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Sample records for baltic ciscoes coregonus

  1. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitz Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises

  2. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

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    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  3. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

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    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  4. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  5. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

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    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska.

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    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed ΦST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups.

  7. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  8. Temperature tolerance of young-of-the-year cisco, Coregonus artedii

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    Edsall, Thomas A.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    Young-of-the-year ciscoes (Coregonus artedii) acclimated to 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 C and tested for tolerance to high and low temperatures provide the first detailed description of the thermal tolerance of coregonids in North America. The upper ultimate lethal temperature of the young ciscoes was 26 C (6 C higher than the maximum sustained temperature tolerated by adult ciscoes in nature) and the ultimate lower lethal temperature approached 0 C (near that commonly tolerated in nature by adult ciscoes). The temperature of 26 C is slightly higher than the lowest ultimate upper lethal temperature recorded for North American freshwater fishes; however, published information on the depth distributions of fishes in the Great Lakes suggests that some of the other coregonids may be less tolerant of high temperatures than the cisco.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A; Graziano, S L; Nielsen, J L

    2008-03-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco.

  11. Update COSEWIC status report on the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.

    2003-01-01

    Extirpated in most of the Great Lakes, the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, is currently found in Lakes Superior and Nipigon in addition to at least 22 Canadian lakes. The species exhibits morphological and genetic variability throughout its range and may consist of more than one distinct taxon. However, a common morph is widely distributed from the Great Lakes to the Northwest Territories, consistent with a hypothesis of preglacial origin for the species. Shortjaw ciscoes have declined because of excessive exploitation by food fisheries, habitat degradation, and predation and competition with introduced and exotic species such as alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, and rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax. The status of the species in most Canadian lakes is unknown, but continuing declines in those lakes that have been monitored suggest that the shortjaw cisco should be considered as threatened throughout its range.

  12. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

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    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  13. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (Pcisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  14. Ontogenetic shifts in morphology and resource use of cisco Coregonus artedi.

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    Muir, A M; Vecsei, P; Pratt, T C; Krueger, C C; Power, M; Reist, J D

    2013-02-01

    Two previously described lacustrine cisco Coregonus spp. morphs [i.e. a small (cisco Coregonus artedi. Geometric body shape did not differ between the two size classes nor could they be differentiated by 24 size-corrected linear measurements, indicating that the two groups had similar phenotypes. Strong, positive correlations between all linear characters and geometric centroid size (a composite variable of fish body length, mass and age) suggested that body morphology changed with age as fish grew. Total gillraker number (N(GR)) increased with L(F) according to: N(GR) = 36.3 + 0.034L(F). Differences in gillraker number and phenotype with age and size were explained by shifts in habitat and trophic resource use. Relative abundance within 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 and >90 m depth strata differed between size classes suggesting that morphology changed when fish shifted their habitat as they grew older. Large C. artedi had lower δ(13)C and slightly higher δ(15)N, indicating greater reliance on pelagic prey resources (i.e. more or larger zooplankton, such as Mysis spp.), compared to small C. artedi, which relied slightly more on benthic prey. Gillraker shape and number have always been used as key diagnostic characters in coregonine taxonomy; based on the findings presented here, ontogenetic shifts should be accounted for in resulting classifications.

  15. Analysis of three cisco forms (Coregonus, Salmonidae) from Lake Saganaga and adjacent lakes near the Minnesota/Ontario border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etnier, DA; Skelton, CE

    2003-01-01

    Based on examination of 655 ciscoes from Lake Saganaga, a Minnesota/Ontario border lake, three forms, about 90% separable on gill raker counts, are present. Form L, with the lowest gill raker counts (26-40, mean = 31.9, n = 96) is tentatively identified as Coregonus zenithicus. Form M, with intermed

  16. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  17. Seasonal changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations of cisco Coregonus artedi.

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    Ahrenstorff, T D; Hrabik, T R

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) document changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations (DVM) patterns of cisco Coregonus artedi in Ten Mile Lake, MN, U.S.A., throughout the year and (2) evaluate the mechanisms that may cause shifts in migration behaviour. Results indicated that C. artedi vertical distributions remained deep in the water column during the day and night of the spring and autumn, which was related to a low risk, low reward strategy. During summer, a partial migration occurred where a portion of the population remained deeper according to the low risk, low reward strategy, while the other portion performed a more extensive high risk, high reward reverse DVM. In winter, C. artedi did not migrate because there were only low risk, low reward conditions present at all depths. The extensive partial, reverse DVM during summer probably increased the growth potential of C. artedi, helping individuals survive in a lake with low zooplankton prey resources.

