and development and ambient hydrographical conditions at different times during the spawning season. The long-term resolution of environmental conditions...

  3. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock–recruitment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    , the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, and the reproductive volume in the Gotland Basin in May. All the models including extrinsic factors significantly improved prediction ability as compared to traditional models, which account for impacts of the spawning stock biomass alone. Based on the final......A wide range of possible recruitment drivers were tested for key exploited fish species in the Baltic Sea Regional Advisory Council (RAC) area: Eastern Baltic Cod, Central Baltic Herring, Gulf of Riga Herring, and sprat. For each of the stocks, two hypotheses were tested: (i) recruitment...... is significantly related to spawning stock biomass, climatic forcing, and feeding conditions and (ii) by acknowledging these drivers, management decisions can be improved. Climate impact expressed by climatic indices or changes in water temperature was included in all the final models. Recruitment of the herring...

  4. Time changes in fishing power in the Danish cod fisheries of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Hovgård, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Using nominal fishing effort to control fishing mortality and using cpue data from commercial fisheries as abundance indices require ability to correct fishing power for temporal development. It is often assumed in ICES stock assessments that fishing power Is constant over time. However, experience...... has suggested that this assumption may be false. This study investigates the time dynamics of an Index of Fishing Power (IFP). This index is based on the fleets cpue. relative to the cpue of a subset of vessels from the same fleet. The primary characteristic of the reference vessels...... is that their fishing power has not varied much over time. IFP is calculated for some of the Danish cod fisheries in the Baltic Sea. IFP appeared to be independent of the vessel composition of the reference sub- fleet and for the fleets fishing in the Eastern Baltic Sea. but less so for the Western Baltic Sea fleets...

  5. Assessing the Role of Environmental Factors on Baltic Cod Recruitment, a Complex Adaptive System Emergent Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Krekoukiotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fish recruitment has been a subject of intensive research with stock–recruitment models commonly used for recruitment prediction often only explaining a small fraction of the inter-annual recruitment variation. The use of environmental information to improve our ability to predict recruitment, could contribute considerably to fisheries management. However, the problem remains difficult because the mechanisms behind such complex relationships are often poorly understood; this in turn, makes it difficult to determine the forecast estimation robustness, leading to the failure of some relationships when new data become available. The utility of machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs for solving complex problems has been demonstrated in aquatic studies and has led many researchers to advocate ANNs as an attractive, non-linear alternative to traditional statistical methods. The goal of this study is to design a Baltic cod recruitment model (FishANN that can account for complex ecosystem interactions. To this end, we (1 build a quantitative model representation of the conceptual understanding of the complex ecosystem interactions driving Baltic cod recruitment dynamics, and (2 apply the model to strengthen the current capability to project future changes in Baltic cod recruitment. FishANN is demonstrated to bring multiple stressors together into one model framework and estimate the relative importance of these stressors while interpreting the complex nonlinear interactions between them. Additional requirements to further improve the current study in the future are also proposed.

  6. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels......-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how...

  7. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: Density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Bartolino

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we used an extensive trawl survey dataset in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial dynamics of the distribution of the Eastern Baltic cod during the past three decades using Generalized Additive Models. The results showed that adult cod distribution was mainly affected by cod population size, and to a minor degree by small-scale hydrological factors and the extent of suitable reproductive areas. As population size decreases, the cod population concentrates to the southern part of the Baltic Sea, where the preferred more marine environment conditions are encountered. Using the fitted models, we predicted the Baltic cod distribution back to the 1970s and a temporal index of cod spatial occupation was developed. Our study will contribute to the management and conservation of this important resource and of the ecosystem where it occurs, by showing the forces shaping its spatial distribution and therefore the potential response of the population to future exploitation and environmental changes.

  8. Diseases and parasites of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the Mecklenburg Bight to the Estonian coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Lang, T.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1994 BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", the prevalences of skin ulcers, pseudobranchial swellings (X-cell disease), skeletal deformities, and the parasites Cryptocotyle lingua and Lernaeocera branchialis were recorded in cod in 11 areas from...... to be restricted to areas with salinity above 8. Skin ulcers were mainly observed in German waters, while skeletal deformities were most abundant in the Polish, Russian, and Lithuanian coastal zones. (C) 1999 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  9. Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod : possible causes and implications for recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid; Horbowa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variations in spawning time, defined as the peak in egg abundance, of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea, were analysed. Effects of water temperature, size and age structure of the spawning stock, abundance of food, and timing of spawning in preceding years were...... temperature during the period of gonadal maturation, density-dependent processes related to the size of the spawning stock, and food availability. The age structure of the spawning stock is suggested to have an additional effect. A high proportion of first-time spawners and decreasing water temperature have...

  10. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Titelman, Josefin; Hansson, Lars Johan

    2011-01-01

    feeding rates on cod eggs. Observed feeding rates pooled from allexperiments conducted at nonsaturating prey concentrations were low, with the highest volume-specific clearanceon , 4.5-d-old yolk-sac larvae (0.05 6 0.02 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21), and lower rates on 4.5–8-d-old larvae(0.02 6 0.02 L (m...... conducted laboratory incubation experimentsand video observations to quantify feeding rates on Baltic cod eggs and larvae. Ingestion rates increased with codlarvae concentrations up to 8 prey L21, beyond which ingestion remained constant. Neither Mnemiopsis size noregg concentration (1–16 prey L21) affected......L Mnemiopsis)21 h21) and eggs (0.02 6 0.03 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21). When offered Artemiasalina and cod eggs simultaneously, Mnemiopsis passively selected against cod eggs. Video recordings showed thateggs did not trigger the capture response that Mnemiopsis shows toward motile prey, and ingested eggs were...

  11. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  12. The impact of gear regulation changes on discard rates: the case of the Baltic Sea cod fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Madsen, Niels; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in minimum landing size (MLS) have had any marked effect on the discard rates of the target species, cod. Results show that the gear regulation changes enforced in the Baltic demersal trawl fishery have had diverse effects on discard rates and are largely dependent on the gear, recruitment, and compliance...

  13. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    . As the population dynamics of eastern Baltic cod depend strongly on the climate-driven hydrographic regime, we considered two production regimes of the stock. MPAs were only effective for stock recovery when they reduced overall fishing effort. The performance of MPAs needs to be evaluated relative to environmental...

  14. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra-specific...... competition for food. resources may affect the recruitment success of Baltic cod....

  15. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...... explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...... drifters—as predicted proportions of drifters that either died due to bottom contact or lethal temperatures, or that survived up to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage. The environmental conditions allowing survival of cod and yolk-sac larvae indicate that favourable conditions predominately occurred...

  16. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... affecting survival of eggs, predation by clupeids on eggs, larval transport, and cannibalism. Results showed that recruitment in the most important spawning area, the Bornholm Basin, during 1976-1995 was related to egg production; however, other factors affecting survival of the eggs (oxygen conditions......, predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group...

  17. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection...... of a strontium chloride solution. Based on environmental conditions experienced, fish were classified into different behavioural types: non-reproducing 'non-spawner', and 'spawner' undertaking spawning migrations. Otolith opacity, an indicator of otolith and fish somatic growth and condition, was examined......, this decoupling leads to an otolith structure with stronger contrasts and more abrupt changes, while in non-spawners, opacity changes more smoothly. The trigger for this decoupling seems to be an interaction between temperature exposure and seasonal variations in food availability and may serve as a tool...

  18. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of follicular atresia in Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Diekmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, 307 ovaries of eastern Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias sampled during the prespawning and spawning season 2000 were analysed histologically to estimate the seasonal prevalence and intensity of atresia. The number of atretic oocytes per ovary was estimated using a combination...... of the physical disector method and volume fraction (Delesse principle). Atretic oocytes were observed in 32% of the ovaries. Prevalence of atresia was independent of female size, but increased significantly with declining female condition from prespawning and through the spawning stages. The relative intensity...... of atresia, i.e. number of atretic oocytes in relation to normally developed vitellogenic oocytes, was low amounting to 1.4% on average. Similar to prevalence, relative intensity of atresia differed significantly between maturity stages and increased with decreasing female condition. The population egg loss...

  19. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    cod. Recent research has identified the importance of inflows of saline and oxygenated North Sea water into the Baltic Sea for the recruitment of Baltic cod. However, other processes have been suggested to modify this reproduction volume including variations in timing and volume of terrestrial runoff......, variability of the solubility of oxygen due to variations in sea surface temperature as well as the influence of variations in wind stress. In order to examine the latter three mechanisms, we have performed simulations utilizing the Kiel Baltic Sea model for a period of a weak to moderate inflow of North Sea...... compared to runs with modified meteorological forcing conditions and river runoff. From these simulations, it is apparent that processes other than major Baltic inflows have the potential to alter the reproduction volume of Baltic cod. Low near-surface air temperatures in the North Sea, the Skagerrak...

  20. Environmentally driven predator-prey overlaps determine the aggregate diet of the cod Gadus morhua in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are environmentally heterogeneous with features such as fronts or clines of temperature and salinity. This heterogeneity varies over time and is likely to cause changes in predator-prey overlaps, which will affect the diet composition of the predators. We investigated how inflows...... of oxygenated and saline deep water alternating with stagnation periods affect the consumption rates of the herring Clupea harengus L. and the sprat Sprattus sprattus L. by the cod Gadus morhua in the Bornholm basin of the Baltic Sea. We developed conceptual models for the effect of predator-prey overlaps...... on the aggregate diet of the predator population to test the hypothesis that the effects of inflows on the aggregate diet are mediated by changes in cod-clupeid overlaps. After estimating salinity and oxygen thresholds of the spatial distributions of cod and clupeids and calculating cod-clupeid overlaps from March...

  1. Testing the implications of a permanent or seasonal marine reserve on the population dynamics of Eastern Baltic cod under varying environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeckmann, C.; St.John, M.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    A spatially disaggregated, discrete time, age-structured model for the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) stock was constructed, in order to test the implications of the establishment of a marine reserve in the Baltic Sea. Functional relationships for recruitment and predation mortality

  2. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    may also contribute to variability in abundance estimates. The results of broad- scale zooplankton surveys suggest that the abundance and types of potential prey in the Baltic Sea are similar to those in other regions and perhaps suitable for moderate-to-fast larval growth. However, few systematic...... in one of these areas (Bornholm Basin) varies seasonally by at least 2 mo. Trends in egg and larval abundance over time are not obvious due to differences in gear type, sampling intensity, and survey timing relative to spawning dates. Interannual differences in larval transport away from spawning areas...... surveys have described food concentrations at appropriate scales for cod larvae, and the species composition of larval diets is unknown. Growth rates for Baltic cod larvae have not been measured and cannot be compared with rates in other areas or to variations in biotic and abiotic factors. Large gaps...

  3. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: Management of Baltic cod stock requires an ecosystem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Christian; Blenckner, T.; Casini, M.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent ‘As We See It’ article, Cardinale & Svedäng (2011; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 425:297–301) used the example of the Eastern Baltic (EB) cod stock to argue that the concept of ecosystem regime shifts, especially the potential existence of alternative stable states (or dynamic regimes), blurs...... the fact that human exploitation (i.e. fishing) is the strongest impact on marine ecosystems. They further concluded that single-species approaches to resource management are functioning and that ecosystem-based approaches are not necessary. We (1) argue that the recent increase in the EB cod stock...... is inherently uncertain, (2) discuss the critique of the regime shift concept, and (3) describe why the EB cod stock dynamics demonstrates the need for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management....

  4. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    simulations of early life stages of Baltic cod up to the pelagic juvenile stage was validated by comparing model simulations with the catch distribution from a survey targeting pelagic juveniles, and mortality rates and hatch date distributions of pelagic and demersal juveniles were estimated. Hatch dates...... with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  5. Evaluation of otolith shape as a tool for stock discrimination in marine fishes using Baltic Sea cod as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2016-01-01

    In the Western Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks “Eastern Baltic cod” and “Western Balticcod” occur with considerable mixing of stocks. In this study we evaluated the applicability of otolithshape analysis for classification of individuals caught in the mixed stock cod fishery, using...... demonstrate theinterplay of environmental, ontogenetic and genetic influences on otolith shape, which complicates theapplication of otolith shape for stock discrimination in mixed-stock scenarios. Rigours genetic validationand further studies on the temporal dynamics of shape formation are necessary....

  6. Stock-based vs. fleet-based evaluation of the multi-annual management plan for the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Vinther, Morten; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the EU 2008 multi-annual plan for Baltic cod stock recovery. The plan combines harvest control rules that set TACs with reductions in direct effort (E) and fishing mortality (F). Performance and robustness of the plan are tested with a management strategy evaluation model (MSE...... parameters are assumed constant. For the Eastern Baltic stock, additional sources of uncertainties from fishery adaptation to the plan are tested using a fleet-based and spatially explicit version of the model which leads to higher reductions in F and no significant change in management robustness......). Stochastic simulations are carried out under different scenarios of recruitment and sources of uncertainties. Under the different magnitudes of errors investigated, the plan in its current design is likely to reach precautionary targets for the Eastern and the Western Baltic cod stocks by 2015. It is...

  7. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress on Ba...... mechanically deformed during handling were clearly distinguishable from those that died prior to catching; however, staging was generally less accurate for formaldehyde- preserved eggs when compared with living specimens.......The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress...... on Baltic cod eggs (Gadus morhua callarias L.) were examined separately by visually comparing the morphological features of treated vs. live eggs of identical ontogenetic age. Microphotographs were made concurrently for documentation. In stage IA eggs, mechanical treatment resulted in scattered blastodiscs...

  8. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    surrounded by single cells, while in further advanced stages the yolk membrane collapsed entirely, the yolk coagulated and the embryo extending over the yolk shrank. Formaldehyde fixation caused the yolk and the blastodisc or embryo to darken, and in some cases crystalline enclosures occurred. Eggs......The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress...... on Baltic cod eggs (Gadus morhua callarias L.) were examined separately by visually comparing the morphological features of treated vs. live eggs of identical ontogenetic age. Microphotographs were made concurrently for documentation. In stage IA eggs, mechanical treatment resulted in scattered blastodiscs...

  9. Long-term stability and effective population size in North Sea and Baltic Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Schierup, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    for the Moray Firth population, while subtle but significant genetic changes over time were detected for the Bornholm Basin population. Estimates of the effective population size (N-e) generally exceeded 500 for both populations when employing a number of varieties of the temporal genetic method. However......DNA from archived otoliths was used to explore the temporal stability of the genetic composition of two cod populations, the Moray Firth (North Sea) sampled in 1965 and 2002, and the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) sampled in 1928 and 1997. We found no significant changes in the allele frequencies......, confidence intervals were very wide and N-e's most likely range in the thousands. There was no apparent loss of genetic variability and no evidence of a genetic bottleneck for either of the populations. Calculations of the expected levels of genetic variability under different scenarios of N-e showed...

  10. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    sarsi) are preferred food items by small cod, the isopod Saduria entomon is taken by all size classes, and sprat Sprattus sprattus are common prey items for cod larger than 30 cm. Parasitological investigations (microscopic and molecular analyses) of H. sarsi (100 specimens) and S. entomon (40 specimens......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë......) did not reveal infection in these invertebrates, but 11.6% of sprat (265 specimens examined) was shown to be infected with 1-8 C. osculatum third stage larvae per fish. Analyses of sprat stomach contents confirmed that copepods and cladocerans are the main food items of sprat. These observations...

  11. Sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens) infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), cod (Gadus morhua) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; Boström, Maria Kristina; Aspholm, Paul Eric

    2015-01-01

    The anisakid nematode Pseudoterranova decipiens, known as the sealworm or cod worm, can infect the flesh of several fish species. The parasite causes cosmetic problems for the fish industry and can cause abdominal discomfort if consumed by humans. There are only scattered studies on the abundance or distribution of the sealworm in fish and seals in the Baltic Sea. To remedy this situation, the extent of sealworm infection was investigated in cod (Gadus morhua) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) collected along the Swedish coast. A relative presence of the sealworm was also investigated in samples from grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) stomachs. Up to 100% of the fish were infected in some of the areas. Sculpin were generally worse infected than cod, both in abundance and prevalence of parasites. General linear models showed a significant correlation between the number of seals in an area and the prevalence of sealworms in cod. There was a sharp decrease of infected fish in areas with salinity lower than 7‰. Even though the northern Baltic proper and the southern Bothnian Sea have a high number of grey seals, only one sealworm was found in a sculpin in that region, and none in cod. In grey seal stomachs the sealworm was only found in samples from the central Baltic proper; further north, all anisakid nematodes identified in seals were Contracaecum osculatum. The results indicate that seal presence drives the distribution in the southern parts of the Baltic and that low salinity, or some other variable which correlates with salinity, limits the distribution in the northern part.

  12. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    of the ulcerations on the trunk occurred bilaterally. A common histopathological finding was coagulation necrosis of the muscular tissue. The ulcerated fish were mainly 24-28 cm in length. P, correlation between high concentrations of cod around Bornholm, high fishing activity in the area, length of fish escaping...... from the nets, combined with bilateral occurrence of the ulcers, strongly indicates that the skin ulcers were induced by the fishing gear. Features of the pathology could be linked to the temporary retention of cod in trawl meshes....

  13. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    , and the EB cod was considered one of the most successful stock recoveries in recent times. In contrast to this optimistic view, the analytical stock assessment failed in 2014, leaving the present stock status unclear. Deteriorated quality of some basic input data for stock assessment in combination...... that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod biology and ecosystem conditions, (ii) describe the subsequent challenges for stock assessment, and (iii) highlight the key questions where answers are urgently needed to understand the present stock status...

  14. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    of investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful...... using updated time series of these variables, comprising the period 1966 to 1994. Spawning stock biomass and egg production are compared as measures of parent stock size. The influence of wind energy and zooplankton abundance on cod recruitment are discussed. A modified Ricker model is outlined...

  15. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Information from data storage tags (DSTs) is conventionally used to infer movement patterns or reveal characteristics (e.g. temperature or salinity) of the environment surrounding tagged fish. Here we link data derived from DSTs with the reproductive physiology of tagged fish. Individual vertical...... activity of adult male and female Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. in the Bornholm Basin was derived from DST measures and related to the individual histologically determined reproductive phase. Spawning migrations were identified by movements towards deeper and more saline waters. No difference was observed...... of the spawning period differs between sexes, as does the level of activity during spawning events. Not all individuals followed the general pattern; a considerable number of individuals were found to spawn in shallow water in the Arkona Basin, and juvenile fish undertook the migration without spawning...

  16. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    between sexes in the timing of the onset of migration and the duration of migration from feeding grounds to the spawning area. While there was no significant difference in duration of the spawning period between females and males, the histological indices suggest that females finish spawning before males...... of the spawning period differs between sexes, as does the level of activity during spawning events. Not all individuals followed the general pattern; a considerable number of individuals were found to spawn in shallow water in the Arkona Basin, and juvenile fish undertook the migration without spawning...... activity of adult male and female Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. in the Bornholm Basin was derived from DST measures and related to the individual histologically determined reproductive phase. Spawning migrations were identified by movements towards deeper and more saline waters. No difference was observed...

  17. Recruitment of Baltic cod and sprat stocks: identification of critical life stages and incorporation of environmental variability into stock-recruitment relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W. Köster

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment processes of Baltic cod and sprat were analysed and critical periods were identified by addressing the major impact factors on individual early life history stages separately and relating observed abundance data between successive stages. For cod, recruitment appeared to be dependent on egg survival, with low oxygen concentration in dwelling depths and predation by clupeids as the major causes for egg mortality. Surviving egg production and larval abundance were weakly correlated, whereas larval abundance was significantly related to year class strength. This indicated that the period between the late egg and the early larval stage is critical for cod recruitment. A potential variable identified to affect this life stage was prey availability for larvae. For sprat, early and late egg stage production as well as late egg stage production and larval abundance were significantly related. However, year class strength was largely independent of larval abundance. Thus, the period between the late larval and early juvenile stage appeared to be critical for sprat recruitment. Potential variables identified to affect this life stage were ambient temperature and wind stress. Environmental factors showing statistically significant covariance with the survival of one of these critical life stages were incorporated into stock-recruitment models for individual spawning areas separately and for the Central Baltic combined.