  18. Foraging and predation risk for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior: a modelling synthesis of empirical survey data

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    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of predation and food availability as contributors to larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) mortality in Lake Superior were investigated using a visual foraging model to evaluate potential predation pressure by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and a bioenergetic model to evaluate potential starvation risk. The models were informed by observations of rainbow smelt, larval cisco, and zooplankton abundance at three Lake Superior locations during the period of spring larval cisco emergence and surface-oriented foraging. Predation risk was highest at Black Bay, ON, where average rainbow smelt densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column were >1000 ha−1. Turbid conditions at the Twin Ports, WI-MN, affected larval cisco predation risk because rainbow smelt remained suspended in the upper water column during daylight, placing them alongside larval cisco during both day and night hours. Predation risk was low at Cornucopia, WI, owing to low smelt densities (cisco survival at Black Bay and to a lesser extent at Twin Ports, and that starvation may be a major source of mortality at all three locations. The framework we describe has the potential to further our understanding of the relative importance of starvation and predation on larval fish survivorship, provided information on prey resources available to larvae are measured at sufficiently fine spatial scales and the models provide a realistic depiction of the dynamic processes that the larvae experience.

  19. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

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    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  20. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

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    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  1. Cisco (Coregonus artedii) mortalities in a southern Michigan lake, July 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, Larry T.

    1969-01-01

    Cisco die-offs are common in the summer in certain lakes of northern Indiana and southern Michigan, along the southern boundary of the national distribution of coregonine fishes. Although numerous cisco die-offs have been reported, few, if any, have been accompanied by environmental information at the time of the die-off. On 31 July and 1 August 1968, we investigated a cisco die-off on Halfmoon Lake, on the border of Washtenaw and Livingston Counties, Michigan.

  2. [Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M

    2013-01-01

    Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.

  3. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

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    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  4. Can pelagic forage fish and spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) biomass in the western arm of Lake Superior be assessed with a single summer survey?

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    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schreiner, D.R.; Evrard, L.M.; Balge, M.; Hrabik, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Management efforts to rehabilitate lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior have been successful and the recent increase in their numbers has led to interest in measuring biomass of pelagic prey fish species important to these predators. Lake Superior cisco Coregonus artedi currently support roe fisheries and determining the sustainability of these fisheries is an important management issue. We conducted acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of the western arm of Lake Superior during three periods: summer (July-August), October, and November 2006 to determine if a single survey can be timed to estimate biomass of both prey fish and spawning cisco. We evaluated our methods by comparing observed trawl catches of small (cisco increased substantially in November, while small bloater Coregonus hoyi biomass was lower. We compared our summer 2006 estimates of total fish biomass to the results of a summer survey in 1997 and obtained similar results. We conclude that the temporal window for obtaining biomass estimates of pelagic prey species in the western arm of Lake Superior is wide (July through October), but estimating spawning cisco abundance is best done with a November survey.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of lake cisco (Coregonus artedi): evidence supporting extensive secondary contacts between two glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-04-01

    The comparative molecular phylogeography of regional fish fauna has revealed the wide distribution of young clades in freshwater fishes of formerly glaciated areas as well as interspecific incongruences in their refugial origins and recolonization routes. In this study, we employed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses to describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism among 27 populations of the lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) from its entire range of distribution in order to evaluate the hypothesis of dual glacial refuges proposed by Bernatchez & Dodson against the traditional view that this species is solely of Mississippian origin. Results indicate that this taxon is composed of two closely related groups that are widely distributed and intermixed over most of the sampled range. The estimated level of divergence (0.48%), the contrast in the geographical distribution of each group, as well as the general distribution of C. artedi in North America together support the hypothesis that one group dispersed from a Mississippian refuge via the proglacial lakes, while the other is of Atlantic origin and also took advantages of earlier dispersal routes towards eastern Hudson Bay drainages. However, the signal of past range fragmentation revealed by a nested clade analysis was weak, and did not allow to formally exclude the hypothesis of a single Mississippian origin for both lineages. Comparisons with the phylogeographic patterns of other Nearctic freshwater fishes suggest that the salinity tolerance and thermal sensitivity of lake cisco may have been determinant for its extensive postglacial dispersal. The presence or co-occurrence of sympatric or allopatric eco/morphotypes were not found to be necessarily associated with the presence of both haplotype groups.

  6. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, V R; Zimmerman, C E; Moulton, L L

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r² = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r² = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r² = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels.

  7. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences

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    Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Moulton, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r2 = 0??29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r2 = 0??14-0??31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r2 = 0??13-0??50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels. Journal of Fish Biology ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  8. Genetic stock assessment of spawning arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) populations by flow cytometric determination of DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, S F; Bickham, J W

    1991-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in cellular DNA content was measured in five Coregonus autumnalis spawning populations from the Mackenzie River drainage, Canada, using flow cytometry. The rivers assayed were the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, Carcajou, and Liard rivers. DNA content was determined from whole blood preparations of fish from all rivers except the Carcajou, for which kidney tissue was used. DNA content measurements of kidney and blood preparations of the same fish from the Mountain River revealed statistically indistinguishable results. Mosaicism was found in blood preparations from the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, and Liard rivers, but was not observed in kidney tissue preparations from the Mountain or Carcajou rivers. The Liard River sample had significantly elevated mean DNA content relative to the other four samples; all other samples were statistically indistinguishable. Significant differences in mean DNA content among spawning stocks of a single species reinforces the need for adequate sample sizes of both individuals and populations when reporting "C" values for a particular species.