  18. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  19. What attracts Baltic sea grey seals to seal-safe cod pots and when do they attempt to attack fish in the pots?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavenow, Jasmine; Ljungberg, Peter; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Seals and fishermen share the role of top consumers in the Baltic Sea, leading to inevitable competition. One aspect of this is that fishermen use fishing gear to catch fish and seals raid these fishing gear. The fisheries lose out in terms of fish catches and also bear the significant costs...... of damage to the gear. Researchers have been active for some years in developing ‘sealsafe’ fishing gear, which will be unattractive to seals and resistant to attacks. This study investigated the presence of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) around cod pots and their attempts to take fish from them. Baited...

  20. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Contrasting coastal and shelf nursery habitats of Pacific cod in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study examining the use of demersal and pelagic habitats in the southeast Bering Sea by age-0 Pacific cod, based on 4 years of demersal trawl...

  1. Reconstructing historical stock development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea before the beginning of intensive exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Köster, Fritz; MacKenzie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    mortality before the 1940s was below 0.2, but reached moderate levels during the Second World War. The stock size before the war may be considered as a reference level of biomass at low fishing impact, providing important information for the management of fisheries and the Baltic ecosystem....

  2. Multi-decadal scale variability in the eastern Baltic cod fishery 1550-1860 - Evidence and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Bager, M.; Ojaveer, H.

    2007-01-01

    loading and measures to promote recovery of seal and harbour porpoise populations. If these policies are successful, the role of predatory fish in the future Baltic could again be substantial and comparable to that which we show existed 450 years ago. However, such a scenario will also require a major...

  3. Quantifying environmental heterogeneity : habitat size necessary for successful development of cod Gadus morhua eggs in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Plikshs, M.

    2000-01-01

    ) of reproductive volumes among the areas to identify spatial differences. The results of 2 independent volume-estimation methods are comparable, indicating that highly significant differences exist among the sites, and that the westernmost spawning ground, Bornholm Basin, has on average the highest reproductive...... volume and the lowest variability among the 4 sites. These findings may be useful in evaluating how spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions affect egg hatching success and possibly recruitment in the Baltic stock....

  4. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    , combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  5. Survival probability of Baltic larval cod in relation to spatial overlap patterns with their prey obtained from drift model studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Schmidt, J.O.; Petereit, C.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal mismatch between the occurrence of larvae and their prey potentially affects the spatial overlap and thus the contact rates between predator and prey. This might have important consequences for growth and survival. We performed a case study investigating the influence of circulation......-prey overlap, dependent on the hatching time of cod larvae. By performing model runs for the years 1979-1998 investigated the intra- and interannual variability of potential spatial overlap between predator and prey. Assuming uniform prey distributions, we generally found the overlap to have decreased since...

  6. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    observations during 1969–1995 on four stations in each of two transects. The oceanographic monitoring and demersal trawl research survey data from 1974–2012 have been used in analyses. Results. The sufficient reproduction conditions in the southern Gotland Basin persisted only until 1981. In later decades...... the reproduction potential of the Gotland Basin has decreased. The latest major North Sea water infl ows in 1993 and 2003 in the Central Gotland Basin formed the suitable reproduction volume below the layers where cod eggs are fl oating. A significant relation between the recruit abundance and suitable...

  7. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    ). The third objective is to investigate experimentally if EFA levels, comparable to those observed in Baltic clupeids, delayed timing of spawning and influenced egg production and quality in cod (Paper IV). The study combines field data of cod and its main prey species; sprat (Sprattus sprattus), herring......, realized fecundity, and egg and larval quality under controlled conditions. Lipid content and fatty acid composition (FAC) differs significantly between sprat, herring and S. entomon (Paper I). Sprat has in general high lipid content and proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, compared...... ovaries compared to prey and decreases in late maturation and spawning due to antioxidant protection activity (Paper II). ARA level, important for eicosanoid activity, is lower in ovaries of Baltic Sea cod than in North Sea cod (Paper III), indicating that this fatty acid may be important for spawning...

  8. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    Variations in oxygen conditions below the permanent halocline influence the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea through a number of mechanisms. In this study, we examine the effects of physical forcing on variations in the volume of deep oxygenated water suitable for reproductive success of central Baltic......, variability of the solubility of oxygen due to variations in sea surface temperature as well as the influence of variations in wind stress. In order to examine the latter three mechanisms, we have performed simulations utilizing the Kiel Baltic Sea model for a period of a weak to moderate inflow of North Sea...... water into the Baltic, modifying wind stress, freshwater runoff and thermal inputs. The model is started from three-dimensional fields of temperature, salinity and oxygen obtained from a previous model run and forced by realistic atmospheric conditions. Results of this realistic reference run were...

  9. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  10. Robustness of egg production methods as a fishery independent alternative to assess the Eastern Baltic cod stock (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Voss, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    data to stock assessment models relying on catch statistics from the commercial fisheries is potentially biased and the perception of stock status may be incorrect. Egg production methods (EPM) provide a fishery independent alternative. Additionally, they provide better estimates of stock reproductive...... of the number of egg surveys is tested applying three different methods requiring different numbers of egg surveys. We applied the annual egg production method (AEPM) requiring full egg survey coverage of the spawning season to estimate cod abundances in the Bornholm Basin. In addition, the daily fecundity...... reduction method (DFRM) and the daily egg production method (DEPM) were tested, the latter two methods requiring only single egg surveys, but require more complex reproduction input parameters. All three methods provided a comparable result, which was also expected as many spawning parameters were derived...

  11. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfant

    2012-01-01

      Enrollments 2012-2013  Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School  Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary   Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress    Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website    http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf

  12. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2010-01-01

    * * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School   Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2010-2011%20EN.pdf  

  13. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  14. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/

  15. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...... of the local cod stock to environmental change. The recovery and healthy condition of the Sound cod stock illustrate the need for adaptive marine management strategies that maximize ecosystem resilience....

  16. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association     Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.

  17. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.

  18. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift trajector......A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift...

  19. Testing the larval drift hypothesis in the Baltic Sea: retention versus dispersion caused by wind-driven circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Aro, E.

    2001-01-01

    oceanographic model of the Baltic Sea. Cod larvae were represented as Lagrangian drifters released in the deepwater region of the Bornholm Basin, the main spawning ground for Baltic cod. Simulations were performed for the major spawning seasons of 1993 and 1994. when annual and interannual variability...

  20. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.

    2007-01-01

    , the commercially most important fish stocks in the Baltic. The distribution pattern of M. leidyi revealed a substantial overlap with cod eggs. The observed predation of M. leidyi on eggs has the potential to alter the recruitment success of cod, which is the top predator in the system and, thus, to change......The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat...

  1. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  2. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na....... The findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  3. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  4. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses a multispecies (cod, herring and sprat) partition function game among three asymmetric countries in the Baltic Sea. Through an empirical application, the study highlights the importance of dynamic multispecies models in coalition formation. We show that the grand coalition...... between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  5. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  6. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    to changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document...... significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod......-average cod productivity coupled to a temporary reduction in fishing pressure. The Baltic cod example demonstrates how combinations of different forcings can have synergistic effects and consequently dramatic impacts on population dynamics. Our results highlight the potential and limitations of human...

  7. Adaptation to Low Salinity Promotes Genomic Divergence in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Paul R.; Jentoft, Sissel; Star, Bastiaan; Ring, Kristoffer H.; Knutsen, Halvor; Lien, Sigbjørn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; André, Carl

    2015-01-01

    How genomic selection enables species to adapt to divergent environments is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution. We investigated the genomic signatures of local adaptation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) along a natural salinity gradient, ranging from 35‰ in the North Sea to 7‰ within the Baltic Sea. By utilizing a 12 K SNPchip, we simultaneously assessed neutral and adaptive genetic divergence across the Atlantic cod genome. Combining outlier analyses with a landscape genomic approach, we identified a set of directionally selected loci that are strongly correlated with habitat differences in salinity, oxygen, and temperature. Our results show that discrete regions within the Atlantic cod genome are subject to directional selection and associated with adaptation to the local environmental conditions in the Baltic- and the North Sea, indicating divergence hitchhiking and the presence of genomic islands of divergence. We report a suite of outlier single nucleotide polymorphisms within or closely located to genes associated with osmoregulation, as well as genes known to play important roles in the hydration and development of oocytes. These genes are likely to have key functions within a general osmoregulatory framework and are important for the survival of eggs and larvae, contributing to the buildup of reproductive isolation between the low-salinity adapted Baltic cod and the adjacent cod populations. Hence, our data suggest that adaptive responses to the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea may contribute to a strong and effective reproductive barrier, and that Baltic cod can be viewed as an example of ongoing speciation. PMID:25994933

  8. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  9. Infection levels and species diversity of ascaridoid nematodes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are correlated with geographic area and fish size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, M.; Bao, M.; MacKenzie, K.

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the most important commercial fish species on the world market. Its infection by ascaridoid nematodes has long been known, Pseudoterranova even being named cod worm. In the present study, 755 individuals were sampled in the Barents, Baltic and North Seas durin...

  10. The use of otolith microstructure to estimate age in adult Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Fey, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Transverse sections of otoliths from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from the Baltic Sea revealed narrow growth increments. The widths of these increments corresponded to daily increments from fish with known otolith growth rates and were therefore assumed to be daily increments. They exhibited...... primordium of the otolith. Increment formation apparently ceased at temperatures

  11. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...... to be related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  12. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also used to prevent respiratory infections, and an age-related eye condition called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, burns, and rashes.

  13. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how human impacts have interacted with natural variability to affect populations and ecosystems is required for sustainable management and conservation. The Baltic Sea is one of the few large marine ecosystems worldwide where the relative contribution of several key forcings...... to changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document......-average cod productivity coupled to a temporary reduction in fishing pressure. The Baltic cod example demonstrates how combinations of different forcings can have synergistic effects and consequently dramatic impacts on population dynamics. Our results highlight the potential and limitations of human...

  14. Nursery and nursery products in Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.H.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    The production and demand of nursery products is growing rapidly in China, particularly in big cities as Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai. The report describes the development and the prospects of production and demand of nursery products and the structure of the nursery sector in these

  15. Floating along buoyancy levels: dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.

    2014-01-01

    ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (± standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3......), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant...... for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species...

  16. The Importance of Nursery Rhymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Elaine

    This paper examines the benefit of nursery rhymes in literacy acquisition. It begins by discussing the history and attribution of various rhymes and the linkage of nursery rhymes with Mother Goose. It then suggests literacy advantages of children who know nursery rhymes over children who do not, which include the abilities to: (1) learn the…

  17. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  18. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  19. The Yiddish Nursery Rhyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Eric A.

    Following a brief discussion of the history of Yiddish children's literature, which is said to have come into existence as a separate literary form at the beginning of the twentieth century and to have ended in 1939, this paper presents 12 Yiddish nursery rhymes in Yiddish and in English translations. The rhymes are divided into four categories:…

  20. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  1. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  2. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  3. Planning a native plant nursery [Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson; Thomas D. Landis

    2009-01-01

    Every nursery is unique. The environmental, social, and economic context is different for each nursery. A wide variety of species and outplanting environments contributes to nursery diversity. In addition, each nursery has a distinct vision and purpose.The methods a nursery will use to bring people together, produce high-quality plants for the community, and share...

  4. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material....... The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing...

  5. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... of the Baltic, causing it to become warmer and fresher. As an estuarine ecosystem with large horizontal and vertical salinity gradients, biodiversity will be particularly sensitive to changes in salinity which can be expected as a consequence of altered precipitation patterns. Marine-tolerant species...... the Baltic because of its low salinity. Fishing fleets which presently target marine species (e.g. cod, herring, sprat, plaice, sole) in the Baltic will likely have to relocate to more marine areas or switch to other species which tolerate decreasing salinities. Fishery management thresholds that trigger...

  6. Nursery Rhymes: Foundation for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The article considers nursery rhymes as the foundation for learning. It is said that nursery rhymes carry all the parts of language that lead to speaking and reading. Because rhymes are short, they are easy for children to repeat, and become some of the first sentences children utter. The rhymes expand vocabulary, exposing children to words they…

  7. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.

    1995-01-01

    describe the identified nursery areas of larvae/juveniles and analyse the connection between the distribution of cod and hydrographical (frontal) characteristics of the areas. A total area of 67000 km(2) was covered by stations in a 10 x 10 nautical mile grid. Salinity, temperature, NO3+NO2 and chlorophyll...

  8. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  9. Towards Improving Nursery Education Programme In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore determines the areas of emphasis in nursery education, benefits from effective nursery education and the need to co-ordinate nursery education in Nigeria. Suggestions were made based on the conclusion. Keywords: Nursery Education, ogramme In Urban / Rural Areas. Journal of Technology and ...

  10. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    , and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  11. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  12. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  13. Nursery Rhymes and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Ingeborg

    1972-01-01

    Practical applications for both normal and handicapped children are given to support the thesis that exposure to high sound content" language like nursery rhymes is a motivating factor in language development. (Author/MB)

  14. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Single and multispecies models are used to examine the effect of species interaction on biological reference points for cod, herring, and sprat in the Baltic. The results demonstrate that reference points are different in single and multispecies contexts. Reference points for fishing mortality...... based on single-species yield and SSB calculations are difficult to use when natural mortality depends on the absolute abundance of the predators and their alternative prey. Reference points based on maximizing total yield from the system may lead to impractical results when species interact...... reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area...

  15. Temperature, paternity and asynchronous hatching influence early developmental characteristics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Dahlke, Flemming T.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2014-01-01

    (LN), yolk-sac area (AY), and deformities. Larvae hatching on a given day were incubated at the same temperature and sampled at 4days post-hatch (DPH) for growth, yolk utilization rate (YUR) and efficiency (YUE). The mean±SE duration of the hatching window decreased with increasing temperature in both...... hatching on larval traits of cod, Gadus morhua from the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Daily cohorts of 4 half-sib families of Atlantic larvae and 5 half-sib families of Baltic larvae were incubated and hatched at 5 temperatures (Atlantic 2.0-10.0°C, Baltic 6.5-12.5°C) and imaged for notochord length...... Atlantic (5.4±0.1 to 2.6±0.3days from 2.0 to 10.0°C) and Baltic larvae (6.2±0.4 to 5.0±0.6days from 6.5 to 12.5°C) and LN increased and AY decreased for every subsequent day of hatch. Deformities increased with increasing T and P × T explained 52.3 and 26.8% of the variance for Atlantic and Baltic larvae...

  16. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  17. Fish egg predation by Baltic sprat and herring: do species characteristics and development stage matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation of eggs by clupeids has been identified as a major factor contributing to early life stage mortality of Baltic cod. We used data from ichthyoplankton sampling and clupeid stomach analyses to investigate whether eggs of other fish species are to a similar extent subject to predation...... generally negatively selected by both predators, while fish eggs were non-selectively consumed in summer. Predation is suggested to account for a large fraction of mortality of cod eggs at older stages, i.e. those eggs, which have survived the often detrimentally low oxygen concentration in and below...

  18. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...... at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the longterm wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting...... for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation...

  19. Prey size spectra and prey availability of larval and small juvenile cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1997-01-01

    . Prey size spectra had the expected relationship to larval cod size, and preference for given copepod species could be ascribed to their relative size; Additional species-specific preferences were evident, for example the larger Pseudocalanus and the larger Calanus spp. were highly preferred. Available......The aim of the present study is to describe the prey preference characteristics of cod larvae and assess preference variability in relation to species and size composition of copepod prey. A further aim is to examine the hypothesis that dietary prey size spectra remain the same during the larval...... stage when viewed on a relative predator/prey size scale. The study is based on stomach analysis of larval/juvenile cod in the size range 10-35 mm from nursery grounds in the North Sea. Stomach contents (species, size) were compared to environmental composition and preference indices were calculated...

  20. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  1. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  2. Bacteriological Evaluation of Water Bottles Used by Nursery School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the eleven genera were isolated in the water bottle samples collected from Amazing Grace Nursery School, Mary Sumner Nursery School, FUTO Nursery School, IMSU Nursery School and St. Paul's International Nursery School. Absent from FSP and Alvan Nursery Schools were two genera namely Salmonella and ...

  3. Polonium-210 in mussels and fish from the Baltic-North Sea estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1996-01-01

    Polonium-210 has been measured in Danish fish meat caught in the North Sea, the Kattegat and the Baltic in 1991-1994. Average values of 0.35, 0.65 and 0.96 Bq Po-210 kg(-1) fresh weight were observed for cod, herring and plaice fillets, respectively. The difference between species is statisticall...... in fish and mussels may represent a natural baseline. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  4. Nursery School - Enrollments 2011-2012

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'Enfants

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 8, Wednesday 9 and Thursday 10 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School Registration forms will be available from 4th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch    At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel:77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch    On the pages of the Nursery School website

  5. Nursery School - ENROLMENTS 2011-2012

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 8, Wednesday 9 and Thursday 10 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School Registration forms available from 4th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary, tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress, tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website

  6. Toxic substances and reproductive disorders in Baltic fish and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, M; Hill, C; Bengtsson, B E

    2001-08-01

    In the Baltic Sea ecosystem reproductive disorders have occurred in top consumers such as seals and some fish-eating birds, due to biomagnification of toxic substances, e.g. DDT and PCBs. Reproductive disturbances have also affected fish during the last 25 years. However, there is no strong evidence that toxic substances have caused these problems. Rather, the disorders seem to result from a combination of two or more biotic or abiotic factors. The M74 syndrome, which kills fry of salmon and sea trout, is characterized by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). Several factors may contribute to the thiamine deficiency, including the diet of salmon in the sea and halogenated organic compounds. Cod do not develop M74, and poor cod recruitment is mainly due to poor oxygen conditions in the spawning areas in combination with overfishing. Toxic compounds in pulp-mill effluents retard gonadal development in perch, but the mechanisms and the active substances have not been identified. Recruitment problems in perch in the coastal waters outside some pulp mills may also be explained by a lack of food items for juvenile fish, rather than reproductive failure. There are very limited data on reproductive disorders in crustaceans from the Baltic Sea. Most data come from studies of the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis, which has been used in monitoring programs. Several signs of reproductive disorder have been reported in this amphipod, e.g. malformation and death of embryos, and asynchronous maturation of males and females.

  7. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Almesjö, Lisa; Hansson, Sture

    2004-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1))than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants, and banning the discard of highly contaminated organs such as cod liver could be part of the pollution management.

  8. Needs and Benefits of Nursery Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2005-01-01

    It appears, from observations reported by both private and public nurseries, that there are nurseries that do not have adequate quality assurance procedures. Species are being mislabeled and incorrect seed sources are being sold. It appears that some nurseries have entered the market ill prepared to provide quality seedlings. On the other hand, why should anyone listen...

  9. Forest Nursery Notes, Volume 30, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Tom D. Landis

    2010-01-01

    Forest Nursery Notes (FNN) is a nursery news and literature service that is distributed free of charge to over 1,200 cooperators in the United States, Canada, and other foreign countries. This issue's topics include: fertigation, holdover nursery stock, late-season fertilization, and bird damage.

  10. Baltic Grid for e-Science Development in Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmars, S.; Olgerts, B.

    2007-01-01

    Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania as new members of European Union now are involved in e- Science projects. The Baltic Grid (BG) project is a first step to infrastructure development for e-Science grid computing. Together with the universities of Baltic States some universities and organisations of neighbouring countries are involved in BG project to disseminate their experience and management skills. This paper presents achievements and experiences of BG project in e-infrastructure development in Baltic States and in Latvia and Riga Technical University, in particular. (Author)

  11. Recirculation nursery systems for bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitilia; Magnesen, Thorolf; Nicolas, J.; Petten, Bruno; Robert, Rene

    2016-01-01

    n order to increase production of bivalves in hatcheries and nurseries, the development of new technology and its integration into commercial bivalve hatcheries is important. Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) have several advantages: high densities of the species can be cultured resulting in

  12. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, L.G.

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  13. Cod monitoring; results 2015, quarter 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Trapman, B.K.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  14. Cod monitoring : results 2015, quarter 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  15. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings......, and to explain about their problems and opportunities in the nursery business. The assessment was made within the framework of Improved Seed Supply for Agroforestry in African Countries (ISSAAC), a Danida supported programme implemented in cooperation between Forest & Landscape Denmark and World Agroforestry...

  16. {sup 241}Pu concentrations in water, plankton and fish from the southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, D.I.; Skwarzec, B. [Gdansk, Univ. (Poland). Facuty of Chemistry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the work was to determine {sup 241}Pu activities in different components (water, plankton and fish) of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. Measurement of {sup 241}Pu in the samples was done indirectly by determining the increment in {sup 241}Am from the decay of the {beta}-emitting {sup 241}Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of {sup 241}Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The highest {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish were found in Perciformes: benthic round goby (0.863 {+-} 0.066 mBq/g ww) and pelagic perch (0.666 {+-} 0.001 mBq/g ww). Plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed in the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. Most of {sup 241}Pu in flounder, herring and cod is located in soft tissues, especially digestive organs (stomach, intestine, liver). The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of {sup 241}Pu containing Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small. (orig.)

  17. Nursery Rhymes, Phonological Skills and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, P. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on longitudinal data from a group of three- to six-year-olds (N=64) that supports a hypothesis that acquaintance with nursery rhymes positively affects children's reading ability. Data showed a strong relation between early knowledge of nursery rhymes and success in reading and spelling, despite differences in social background,…

  18. Young Writers and the Nursery Rhyme Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates children's interest in the nursery rhyme genre. Notes that by talking about the rhymes, seeing an expert writer modeling the writing process and writing collaboratively with their teacher and with each other, the children wrote an "alternative" nursery rhyme book. Concludes the children began to see writing as a long term process but…

  19. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  20. Toward a single nursery protocol for oak seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; T.L. Kormanik

    1994-01-01

    After a soil fertility baseline had been determined for the Georgia Forestry Commission's (GFC) Morgan Nursery, and single nursery protocol consistently produced high quality oak seedlings. The fertility baseline developed at the Institute of Tree Root Biology's Whitehall Experimental Nursery and adjusted for three GFC nurseries has a background target level...

  1. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected.

  2. Optimal fishery management accounting for variation in natural mortality: the Baltic sprat and herring case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Rudi; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Quaas, Martin F.

    2010-01-01

    –recruitment function. By applying the age‐structured ecological–economic model, we derive the optimal management strategy in terms of net present value of resource rents. We compare the relative importance of both processes (i.e. temperature increase via global change and variation in predation pressure via management...... possible, we adopt an economic objective function (present value of resource rents) and determine optimal management. In the Baltic Sea, mortality rates of sprat and young herring are strongly influenced by adult cod stock dynamics via predation. Furthermore, both clupeid stocks show temperature...

  3. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.

    2012-01-01

    Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...... herring and Atlantic cod were equally important during the low-density season. Prey availability and predictability are suggested as the main drivers for harbour porpoise distribution, and this could be caused by the formation of frontal zones in spring in the northern part of the Sound, leading to prey...

  4. Arsenic concentrations correlate with salinity for fish taken from the North Sea and Baltic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Francesconi, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations were determined in three teleost species (herring Clupea harengus; cod Gadus morhua, and flounder Platichthys flesus) taken. from four locations in the Baltic and North Sea with salinities ranging from 8 to 32 psu. Individual arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.......04 to 10.9 mg/kg wet mass, and there was a positive linear relationship between arsenic concentration and salinity for all three species (r(2) 0.44 to 0.72, all P arsenic than do freshwater fish, the data reported...... here are the first showing a relationship between the total arsenic concentration in fish and salinity....

  5. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  6. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...... developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model...

  7. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

  8. Grandfather Moose: Sign Language Nursery Rhymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Harley

    1987-01-01

    "Grandfather Moose" rhymes, written to follow the Mother Goose tradition, are short, appealing, easy-to-memorize sign language nursery rhymes which employ visual poetic devices such as similar signs and transitional flow of movement. (CB)

  9. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of cod products available to consumers were analyzed, and different ways to analyze sensory results were viewed. Ten cod samples of different origin (wild and farmed cod), storage time (short and extended) and storage method (stored fresh, frozen or packed in modified...... atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...

  10. Kindergarten Cop : dynamic nursery resizing for GHC

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreiro, Henrique; Castro, Laura; Janjic, Vladimir; Hammond, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Generational garbage collectors are among the most popular garbage collectors used in programming language runtime systems. Their performance is known to depend heavily on choosing the appropriate size of the area where new objects are allocated (the nursery). In imperative languages, it is usual to make the nursery as large as possible, within the limits imposed by the heap size. Functional languages, however, have quite different memory behaviour. In this paper, we study the effect that the...

  11. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  12. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  13. Enhancing forest nursery education: Input from the 2007 Joint Meeting of the Western Forest and Conservation Nursery Association and Forest Nursery Association of British Coumbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Concern has been noted over the lack of qualified applicants for vacancies in forest nursery positions. The University of Idaho Center for Forest Nursery and Seedling Research is uniquely qualified to address the issue of training given its faculty, staff, and resources. The keystone resource in this regard is the Franklin H. Pitkin Forest Nursery, a seedling...

  14. Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Arja; Lilja, Sakari; Kurkela, Timo; Rikala., Risto

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  15. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... parameters in good manufacturing practice for this product. Frozen storage of up to 12 mo had no significant effect on quality attributes and shelf-life at 2degreesC was above 14 d irrespective of the time of frozen storage. As compared to a previous study with Baltic Sea, cod drip losses during chill...... storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...

  16. Estimating abundances of 0-group western Baltic cod by using pound net fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Robert; Stepputtis, Daniel; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    were analysed, particularly concerning the influence of abiotic factors (hydrography, meteorology) and the differences between sampling sites. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) differed by site and location, whereas CPUE were highest at Lolland. Correlation between catch and wind/currents were generally...

  17. Improving selectivity of the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery: Experiments to assess the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Tschernij, Vesa; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    or present legislation and that were developed to meet requirements of increased selectivity performance. A standard nominal 135 mm diamond mesh codend, a codend with two nominal 125 mm bottom windows, and a codend with a nominal 125 mm nominal top window were tested using the covered codend method. A Danish...... and a Swedish commercial vessel were used for the sea trials to account for potential differences between vessels. Potential differences among the three gear variants were assessed by a two-step mixed effects model. The codend catch weight was found to have a significant effect on the selectivity in some cases...

  18. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress....... Hence, the mortality rates might be biased despite the short sampling intervals; a modification of the sampling design is recommended for future studies....

  19. Challenging ICES age estimation protocols: lessons learned from the eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Radtke, Krzysztof; Plikshs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    -validation is urgently needed. Deviations from the ICES guidelines identified are as follows: (i) the lack of rigorous quality control, particularly the auditing of national trends in age precision over the years using a reference collection and (ii) the implementation of an age error matrix in the stock assessment...

  20. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  1. The maritime law of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Before the end of the 13th century, the Baltic seamen created a law system codi ed in Bjarkey and Söderköping and then Schleswig laws. The increasing Germanic domination of Baltic navigation resulted in the creation of speci c maritime laws for Lübeck and Hamburg before the introduction of the Laws...

  2. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  3. Chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic biological resources of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubova O. L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying dependencies of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in the liver and muscles of the main commercial fish species of the Baltic Sea (sprat, herring, cod, flounder, the Vistula and the Curonian Bay (pike-perch, bream, roach on the fishing area, season and fish species have been considered. Determination of PCBs and pesticides has been carried out in accordance with MVI MN 2352–2005 "Method for simultaneous determination of residual amounts of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in fish and fish products by gas-liquid chromatography". Separation, identification and quantification have been performed by the gas chromatography Varian 3400 on the DB-1701 column, 30 m  0.25 mm  0.25 m, the column temperature 150–250 °C, the detector one – 300 °C. Identification and quantification have been performed by retention time of individual PCB congeners by the internal standard. The content of PCBs in liver of the Curonian and Vistula Bays fish is much lower than in liver of aquatic biological resources (ABR of the Baltic Sea. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are accumulated more intensively in liver of fish caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. β-HCH and γ-HCH prevail in the liver and muscle tissue of ABR samples as individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The all three isomers of HCH are present in cod liver. Accumulation ratio in cod liver compared to that in the muscle tissue content reaches 7-8 units HCH for isomers, and for DDT and metabolites – 10-12 units. It has been proposed that the secondary admission of HCH in the aquatic environment and in ABG (delivery from sediments takes place. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and aldrin are present in the Baltic Sea ABR in quantities below the detection limit used in the analysis methods. In spring and summer, there is an increased level of HCH and DDT in

  4. Cod avoidance by area regulations in Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2014-01-01

    presents two initiatives for cod avoidance in Kattegat; a fisher initiative sharing information about cod bycatch which could lead to real time closures in areas with high bycatch of juveniles, for vessels with low cod quota to avoid catch of all cod, and a Danish Swedish Government initiative of permanent...... fair and the goals should be clear, not least when the descriptors of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which might be more intangible for the fishers, are part of the goal of the measures. If incentives created by the regulation are stable over at least a few years the fishers and fishers......’ organisations are more capable at being active partners in developing the systems that support the discard ban. An example from the examined initiatives are the outline of a fleet information system, providing the skipper with information about hotspots of unwanted species allowing him to make a better plan...

  5. Epitope mapping of the major allergen from Atlantic cod in Spanish population reveals different IgE-binding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Lin, Jing; Bardina, Ludmilla; Cases, Barbara; Ibáñez, Maria Dolores; Vivanco, Fernando; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-07-01

    IgE-epitope mapping of allergens reveal important information about antigen components involved in allergic reactions. The peptide-based microarray immunoassay has been used to map epitopes of some food allergens. We developed a peptide microarray immunoassay to map allergenic epitopes in parvalbumin from Atlantic cod (Gad m 1), the most consumed cod species in Spain. Sera from 13 fish-allergic patients with specific IgE to cod parvalbumin were used. A library of overlapping peptides was synthesized, representing the primary sequence of Gad m 1. Peptides were used to analyze allergen-specific IgE antibodies in patient sera. 100% of the patients recognized one antigenic region of 15 amino acids in length in Gad m 1. This region only partially correlated with one of the three antigenic determinants of Gad c 1 (Allergen M), parvalbumin from Baltic cod (Gadus callarias). In the 3D model of the protein, this region was located on the surface of the protein. We have identified a relevant antigenic region in Gad m 1. This epitope could be considered as a severity marker and provides additional information to improve fish allergy diagnosis and the design of safe immunotherapeutic tools. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the offshore zones of the Baltic and the North Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Barsiene, Janina; Lang, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and fragmented-apoptotic cells (FA) were analyzed in mature peripheral blood and immature cephalic kidney erythrocytes of flounder (Platichthys flesus), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) from 12 offshore sites in the Baltic Sea (479 specimens) and 11 sites in the North Sea (291 specimens), which were collected during three research vessel cruises in December 2002, 2003 and in September 2004. The highest levels of environmental genotoxicity (frequencies of MN up to 0.5 per thousand, NB - up to 0.75 per thousand) and cytotoxicity (FA - up to 0.53 per thousand) were observed in flatfishes from areas close to oil and gas platforms in the North Sea and in zones related to the extensive shipping and potentially influenced by contamination from large European Rivers (Elbe, Vistula, Oder). In dab from the offshore zones of the North Sea, the levels of nuclear abnormalities were higher as compared to those in dab from the Baltic Sea. Responses in immature kidney erythrocytes were higher than in mature erythrocytes from peripheral blood. MN frequency lower than 0.05 per thousand (the Baltic Sea) and lower than 0.1 per thousand (the North Sea) could be suspected as a reference level in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of flatfish.

  7. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Saxen, R.

    1988-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The ratio 134 Cs/ 137 Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m -3 , in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m -3 , in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m -3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m -3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137 Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137 Cs was about 18 kBq m -3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137 Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  8. Development of an intertidal mangrove nursery and afforestation techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The development of an intertidal mangrove nursery and afforestation technique for regeneration and restoration of mangroves of Goa is described. Site selection, source of plant material, nursery plantation, season of transplantation, technique...

  9. Rhyme or Reason? A Microscopic View of Nursery Rhymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mary Palmer

    1974-01-01

    A critique of Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes for their focusing on concepts of white supremacy, negative self-images, and unreal depictions of life. Examples are given of nursery rhymes written by black people for black children. (EH)

  10. [The daily schedule of children attending nurseries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerová, A

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation of data in questionnaire completed by the health community paediatrician in February 1984 and 1985 in cooperation with one of the parents of 94 2-3-year-old children attending nurseries in Bratislava (Vth district) revealed that 18% of the children spend too much time (10-10.5 hours per day) in the nursery. The assumption was confirmed that in winter the children do not spend enough time outdoors, not only on working days (50% of the children go home from the nursery straight way) but also on non-working days (37.2% of the children spend less than two hours outdoors). This can have a negative effect on the resistance against diseases, in particular of the respiratory system.

  11. MEANING AND FORM IN NURSERY RHYMES TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MAKNA DAN BENTUK DALAM PENERJEMAHAN LAGU-LAGU ANAK Abstract Translating nursery rhymes is not an easy task. The problems of equivalence in meaning and form as well as in the harmony between the translated lyrics and the music are aspects that need to be considered by the translators. By considering nursery rhyme lyric as poetry text, this research analyzes the equivalence of meaning and form in nursery rhymes translation. This research focuses on five nursery rhymes. The meaning analysis was done by conducting particular procedures on translation quality assessment. Meanwhile, the analysis of the form was conducted by comparing the two versions of the nursery rhymes focusing on the sound values. From the equivalence of meaning, the result shows that most nursery rhymes are translated less accurately. On the other hand, the finding of the equivalence in form shows that most of the auditory devices are deleted while most of the rhymes are shifted. This research is expected to give a contribution to song translation activities especially those involving children as the target listeners. Keywords: equivalence, accuracy, sound values, auditory devices, rhymes Abstrak Menerjemahkan lagu anak bukanlah hal yang mudah. Masalah kesepadanan makna dan bentuk, serta harmonisasi antara lirik terjemahan dan musik adalah aspek-aspek yang harus dipertimbangkan oleh penerjemah. Dengan mempertimbangkan lirik lagu anak sebagai teks puisi, penelitian ini menganalisis kesepadanan antara makna dan bentuk dalam terjemahan lagu anak. Dengan menggunakan teknik sampling, penelitian ini berfokus kepada lima lagu anak. Analisis makna dilakukan dengan prosedur penelitian kualitas terjemahan sedangkan analisis bentuk dilakukan dengan membandingkan dua versi lagu anak dengan fokus kepada sound values (bunyi. Analisis kesepadanan makna menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar lagu anak diterjemahkan dengan kurang akurat. Dari segi bentuk, sebagian besar auditory devices

  12. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  13. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S.; Barlaup, L.; Mohammadkarami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization......, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast......M resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation...

  14. RNGR: A national resource for reforestation, restoration, and nursery professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase; Jeremiah R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese; George Hernandez; Bob Karrfalt; Ron Overton

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Service developed the national Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetics Resources (RNGR) program to provide expert support to State, industrial, and private forest and conservation nurseries throughout the country. The RNGR program includes technical assistance to nurseries, research projects (to address seedling and field issues), and Internet sites. RNGR...

  15. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  16. New England Cod Collapse and the Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C Meng

    Full Text Available To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England's iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. This is a consequence of three results: i a 1-unit increase in the NAO winter index is associated with a 17% decrease in the spring biomass of age-1 cod the following year; ii this NAO-driven decrease persists as the affected cohort matures; iii fishing practices appear to exacerbate NAO's direct biological effect such that, since 1913, a 1-unit increase in the NAO index lowers subsequent cod catch for up to 19 years. The Georges Bank cod stock displays similar patterns. Because we statistically detect a delay between the NAO and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our findings imply that observed current NAO conditions can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fish populations strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation.

  17. Scheduling irrigation in heterogeneous container nursery crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Vita, Di A.; Pardossi, A.; Bibbiani, C.; Marzialetti, P.; Balendonck, J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major production areas in Europe for Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stocks (HONS) is located around Pistoia (Tuscany, Italy). In this area, pot ornamental crops show low water use efficiency (WUE). Main reasons of poor irrigation efficiency are both the inaccurate irrigation scheduling, which

  18. Nursery Rhymes, a Pathway to Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Susan

    Children's knowledge of nursery rhymes can be their path to learning to read and to enjoy reading if handled properly by their teachers and parents. Each session with a child or group of children must be enjoyable, non-threatening, inspiring and challenging for the children. They should be able to feel that their parents and teachers are also…

  19. Management of white grubs in forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Smitley

    2010-01-01

    In Michigan, the most important white grub pests of nursery seedlings are European chafer beetle (Rhizotrogus majalis) and June beetles (Phyllophaga spp.). If damage is observed and white grubs found, beds can be protected from future damage with imidacloprid applied as Discus or Marathon once per year in June or July.

  20. Containerized Nursery Start-up Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Edwards

    2002-01-01

    About 4 years ago, I seriously began to entertain the idea of opening a containerized forestry nursery. During this period, some of the timberland owned by American Forest Seed Service near Auburn University's Solon Dixon Forestry Center, located in Andalusia, AL, was being used for three out-planting test plots. The test plots compared growth rates between...

  1. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  2. Epidemiological Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bateriuria in preschool children of different age and sex groups and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A total of 475 children from 17 nurseries in Ahvaz city, Iran ...

  3. A metacommunity perspective on source-sink dynamics and management: the Baltic Sea as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Andersen, Ken Haste; Casini, Michele

    2014-01-01

    environment that structures the spatial and temporal distribution of the dominant species cod, herring, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Despite local differences, the stocks are traditionally managed as homogeneous units. Here, we present a metacommunity-perspective on source–sink dynamics of Baltic Sea fish......) produces an increase in neighboring sink habitats, but a decline of prey species in response to increased predation. Our approach provides valuable insight concerning metacommunity-structuring of marine fish and may serve as an important tool for implementing sustainable management strategies under...

  4. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Alheit, J.; Conley, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    fisheries for herring and other fish species is rare until after 1900. During the 20th century, while the Baltic underwent eutrophication, the biomass and landings of three fish species (cod (Gadus morhua), herring, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus)) all increased, whereas the biomass of marine mammals (grey...... seals (Halichoerus grypus), ringed seals (Phoca hispida), harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)) decreased. The relative roles of exploitation, marine mammal predation, and environmental variability (e.g., eutrophication, major inflows of saline water, climate change) on the long-term dynamics of key...

  5. A Comparison of the Effects of Packaging Containing Nano ZnO or Polylysine on the Microbial Purity and Texture of Cod (Gadus morhua Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mizielińska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples, which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials. The Gumminess of fillets increased after storage, but the lowest increase was noted in cod samples that were stored in boxes containing PE films with ZnO nanoparticles. It was found that water loss from the cod fillets in these boxes was also lowest. The Adhesiveness of the fish samples stored in boxes devoid of active coatings also increased. In contrast to the packaging material devoid of active coatings, the storage of fillets in active coating boxes resulted in a decrease of adhesiveness. Microbial analysis showed that packaging material containing nano-ZnO was found to be more active against mesophilic and psychotropic bacterial cells than the coatings with polylysine after 72 h and 144 h of storage.

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Packaging Containing Nano ZnO or Polylysine on the Microbial Purity and Texture of Cod (Gadus morhua) Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizielińska, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Urszula; Jarosz, Michał; Sumińska, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples), which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC) coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials. The Gumminess of fillets increased after storage, but the lowest increase was noted in cod samples that were stored in boxes containing PE films with ZnO nanoparticles. It was found that water loss from the cod fillets in these boxes was also lowest. The Adhesiveness of the fish samples stored in boxes devoid of active coatings also increased. In contrast to the packaging material devoid of active coatings, the storage of fillets in active coating boxes resulted in a decrease of adhesiveness. Microbial analysis showed that packaging material containing nano-ZnO was found to be more active against mesophilic and psychotropic bacterial cells than the coatings with polylysine after 72 h and 144 h of storage. PMID:29534544

  7. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  8. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  9. St. Canute Lavard around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Baltic Sea-area manifestations of the cult of the Danish Royal saint, Canute the Duke, in Danish, Knud Lavard, during the Middle Ages. It also applies theories of cultural memory by Jan and Aleida Assmann in order to approach an understanding of how the cult of St. Canute...... was culturally re-functionalized in Denmark in the sixteenth century, but not in any similar way in other areas around the Baltic Sea....

  10. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  11. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mg COD , determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  12. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  13. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; Mackenzie, Brian R; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-09-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  14. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....... of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental...