  9. Study of Coregonus Populations in the Zone of Intergradation between the Vendace and Least Cisco: the Role of the Environment in Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovikova Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers showed that the Least Cisco gradually spread from Siberia to Europe until the last glaciation. This was accompanied by gradual replacement of "typically Siberian" gene variants with "typically European" ones. Morphological traits also changed as the species expanded, the changes in the body proportions being apparently adaptive. They are likely to reflect the transition of the cisco from the semi-anadromous life history type to the lacustrine type, which is more characteristic of the European form. Thus, the speciation of the vendace is clearly adaptive, at least with respect to some traits. It should be noted, however, that the results of this study raise doubt as to whether the vendace has entirely diverged from the Least Cisco, and the speciation has completed.

  10. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  11. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  12. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  13. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  14. Decline of shortjaw cisco in Lake Superior: the role of overfishing and risk of extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, Michael H.; Gorman, Owen T.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reviews have further documented the decline of the shortjaw cisco Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior. This fish was the most abundant deepwater cisco species in Lake Superior in the early 1920s but presently makes up less than 1% of all deepwater ciscoes (i.e., including shortjaw cisco, bloater C. hoyi, and kiyi C. kiyi) captured in biological surveys. Directed overfishing of deepwater cisco species during the 1930s and again during the mid-1960s and 1970s has been suggested as the cause of the shortjaw cisco's demise. In this paper, we re-examined the overfishing hypothesis by using historical and recent survey data to estimate the proportion of the historical commercial fishery landings that comprised shortjaw ciscoes. We developed time series of estimated harvest and relative abundance for all statistical districts in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929–1996, for which aggregate catch and effort data were available but not previously examined. The spatial distribution of the fishery and the relationships of catch to fishing effort were examined for evidence of overfishing. Our analysis suggested that directed overfishing was probably not the cause of shortjaw cisco demise, as this species appeared to be declining in all statistical districts regardless of the intensity of the fishery. A count-based population viability analysis indicated that quasi-extinction of the shortjaw cisco is highly probable in the near future. We propose an alternative hypothesis based on the decline of Lake Superior's keystone predator, the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, which resulted in an expansion of the population of its principal prey, the cisco C. artedi, due to release from predation pressure. Competitive or predation interactions between the cisco and shortjaw cisco may be more likely explanations for the demise of the latter species.

  15. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  16. Cisco IOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and expanded, Cisco IOS Cookbook, 2nd Edition, adds sections on MPLS, Security, IPv6, and IP Mobility, and presents solutions to the most common configuration problems. If you work with Cisco routers, you need a book like this to help you solve problems quickly and effectively. Even if you're experienced, the solutions and extensive explanations will give you new ideas and insights into router configuration. And if you're not experienced--if you've just been given responsibility for managing a network with Cisco routers--this book could be a job-saver.

  17. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  18. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  19. Spawning habitat unsuitability: an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Blouin, Marc A.; Sederberg, Bryan J.; Elliott, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was one of the most important native prey fishes in Lake Michigan and in the other four Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the cisco spawning in Lake Michigan was believed to have occurred in Green Bay. The cisco population in Lake Michigan collapsed during the 1950s, and the collapse was attributed in part to habitat degradation within Green Bay. Winter water quality surveys of lower Green Bay during the 1950s and 1960s indicated that the bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was less than 2 mg/L throughout much of the lower bay, and most cisco eggs would not successfully hatch at such low DO concentrations. To determine present-day spawning habitat suitability in lower Green Bay, we compared cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay with survival at a reference site (St. Marys River, Michigan–Ontario) during 2009. We also conducted winter water quality surveys in lower Green Bay and the St. Marys River during 2009 and 2010. Cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay averaged 65.3%, which was remarkably similar to and not significantly different from the mean at the St. Marys River site (64.0%). Moreover, the lowest bottom DO concentrations recorded during the winter surveys were 11.2 mg/L in lower Green Bay and 12.7 mg/L in the St. Marys River. These relatively high DO concentrations would not be expected to have any negative effect on cisco egg survival. We conclude that winter water quality conditions in lower Green Bay were suitable for successful hatching of cisco eggs and that water quality during the egg incubation period did not represent an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan. Our approach to determining spawning habitat suitability for coregonids would be applicable to other aquatic systems.

  20. Cisco ASM Router

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    One of the two "ASM/2-32EM" boxes installed in 1988, from "Cisco Systems Inc." - then an unknown 20-employee company in Menlo Park, California (USA). This is one of the first two Cisco boxes to appear in Switzerland, and possibly Europe. The 220v power supply was a special modification made for use at CERN. They supported IP address filtering, which seemed just what CERN needed to help protect the new Cray XMP-48 super computer from network hackers. The two ASM boxes were both routers and terminal servers. They protected a secure private Ethernet segment used by the Cray project, as well as providing secure terminal connections to that segment, including CERN's first dialback terminal service, which allowed Cray and CERN system analysts to work on the machine from home, using another Cisco feature called TACACS. (Kindly offered by B. Segal who discovered this company while at a Usenix Conference in Phoenix, Arizona in June 1987.)