  15. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    -dimensional geometry of the Magellanic system. Chris Evans from the VMC team adds: "The VISTA images will allow us to extend our studies beyond the inner regions of the Tarantula into the multitude of smaller stellar nurseries nearby, which also harbour a rich population of young and massive stars. Armed with the new, exquisite infrared images, we will be able to probe the cocoons in which massive stars are still forming today, while also looking at their interaction with older stars in the wider region." The wide-field image shows a host of different objects. The bright area above the centre is the Tarantula Nebula itself, with the RMC 136 cluster of massive stars in its core. To the left is the NGC 2100 star cluster. To the right is the tiny remnant of the supernova SN1987A (eso1032). Below the centre are a series of star-forming regions including NGC 2080 - nicknamed the "Ghost Head Nebula" - and the NGC 2083 star cluster. The VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey is one of six huge near-infrared surveys of the southern sky that will take up most of the first five years of operations of VISTA. Notes [1] VISTA ― the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy ― is the newest telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile. VISTA is a survey telescope working at near-infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest survey telescope. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. The telescope is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 m across. In photographic terms it can be thought of as a 67-megapixel digital camera with a 13 000 mm f/3.25 mirror lens. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries

  16. Outdoor learnig and play in nursery school

    OpenAIRE

    Hegedič, Kaja

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the field of outdoor learning and play, within it represents the forest education as the concept with many positive effects on the child's overall growth. The theoretical part of the thesis describes the development of the concept and establishing of the first forest school and nursery school, which are located into the natural environment and provide a regular visit to nature in all seasons. They give emphasis on constructivist and experiential learning through unstructu...

  17. Illustration of genetic syndromes in the nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Langlois, S

    2006-01-15

    Reading to children and storytelling has documented developmental benefits. Traditional Nursery Rhymes (Mother Goose tales in North America) encapsulate 'snapshots' of the people described and chronicle their customs, superstitions, and amusements. Art has long been employed to document the impact of human imperfections and diseases. We investigated whether illustrations accompanying nursery rhymes, suggest that any characters illustrated may have had or been based on recognized morphological abnormalities, and if this literature documents a role for grandmothers as storytellers. Archival materials were reviewed at the Victoria and Albert museum and Mary Evans picture library, and via the web. As early as 1695, Perrault included a frontispiece of a mature woman as storyteller in his book of fairytales. Similar scenes by various artists (Boilly, Cruikshank, Guy, Highmore, Maclise, Richter, and Smith) are found consistently from 1744 to 1908. Many illustrators (Aldin, Caldecott, Cruikshank, Doré, Dulac, Gale, Greenaway, Rackham, Tarrant, and Wood) portray infants, children, and adults who are dwarfed, giant, or whimsically grotesque. Many images certainly suggest genetic syndromes, and in some characters consistency of specific features is evident between artists. Our research confirms the wealth of children's nursery rhyme illustrations suggesting pathology; that an authoritative compilation of the morphologies depicted is lacking; and that historically, grandmothers have a central role as storytellers. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cod avoidance techniques for the Dutch and Belgian fishing fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlen, van B.; Polet, H.; Quirijns, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries managers go to great lengths to reduce cod catches in the North Sea, aiming for recovery of the cod stock. The Dutch government asked IMARES to provide an overview of all measures that are in place in various countries around the North Sea for reducing cod catches. The Dutch fisheries

  19. COD and colour removal from molasses spent wash using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a heterogeneous and irregular shape of pores. Among the adsorption isotherm models ... These were adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial COD concentration, with removal of COD and colour as response variables. COD reduction was influenced by initial ...

  20. 78 FR 32612 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service... Services * * * * * 13.0 Collect on Delivery (COD) * * * * * 13.2 Basic Information 13.2.1 Description... delivery (COD) service to mail an article for which the mailer has not been paid and have its price and the...

  1. 78 FR 41305 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service... Postal Service will adopt the proposed changes to Collect on Delivery (COD) service features. Summary of... fourth sentences of 12.2.1 as follows:] Any mailer may use collect on delivery (COD) service to mail an...

  2. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...... and biological responses in coastal fish in the Baltic Sea....

  3. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae, in the North East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinova Aneta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway in 2002 (spring and autumn and 2003 (spring. The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus. The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species and nematodes (13 species including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority

  4. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  5. Species interactions in the western Baltic Sea: With focus on the ecological role of whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann

    , which potentially prey on and compete for food with whiting. Here, the growth dynamics and feeding ecology of whiting in the western Baltic Sea is investigated and discussed in an ecosystem context. Furthermore, the diet of the harbour porpoise is examined and the interactions between whiting, cod......The food web of the upper trophic levels in marine ecosystems is often complex, encompassing multiple biological interactions. One species may serve as prey, predator and competitor at the same time, and the interactions are likely to change with the ontogenetic development from juvenile to adult....... Disentangling food web dynamics is important for both ecologists and conservationists involved with management. Multispecies assessment models and ecosystem-based trophic models are becoming increasingly used as tools to investigate and assess biological interactions and predation impacts of key species...

  6. Competition for marine space: modelling the Baltic Sea fisheries and effort displacement under spatial restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2015-01-01

    to fishery and from vessel to vessel. The impact assessment of new spatial plans involving fisheries should be based on quantitative bioeconomic analyses that take into account individual vessel decisions, and trade-offs in cross-sector conflicting interests.Weuse a vessel-oriented decision-support tool (the...... DISPLACE model) to combine stochastic variations in spatial fishing activities with harvested resource dynamics in scenario projections. The assessment computes economic and stock status indicators by modelling the activity of Danish, Swedish, and German vessels (.12 m) in the international western Baltic...... Sea commercial fishery, together with the underlying size-based distribution dynamics of the main fishery resources of sprat, herring, and cod. The outcomes of alternative scenarios for spatial effort displacement are exemplified by evaluating the fishers’s abilities to adapt to spatial plans under...

  7. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a selec...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  9. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  10. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  11. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  12. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen......The Nordic-Baltic countries are not really a region, but a proto- region that perhaps is coming closer to being a proper region because of the changing geopolitical conditions outside the area. Russian actions in Ukraine have increased threat perception in the region and pose a fundamental...... and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  13. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  14. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  15. The relationship between seal abundance and cod worm (Phocanema decipiens) infestation in cod in Norwegian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørge, Arne

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 52 cods, Gadus morhua, caught close to a grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, haul out site, and a total of 652 cods from 18 commercial catches (average sample size 36 cods) were examined with regard to cod worm infestation. The sampling was carried out from July 1978 to January 1981 in Norwegian coastal waters between 62° and 66° North. The presence of larval cod worm was recorded in 64% of the examined fishes, and the average infestation in all 704 fishes was 8.5 ...

  16. Energy Policy in the Baltics: A Study of Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jessica Annette

    Regionalism, especially in the form of macro-regions, has emerged as a force of cooperation and integration within the European Union. The Baltic states, who have cooperated more closely since acceding to the EU, provide an effective case study for testing the unifying power of regionalism. As small states that have shared a damaging dependence on Russian energy imports, the three Baltic states share the incentive to cooperate as a region and develop their internal gas, oil, and electricity capacities. The Baltic states have displayed uneven tendencies of cooperation when it comes to energy, however. After presenting an overview of regionalism in the EU, this paper examines EU policy regarding energy in the Baltics, energy ties between the Baltics and other countries, and specific energy projects in the Baltics to show that while the Baltics do not yet have a strong tradition of cooperation in the energy sector, they have laid the groundwork to strengthen future ties.

  17. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  18. The UNDP/GEF Baltic wind atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O.

    2003-11-01

    In the frame of the Regional Baltic Wind Energy Programme, sponsored by the Global Environment Facility through the UNDP, a publicly available wind resource database for the wind-energy relevant areas of the Baltic Countries has been established. A 2-year measurement campaign has been performed based on 7 stations in the coastal area: the 3 Lithuanian sites Kretinga, Vilkyciai and Taurage; the Latvian site Saernate; and the 3 Estonian sites Prangli, Virtsu and Uulu. In addition, private data measured at the Estonian site Tuerisalu was made available to the project. (au)

  19. Anti-crisis Measures. Baltic Economies’ Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor Ionescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to find a solution and to implement good practices connected to theeconomic recovery under the present global crisis. The objectives of the paper are to analyse theeconomic trend in the Baltic economies and to realise a forecasts for 2012-2013. The economicanalysis is focused on the main macroeconomic indicators during 2010-2011. The forecast covers2012 and 2013 and is based on the latest official statistic data.The analysis is supported by pertinentdiagrams. The main conclusion of the paper is that the solutions to pass the crisis have to be findindividually and the Baltic economies can be an example of good practices.

  20. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries – towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...... in order to develop a stochastic food-web model integrating species interactions, between cod and the forage fish species herring and sprat, with external forcing through commercial fishing, zooplankton and climate effects. Furthermore, by linking models across sectors, i.e., with climate and bio...... the response of Baltic fish stocks to climate change and take appropriate management actions to mitigate negative effects on future fisheries production. Furthermore, by presenting the ecological need and economic advantage of our ecosystem-based approach we may establish the institutional and political...

  1. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries – towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...... the response of Baltic fish stocks to climate change and take appropriate management actions to mitigate negative effects on future fisheries production. Furthermore, by presenting the ecological need and economic advantage of our ecosystem-based approach we may establish the institutional and political...... in order to develop a stochastic food-web model integrating species interactions, between cod and the forage fish species herring and sprat, with external forcing through commercial fishing, zooplankton and climate effects. Furthermore, by linking models across sectors, i.e., with climate and bio...

  2. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... larvae (L3) of three anisakid species were found, including Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802), Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). Molecular identification by PCR-RFLP indicated the presence of A. simplex s.s. and the sibling species C. osculatum B and C...

  3. Using organic fertilizers in forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    Since World War II, synthetic fertilizers have been used almost exclusively to grow forest and native plant nursery crops because they are quickly soluble and readily taken up by crops, producing the rapid growth rates that are necessary in nursery culture. In recent years, however, a wide variety of new organic fertilizers have become available. We divided these...

  4. Rhymes, Nursery Rhymes, and Reading in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Morag; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports a strong, highly specific relationship between young children's knowledge of nursery rhymes and the development of phonological skills, which remained significant when differences in IQ and social background were controlled. Measures of nursery rhymes and alliteration were related to early reading skills. (Author/NH)

  5. Born Again Phonics and the Nursery Rhyme Revival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Marian

    1993-01-01

    Describes the recent revival of interest in the use of nursery rhymes as tools for the development of early phonic knowledge in children. Traces the historical evolution of nursery rhymes and their origins in the world of carnival. Questions whether such material is proper for teaching surface features of reading. (HB)

  6. To Baby with Love: Baby's First Nursery Rhyme Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Books for Babes Committee of Perry County, Tell City, IN.

    Intended for parents to read to their infants and young children, this booklet of mostly traditional nursery rhymes has been designed and illustrated by elementary school students. Each of the 16 nursery rhymes in the booklet is accompanied by short instructive or informational remarks which reiterate the importance of parents' reading to their…

  7. Growing media trials at the Montana Conservation Seedling Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Justin

    2009-01-01

    The Montana Conservation Seedling Nursery (MCSN) in Missoula produces 750,000 container seedlings annually in containers ranging in size from 66 cm3 (4 in3) up to 61 L (16 gal) pots. The MCSN is a production facility with no research funding. When we encounter a promising idea for improving our seedlings or the efficiency of nursery operations, we rarely perform...

  8. Reef fishes recruited at midwater coral nurseries consume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each nursery consisted of a 6 m × 6 m PVC pipe frame, layered with a recycled 5.5-cm-mesh tuna net. Human cleaning effort was calculated based on daily dive logs. Nursery-associated fish assemblages and behaviour were video-recorded prior to harvesting corals after a 20-month growth period and seven months ...

  9. Juvenile nursery colonization patterns for the European flounder (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinho, F.; van der Veer, H.W.; Cabral, H.N.; Pardal, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the latitudinal trends in the nursery habitat colonization processes of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). This was accomplished by estimating the duration of the pelagic and metamorphic stages, as well as the duration of the spawning period, in several nursery

  10. A canteen for the Nursery School A project for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    For a number of years a minimum service has been offered at lunchtime between 12.15 and 13.30 for children enrolled for the full day at the CERN Nursery School. This service is provided by qualified staff at the Nursery School, on the premises, the meals being supplied by the parents.

  11. Prevalence Of Intestinal Helminthiasis In Nursery And Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Intestinal helminthiasis affect the nutritional status of school aged children. Objective: o determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in nursery and primary school children in Enugu. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on 460 nursery and primary school children from Enugu metropolis. The prevalence of ...

  12. Optimaal en efficient voeren van mosselbroed in een nursery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiele, van der T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Stage verslag van een student van de hogeschool Zeeland, opleiding aquatische Ecotechnologie. Bij dit onderzoek is gekeken naar optimaal en efficient voeren van mosselbroed in een nursery. Geconcludeerd wordt dat de beste manier om mosselbroed in een nursery te voeren is door de algen toe te dienen

  13. Nursery function of tropical back-reef systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.J.; Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to nearshore systems in temperate latitudes, the nursery paradigm for tropical back-reef systems is that they provide a habitat for juveniles of species that subsequently make ontogenetic shifts to adult populations on coral reefs (we refer to this as the nursery function of back-reef

  14. Optimalisatie van een nursery systeem voor de kweek van mosselbroed en een algenkweek systeem t.b.v. deze nursery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peene, F.

    2006-01-01

    Stage rapport van een leerling van Hogeschool Zeeland, opleiding Aquatische Ecotechnologie. De studie die tijdens deze stage uitgevoerd is, is een literatuurstudie naar systemen voor de nursery van mosselen en systemen voor grootschalige algenkweek ten behoeve van deze nursery. Ook zijn experimenten

  15. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  16. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  17. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  18. Saints and Sainthood around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Selch; Petersen, Nils Holger; Jensen, Kurt Villads

    This collection of articles covers most of the Baltic Region with a special focus on the cult of saints in Russia, Prussia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Latvia (more commonly referred to in the Middle Ages as Livonia). The articles cover a wide range of topics, for example the introduction...

  19. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  20. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-03-01

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  1. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  2. An evolution of bareroot cultural practices at J. Herbert Stone Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Riley; David Steinfeld; Steven Feigner

    2006-01-01

    Bareroot nursery practices that maximize root development and root growth have been studied and documented over a number of years. Each nursery, however, has its own unique combination of climate, soils, species, and stocktypes for which site specific cultural practices are necessary. J. Herbert Stone Nursery, a USDA Forest Service nursery in Central Point, OR, has...

  3. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  4. Juvenile flatfish in the northern Baltic Sea - long-term decline and potential links to habitat characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Henri; Wennhage, Håkan; Ollus, Victoria; Aro, Eero; Norkko, Alf

    2016-01-01

    Flatfish in the northern Baltic Sea are facing multiple environmental pressures due to on-going large-scale ecosystem changes linked to eutrophication and climate change. Shallow juvenile habitats of flatfishes are expected to be especially susceptible to these environmental pressures. Using previously unpublished historical and present-state data on juvenile flatfish in nursery areas along the Finnish coast we demonstrate a drastic (up to 40 ×) decline in 1-Y-O flounder densities since the 1980s and a particularly low current occurrence of both flounders and turbots in several known juvenile habitats. As a consequence of ongoing coastal eutrophication vegetation coverage and filamentous algae have generally increased in shallow areas. We examined the predicted negative effect of vegetation/algae by exploring quantitative relationships between juvenile flatfish (flounder and turbot) occurrence and vegetation/algae among other environmental factors in shallow juvenile habitats. Despite sparse occurrence of juveniles we found a significant negative relationship between flatfish abundance and vegetation cover, implicating eutrophication as a potential major driver affecting the value of juvenile habitat. Shallow littoral habitats play a particularly central role for flatfish due to the spatial concentration of fish in these areas during the critical juvenile stage. Despite their importance, these areas have been relatively poorly studied in the northern Baltic Sea, which makes it difficult to quantify overall changes in environmental conditions and to relate these changes to flatfish recruitment. The low present-state flatfish densities recorded preclude strong inferences of the role of habitat quality to be drawn. Our study does, however, provide a baseline for future assessment. Based on existing evidence, we cannot thus establish any bottlenecks but hypothesize that the current low occurrence of juvenile flatfish, and the population decline of flounder on the

  5. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  6. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  7. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  8. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  9. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  10. Patterns of larval source distribution and mixing in early life stages of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A.; DiMaria, Ruth A.; Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-12-01

    Effective and sustainable management depends on knowledge of spawning locations and their relative contributions to marine fish populations. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the southeastern Bering Sea aggregate at discrete spawning locations but there is little information on patterns of larval dispersal and the relative contribution of specific spawning areas to nursery habitats. Age-0 Pacific cod from two cohorts (2006 and 2008) were examined to address the following questions: (1) does size, age, and otolith chemistry vary among known capture locations; (2) can variation in elemental composition of the otolith cores (early larval signatures) be used to infer the number of chemically distinct sources contributing to juvenile recruits in the Bering Sea; and (3) to what extent are juvenile collection locations represented by groups of fish with similar chemical histories throughout their early life history? Hierarchical cluster (HCA) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to examine variation in otolith chemistry at discrete periods throughout the early life history. HCA identified five chemically distinct groups of larvae in the 2006 cohort and three groups in 2008; however, three sources accounted for 80-100% of the juveniles in each year. DFA of early larval signatures indicated that there were non-random spatial distributions of early larvae in both years, which may reflect interannual variation in regional oceanography. There was also a detectable and substantial level of coherence in chemical signatures within groups of fish throughout the early life history. The variation in elemental signatures throughout the early life history (hatch to capture) indicates that otolith chemical analysis could be an effective tool to further clarify larval sources and dispersal, identify juvenile nursery habitats, and estimate the contributions of juvenile nursery habitats to the adult population within the southeastern Bering Sea.

  11. Agricultural restructuring in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Mette Bech

    responded to the changes following independence. This is investigated by studying how farmers’ decision-making was influenced by different social, economic and institutional structures and how differences in individual qualifications and resource availability influenced farmers’ responses and strategies....... The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse the changes in the conditions for the agricultural sector during this period in the Baltic countries and to investigate how agricultural production at the local level adapted to the transition. The central research question concerns the way farmers....... The thesis consists of four papers and a synthesis. The first part of the synthesis (chapters 1 to 5) outlines the theoretical and methodical frameworks for the study. Furthermore, it introduces the historical setting for agriculture in the Baltic region and the case areas. The second part of the synthesis...

  12. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  13. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren S; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a multifaceted disease associated with several risk factors and a complex clinical presentation. We established the Scandinavian Baltic Pancreatic Club (SBPC) Database to characterise and study the natural history of CP in a Northern European cohort. Here......, we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report......: The study cohort comprised of 910 patients (608 men: 302 women; median age 58 (IQR: 48-67) years with definite 848 (93%) or probable CP 62 (7%). Nicotine (70%) and alcohol (59%) were the most frequent aetiologies and seen in combination in 44% of patients. A history of recurrent acute pancreatitis was seen...

  14. A wasted resource: cod discards in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Aarts, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The public, political, and stakeholder perception of fisheries discards is that they are a waste of a valuable resource. In the North Sea, fisheries discards are some of the highest in the world. Cod (Gadus morhua) has contributed considerably to the amount discarded. The declining cod stock within...

  15. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    -chilling on the quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  16. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Attenuation of Methyl Red in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Attenuation of Methyl Red in Water. 1171. PEREWARE ADOWEI; A. A. ABIA. Fig 6: Langmuir equilibrium isotherm model of COD reduction of methyl red in water. Freundlich Isotherm. Freundlich isotherm model provides experimental equation for testing non-perfect materials that have.

  17. The Baltic Inflow Event 2014 and its Biogeochemical Response in the Anoxic Central Baltic Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bull, D. E.; Naumann, M.; Mohrholz, V.; Nausch, G.; Prien, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea and the deeper anoxic basins in the central parts are occasionally ventilated by the intrusion of high saline and oxygen rich water from the North Atlantic entering the Baltic Sea. With a volume of 198 km3 containing 4 Gt salt, the inflow event in 2014 was the third largest ever observed. As a result the redox conditions in the anoxic parts of the Baltic Sea changed. In the Bornholm Basin and the Gotland Deep area the biogeochemical conditions for many elements and redox sensitive substances changed crucial by the inflow water. Oxidation of the hydrogen sulfide and consequent changes in the pH and the carbonate system were observed. Other chemicals such as the nitrogen nutrients, phosphate, trace metals and the dissolved organic matter react with the fresh inflow water ingredients. The chronological sequence of the biogeochemical reactions following the inflow event where monitored by autonomous stations and several ship expeditions in high spatial and temporal resolution.

  18. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  19. Diversity of foliar Phytophthora species on Rhododendron in Oregon nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.J. Knaus; K.A. Graham; Niklaus J. Grünwald; Valerie J. Fieland

    2017-01-01

    The genus Phytophthora contains some of the most notorious plant pathogens affecting nursery crops. Given the recent emergence of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, particularly in association with Rhododendron spp., characterization of Phytophthora communities...