  1. Implementing Cisco UCS solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach which will help you understand the practical methodologies and deploying of Cisco UCS components.If you are a professional such as a system, network, or storage administrator who is responsible for Cisco UCS deployments, this is the perfect book for you. You should have some basic knowledge of the server's architecture, network, and storage technologies. Familiarity with virtualization technologies is also recommended (though not necessary) as the majority of real-world UCS deployments run virtualized loads. Knowledge of Nexus OS is not necessary as the majority of th

  2. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  3. The spatial scale for cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior during 1978-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Benjamin J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was once the most abundant fish species in the Great Lakes, but currently cisco populations are greatly reduced and management agencies are attempting to restore the species throughout the basin. To increase understanding of the spatial scale at which density-independent and density-dependent factors influence cisco recruitment dynamics in the Great Lakes, we used a Ricker stock–recruitment model to identify and quantify the appropriate spatial scale for modeling age-1 cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior. We found that the recruitment variation of ciscoes in Lake Superior was best described by a five-parameter regional model with separate stock–recruitment relationships for the western, southern, eastern, and northern regions. The spatial scale for modeling was about 260 km (range = 230–290 km). We also found that the density-independent recruitment rate and the rate of compensatory density dependence varied among regions at different rates. The density-independent recruitment rate was constant among regions (3.6 age-1 recruits/spawner), whereas the rate of compensatory density dependence varied 16-fold among regions (range = −0.2 to −2.9/spawner). Finally, we found that peak recruitment and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment varied among regions. Both peak recruitment (0.5–7.1 age-1 recruits/ha) and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment (0.3–5.3 spawners/ha) varied 16-fold among regions. Our findings support the hypothesis that the factors driving cisco recruitment operate within four different regions of Lake Superior, suggest that large-scale abiotic factors are more important than small-scale biotic factors in influencing cisco recruitment, and suggest that fishery managers throughout Lake Superior and the entire Great Lakes basin should address cisco restoration and management efforts on a regional scale in each lake.

  4. Food resource effects on diel movements and body size of cisco in north-temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D; Hrabik, Thomas R; Jacobson, Peter C; Pereira, Donald L

    2013-12-01

    The movement patterns and body size of fishes are influenced by a host of physical and biological conditions, including temperature and oxygen, prey densities and foraging potential, growth optimization, and predation risk. Our objectives were to (1) investigate variability in vertical movement patterns of cisco (Coregonus artedi) in a variety of inland lakes using hydroacoustics, (2) explore the causal mechanisms influencing movements through the use of temperature/oxygen, foraging, growth, and predation risk models, and (3) examine factors that may contribute to variations in cisco body size by considering all available information. Our results show that cisco vertical movements vary substantially, with different populations performing normal diel vertical migrations (DVM), no DVM, and reverse DVM in lakes throughout Minnesota and northern Wisconsin, USA. Cisco populations with the smallest body size were found in lakes with lower zooplankton densities. These smaller fish showed movements to areas of highest foraging or growth potential during the day and night, despite moving out of preferred temperature and oxygen conditions and into areas of highest predation risk. In lakes with higher zooplankton densities, cisco grew larger and had movements more consistent with behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance, while remaining in areas with less than maximum foraging and growth potential. Furthermore, the composition of potential prey items present in each lake was also important. Cisco that performed reverse DVM consumed mostly copepods and cladocerans, while cisco that exhibited normal DVM or no migration consumed proportionally more macro-zooplankton species. Overall, our results show previously undocumented variation in migration patterns of a fish species, the mechanisms underlying those movements, and the potential impact on their growth potential.

  5. 2008 Spawning Cisco Investigations in the Canadian Waters of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel; Addison, Peter A.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cullis, Ken I.; Cholwek, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) on a threeyear study to develop standard procedures for acoustic and midwater trawl (AC-MT) assessments of spawning cisco Coregonus artedi that the OMNR can carry forward as a management activity. In year two (2008), we conducted an AC-MT survey of the northern shore from Nipigon Bay to Thunder Bay. Spawning-cisco (> 250 mm total length) densities were lowest near Nipigon Bay (cisco in Thunder Bay during the 2008 fishery at 4% for ages 1-5, 8.7% for ages 6-12, and 4.4% for ages ≥ 13. Lake Superior fishery managers recently recommended that annual exploitation of adult female lake cisco be kept below 10-15%. Recruitment of cisco since 2003 has been low and there is a strong probability the Thunder Bay stock will decline into the future. Using a simple population dynamics approach we estimated that if the current total allowable catch (TAC) quota is held constant, exploitation fractions could exceed 10% by 2010 and 15% by 2011. Our 2008 collections suggested the survey of Black Bay was likely conducted before all spawners had returned there to spawn. Our data also suggested that cisco collected in Black Bay and east of this site in mid-November may be from the same stock. During November 2009 we will attempt to get better definition of the area occupied by cisco around Black Bay and also determine when surveys should be conducted at this location.

  6. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  7. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija;

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  8. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  9. IT Kolledž on esimene CISCO akadeemia Eestis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    2001.a. nov.-st sai IT Kolledž esimeseks Cisco Võrguakadeemiaks Eestis IT Kolledži ja Cisco vahel sõlmitud lepingu alusel. Cisco akadeemiad pakuvad praktilise suunitlusega rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud arvutivõrkude-alast baaskoolitust

  10. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  11. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Learn from the Best - Cisco Networking Authority Todd LammleWritten by Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Todd's straightforward style provides lively examples, hands on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that will not only help you prepare for the exam, but also give you a solid foundation as a Cisco networking professional.This Study Guide teaches you how toDescribe how a network worksConfigure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch co

  12. Bilingualism, Biculturalism, and the Cisco Kid Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cisco Kid was born over 100 years ago in 1907 from the pen of the genial and bilious author O. Henry (William Sydney Porter, 1862-1910). He is still going strong both in film and television. Before 1913, the year when films became long features, dozens of short films were based on the character. After 1913, feature films either used the actual…

  13. How systematic age underestimation can impede understanding of fish population dynamics: Lessons learned from a Lake Superior cisco stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Black, J.A.; Cullis, K.I.; Cholwek, G.A.; Myers, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic underestimation of fish age can impede understanding of recruitment variability and adaptive strategies (like longevity) and can bias estimates of survivorship. We suspected that previous estimates of annual survival (S; range = 0.20-0.44) for Lake Superior ciscoes Coregonus artedi developed from scale ages were biased low. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the total instantaneous mortality rate of adult ciscoes from the Thunder Bay, Ontario, stock by use of cohort-based catch curves developed from commercial gill-net catches and otolith-aged fish. Mean S based on otolith ages was greater for adult females (0.80) than for adult males (0.75), but these differences were not significant. Applying the results of a study of agreement between scale and otolith ages, we modeled a scale age for each otolith-aged fish to reconstruct catch curves. Using modeled scale ages, estimates of S (0.42 for females, 0.36 for males) were comparable with those reported in past studies. We conducted a November 2005 acoustic and midwater trawl survey to estimate the abundance of ciscoes when the fish were being harvested for roe. Estimated exploitation rates were 0.085 for females and 0.025 for males, and the instantaneous rates of fishing mortality were 0.089 for females and 0.025 for males. The instantaneous rates of natural mortality were 0.131 and 0.265 for females and males, respectively. Using otolith ages, we found that strong year-classes at large during November 2005 were caught in high numbers as age-1 fish in previous annual bottom trawl surveys, whereas weak or absent year-classes were not. For decades, large-scale fisheries on the Great Lakes were allowed to operate because ciscoes were assumed to be short lived and to have regular recruitment. We postulate that the collapse of these fisheries was linked in part to a misunderstanding of cisco biology driven by scale-ageing error. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. Semen biology of vendace (Coregonus albula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Dietrich, Mariola; Hliwa, Piotr; Stabinski, Robert; Nynca, Joanna; Andronowska, Aneta; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphometry and motility parameters of vendace (Coregonus albula) spermatozoa. Morphometric parameters of vendace sperm head and tail were of values similar to rainbow trout. The effects of pH, sodium, potassium and calcium ion concentrations on computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) sperm motility characteristics were tested. Vendace sperm was motile in a wide pH range of 6.0-10.5 with the optimum pH established at 9.0. Increases in potassium and calcium ions caused decreases in the percentage of motile sperm. The CASA parameters and erratic sperm movement pattern of vendace spermatozoa were similar to whitefish (C. lavaretus) sperm motility, suggesting that there is a coregonid-specific sperm motility pattern.

  15. Mission E-Possible: The Cisco E-Learning Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronic learning program prescribed by Cisco director John Chambers. To respond to his challenge that the program would have to be exemplary and serve thousands, stakeholders integrated the company's e-learning initiatives. (JOW)

  16. Guide to Cisco Routers Configuration Becoming a Router Geek

    CERN Document Server

    Alani, Mohammed M

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a guide to the configuration of Cisco routers, from tasks for beginners to advanced operations. A collection of detailed "how-to" instructions are presented, which will be of use to all professionals and students who engage with Cisco routers in the field or in the lab. The guide starts with the simple step-by-step task of connecting the router and performing basic configuration, before building up to complex and sensitive operations such as router IOS upgrade and Site-to-Site VPNs.

  17. ADHOC MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORK ENHANCEMENT BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhoc wireless networks become one of the most researchable areas in the studying of routing protocols depending on the Open System Interconnection (OSI Model. This paper use Cisco devices as a reference to enhance the performance of the network. This enhancement will be due to high processing, reliability, average cost, power consumption and accessibility. The aim of this research not only to get the cost down, it also to choose a time to time device to process the data as rapid as it can. Using NAT, Access List and DHCP protocols defined in Cisco (Graphical Unit Interface GUI of the (Command Line Interface CLI, the task can be made.