  20. Cooperative Atlantic States Shark Pupping and Nursery (COASTSPAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Survey of inshore areas used by sharks for pupping and nurseries. Various locations have been surveyed, from the U.S. Virgin Islands to Massachusetts, most in...

  1. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the Department of Defense, or Air University. In accordance with Air Force Instruction...Thompson, “Why the Baltic States Are Where Nuclear War Is Most Likely to Begin,” The National Interest, 20 July 2016, http://nationalinterest.org/ blog /the...Philip Breedlove, “US Depends on European Allies and Partners to ‘Fully Defend Our National Security Interests’,” Atlantic Council ( blog ) 25

  2. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  3. Nursery words and hypocorisms among Germanic kinship terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2018-01-01

    By using Jakobson’s (1960: 127-130) criteria for determining the nursery-word sta-tus of a given lexeme, I argue in this article that, even if we should no longer re-gard PG *aiþīn-/-ōn- ‘mother’ (Goth. aiþei), *aiþma- ‘daughter’s husband’ and *faþōn- ‘father’s sister’ as nursery words or hypocor...

  4. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  5. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Baltic republics. Such tactics included employing (undeclared) special and conventional Russian forces alongside local separatists, using oil and gas...U.S. diplomacy is most critical are: Russia, the Baltics, and NATO. First, Russia, as the predominant threat, must receive the thrust of diplomatic

  6. The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in…

  7. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    For two consecutive days during spring 1997, the wind field over the Baltic Sea has been studied. The strength of the geostrophic wind speed is the major difference in synoptic conditions between these two days. During both days, the mesoscale wind field over most of the Baltic Sea is quite heter...

  8. Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

  9. Environmentally driven predator-prey overlaps determine the aggregate diet of the cod Gadus morhua in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are environmentally heterogeneous with features such as fronts or clines of temperature and salinity. This heterogeneity varies over time and is likely to cause changes in predator-prey overlaps, which will affect the diet composition of the predators. We investigated how inflows...

  10. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Highly stratified marine ecosystems with dynamic features such as fronts or clines in salinity, temperature, or oxygen concentration challenge an individual's ability to select suitable living conditions. Ultimately,, environmental heterogeneity organizes the spatial distributions of populations...

  11. BALTIC Coin: Using a Counterinsurgency Model to Counter Russian Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    issue reached critical mass.7 Using a foolish Georgian campaign to reconquer the ethnic minority in South Ossetia as an excuse to act, Russia began...the Baltics. Looking at this area of Estonia (and equally as strategically important and exploitable, the south -eastern provinces of Latvia with their

  12. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  13. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...... autolysis sites, cod variant B only contains a single autolysis site. The three-dimensional structures of the A- and B-variants of cod has been modelled on the known crystal structure of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin showing almost superimposable structures....

  14. "XANSONS for COD": a new small BOINC project in crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverov, Vladislav S.; Khrapov, Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    "XANSONS for COD" (http://xansons4cod.com) is a new BOINC project aimed at creating the open-access database of simulated x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns for nanocrystalline phase of materials from the collection of the Crystallography Open Database (COD). The project uses original open-source software XaNSoNS to simulate diffraction patterns on CPU and GPU. This paper describes the scientific problem this project solves, the project's internal structure, its operation principles and organization of the final database.

  15. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  16. A Role for Intercept Traps in the Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) IPM Strategy at Ornamental Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cause significant damage to ornamental nursery tree crops throughout the Eastern U. S. Depending on surrounding habitat, some nurseries can undergo large influxes of ambrosia beetles from the forest to susceptible nursery stock. Eth...

  17. Predation on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in inshore waters of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena; Peck, Myron A.; Oesterwind, Daniel; Polte, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In fishery science, early life-stage survival and development are regarded as major factors driving the population dynamics of marine fishes. During the last century, the main research focus has been on the spatio-temporal match of larval fish and appropriate food (bottom-up processes). However, these field studies are often criticised for their limited capability to disentangle their results from mortality caused by predation since these top-down mechanisms are rarely studied. We examined the predation on herring (Clupea harengus) larvae in a Baltic inshore lagoon by investigating the spatio-temporal overlap of larval herring and their potential predators such as the dominant threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in distinct habitats (sublittoral and littoral areas) using a set of different gears and sampling techniques. Despite significant spatial and temporal predator-prey overlap, stomach analyses suggested that very few larvae were consumed by sticklebacks, even if projected to the entire study area and season. Other well-known predators of clupeid larvae such as gelatinous plankton occur later in the year after young herring have migrated out of the system. The observed predation on herring larvae was much less than expected and appears being a minor factor in determining herring reproduction success in our study area, particularly if compared to other causes of mortality such as egg predation. Providing a relatively good shelter from predation might be a key element making transitional waters valuable nursery grounds for the offspring of migrating marine fish species.

  18. The COD Model: Simulating Workgroup Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggiero, Lucio; Sevi, Enrico

    Though the question of the determinants of workgroup performance is one of the most central in organization science, precise theoretical frameworks and formal demonstrations are still missing. In order to fill in this gap the COD agent-based simulation model is here presented and used to study the effects of task interdependence and bounded rationality on workgroup performance. The first relevant finding is an algorithmic demonstration of the ordering of interdependencies in terms of complexity, showing that the parallel mode is the most simplex, followed by the sequential and then by the reciprocal. This result is far from being new in organization science, but what is remarkable is that now it has the strength of an algorithmic demonstration instead of being based on the authoritativeness of some scholar or on some episodic empirical finding. The second important result is that the progressive introduction of realistic limits to agents' rationality dramatically reduces workgroup performance and addresses to a rather interesting result: when agents' rationality is severely bounded simple norms work better than complex norms. The third main finding is that when the complexity of interdependence is high, then the appropriate coordination mechanism is agents' direct and active collaboration, which means teamwork.

  19. Impact assessment of a fisheries closure with effort and landings spatial analyses: A case study in the Western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miethe, Tanja; Bastardie, Francois; Dorrien, Christian von

    2014-01-01

    Commercial fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea (WBS; ICES Subdivisions 22–24) are dominated by Danishand German vessels. By combining and processing logbook and Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data forGermany and Denmark, we compare patterns of spatial effort allocation and the origin of the landi......Commercial fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea (WBS; ICES Subdivisions 22–24) are dominated by Danishand German vessels. By combining and processing logbook and Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data forGermany and Denmark, we compare patterns of spatial effort allocation and the origin...... landedin the WBS decreased, and the origin of these landings shifted farther east without affecting the seasonaleffort allocation. Landings of cod have also decreased in the Fehmarn Belt area, and since 2008, sprat hasbeen the species most landed there. The planned construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed...... of sprat distribution in the area. Becausehigh effort did not lead to large sprat landings in all locations, effort displacement to high effort areas maynot compensate for lost sprat landings, particularly for mixed fishery métiers that also landed herring...

  20. Recidivism after Release from a Prison Nursery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.; Henninger, Alana M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze three-year recidivism after release from a prison nursery, a secure unit that allows imprisoned women to care for their infants. Design and Sample Descriptive study of 139 women who co-resided with their infants between 2001–2007 in X prison nursery. Measurement Administrative criminal justice data were analyzed along with prospective study data on demographic, mental health, and prison nursery policy-related factors. Results Results reflect a sample of young women of color with histories of clinically significant depressive symptoms and substance dependence, who were convicted of nonviolent crimes and had multiple prior arrests. Three years after release 86.3% remained in the community. Only 4% of women returned to prison for new crimes. Survival modeling indicated that women who had previously violated parole had a significantly shorter mean return to prison time than those who were in the nursery for a new crime. Conclusion Women released from a prison nursery have a low likelihood of recidivism. Innovative interventions are needed to address incarceration’s public health effects. Nurses can partner with criminal justice organizations to develop, implement, and evaluate programs to ensure the health needs of criminal justice involved people and their families are met. PMID:24588129

  1. Recidivism after release from a prison nursery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshin, Lorie S; Byrne, Mary W; Henninger, Alana M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze 3-year recidivism after release from a prison nursery, a secure unit that allows imprisoned women to care for their infants. Descriptive study of 139 women who co-resided with their infants between 2001 and 2007 in a New York State prison nursery. Administrative criminal justice data were analyzed along with prospective study data on demographic, mental health, and prison nursery policy-related factors. Results reflect a sample of young women of color with histories of clinically significant depressive symptoms and substance dependence, who were convicted of nonviolent crimes and had multiple prior arrests. Three years after release 86.3% remained in the community. Only 4% of women returned to prison for new crimes. Survival modeling indicated that women who had previously violated parole had a significantly shorter mean return to prison time than those who were in the nursery for a new crime. Women released from a prison nursery have a low likelihood of recidivism. Innovative interventions are needed to address incarceration's public health effects. Nurses can partner with criminal justice organizations to develop, implement, and evaluate programs to ensure the health needs of criminal justice involved people and their families are met. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. COD correction for laser cooling at S-LSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, Hikaru; Fujimoto, Shinji; Tongu, Hiromu; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Mikio; Ishikawa, Takehiro; Nakao, Masao; Ikegami, Masahiro; Wakita, Akihisa; Iwata, Soma; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Noda, Koji; Noda, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A closed orbit is corrected for single-turn injection to perform laser cooling experiments of 40 keV 24 Mg + beam at the small laser-equipped storage ring (S-LSR). Closed orbit distortion (COD) corrections have been carried out using a downhill simplex method, and CODs of less than ±0.5mm have been achieved throughout the whole circumference. The injection orbit and the CODs are optimized to pass through the two aperture holes in the alignment targets located in the laser cooling section with an algorithm to maximize beam lifetime. The CODs at the aperture holes are reduced to be less than ±0.2mm, assuring an overlap between the laser and the 24 Mg + ion beam.

  3. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele; Erlandsson, Mårten; Eschbaum, Redik; Hüssy, Karin; Lehmann, Andreas; Ložys, Linas; Ustups, Didzis; Florin, Ann-Britt

    2017-08-01

    Identification of essential fish habitats (EFH), such as spawning habitats, is important for nature conservation, sustainable fisheries management and marine spatial planning. Two sympatric flounder (Platichthys flesus) ecotypes are present in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawning flounder, both displaying ecological and physiological adaptations to the low-salinity environment of this young inland sea. In this study we have addressed three main research questions: 1) What environmental conditions characterize the spatial distribution and abundance of adult flounder during the spawning season? 2) What are the main factors defining the habitats of the two flounder ecotypes during the spawning season? 3) Where are the potential spawning areas of flounder? We modelled catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of flounder from gillnet surveys conducted over the southern and central Baltic Sea in the spring of 2014 and 2015 using generalized additive models. A general model included all the stations fished during the survey while two other models, one for the demersal and one for the pelagic spawning flounder, included only the stations where each flounder ecotype should dominate. The general model captured distinct ecotype-specific signals as it identified dual salinity and water depth responses. The model for the demersal spawning flounder revealed a negative relation with the abundance of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and a positive relation with Secchi depth and cod abundance. Vegetation and substrate did not play an important role in the choice of habitat for the demersal ecotype. The model for the pelagic spawning flounder showed a negative relation with temperature and bottom current and a positive relation with salinity. Spatial predictions of potential spawning areas of flounder showed a decrease in habitat availability for the pelagic spawning flounder over the last 20 years in the central part of the Baltic Sea, which may explain part of the observed

  4. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  5. The geology of the southeastern Baltic Sea: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ūsaitytė, Daiva

    2000-06-01

    The Baltic Sea, particularly its southeastern part, is discussed in the paper. Investigations of regional character as well as specialized studies in the area are reviewed. General historical works are mentioned briefly. Previous surveys since the 1950s are presented by the subject studied. The compilation of geological structure of the SE Baltic Sea bottom and adjacent land of Balticum (Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) is based on considerable amounts of summarized materials. The crystalline basement, sedimentary cover and Quaternary deposits are characterized in the comprehensive survey of geological structure. From a stratigraphical point of view, geological sequence of the platformal cover is comparatively complete: deposits of all geological systems (from the Archean to Cenozoic) are present in the Baltic Syneclise. Considering geotectonical cycles, the sedimentary cover of the syneclise is subdivided into four structural complexes. The thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits are closely related to the recent bottom relief of the Baltic Sea that in turn is inherited from the Pre-Quaternary surface. Buried palaeo-valleys are characteristic of the Pre-Quaternary surface in the Baltic region and the Baltic Sea bottom. The Quaternary is characterized by layers of various geneses and by sharp changes of their thicknesses.

  6. The Baltic States in the EU: yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigas, Agnia; Kasekamp, Andres; Maslauskaite, Kristina; Buzek, Jerzy; Zorgenfreija, Liva

    2013-07-01

    2013 is a significant year for the Baltic states in their relations with European integration. On 1 July 2013, Lithuania became the first of the Baltic states to hold the rotating presidency of the EU Council of ministers. Its performance is closely watched by Latvia and Estonia, whose turns to hold the presidency come in 2015 and 2018, respectively. In addition, this year Latvia has been invited to join the Euro Area thus becoming the second Baltic state after Estonia to share the common currency. This Study aims to show that these developments are extremely important for the young and small Baltic states, which continue to aspire to secure their place in the European 'core'. Having emerged from the crisis as good students of internal devaluation, the Baltic states have a window of opportunity to voice their main concerns and priorities regarding the future of European integration. Lithuanian presidency puts an emphasis on more economic growth and credibility within the E(M)U as well as increased energy security, the challenges that have been daunting the Baltic states in the past years and decades. In order to better understand the origins and the significance of these priorities, this Study is divided into three distinct parts dealing with historical and political context of the three Baltic states (Part 1), the causes and consequences of the recent economic crisis (Part 2) and specific issues related to the energy policy in the region (Part 3)

  7. Benthic food webs support the production of sympatric flatfish larvae in estuarine nursery habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying nursery habitats is of paramount importance to define proper management and conservation strategies for flatfish species. Flatfish nursery studies usually report upon habitat occupation, but few attempted to quantify the importance of those habitats to larvae developm...

  8. Survival of Xanthomonas fragariae on common materials found in strawberry nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae causes strawberry angular leaf spot, an important disease in strawberry nursery production. To identify potential inoculum sources, the ability of X. fragariae to survive was examined on 10 common materials typically associated with strawberry nurseries (cardboard, glass, latex...

  9. Salted and dried Cod preserved by vacuum and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures higher than 20ºC can boost the growth, on the salted and dried cod surface, of bacteria that present a red pigment (Rodrigues et al., 2003; Rodrigues et al., 2005. These organisms, besides the change of the food product appearance, also cause an unpleasant flavor and the product is rejected by the consumers, although does not cause any health concern. Currently, the export of salted and dried cod, to Africa, has increased and a great amount of product is rejected due to the high environmental temperature and the lack of a proper cold chain storage infrastructure. Vacuum packaging, and modified atmosphere packaging have been used for fresh and cooked seafood preservation, but, as far as the authors know, were never used to preserve salted and dried fish. In the present study it was observed the effect of vacuum packaging, packaging with 80%N2:20%CO2 and finally the addition of sodium metabisulfite on the salted and dried cod stored under temperature abuse (15ºC, 25ºC and 35ºC. Accordingly, packaging under vacum and, specially, packaging with 80%N2:20%CO2 successfuly increased the shellife of salted and dried cod . The addition of sodium metabisulfite has increased the shelflife of salted and dried cod preserved at 15ºC, but not of salted and dried cod preserved at 25ºC and 35ºC.

  10. Simulation-based investigation of the paired-gear method in cod-end selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the paired-gear and covered cod-end methods for estimating the selectivity of trawl cod-ends are compared. A modified version of the cod-end selectivity simulator PRESEMO is used to simulate the data that would be collected from a paired-gear experiment where the test cod-end also ...

  11. Integrative literature review: sleep patterns in infants attending nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ana Carolina Dantas Rocha; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Viana, Tamires Rebeca Forte; Lopes, Márcia Maria Coelho Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    To identify evidence available in the literature about sleep patterns of infants attending nurseries. An integrative review of studies published in Portuguese, English or Spanish available in full text on LILACS, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. The following descriptors sono, lactente and creches or berçários (in Portuguese) and sleep, infant and childcare or nurseries were used for LILACS, CINAHL and Pubmed, respectively. Nine studies were selected and analyzed. The main component explored in the studies about sleep pattern is the sleep position of the infants, due to its association with sudden infant death syndrome. The results pointed to the need to promote and develop written guidelines regarding behavioral practices to reduce the risk of this phenomenon. Evidence has identified sleep issues, mainly regarding the sleep position of the infant and the environment where the infant sleeps, showing that it is critical to set routines and interventions to improve the quality of sleep care of infants attending nurseries.

  12. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  13. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  14. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2014-01-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  16. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Lavrova, Olga Yu. (ed.) [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Space Research Institute

    2014-04-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  17. An empirical model of the Baltic Sea reveals the importance of social dynamics for ecological regime shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Niiranen, Susa; Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Boonstra, Wiebren J; Orach, Kirill; Quaas, Martin F; Österblom, Henrik; Schlüter, Maja

    2015-09-01

    Regime shifts triggered by human activities and environmental changes have led to significant ecological and socioeconomic consequences in marine and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Ecological processes and feedbacks associated with regime shifts have received considerable attention, but human individual and collective behavior is rarely treated as an integrated component of such shifts. Here, we used generalized modeling to develop a coupled social-ecological model that integrated rich social and ecological data to investigate the role of social dynamics in the 1980s Baltic Sea cod boom and collapse. We showed that psychological, economic, and regulatory aspects of fisher decision making, in addition to ecological interactions, contributed both to the temporary persistence of the cod boom and to its subsequent collapse. These features of the social-ecological system also would have limited the effectiveness of stronger fishery regulations. Our results provide quantitative, empirical evidence that incorporating social dynamics into models of natural resources is critical for understanding how resources can be managed sustainably. We also show that generalized modeling, which is well-suited to collaborative model development and does not require detailed specification of causal relationships between system variables, can help tackle the complexities involved in creating and analyzing social-ecological models.

  18. Phytophthora community structure analyses in Oregon nurseries inform systems approaches to disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Parke; B.J. Knaus; V.J. Fieland; C. Lewis; N.J. Grünwald

    2014-01-01

    Nursery plants are important vectors for plant pathogens. Understanding what pathogens occur in nurseries in different production stages can be useful to the development of integrated systems approaches. Four horticultural nurseries in Oregon were sampled every 2 months for 4 years to determine the identity and community structure of Phytophthora...

  19. Investigation of Nursery Rhymes According to the Classification of Semantic Fields and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçel, Betül Keray

    2017-01-01

    Nursery rhymes are quite important in terms of developing children's language skills. It was observed that there is a paucity of research looking at semantic fields and value regarding nursery rhymes; therefore, this study was intended to fill that gap in the literature by investigating nursery rhymes in terms of semantic fields and value. In this…

  20. Bringing the Magic of Folk Literature and Nursery Rhymes to Communication Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Orators of folk literature and nursery rhymes entertain, inform, and persuade their audiences through the straightforward plots in those genres. Because nursery rhymes recitations usually happen in groups, they help children acquire the mechanics of oral communication and promote communal bonding. Although nursery rhymes have a simpler form than…

  1. Phytophthora ramorum--economic impacts and challenges for the nursery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Suslow

    2006-01-01

    In March 2004, a large wholesale nursery in southern California, which ships to interstate receivers, was found to have P. ramorum infected nursery stock. As a result, several of the southeastern states placed a ban on all nursery stock shipping from California. Federal regulatory agencies were not able to provide background information and current...

  2. Genetic bottlenecks in agroforestry systems: results of tree nursery surveys in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, A.G.; Jaenicke, H.; Dawson, I.K.

    2005-01-01

    Seedlings sourced through tree nurseries are expected to form an important component of future tree cover on farms. As such, the genetic composition of nursery seedlings is expected to impact on the productivity and sustainability of agroforestry ecosystems. By surveying current practices of nursery

  3. Weed management at ArborGen, South Carolina SuperTree Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Arnette

    2009-01-01

    Weed management is vital to producing healthy hardwood seedlings. Several methods are available to each nursery, and it is common knowledge that what works for one situation may not work for another. The weed control methods used in nursery beds of hardwood species at the South Carolina SuperTree Nursery (Blenheim) are listed below.