  18. Cisco CCNA/CCENT Exam 640-802, 640-822, 640-816 Preparation Kit With Cisco Router Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Three exams, two certifications, one complete Cisco training solution for networking professionals! .. .. The CCNA exam is an entry-level IT certification from Cisco Systems for professionals installing and maintaining route and switched networks. The current exam material covers networking concepts along with new and updated content on network security fundamentals and the basics of wireless networking. .. .. This book can be used as a study guide for either track you choose to receive your CCNA – the single exam, 640-802 or the combined 640-822 and 640-816, and for the CCENT certification wh

  19. CCNA Experimental Environment Simulation with Cisco Packet Tracer%使用Cisco Packet Tracer模拟CCNA实验环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金恒; 王煜林

    2010-01-01

    Cisco Packet Tracer是一款由Cisco公司发布的网络辅助学习工具,它能够给思科课程爱好者提供一个设计、配置网络及排除网络故障的网络模拟环境.根据的实验需求,在Cisco Packet Tracer模拟器上设计了两个实用的CCNA实验拓朴,让思科学习者能够更好地学习网络.

  20. Status of the deepwater cisco population of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1964-01-01

    The species and size composition and the abundance of the cisco (Leucichthys spp.) population of Lake Michigan have undergone drastic changes since the sea lamprey became established in the 1940's. The changes were measured by the catches of gill nets of identical specifications fished at the same seasons, depths, and locations in 1930-32, 1954-55, and 1960-61. The two largest ciscoes (johannae and nigripinnis), exploited heavily in a highly selective fishery from the midnineteenth century to the early 1900's, were only sparsely represented in the catch in the 1930's and were absent from catches of the comparison surveys in 1954-55 and 1960-61. The species of intermediate size (alpenae, artedi, kiyi, reighardi, and zenithicus) constituted about two-thirds of the cisco stocks of the deepwater zone in the 1930's but declined to 23.9 and 6.4 percent in the 1950's and 1960's, respectively. Major causes of change were the increased fishing pressure and sea lamprey predation that accompanied the disappearance of the lake trout. The small, slow-growing cisco (hoyi) - the primary food of lake trout - which was not fished intensively, and was too small to suffer greatly from sea lamprey predation, increased from 31.0 percent of the catch in the 1930's to 76.1 percent in the 1950's and 93.6 percent in the 1960's. Consequences of the extreme imbalance of the cisco population have been a reduction in mean size of all species, extension of the range of the very abundant hoyi (formerly most abundant in moderately shallow areas) to almost all depths and sections of the lake, and possibly introgressive hybridization among the various species. The primary change in the fishery has been a shift from gill nets to more extensive use of trawls which can take the now abundant smaller fish.

  1. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    . Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...

  2. [Differential expression of DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons in closely related populations of Baikal ciscoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-01-01

    Two representatives of Baikal ciscoes - lake cisco and omul - diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10-20 thousand years ago. We have found an increasing expression level of DTSsa4 Tc1-like DNA transposons in cisco and omul brains. The mapping of the sequences of these transposons from Salmo salar and Danio rerio genomes has shown that in some cases, these transposons are located in the 5' and 3' regions, as well as in the promoter regions of various genes. Probably, Tc1-like transposons affect the activity of neighboring genes, providing the adaptive divergence of the cisco population.

  3. The Operating Modes and Implementing of Cisco IPS%Cisco IPS的工作模式及部署

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淑玲

    2013-01-01

      入侵防御系统(Intrusion Prevention System,IPS)是在入侵检测系统(Intrusion Detection System,IDS)的基础上发展而来的,它不但具有IDS 强大的基于数据包的入侵检测功能,还具有主动、智能的防御功能。目前,IPS已经成为网络安全的一个重要研究方向,相应产品的数量也在逐年增多。首先分析了Cisco IPS产品的四种工作模式及其特点,然后根据企业网的安全需求提出入侵防御解决方案,通过将Cisco IPS安全设备串联在互联网出入口,实时拦截数据流量中各种类型的恶意攻击流量,把攻击拦截在企业网络之外,保护了企业的信息资产。%Intrusion prevention system is a new network security technology based on intrusion detection system. An IPS has the capability to detect and prevent misuse and abuse of, and unauthorized access to, network resources. In networking today, IPS is one of the important researches in network security, and IPS product quantity is increasing year by year. This paper analyzes the four operating modes of cisco IPS products, and then illustrates a typical network IPS deployment, The Cisco IPS is deployed at the network entry point and protect the company resources in real time.

  4. Based on Cisco SLA technology application of network management research%基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惪

    2014-01-01

    随着社会的不断发展,我国的各大企业加强了对网络监控管理的研究.本文主要对基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理进行了研究,并且进行了相应的探讨,对Cisco SLA的设置方式进行了相应的研究,并且提出了Cisco SLA技术的优缺点.

  5. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  6. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... at De Beque, Colorado; Channel 237C3 at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2..., Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel 288C2 at Rule; and by...