  4. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  5. Nutrient control of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Staal, M.J.; Villbrandt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea were investigated with respect to growth Limitation and nitrogen fixation. The community was composed predominantly of Synechococcus spp., and large, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon spp, and Nodularia spp.), that usually formed

  6. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  7. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  8. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    Cyanobacteria are effective producers of bioactive metabolites, including both acute toxins and potential pharmaceuticals. In the current work, the biological activity of 27 strains of Baltic cyanobacteria representing different taxonomic groups...

  9. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  10. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  11. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  12. Fish pollution with anthropogenic 137Cs in the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Suplińska, Maria

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on changes in (137)Cs activity concentrations in three fish species from the southern Baltic Sea: cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichtys flesus), in the period 2000-2010. During the study period a marked decline in cesium activity concentration in fish muscle tissue was observed, which reflected changes in radionuclide activity concentration in seawater. No statistically significant temporal trends were determined in changes of concentration factors (CF(fish/seawater)) calculated for the examined fish species. The analysis of (137)Cs activity as a function of ichthyological parameters revealed the lack of a relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations in herring muscle tissue and the fish age in an narrow age range (2-4 years). However, a reverse proportionality of total fish mass, as well as body length, against (137)Cs activity concentrations in muscles was well documented. The latter observation can be the direct result of the dilution effect related to the increase of fish body weight. (137)Cs activity concentration in muscle tissue of the five fish species forms a declining sequence: Gadus morhua, Platichthys flesus, Clupea harengus, Perca fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Klusek, Zygmunt; Szubska, Marta; Turja, Raisa; Bulczak, Anna I.; Rak, Daniel; Brenner, Matthias; Lang, Thomas; Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Fricke, Nicolai; Östin, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Fabisiak, Jacek; Garnaga, Galina; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Majewski, Piotr; Broeg, Katja; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula; Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Lehtonen, Kari; Berglind, Rune; Schmidt, Beata

    2016-06-01

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  14. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT) [de

  15. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  16. Baltic herring as nutrition; risk-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Finnish Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the benefits of eating Baltic Sea herring exceed the risks in Finland, and what the situation is in different age groups. Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as vitamin D were analysed in the report as beneficial nutrients. As far as environmental toxins harmful to health are concerned, Baltic herring were analysed for compounds classified as dioxins, which include polychlorinated diben...

  17. FDI in small accession countries: The Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Hunya, Gábor

    2004-01-01

    Analysing the evolution and determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, this paper argues that sound economic policies have created an environment conducive for FDI. Overall, FDI has contributed to economic growth in the Baltic economies, having financed around one-fifth of fixed investment. However, their small size makes the Baltic countries relatively less attractive for market-seeking FDI in manufacturing. Moreover, at the outset of transition, their ...

  18. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions characterization of Karachi metropolitan wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nergis, Y.; Sharif, M.; Farooq, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To prove the hypothesis that the inert products are given to environment due to biological degradation of substrate in activated sludge operations. This study was design to investigate the inert fractions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in metropolitan effluent. An aerobic batch reactor system was experimentally setup and maintained up to 480 hours. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO = 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI 218 mg/L, respectively. At the end of operations, COD compositions of metropolitan wastewater were found to be STO = 131 mg/L, XSO = 63 mg/L, CSO 178 mg/L, SSO = 115 mg/L, SI = 16 mg/L, XI = 218 mg/L respectively. This study is focused on inert COD fractions of metropolitan wastewater which consist of domestic as well as local industrial effluent. Soluble inert COD (SI) must be determined for discharge standards since it did not give any reaction in activated sludge system and was given with wastewater discharge. However particulate inert COD (XI) accumulated in system depending on sludge retention time due to it is only wasted from system by wasted sludge. Experimental techniques were used attained Zohu X. et al. [1, 2] in order to determine directly influent particulate and soluble inert fractions. The experimental study was carried out until COD profile reached to steady state or depletion of degradable substrate. The conventional parameters of municipal characterization were as follows: total COD (CTO) = 412 mg/L, total soluble COD (STO) = 131 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) = 197 mg/L, total biochemical oxygen demand (BODt) = 351 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) = 264 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) = 26.6 mg/L, grease and oil (G and O) = 17.5 mg/L and pH were 7.4 SU, respectively. (author)

  19. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  20. Light-emitting diode lighting for forest nursery seedling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Crop lighting is an energy-intensive necessity for nursery production of high-quality native plants and forest tree seedlings. During the winter months (especially in northern USA latitudes) or overcast or cloudy days, the amount of solar radiation reaching greenhouse crops is insufficient resulting in growth cessation, early terminal bud formation, and failure of...

  1. Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

    Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections…

  2. PoetryRama: Exploring Drama through Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyghan, Glasceta

    2000-01-01

    Drama through Mother Goose nursery rhymes can be integrated in the pre-K-3 curriculum. Activities can range from spontaneous gestures and facial expression, to guided performance where a teacher might have specific objectives in mind and rehearse a rhyme for formal performance. Activities include unison or choral speaking; "line-a-child"…

  3. Japanese "Warabeuta": Nursery Rhymes of Body, Mind, and Soul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Michelle Henault; Matsuyama, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, young children are introduced to some form of nursery rhymes. In Japan, the first type of rhyme a child encounters is called "warabeuta"--songs created through play. The English translation fails to accurately capture the degree to which "warabeuta" include body movement, touch, and interaction with other…

  4. The Uncertainty of Word Meanings Found in Nursery Rhyme Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Linda C.

    A study examined how many of 11 key words in 4 famous Mother Goose nursery rhymes were understood by parents of first graders. The first questionnaire (designed to determine if context clues were helpful in deciphering what words meant) was returned by 37 parents in an urban school district and by 49 parents in a suburban school district. The…

  5. Nursery Rhyme Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Laurie J.

    2011-01-01

    Phonological awareness is an important precursor in learning to read. This awareness of phonemes fosters a child's ability to hear and blend sounds, encode and decode words, and to spell phonetically. This quantitative study assessed pre-K children's existing Euro-American nursery rhyme knowledge and phonological awareness literacy, provided…

  6. Alberta tree nursery and horticulture Centre: Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Annual report of the Centre, which mainly produces trees and shrubs for the farm shelterbelt program and the Provincial Parks program. Information is given on various aspects of horticulture crop development, protected crops development, nursery crop development, farm services, and apiculture.

  7. Nursery Pest Management of Phytolyma lata Walker (Scott) Attack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of plantations of Milicia excelsa has been constrained by the gall-forming psyllid Phytolyma lata Walker (Scott) that causes extensive damage to young plants. We present findings of an experiment aimed at preventing Phytolyma attack on Milicia seedlings in the nursery using chemical control and ...

  8. Water management in container nurseries to minimize pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Diane L. Haase

    2018-01-01

    Water is the most important and most common chemical used in plant nurseries. It is also the most dangerous chemical used. Insufficient water, excessive water, and poorly timed irrigation can all lead to poor-quality crops and unacceptable mortality. Anticipated future declines of water availability, higher costs to use it, and continuing concerns about irrigation...

  9. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  10. Marine nurseries and effective juvenile habitats: concepts and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Adams, A.J.; Gillanders, B.M.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Much recent attention has been focused on juvenile fish and invertebrate habitat use, particularly defining and identifying marine nurseries. The most significant advancement in this area has been the development of a standardized framework for assessing the relative importance of juvenile habitats

  11. Sustainable management of waste in green nursery: the Tuscan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sarri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The green nursery sector in Europe involves 90,000 ha of cultivated land and 120,000 ha for the nurseries (MiPAAF, 2012, reaching 19.8 billions of Euros in 2011. Every year, nurseries produce waste about 4 kg of the residual biomass for each m2 of the potted plants cultivation. Nurseries waste make up a substantial quantity of organic materials e.g. wood biomass-substrate, which could be retrieved and valorized. With the expansion of potted plants cultivation and the resulting increase in discarded products a number of companies have begun to setting up solutions for the recovery of materials accumulated. Analysis led to the development of a separating system based on trunk vibration technology. To this end, two shaker yard were identified, developed and tested for the recovery of residual biomasses. With these solutions, green waste can be easily grasped by a clamp device able to convey strong vibrations to the trunk (or to the aerial part of the plant to the point that the soil materials are detached from the vegetable portions.

  12. Seedling production and pest problems at a South Georgia nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; L. David Dwinell; Michelle M. Cram

    2002-01-01

    Pine seedling production and pest problems were evaluated in methyl bromide-fumigated and nonfumigated plots in two fields at a South Georgia nursery. In one field, fumigation increased loblolly pine seedling bed density in only 1 of 4 years. Seedlings were often significantly larger in fumigated than nonfumigated plots. In the other field, no differences were observed...

  13. Nursery School Education in Nigeria: Impact on Families and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanya, Sherrie K.

    An overview of preschool education in Lagos State, Nigeria, is particularized with findings from a survey of 156 teachers in 25 Nigerian nursery schools. In Nigeria, urbanization has been accompanied by rapid growth in the number of pre-primary institutions. The educational aims of such institutions include both cognitive and social-emotional…

  14. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  15. Use of Switchgrass as a Nursery Container Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark is the primary component of Nursery container crops in the eastern U.S. Shortages in pine bark prompted investigation of alternative substrates. The objective of this research was to determine if ground switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) could be used for short production...

  16. Improved ventilation and temperature control in a nursery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an intervention study in a nursery. We have measured the air quality with as indicator CO2 and temperature in the original configuration. The maximum observed CO2 concentration during a three week monitoring period was 1834 ppm. The average CO2 concentration during the sleeping period

  17. Septoria Canker on Nursery Stock of Populus Deltoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; F. I. McCracken; C. A. Mohn; W. K. Randall

    1971-01-01

    Septoria musiva Peck is capable of establishing itself on unwounded first-year stems of eastern cottonwood. Natural infections have been observed since 1969 in three forest nurseries in Mississippi, and inoculations have confirmed that both conidia and ascospores are capable of causing stem infections.

  18. Developing native plant nurseries in emerging market areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Duemler

    2012-01-01

    The importance of developing a market for quality native plant materials in a region prior to the establishment of a nursery is crucial to ensure its success. Certain tactics can be applied to help develop a demand for native plant materials in a region. Using these tactics will help create a new market for native plant materials.

  19. Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawijaya, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P 2 O 5 +70 g K 2 O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P 2 O 2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

  20. Occurrence of soil-transmitted helminths on playgrounds of nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STHs are prevalent on play grounds of nursery and primary schools in Plateau State. Improved hygiene and sanitation, fencing of school premises and the regulation of school population will help to reduce environmental contamination and human infections. Présence d'helminthes transmis par le sol sur les terrains de jeux ...

  1. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  2. Verifying critical control points for Phytophthora introduction into nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.K. Osterbauer; M. Lujan; G. McAninch; A. Trippe; S. Lane

    2013-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Agriculture implemented the Grower Assisted Inspection Program (GAIP) for nurseries in 2007. Participants in GAIP adopted best management practices (BMP) for five critical control points (CCP) (used containers, irrigation water, soil substrate, potting media, and incoming plants), where foliar Phytophthora can be introduced...

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Nursery and Early Field Propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 2 hectares of this plant have been successfully established in the University farm sourced from different locations (Ilorin, and Lafiagi in Kwara State and Mokwa in Niger State), all in Nigeria. So far, some nursery practices have been developed for this crop including the avoidance of heavy shades and seed dressing ...

  4. Growth Performance of Grain Amaranth under Different Nursery Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth performance of grain amaranth under different soil nursery media was studied in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment with five replications. The experiment was carried out at the teaching and research farm of the department of Agricultural ...

  5. The effect of teachers' quality variables on nursery school pupils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education is a veritable tool for national development; the key facilitators of this development are teachers. The foundation of education starts at nursery school since it is a crucial stage for achild's development. This causal-comparative research investigated the effect of teacher quality variables such as age, professional ...

  6. Caries experience in the primary dentition of nursery school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To measure the prevalence and pattern of distribution of dental caries in suburban Nigerian children attending nursery school in Ile – Ife, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional survey of 423 children (225 boys, 198 girls) aged 3 – 6 years using dmft index. WHO recommendations for oral health survey were used for ...

  7. Development of Intelligent Spray Systems for Nursery Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two intelligent sprayer prototypes were developed to increase pesticide application efficiency in nursery production. The first prototype was a hydraulic vertical boom system using ultrasonic sensors to detect tree size and volume for liner-sized trees and the second prototype was an air-assisted sp...

  8. Results from six Pinus taeda nursery trials with the herbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pendimethalin is used by some nursery managers to control weeds in Eucalyptus and Pinus seedbeds and cutting beds of Pinus. Six trials were implemented in open-rooted seedbeds to test the response of Pinus taeda to postemergence (to the crop) applications of 2.2 kg ha–1 active ingredient of pendimethalin (the ...

  9. Targeted Interventions for Homeless Children at a Therapeutic Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris-Shortle, Carole; Melley, Alison H.; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric; Cosgrove, Kim; Leviton, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    PACT: Helping Children with Special Needs, an affiliate of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, operates a therapeutic nursery that serves families who have at least one child from birth to 3 years of age, and who are living in a Baltimore City homeless shelter. In partnership with the Martin Luther King Early Head Start Program…

  10. Children's Exposure to Radon in Nursery and Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Pedro T B S; Nunes, Rafael A O; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C M; Martins, Fernando G; Sousa, Sofia I V

    2016-03-30

    The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children's exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings' construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings' construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks.

  11. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  12. Streptococcal throat carriage in a population of nursery and primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major cause of mortality in man. Regular disease surveillance can be achieved through evaluation of throat carriage. Objectives: To evaluate GAS throat carriage amongst nursery and primary schools pupils in Benin City, Nigeria. Method: This cross sectional study was carried ...

  13. COD and Color Removal from Wastewaters: Optimization of Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Güneş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, COD and color removal from wastewaters by Fenton’s oxidation were investigated. In the study the response variables of Y1 and Y2 were selected as COD removal rate (% and color removal rate(%, and efficacy variables of A, B, anc C were selected as H2O2 concentration (mmol/L, reaction time (h and H2O2/Fe2+. The experimental design was used as a two-level factorial design. In the corner points 23 = 8, in the center points 3 and a total of 3(8+3=33 experiments were conducted. Effect of H2O2 concentration (mmol/L, reaction time (h and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio on COD removal rate and color removal rate were investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum COD removal rate and color removal rate were at H2O2 concentration 8 mmol/L, reaction time 3 h and H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 2.6. At optimum conditions 82% COD removal rate and 93% color removal rate were achieved.

  14. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the value of Sol-COD in the rivers is close to that of Lake Sanaru, the main origin of the Sol-COD was supposed to be the organic components in the river water especially those of detergents, because the Sol-CODof detergent didn’t decompose completely.Thus, the amount of detergent emitted in the upstreamlakeregion was determined using the public data of the pollution from the sewer system and the national average of detergent consumption. The calculated value of the detergent concentration agreed very well with the one measured in the upstream rivers, meaning that detergents strongly affected water quality in upstream rivers and also the majority of Sol-COD in Lake Sanaru.

  15. Process parametric study for COD removal of electroplating industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Dharmesh H; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigated the effects of parameters, like inoculum size (15, 10 and 5% of the working volume of the reactor), gas velocities (0.0027, 0.00342 and 0.0068 m/s), bed heights (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), static bed heights (4.85 and 2.43 cm), sizes of solid media particles (12, 4 mm), and the height to diameter ratio ( H / D : 0.25 and 0.5) onto COD reduction process for electroplating effluent (initial COD values: 1140 ppm) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida . The authors derived simple mathematical correlations representing the entire COD reduction process. The correlation between the inoculum volume and gas velocities was in the form of an equation Y  =  ax 2  +  bx  +  c , as deduced from nonlinear regressions. The correlations were validated, and percentage errors were found out to infer the effects of all parameters in the COD reduction process. The maximum COD reduction was achieved to 28.30 ppm (97.52%), in a batch mode, at 10% inoculum size, 0.0027 m/s low gas velocity and a static bed height of 2.43 cm.

  16. The Baltic interconnected power system; technical basement and development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreslinsh, V.; Pervushin, Yu.; Zeltinsh, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are located on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and to North-West of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. The Baltic States were part of the SU for many years and consequently a part of a highly structured and centralised system. Prior to gaining independence in 1991, Baltic's power system had been planned and operated as a part of the North -West Interconnected Power Systems (Ips) of the former SU for 30 years. That is why the power systems of individual countries of the Baltic were not planned or operated as a independent systems but regionally, with the planning based on the optimisation of the whole Nord-West interconnected system. The Nord-West IPS included the power systems of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus, as well as six North-West regions of Russia: Leningrad, Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Pskov, Novgorod, and Kaliningrad. Analysis of the structure, conditions, loads, specifics technical features, basics operation data of the main power stations in the Baltic IPS is given

  17. Islamic Diffusion in the Baltics: The Fruit of European Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkiy Yu. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Western Europe as a principal centre that has been attracting migrants over recent decades, primarily, in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. The Baltic region states are chosen for demonstration. Although they have different proportions of Muslim immigrants, Muslim diasporas are the most numerous and rapidly growing ones in the Baltics. Undoubtedly, Muslim communities across the region enjoy certain similarities. The differences they have are explained, among other factors, by national policies towards migrant integration. This article aims to identify the features of Muslim migration to the Baltic States in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. The authors analyse the timeline of Muslim immigration to the Baltic region. It is stressed that, despite current difficulties, Germany and Finland are more successful in integrating immigrants than, for instance, Sweden and Denmark. Just like other Western European countries, the Baltic States have not developed a conceptual framework for their migration and integration policies towards Muslim immigrants. The authors describe possible Muslim integration scenarios — the Singaporean and Palestinian ones, simulation, and confrontation. Given their apparent conscientious refusal to adapt and integrate migrants, the Baltic States are most likely to face the Palestinian scenario.

  18. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  19. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  20. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  1. Agricultural restructuring in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Mette Bech

    were often the most successful farmers. The importance of individual endowment of resources and qualifications is also evident in the study of Latvian rural entrepreneurship. Different types of rural businesses, including both agricultural and non-agricultural enterprises, were investigated....... In addition to individual resource endowment, it became clear that the local context plays an important role creating both opportunities and constraints for successful business development in rural areas. The thesis concludes that farmers in the Baltic countries could be divided into several groups. Due...... and poor segment of the rural population. An important challenge to policy makers was therefore be to design policies which could create a future for these groups and thereby ensure a viable countryside....

  2. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  3. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nagelkerken

    Full Text Available No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas for small nursery fish (≤ 25 cm total length. For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length, an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher. The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.

  4. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (≤ 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.

  5. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  6. Analysis of the origin of soluble COD in Lake Sanaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Qian; Oomae Ayaka; Futamata Hiroyuki; Matsuda Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the origin of Sol-COD by analyzing the water quality data and the amount of detergent consumption in the Lake Sanaru region,located at Hamamatsu City in Japan. It was found that there is a correlation between the total COD in the lake and the sewer coverage in the upstream region of Lake Sanaru. This fact implies that the water quality of upstream rivers receiving untreated wastewater from homes would greatly affect the water quality of the lake. Since the va...

  7. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB, and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549 were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA, CAMP factor (Cfa, a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3, and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015 were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY and chemically defined media (CDM. No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate

  8. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  9. Kas Baltic Talks on oma missiooni täitnud? / Tiit Meren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meren, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    21.-24. septembril toimus Tapal Läänemere-äärsete riikide reservohvitseride traditsiooniline suurfoorum Baltic Talks 2006. 1931. aastal Norra ja Rootsi reservohvitseride algatatud Nording Meeting ning Baltic Talks'i algus

  10. Baltijskaja Evropa: ot idei k strategii [From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmowski Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the historic prerequisites and forms of international cooperation in the Baltic region (“Baltic cooperation”. According to the author, Baltic Europe is being formed as a single administrative, economic, cultural and infrastructural area, which could become a new economic and cultural center of Europe. Special emphasis is given to policies and strategies of the EU in the Baltic Sea region.

  11. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  12. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...

  13. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Rémon; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.; Lyon, Steve W.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Study region: River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus: Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  14. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.; Velde, van der Y.; Dekker, S.C.; Lyon, S.W.; Dahlke, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Study region River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  15. Societal, land cover and climatic controls on river nutrient flows into the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Rémon; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan; Lyon, Steve W.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    Study region River basins draining into the Baltic Sea, known as the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). Study focus Dramatic shifts in water quality have been observed in the Baltic Sea in past decades. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trends in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in

  16. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  17. Detail AR2-PR1 geochronological scale of the Baltic Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, Yu.A.

    1995-01-01

    The version of the detail scale of the Precambrian Baltic Shield, based on selection of new crust increment through mantel genesis material is presented. The AR 2 -PR 1 -scale of the Baltic Shield is based through U-Pb, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd-methods for the Cord Peninsula on the Precambrian period of the other Baltic Shield regions

  18. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  19. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  20. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  1. Molecular responce of Atlantic cod's ( Gadus morhua L.) cypia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A molecular response study was conducted to determine whether Polychlorinated Biphenyl or PCB (Clophen A40) had an effect on the induction of the zona radiata, prolactin and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNAs in matured Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). A total of 127 fishes were maintained under natural photoperiod ...

  2. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  3. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cod-ends are the rearmost part of trawl fishing gears. They collect the catch, and for many important species it is where fish selection takes place. Generally speaking they are axisymmetric, and their shape is influenced by the catch volume, the mesh shape, and the material characteristics. The ...

  4. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Niemisto, L. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research (Finland)

    2001-04-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km{sup 2} of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep

  5. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  6. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 marine environment. Additionally, concentration of bacteria and fungi were measured in size segregated and PM10 aerosol fraction. We were able to relate aerosol source δ13C end members with the abundance of bacteria and fungi over Baltic Sea combining air mass trajectories, stable isotope data, fungi and bacteria concentrations. Ceburnis, D., Garbaras, A., Szidat, S., Rinaldi, M., Fahrni, S., Perron, N., Wacker, L., Leinert, S., Remeikis, V., and Facchini, M.: Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13 C and 14 C isotope analysis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  7. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-01

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  8. Climate Change Effects on River Flow to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, L. Phil [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    River flow to the Baltic Sea originates under a range of different climate regimes in a drainage basin covering some 1,600,000 km{sup 2}. Changes to the climate in the Baltic Basin will not only affect the total amount of freshwater flowing into the sea, but also the distribution of the origin of these flows. Using hydrological modeling, the effects of future climate change on river runoff to the Baltic Sea have been analyzed. Four different climate change scenarios from the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) were used. The resulting change to total mean annual river flow to the Baltic Sea ranges from -2% to +15% of present-day flow according to the different climate scenarios. The magnitude of changes within different subregions of the basin varies considerably, with the most severe mean annual changes ranging from -30% to +40%. However, common to all of the scenarios evaluated is a general trend of reduced river flow from the south of the Baltic Basin together with increased river flow from the north.

  9. Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov A. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organisation of economy in the globalisation conditions, which has become a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of the Baltic region. It requires a comprehensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. This article aims to identify structured international clusters in the Baltic region and map the corresponding regions. The results obtained will make it possible to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters existing and emerging in the region and put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article considers the processes of transboundary and transnational regionalisation in the countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the degree of involvement of a Russian region into the processes of international cluster cooperation in the macroregion.

  10. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.

    1989-12-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and partly also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs were about 120 Bq/m 3 in the surface water of the Bothnian Bay, 220-320 Bq/m 3 in the Bothnian Sea, 120-230 Bq/m 3 in the Gulf of Finland and 150-170 Bq/m 3 in the Baltic Proper. In the open Gulf of Finland and Bothnian Sea the 137 Cs concentrations of surface water were about 20 and 55 % of the maximum values in 1986. The total amounts of 137 Cs in bottom sediments ranged from 1700 to 16000 Bq/m 2 . In the Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland the total amounts of 137 Cs were about 5-6 times higher in 1988 than before the Chernobyl accident and 3 times higher in the northern Baltic Proper. The 137 Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 20 to 37 Bq/kg fresh weight and in pike from 38 to 160 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose to Finnish people caused by the consumption of Baltic Sea fish in 1988 was about 0.009mSv. (orig.)

  11. BALTIC STATES IN THE EUROZONE: THE ACCESSION PROCESS AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wołkonowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the process of the Baltic states’ accession to the eurozone and examines the consequences of their adoption of the euro currency. Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the eurozone in different years, they share a number of common features in terms of both their accession process and presence in the euro area. The article consists of three parts – the first surveys the Baltic states’ conformity with the convergence criteria and the second examines the effects that can be observed in the economies of the three Baltic countries after accession. The third part contains a comparative analysis of actual inflation versus perceived inflation index seen over the three years spanning the periods before, during and after the adoption of the euro. For this purpose, calculations of simplified perceived inflation indices in the Baltic States were compiled and compared against actual inflation. The differences across the Baltic states between the perceived inflation index and real inflation were similar to those in Austria and Germany during these countries’ accession to the euro zone.

  12. Informative nursery rhymes: a pilot study of children's satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglieri, Elisa; Guida, Edoardo; DI Grazia, Massimo; Franza, Francesca; Lisa, Filippo; Mattioli, Girolamo; Rigamonti, Waifro; Pompei, Viviana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, by means of a questionnaire, the level of children's satisfaction relating to three informative charts, including a nursery rhyme, administered to the patient before a medical procedure. We created three types of specific informative charts on three medical topics with the double function of informing the child before the medical procedure, and of distracting him/her by means of a nursery rhyme read aloud by the authors. To assess the level of children's satisfaction, we administered the patients a questionnaire. According to children's feedback, the charts were funny and useful. The charts conceived in this study seem to be an easily applicable and entertaining approach to provide information and distraction to children undergoing surgery.

  13. Degradation of pesticides in nursery recycling pond waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng; Newman, Julie; Faber, Ben; Gan, Jianying

    2006-04-05

    Recycling or collection ponds are often used in outdoor container nursery production to capture and recycle runoff water and fertilizers. Waters in recycling ponds generally have high concentrations of nutrients, pesticides, and dissolved organic matter, as well as elevated salinity and turbidity. Little is known about pesticide degradation behavior in the unique environment of nursery recycling ponds. In this study, degradation of four commonly used pesticides diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and pendimethalin in waters from two nursery recycling ponds was investigated at an initial pesticide concentration of 50 microg/L. Results showed that the persistence of diazinon and chlorpyrifos appeared to be prolonged in recycling pond waters as compared to surface streamwaters, possibly due to decreased contribution from biotic transformation, while degradation of chlorothalonil and pendimethalin was enhanced. Activation energies of biotic degradation of all four pesticides were lower than abiotic degradation, indicating that microbial transformation was less affected by temperature than chemical transformation. Overall, the pesticide degradation capacity of recycling ponds was better buffered against temperature changes than that of surface streamwaters.

  14. Alleged nursery words and hypocorisms among Germanic kinship terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    By (re-)evaluating the etymologies of the three Proto-Germanic kinship terms *aiþīn-/-ōn- ‘mother’, *aiþma- ‘daughter’s husband’ and *faþōn- ‘father’s sister’ that are all claimed by at least some etymological handbooks to be nursery words or hypocorisms, I contend that we must abandon their nurs......By (re-)evaluating the etymologies of the three Proto-Germanic kinship terms *aiþīn-/-ōn- ‘mother’, *aiþma- ‘daughter’s husband’ and *faþōn- ‘father’s sister’ that are all claimed by at least some etymological handbooks to be nursery words or hypocorisms, I contend that we must abandon...... their nursery-word interpretations and rather regard them as inherited words derived from known Indo-European lexical material in a way that reveals important information on the Old Germanic society and its family pattern....

  15. SOIL TEMPERATURE MODIFICATIONS CAUSED BY SOLARIZATION IN NURSERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Solarization effects on soil temperature were evaluated during the autumn. The increase in soil temperature caused by the use of transparent polyethylene (PE low tunnels over solarized nurseries, in subtropical central region of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was also quantified. Treatments were: a solarization with 100µ thickness PE (T1, b solarization with 100µ thickness PE, covered with low tunnel (T2, c solarization with 50µ thickness PE (T3, d solarization with 50µ thickness PE, covered with low tunnel (T4, and e bare soil (T. The low tunnel consisted of a 100µ thickness PE and measured 0.5m height in the center of the nursery. The results showed that additional use of low tunnels have increased, on the average, 5.0ºC over the maximum temperature of the superficial layer of the soil in the solarized nurseries. In addition, it was observed several days in which the maximum temperature exceeded 45ºC.

  16. Cactus Nurseries and Conservation in a Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Pulido

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Documenting how socio-ecosystem conservation knowledge and practice arise and are modified are issues of ethnobiological interest. In the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (RBBM, plant nurseries, some of which were created as Environmental Management Units (UMAs, have been established to grow and conserve cacti. This paper describes these nurseries, their role in cactus conservation, and the benefits and limitations for the people managing them. The nurseries have helped decrease illegal traffic in cacti and have enabled ex situ conservation of 22 cacti species. Cactus management has changed from extraction to cultivation, as a result of the knowledge and actions of multiple actors. The main limitation is marketing, a recurring problem for non-timber forest products (NTFP. Greater coordination among stakeholders is recommended, such as involvement by non-governmental organizations to improve their probability of success, as well as learning from the experience of other cactus UMAs. Improving the market for cacti is an issue that needs an immediate solution; otherwise conservation efforts could relapse.

  17. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  18. The earthquakes of the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1990-06-01

    More than 200 earthquakes in the Baltic Shield area in the size range ML 0.6-4.5 have been studied by dense regional seismic networks. The analysis includes focal depths, dynamic source parameters, and fault plane solutions. In southern Sweden a long part of the Protogene zone marks a change in the seismic activity. The focal depths indicate three crustal layers: Upper crust (0-18 km in southern Sweden, 0-13 km in northern Sweden), middle crust down to 35 km, and the quiet lower crust. The fault plane solutions show that strike-slip is dominating. Along the Tornquist line significant normal faulting occurs. The stresses released by the earthquakes show a remarkable consistency with a regional principle compression N60W. This indicates that plate-tectonic processes are more important than the land uplift. The spatial distribution is consistent with a model where the earthquakes are breakdowns of asperities on normally stably sliding faults. The aseismic sliding is estimated to be 2000 times more extensive than the seismic sliding. Southern Sweden is estimated to deform horizontally at a rate of 1 mm/year or more. (orig.)

  19. Spatial and temporal trends of BFRs in Atlantic cod and polar cod in the North-East Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytingsvik, J.; Gaustad, H.; Pettersvik Salmer, M.; Soermo, E.G.; Munro Jenssen, B. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Trondheim (Norway); Baek, K.; Foereid, S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Insitute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Utne Skaare, J. [National Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are added to materials (e.g., textiles and electronic materials) to reduce flammability. BFRs are lipophilic and resistant against degradation causing them to biomagnify in the marine food chain. Thus, due to industrial activities and surface run-off from applications and dumping sites, sediments and aquatic organism in rivers, estuaries and coastal waters close to rural areas may be particularly contaminated by these chemicals. Furthermore, because of their semi-volatile properties BFRs may also bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife at more remote locations such as the Arctic2. Their different degrees of bromination determine their actual environmental behaviour and fate. The higher brominated compounds tend to accumulate near the source whereas the lower brominated, which are more volatile, tend to end up in more remote areas such as the Arctic region. The aim of the present study was to measure BFR concentrations in cod (i.e., Atlantic cod [Gadus morhua] and polar cod [Boreogadus saida]) at different locations in Norwegian waters, ranging from the estuary of the largest river in Norway, Glomma, to the pristine Artic waters of Svalbard. Glomma has its outlet near Hvaler, outer Oslofjord, and is draining water from some of the largest rivers and lakes of the more industrialised areas of Norway. An example is its connection to Mjoesa, the largest lake in Norway, where very high levels of BFRs have been reported. Concentrations of BFRs in Atlantic cod sampled at Hvaler (58 circle 59'N, 10 circle 47'E) were therefore compared to concentrations in Atlantic cod sampled at Froan, (64 circle 10'N, 09 circle 20'E) situated in the more open waters of the Norwegian Sea off coast of Mid-Norway and polar cod from Bear Island, Svalbard (73 circle 4' N, 18 circle 3'E). A second aim was to study temporal changes in concentrations of BFRs

  20. Growth, temperature and density relationships of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Jensen, Henrik; Schrum, Corinna

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the relationship between ambient temperature, cod density, fishing mortality, prey fish biomass, and growth of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) as estimated from survey catches during the period from 1983 to 2006. Growth of young cod was positively related to temper...

  1. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boismenu, D.; Lepine, F.; Thibault, C.; Gagnon, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Dugas, H.

    1991-01-01

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  2. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the bloo...

  3. Underwater Noise Modeling in Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Bagočius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with rising awareness of public and scientific societies about environmental and ecological impacts of underwater noise, the need for underwater noise modelling in the shallow Lithuanian area of Baltic Sea emerged. Marine Strategy Framework Directive issues regarding underwater noise indicators refers to possibility of evaluation of Good Environmental State using underwater noise measurements as well as possibility to model underwater noise. Main anthropogenic underwater noise contributor in the Seas is the shipping lanes as known due to date, with no exclusion of Lithuanian Baltic Sea area. In this manuscript, it is presented the methods of development of simplistic underwater ambient noise model purposed for computation of underwater soundscape in shallow area of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea.

  4. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  5. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132...

  6. The application of a project method at the nursery school for the children with eye disorder

    OpenAIRE

    BEJDÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis address the use of design methods in the nursery school for the visually impaired. In the theoretical part of work is characterized by design methods, its history, characteristics, major steps, strengths and weaknesses. It describes the psychomotor development of children with visual impairment and a nursery school for the visually impaired. In the practical part describes his own project, developed with children of nursery school for the visually impaired, and his conduc...

  7. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  8. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  9. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  10. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  11. A rapid liquid chromatography determination of free formaldehyde in cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Joseph M; Andersen, Wendy C; Heise, Andrea; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack; Thomas, Terri; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of free formaldehyde in cod is described. It uses a simple water extraction of formaldehyde which is then derivatised with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form a sensitive and specific chromophore for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection. Although this formaldehyde derivative has been widely used in past tissue analysis, this paper describes an improved derivatisation procedure. The formation of the DNPH formaldehyde derivative has been shortened to 2 min and a stabilising buffer has been added to the derivative to increase its stability. The average recovery of free formaldehyde in spiked cod was 63% with an RSD of 15% over the range of 25-200 mg kg(-1) (n = 48). The HPLC procedure described here was also compared to a commercial qualitative procedure - a swab test for the determination of free formaldehyde in fish. Several positive samples were compared by both methods.

  12. Practical application of COD measurement in welded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghe, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of the COD makes it possible to evaluate sensitivity to brittle fracture initiation. This technique is ideal for welded structures, owing to the types of defect likely to affect them, and the magnitude of the residual stresses introduced. Moreover, the COD concept, based on thickness and temperature experiments on materials, enables evaluation of the critical defect size in these structures. However, its application to welded joints encounters certain problems. The presence of fatigue cracks in the molten zone of a welded joint is frequently disturbed by the residual stresses caused by welding. An additional difficulty is created by the problem of stable growth of the crack during the bending test. This discussion covers all these matters and suggests some solutions [fr

  13. A sensometric approach to cod-quality measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.S.; Jørgensen, Bo

    1997-01-01

    The quality index method was used for describing the sensory quality of thawed whole cod and raw fillet and the quality of boiled fillet was assessed by profiling analysis. These data were compared to the water holding capacity of the minced cod by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial...... least squares regression. The sensory data and the water holding capacity were correlated to an extent that made possible the prediction of high and low values of water holding capacity. Multivariate methods were also used for extracting some information about the assessor variability. This was done...... by determining the ability of the assessors to predict the water holding capacity through partial least squares regression and by examining the distances between PCA-models of profiling data from the single assessors. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Positive regulation of botulinum neurotoxin gene expression by CodY in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Dahlsten, Elias; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2014-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin, produced mainly by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum, is the most poisonous biological substance known. Here, we show that CodY, a global regulator conserved in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, positively regulates the botulinum neurotoxin gene expression. Inactivation of codY resulted in decreased expression of botA, encoding the neurotoxin, as well as in reduced neurotoxin synthesis. Complementation of the codY mutation in trans rescued neurotoxin synthesis, and overexpression of codY in trans caused elevated neurotoxin production. Recombinant CodY was found to bind to a 30-bp region containing the botA transcription start site, suggesting regulation of the neurotoxin gene transcription through direct interaction. GTP enhanced the binding affinity of CodY to the botA promoter, suggesting that CodY-dependent neurotoxin regulation is associated with nutritional status. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  16. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  17. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  18. The financial crisis in the Baltics: social and political lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the features of the global financial crisis in the Baltic states, shows the differences between the countries in the process of its development, and examines changes in the mass consciousness of the political establishment in the countries considered.

  19. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  20. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.; Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2002), s. 331-343 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : lodine-129 * Baltic sea * neutron activation analysis * seawater Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2002

  1. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  2. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  3. Hypoxia sustains cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funkey, C.P.; Conley, D.J.; Reuss, N.S.; Humborg, C.; Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified

  4. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  5. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...

  6. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  7. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  8. The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world, accounting for approximately 15% of world industrial output, and is relatively dense in population. Large quantities of pollutants water its waters by way of industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste. A lack of adequate sewage treatment accounts for much of the waste. The Baltic is also especially sensitive to oil pollution as the relatively cold water inhibits bacteriological breakdown. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of exclusionary regimes reappeared with the attainment of independence. Further, the legacy of Soviet maritime environment and resource management has engendered fundamental political, social, and economic conflicts for which resources and effective management structures are lacking. The competing requirements of economic development, reintegration into Western markets, and management of critical marine resources highlights the need for comprehensive and regionally focused approaches to the problems identified

  9. Options for Enhancing Nordic–Baltic Defence and Security Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Kristensen, Kristian Søby; Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Nordic–Baltic region is located as a geopolitical buffer zone between the great power interests of the East and the West. As external pressures are rising with an assertive Russia to the east and uncertainties about US NATO guarantees to the west, compounded by an uncertain EU, the region...

  10. Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Boerée, L.A.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Temming, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the

  11. Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics: Threats and Potential Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    multilingual kids . Every few weeks, he makes the quick flight over the Baltic Sea to see them. His Estonian residency permit lets him travel around Europe...As of June 20, 2016: https://ccdcoe.org/publications/ books /legalconsiderations.pdf Trei, Lisa, “Estonian Towns Vote for Autonomy,” The Moscow Times

  12. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  13. The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

    2009-01-01

    Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

  14. Providential History in the Chronicles of the Baltic Crusades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article examines two medieval chronicles dealing with the crusades in the Baltic. The Chronicon Livoniae by Henry, a German priest — and interpreter — in the region, provides an account of the crusades in Livonia and Estonia from c.1184 to c.1227. Henry was an eyewitness, even if surely biased...

  15. President Ilves kohtus Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi delegatsiooniga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 20. septembril 2010 hiljuti loodud sihtasutuse Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi (BAFF) direktorite nõukoguga, kes tutvustasid Balti riikide elanikele mõeldud haridusalaseid vahetusprogramme. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 29. sept. 2010, lk. 2 (allk. Piret Pert); Vaba Eesti Sõna 23. sept. 2010, lk. 3

  16. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...

  17. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about oxidation as a surface reaction during degradation of Baltic amber. A clear understanding of the amber-oxygen interaction modalities is essential to develop conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. Pellet-shaped samples...