  7. Cisco Networking Academy: Next-Generation Assessments and Their Implications for K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    To illuminate the possibilities for next-generation assessments in K-12 schools, this case study profiles the Cisco Networking Academy, which creates comprehensive online training curriculum to teach networking skills. Since 1997, the Cisco Networking Academy has served more than five million high school and college students and now delivers…

  8. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide: Exam 640-801

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Here's the book you need to prepare for Cisco's revised CCNA exam, 640-801. This new edition of the best-selling CCNA Study Guide provides in-depth coverage of every CCNA exam objective, practical information on Cisco internetworking solutions and hundreds of challenging review questions.

  9. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Deluxe Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Deluxe Edition of Best-Selling CCNA Study GuideThis comprehensive, enhanced version of the Sybex CCNA Study Guide provides certification candidates with the additional tools they need to prepare for this popular exam. With additional bonus exams and flashcards, as well as the exclusive CCNA Virtual Lab, Platinum Edition, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Written by Cisco Authority Todd Lammle, whose straightforward style provides lively examples, hands-on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that wi

  10. Cisco Router and Switch Forensics Investigating and Analyzing Malicious Network Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Cisco IOS (the software that runs the vast majority of Cisco routers and all Cisco network switches) is the dominant routing platform on the Internet and corporate networks. This widespread distribution, as well as its architectural deficiencies, makes it a valuable target for hackers looking to attack a corporate or private network infrastructure. Compromised devices can disrupt stability, introduce malicious modification, and endanger all communication on the network. For security of the network and investigation of attacks, in-depth analysis and diagnostics are critical, but no book current

  11. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  12. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m...

  13. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  14. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  15. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  16. USING CISCO NETWORK COMPONENTS TO IMPROVE NIDPS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Bul’ajoul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (NIDPSs are used to detect, prevent and report evidence of attacks and malicious traffic. Our paper presents a study where we used open source NIDPS software. We show that NIDPS detection performance can be weak in the face of high-speed and high-load traffic in terms of missed alerts and missed logs. To counteract this problem, we have proposed and evaluated a solution that utilizes QoS, queues and parallel technologies in a multi-layer Cisco Catalyst Switch to increase NIDPSs detection performance. Our approach designs a novel QoS architecture to organise and improve throughput-forwardplan traffic in a layer 3 switch in order to improve NIDPS performance.

  17. 安全卫士——Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506是具有世界水平的Cisco Secure PIX Firewall系列的一员,它提供所有的防火墙级的防护和对IP安全(IPsec)虚拟专网(VPN)的兼容性,使您可以用最严密的方法来保护您的内部网络,阻止外部世界的侵犯。

  18. Specific Applications of Cisco Packet Tracer in Network Teaching%Cisco Packet Tracer在网络教学中的特殊应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2011-01-01

    Cisco Packet Tracer不仅可以提供Cisco认证考试的练习环境,在计算机网络教学中也有一些特殊的应用.Cisco Packet Tracer模拟模式可用于仿真PDU转发流程;物理工作区可用于展示现实环境;活动向导可用于技能考评.这些应用可以解决教学中的疑难问题.

  19. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  20. Simulation and Validation of Cisco Lethal Conditions in Minnesota Lakes under Past and Future Climate Scenarios Using Constant Survival Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish habitat in lakes is strongly constrained by water temperature (T and available dissolved oxygen (DO that are changed under climate warming. A one dimensional, dynamic water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used for T and DO simulation over 48 years. A fish habitat model FishHabitat2013 using simulated T and DO profiles as input was developed to determine lethal conditions of cisco Corgenous artedi in Minnesota lakes. Twenty-three lakes that had observations of cisco mortality or survival in the unusually warm summer of 2006 were used for model validation. The cisco habitat model used a lethal temperature of 22.1 °C and DO survival limit of 3 mg/L determined through model validation and sensitivity analysis. Cisco lethal conditions in 12 shallow, 16 medium-depth, and 30 deep virtual lakes were then simulated. Isopleths of total number of years with cisco kill and average cisco kill days for the years with kills under past (1961–2008 and future climate were generated to understand/extrapolate climate impacts on cisco in 620 Minnesota lakes. Shallow and medium-depth lakes are projected to not be good candidates for cisco refuge lakes, but deep lakes are possible cisco refuge lakes based on lethal condition projection under future warmer climate.

  1. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  2. 78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule... 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock, Channel 225C2. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  3. Baltic nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlys, Gediminas; Adliene, Diana [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    The Authors discuss the Baltic energy policy with respect to new nuclear power plants for Lithuania, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. The construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania would threaten Russian interests in the region. Therefore Lithuania is looking to Russian plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Kaliningrad region as an attempt to subvert Lithuania's foreign partners and potential investors from participating in the Visaginas NPP project. However, the authors conclude, that the Visaginas NPP project is and must be the preferential project for the EU and NATO member states.

  4. Organising Baltic Jazz festival

    OpenAIRE

    Väärä, Emmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify how Baltic Jazz festival is organised in a matter of project based thesis, where the main product was the festival held in 2016. The festival is located on Kemiönsaari in Turku Archipelago and it has been up and running for 30 years next year. The paper includes seven key concepts that are important for understanding the field of event management as well as the main operations according to the literature found about special events and festivals. ...