  18. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  19. Hand hygiene in the nursery during diaper changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Koh Ni; Maznin, Nur Liyanna; Yip, Wai Kin

    2012-12-01

    This project aimed to improve hand hygiene practice during diaper changing among nurses working in the nursery. This project was conducted in one of the nurseries in a 935-bed acute care hospital with a sample of 15 nurses. A pre- and post-intervention audit was conducted utilising the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice module. A revised written workflow, which specified the occasions and process for hand hygiene during diaper changing, was introduced. Modifications to the baby bassinets and nursery were made after barriers to good hand hygiene were identified. The project was carried out over 4 months, from March to June 2011. The post-intervention audit results show an improvement in performing hand washing after changing diapers (20%) and performing the correct steps of hand rubbing (25%). However, the compliance rates decreased for the other criteria that measured whether hand rubbing or hand washing was performed prior to contacting the infant and after wrapping the infant, and whether hand washing was performed correctly. The improvement in compliance with hand washing--the main focus of the new workflow--after changing diapers was especially significant. The results indicated that having a workflow on the occasions and process for hand hygiene during diaper changing was useful in standardising practice. Pre- and post-implementation audits were effective methods for evaluating the effect of translating evidence into practice. However, this project had limited success in improving compliance with hand hygiene. This suggested that more effort is needed to reinforce the importance of hand hygiene and compliance to the proposed workflow. In addition, this project showed that for change to take place successfully, environmental modifications, increased awareness and adequate communication to every staff member are essential. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence

  20. Control of grapevine wood fungi in commercial nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rego

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous surveys conducted in commercial nurseries found that different wood fungi, namely Cylindrocarpon spp., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infect grapevine cuttings. Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of cyprodinil + fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin + metiram, fludioxonil and cyprodinil to prevent or reduce natural infections caused by such fungi. Rootstock and scion cuttings were soaked in fungicidal suspensions for 50 min prior to grafting. After callusing, the grafted cuttings were planted in two commercial field nurseries with and without a previous history of grapevine cultivation. After nine months in the nursery, the plants were uprooted and analysed for the incidence and severity of the wood fungi. Plants uprooted from the field without a previous history of grapevine cultivation were generally less strongly infected by wood fungi. Under this condition, only the mixture cyprodinil + fludioxonil simultaneously reduced the incidence of Cylindrocarpon and Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, as well as the severity of Cylindrocarpon infections. Treatments did not produce significant differences in the incidence and severity of P. viticola, and Pa. chlamydospora. For plants grown in the field with a grapevine history, all fungicides except cyprodinil significantly reduced the incidence and severity of Cylindrocarpon fungi. Also, the incidence and severity of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogens were significantly decreased both by cyprodinil + fludioxonil and by cyprodinil. No significant differences were noticed for P. viticola incidence and severity, and Pa. chlamydospora was not detected again. These results suggest that the practice of soaking grapevine cuttings in selected fungicides prior to grafting significantly reduces Cylindrocarpon spp. and Botryosphaeriaceae infections, thus improving the quality of planting material.

  1. Do nursery habitats provide shelter from flow for juvenile fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish nurseries are an essential life stage requirement for the maintenance of many fish populations. With many inshore habitats globally in decline, optimising habitat management by increasing our understanding of the relationship between juvenile fish and nursery habitats may be a prudent approach. Previous research on post-settlement snapper (Chrysophrys auratus has suggested that structure may provide a water flow refuge, allowing snapper to access high water flow sites that will also have a high flux of their pelagic prey. We investigated this hypothesis by describing how Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs modified water flow while also using a multi-camera set up to quantify snapper position in relation to this water flow environment. Horizontal water flow was reduced on the down-current side of ASUs, but only at the height of the seagrass canopy. While the highest abundance of snapper did occur down-current of the ASUs, many snapper also occupied other locations or were too high in the water column to receive any refuge from water flow. The proportion of snapper within the water column was potentially driven by strategy to access zooplankton prey, being higher on the up-current side of ASUs and on flood tides. It is possible that post-settlement snapper alternate position to provide opportunities for both feeding and flow refuging. An alternative explanation relates to an observed interaction between post-settlement snapper and a predator, which demonstrated that snapper can utilise habitat structure when threatened. The nature of this relationship, and its overall importance in determining the value of nursery habitats to post-settlement snapper remains an elusive next step.

  2. Do nursery habitats provide shelter from flow for juvenile fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; MacDonald, Iain; Buckthought, Dane; Middleton, Crispin

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile fish nurseries are an essential life stage requirement for the maintenance of many fish populations. With many inshore habitats globally in decline, optimising habitat management by increasing our understanding of the relationship between juvenile fish and nursery habitats may be a prudent approach. Previous research on post-settlement snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) has suggested that structure may provide a water flow refuge, allowing snapper to access high water flow sites that will also have a high flux of their pelagic prey. We investigated this hypothesis by describing how Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) modified water flow while also using a multi-camera set up to quantify snapper position in relation to this water flow environment. Horizontal water flow was reduced on the down-current side of ASUs, but only at the height of the seagrass canopy. While the highest abundance of snapper did occur down-current of the ASUs, many snapper also occupied other locations or were too high in the water column to receive any refuge from water flow. The proportion of snapper within the water column was potentially driven by strategy to access zooplankton prey, being higher on the up-current side of ASUs and on flood tides. It is possible that post-settlement snapper alternate position to provide opportunities for both feeding and flow refuging. An alternative explanation relates to an observed interaction between post-settlement snapper and a predator, which demonstrated that snapper can utilise habitat structure when threatened. The nature of this relationship, and its overall importance in determining the value of nursery habitats to post-settlement snapper remains an elusive next step.

  3. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  4. Two centuries of mean Baltic Sea level variability - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Madsen, Kristine S.; Johannson, Milla

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the processes which drive future climatic trends of sea-level on global to regional scales presumes the understanding of long-term variability in the observational period. This requires an accurate assessment of past and recent global and regional sea-level changes. Here, we review the observed changes (1800-2000) in mean sea-level variability in the Baltic region and the main (climate) drivers for these changes. We introduce the datasets available for studying sea-level and review the major published findings which can be derived from them. The Baltic is one of the most investigated sea-level sites in the world. It has a remarkable number of long and high quality densely spaced, tide gauge records with many stations in continuous operation since the late 19th century and some of the oldest sea-level records reporting since 200 years. More than 45 stations with at least 60 years of data have continued until recent times. Mean Baltic Sea level changes are dominated by crustal deformations due to the glacio-isostatic land movement effect. The basin-wide pattern of relative sea-level trends shows a clear north-south gradient with a negative rate of -8.2 mm/yr in the Gulf of Bothnia. Thus, RSL is falling in the northern Baltic (where the continental crust is uplifting at roughly 10 mm/yr) and rising in parts of the Southern Baltic. Baltic Sea level changes are affected by a sum of processes. These include thermo and halosteric effects, changes in wind, surface air-pressure and ocean currents, increasing freshwater input and gravitational effects. The decadal sea-level variability around the quasi-linear long-term trend is strongly influenced by westerly winds, closely related to the dominant large-scale sea-level pressure (SLP) pattern of the North Atlantic (NAO). The correlation between sea-level and SLP is highest in winter, but shows significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity with low values in southern Baltic parts. The decadal influence of

  5. Japanese Nursery and Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs and Practices Regarding Developmentally Appropriate Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Archana V.; Sugita, Chisato; Crane-Mitchell, Linda; Averett, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This study explored Japanese day nursery and kindergarten teachers' beliefs and practices regarding developmentally appropriate practices. Data were collected using in-depth interviews. Teacher interviews provided insights into the merger of the childcare and education systems of Japan. Six themes emerged from the analysis of the day nursery and…

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  7. Star Light, Star Bright: Whole-Language Activities with Nursery Rhymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderman, Beth Rose; Kuhn, Jean Naples

    This book, which uses nursery rhymes as its literature base, represents a non-threatening approach to beginning reading for children in kindergarten through grade 3. The book uses a variety of cross-curricular activities which are built around four familiar nursery rhymes. The book's introduction describes how each rhyme may be used over a 5-day…

  8. Nursery Rhyme Vocabulary--Comprehension and Interpretation among First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachok, Ann E.

    A study examined whether first-grade children comprehended less-familiar vocabulary from four "Mother Goose" nursery rhymes and whether the children used auditory context clues and/or visual illustrations to comprehend unknown vocabulary in the nursery rhymes. Subjects, 40 children from suburban areas and 40 children from urban areas,…

  9. Teaching Basic Sight Words through Nursery Rhymes to Mildly Handicapped Kindergarten Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Celia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of two approaches for teaching basic sight words to educable mentally handicapped students: (1) using the Language Experience Approach (LEA) alone; and (2) using LEA with nursery rhymes. Finds the subjects learned words more easily and rapidly when using nursery rhymes. (RS)

  10. Importance of shallow-water bay biotopes as nurseries for Caribbean reef fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds can harbour high densities of mostly juvenile fishes. It has therefore long been assumed that these habitats function as nursery areas. In the present thesis the nursery function of mangroves, seagrass beds and other shallow-water biotopes, located in sheltered inland

  11. Bareroot nursery production and practices for white spruce: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Alm; V.M. Vaughn; H.M. Rauscher

    1991-01-01

    This summary of white spruce literature covers seed collection and treatment, nursery cultural practices, seedling growth patterns and measurements of seedling quality. It includes information relevant to bareroot white spruce but does not cover containerized seedlings. It is intended for forest land managers, researchers and bareroot forest nursery managers.

  12. What's New With Nurseries and Reforestation Projects at the Missoula Technology and Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Vachowski

    2006-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Missoula Technology and Development Center (MTDC) offers technical expertise, technology transfer, and new equipment development to Federal, State, and private forest nurseries. Current and recently completed projects at MTDC include a nursery soil moisture meter, remote data collection systems, low cost weather stations, electronic soil...

  13. Forest Research Nursery Waste Water Management Plan, Integrated Pest Management Plan, and pesticide safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; David L. Wenny

    1992-01-01

    The University of Idaho Forest Research Nursery was established in 1909 to grow bareroot (field-grown) tree and shrub seedlings for conservation. In 1982, the bareroot production was phased out and replaced by growing seedlings in containers in greenhouses. The nursery emphasizes teaching, research and service. Students learn about forest planting; scientists...

  14. Evaluation of different compound fertilizers for use in oil palm nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard NPKMg 12:12:17:2 compound fertilizer (SF) for oil palm nurseries is not always available when needed. Evaluation of other compound fertilizers – NKP 15:15:15 and NPK 20:10:10 – compared with the SF were carried out in the main nursery at NIFOR to ascertain their suitability and rates of application.

  15. Create a pollinator garden at your nursery: An emphasis on monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese; Matthew E. Horning

    2014-01-01

    We realize that this type of article is a departure for FNN readers but feel that it is important for forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries to be good environmental stewards. In addition, establishing a pollinator garden at your nursery can be good for business, too. Demonstrating the role and beauty of native plants and their pollinators, particulary in a...

  16. Improving Longleaf Pine Seedling Establishment in the Nursery by Reducing Seedcoat Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Bill Pickens; Robert Karrfalt

    1999-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seeds are sensitive to damage during collection, processing, and storage. Highquality seeds are essential for successful production of nursery crops that meet management goals and perform well in the field. We conducted a series of tests under laboratory and nursery conditions to evaluate what effect a number of...

  17. The nursery role of a sheltered surf-zone in warm-temperate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine fish nurseries such as surf-zones have usually been classified as nurseries based solely on the density of pre-adult fish, yet the full suite of developmental stages are seldom assessed because of difficulties associated with sampling these habitats. The larval and early juvenile fish assemblage was studied in a ...

  18. National proceedings: forest and conservation nursery associations-1999, 2000, and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Dumroese; L. E. Riley; T. D. Landis

    2002-01-01

    The National Proceedings contains articles presented at regional meetings during 1999, 2000, and 2001. 1999: The joint meeting of the Northeastern and Western Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations was held at the Gateway Conference Center in Ames, Iowa, on July 12-15. Hosts were the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Cascade Forestry Nursery, and the USDA...

  19. Assessing tolerance of longleaf pine understory herbaceous plants to herbicide applications in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; Scott A. Enebak; James West; Drew Hinnant

    2015-01-01

    Renewed efforts in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem restoration has increased interest in the commercial production of understory herbaceous species. Successful establishment of understory herbaceous species is enhanced when using quality nursery-grown plants that have a better chance of survival after outplanting. Nursery growing practices have not been...

  20. A systems approach for management of pests and pathogens of nursery crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Parke; Niklaus J. Grünwald

    2012-01-01

    Horticultural nurseries are heterogeneous and spatially complex agricultural systems, which present formidable challenges to management of diseases and pests. Moreover, nursery plants shipped interstate and internationally can serve as important vectors for pathogens and pests that threaten both agriculture and forestry. Current regulatory strategies to prevent this...

  1. Evaluation of Fumigants for Pest Management and Seedling Production in Southern Pine Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The South's forest-products industry, as well as nonindustrial private landowners throughout the region, depend on forest-tree nurseries for the continuing production of high quality seedlings that survive well and grow quickly when outplanted. In recent years, southern pine nurseries have produced 1.1 to 1.65 billion seedlings annually, a production level that...

  2. Baltic States in NATO: Results of the Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Vorotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Soviet period participation in NATO was one of the major goals of euro-atlantic integration for the Baltic states. Political leaders of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have considered participation in the alliance as an important element of euro-atlantic solidarity which allows small - from all viewpoints - states claim decision-making over global issues. This satisfies demands of the political elites and victimized public consciousness for more security, makes it possible for elites to consider their states as bulwark against Russia. Throughout the whole decade, such reasoning has been reflected in doctrines and speeches of Baltic politicians. After joining NATO, the Baltic states became the most active supporters of a deeper integration in the military area and "open door" policy. They have continued reforming their armed forces and renovating military infrastructure. They have acquired "specialization" within NATO by establishing centers of excellence. In terms of euro-atlantic solidarity, the participation in the International Security Assistance Force in Afganistan has become the most important international project for the Baltic states. However, only Estonia managed to mount their defence expenses to the level of 2% GDP. During the „Ukranian crisis" the issue of Baltic membership in NATO acquired special importance. Confrontational rhetoric and appeals to "Russian threat" in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, on the one hand, make it possible for their political leaders to constantly demonstrate their importance in the eyes of Western partners and demand more activity of the alliance and, on the other hand, make ground for the political elites to consolidate the electorate, by that ensuring that the right-wing conservative forces remain in power.

  3. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  4. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  5. Seedling mortality and development of root rot in white pine seedlings in two bare-root nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Juzwik; D. J. Rugg

    1996-01-01

    Seedling mortality and development of root rot in white pine (Pinus strobus) were followed across locations and over time within three operational nursery fields with loamy sand soils at a provincial nursery in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and a state nursery in southern Wisconsin, USA. One Ontario field was fumigated with dazomet; the other was not...

  6. 75 FR 75169 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Update of Nursery Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Collection; Update of Nursery Stock Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of nursery stock into the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of nursery stock...

  7. Coastal Nurseries and Their Importance for Conservation of Sea Kraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Christophe; Plichon, Patrice; Fauvel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes) have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2). Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked) revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away) to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future. PMID:24670985

  8. Coastal nurseries and their importance for conservation of sea kraits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonnet

    Full Text Available Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2. Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future.

  9. An Anthropology of Marketplace Behavior. Aspects of embeddedness in Norwegian entrepreneurship in the Baltics

    OpenAIRE

    Cimdina, Agnese

    2012-01-01

    Based on fieldwork undertaken between 2005 and 2008, this thesis provides an anthropological analysis of cross border Norwegian entrepreneurship in the Baltics in a timeframe that spans from the middle of the 1990s to 2008. The Baltic states had barely reinstated their independence from the Soviet Union when the Nordic countries, including Norway, began to devise strategies to enter these emerging markets. In the 1990s, the growing Baltic markets, as they were in such close proximity to ...

  10. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelholzer Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  11. An integrated system for wastewater COD characterization and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P; Zhang, X; Zhang, D

    2010-01-01

    The guidelines of Activated Sludge Model (ASM) can make the use of modeling more straightforward and systematical. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a guideline for wastewater COD characterization. Four physical-chemical methods were compared experimentally for wastewater characterization in this paper and flocculation + 0.45 μm membrane filtration combining respirometry was selected to determine soluble inert COD. Simultaneous determination of readily and slowly biodegradable COD through respirometric measurement of raw wastewater was proved feasible. In addition, two methods were evaluated to determine heterotrophic biomass. In light of these investigations, an integrated system for characterizing wastewater COD fractions defined in ASM1 was proposed and then applied to characterize influent COD of a treatment plant. By following this guideline, a detailed and practical COD characterization can be obtained. Moreover, this study could also provide an example for the development of more widely accepted guidelines.

  12. A millennium of north-east Atlantic cod juvenile growth trajectories inferred from archaeological otoliths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories. The most significant variation in growth patterns was consistent with those that have been observed in recent times, for example, reduced early juvenile growth during periods of colder ocean temperature. The current results represent a high resolution chronological record of north-east Atlantic cod growth, greatly increasing the prior temporal range of such data, thereby providing a valuable baseline for a broad range of studies on Atlantic cod growth.

  13. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  14. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  15. North Atlantic ecosystem shifts revealed by cod otolith δ15N and δ13C chronologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Brøgger; Nielsen, Jens Munk; Steingrund, Petur

    . To study the link between environmental changes and ecosystem trophic structure we developed δ15N and δ13C chronologies by analyzing the organic matrix of cod otoliths from the Faroe Shelf cod population (1950-2010) and the Nuuk Fjord cod population (1927-2009). Significant correlations between δ15N & δ13C...... of organic matrix of otolith core material (Nuuk Fjord) and annual growth increments in Ocean Quahog (A. Islandica) shells will be included....

  16. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  17. Warm, windy winters drive cod north and homing of spawners keeps them there

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    , stock size or limited directional movement of cod. Using the derived models, we investigated whether fishing has increased the sensitivity of the cod population to climate-induced distribution changes. 3. A series of winters characterized by high temperatures and southerly winds during the egg...... of older age groups. Unless a series of cold and calm years combined with a reduced mortality in the southern areas allows a southern spawning population to rebuild, the cod stock is unlikely to return to its previous area of distribution. Furthermore, protecting adult cod mainly in northern areas...

  18. Growth and Cropping of Two Pear Cultivars as Affected by the Type of Nursery Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2001–2012 next to Wrocław (southwestern Poland. The purpose of this research was to assess the influence of type of nursery trees of pear cvs ‘Carola’ and ‘Dicolor’ budded on quince S1 rootstock on growth and cropping, as well as fruit quality of two pear cultivars. The trees were planted in the spring of 2001 in 4 replications with 5 trees per plot. Trees were planted in rows with spacing 1.2 × 3.5 m (2381 trees per hectare. Three types of nursery trees, all without feathers, were planted: two-year-old (3 years in a nursery, one-year-old maidens (2 years in a nursery and annual grafts (only 1 year in a nursery. Tree canopies were formed as a spindle and were trained in the Güttingen-V system. Until the twelfth year after planting, growth and yield were significantly affected by the type of nursery trees. One-year-old maidens were characterized by the strongest vigor in orchard, while pears planted as two-year-old trees grew rather weak (especially with ‘Dicolor’ cv.. Planting two-year-old trees didn’t have any clear positive influence on tree cropping in the orchard. The final results of the study proved that trees planted as annual grafts, irrespective of cultivar, yielded significantly worse. The type of nursery trees had no clear influence on mean fruit weight.

  19. A rapid approach to evaluate putative nursery sites for penaeid prawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Smith, James A.; Boys, Craig A.; Whitney, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    Identifying nursery habitats for an aquatic species generally requires tracing adult individuals back through time and space to the area or habitat in which they developed as juveniles. We develop and trial a study design and analytical approach to evaluate the suitability of using stable isotopes to trace emigrating prawns to putative nursery sites, and evaluate assumptions inherent in the application of the approach using two penaeid species with Type-II life cycles: Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. Prawns were collected in putative nursery sites within the Hunter River, Australia, and analysed as composite samples of 6 individuals to provide habitat-specific isotopic signatures. Prawns emigrating from the mouth of the river were used as a proxy for individuals recruiting to the adult population, and assigned to putative nursery sites using a probabilistic mixing model and a simple, distance-based approach. Bivariate (δ15N and δ13C) isotopic data was sufficient to distinguish prawns from different putative nursery sites, and isotopic composition correlated closely with salinity. Approximately 90% of emigrating prawns collected could be assigned to these sites using bivariate isotopic data, and both analytical approaches gave similar results. The design developed here is broadly applicable to a suite of penaeid species, but its application will be most powerful when sampling is also aimed at understanding nursery function by simultaneous monitoring of size structure/growth, density, and trophic relationships within nursery habitats.

  20. Impact of Nursery Rhymes on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Skill Improvement-A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Pourkalhor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of nursery rhymes on the young language learners listening comprehension ability. To do so, 30 elementary learners were selected as the potential participants of the study. The learners’ perceptions about using nursery rhymes in teaching listening as well as teachers’ perceptions about teaching listening comprehension through nursery rhymes were taken into account. The listening pre- and post-tests and teachers and learners’ interviews were employed for data collection procedures. Quantitative as well as qualitative methodologies were adapted for data analysis. Findings showed that the young learners could improve their listening comprehension ability as a result of using nursery rhymes. Interview data also indicated that the learners’ perceptions about nursery rhymes were found to be positive since the rhymes provided an interesting atmosphere for the learners to improve their listening comprehension while benefiting from peer interaction and teacher’s support in the listening classroom. Teachers’ perceptions were also realistic regarding using nursery rhymes in teaching listening, especially for young learners. As to the implication side, finding can contribute to the positive application of nursery rhymes in paving the way for young learners to improve their listening comprehension ability.