  5. The occurrence of the longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.B.; Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    The longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, is shown to be a species new to the Lake Erie fauna. The taxonomic work on Lake Erie ciscoes is reviewed. Thirty three specimens of L. alpenae taken in 1946, 1947 and 1957 are compared morphometrically with Leucichthys artedi of Lake Erie, the only other cisco species in the lake. L. alpenae has a longer and deeper head, longer maxillary and fewer gill rakers. L. alpenae is more distinct from L. artedi in Lake Huron than in Lake Erie. The rate of growth of L. alpenae in Lake Erie compares favourably with that in Lake Michigan.

  6. Performance evaluation of 10GBASE optical transceivers for Cisco 10-gigabit Ethernet switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Cain, Jeff C.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the process and methodology employed to perform evaluation and analyses for the optical interface that delivers and receives 10Gb/s Ethernet traffic on Cisco's industrial leading switching architecture. Especially, we examined in detail the optical properties for commercially available 10GBASE-LR transceiver modules, with respect to IEEE 802.3ae specifications. The sampled results under room temperature are listed for comparison. Eye diagrams were recorded as a function of transmission distance, as well as temperature variation. System stability issues are also studied following a brief introduction to Cisco standard ODVT (Optical Design Verification Test) procedure.

  7. Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensberg Karen-Lise D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced and ELW (six populations. The objectives were to: 1 analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2 assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3 apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea. Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit

  8. The Caballero Revisited: Postmodernity in "The Cisco Kid", "The Mask of Zorro", and "Shrek II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the achievement of the postmodern caballero films and the relevance of the social bandit myth for Chicano resistance. The continued relevance of the social bandit myth is clearly demonstrated by "The Cisco Kid" and "The Mask of Zorro." Both films show how initially flawed or directionless characters can…

  9. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    OpenAIRE

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Mark P. Ebener; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5), while methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18). Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean wh...

  10. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  11. 2009 Spawning cisco investigations in the Canadian waters of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Evrard, Lori M.; E. Berglund,; K.I. Cullis,

    2010-01-01

    We sampled with acoustics (AC) and midwater trawls (MT) to determine cisco abundance in Lake Superior’s Thunder and Black bays during 8-14 November, 2009. Total abundance of spawning-size (≥ 250 mm total length) ciscoes was estimated at 6.25 million in Thunder Bay and 1.12 million in Black Bay. Exploitation fractions of market-size (≥ age 6) females from Thunder and Black bays for 2009 were estimated at 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively; below the recommended maximum annual harvest of 15% recently adopted by Lake Superior fisheries managers. Given Thunder Bay spawner densities are on a downward trajectory, and recruitment since the 2003 year-class has been low, it is likely the exploitation fractions will increase in the future. After 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) will carry on the AC program as a management activity. It is likely suspended experimental gill net (GN) samples will be used to ground truth future AC samples. In 2009, we characterized the length and age structure of Thunder Bay ciscoes using both MT samples and GN samples. Females represented 49% of the MT catch, but only 39% in GN samples. Catching a smaller proportion of females in GN samples resulted in a lower female population estimate and a higher estimated exploitation fraction (10.4%) compared to MT samples (7.1%). Experimental gill net effort was limited to 10-11.8 m water column depths where midwater trawl samples also caught roughly 40% females. Ciscoes ≥ age 17 (≥ 1992 year class) were common in Black Bay, but rare in Thunder Bay suggesting: 1) the stocks may be distinct; and 2) total mortality of ciscoes returning to spawn in Black Bay in recent years has been lower than ciscoes returning to Thunder Bay. Our mid-November 2009 effort to assess the Black Bay stock by sampling outside of the 3 bay in the lake proper was deemed successful, but this should be confirmed by sampling the Black Bay region during both mid- and late-November 2010.

  12. 基于CISCOIP/TV媒体播放的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Based on Cisco IP/TV Media Playing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了IP/TV的相关知识及CISCO IP/TV的工作原理,说明了JSP、JavaBeans技术在改造CISCO IP/TV客户端软件方面特有的优势,介绍了一种开发CISCO IP/TV的方法。%This article introduced the relevant knowledge about IP/TV and CISCO IP/TV theories,then shows the unique advantages of the jsp and javaBeans technology in the reform of cisco IP/TV client software.In the end described a method how to develop CISCO IP/TV

  13. CISCO: Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Oya, Shin; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Iwai, Jun'ichi; Tanabe, Hirohisa; Hata, Ryuji; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Harashima, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024 × 1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1'.8 × 1'.8 field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 μm. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5 mag and K' = 22.4 mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N = 5, 1hr exposure).

  14. CISCO Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Motohara, K; Maihara, T; Oya, S; Tsukamoto, H; Imanishi, M; Terada, H; Goto, M; Iwai, J; Tanabe, H; Hata, R; Taguchi, T; Harashima, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024x1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1.8'x1.8' field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 um. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5mag and K'=22.4mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N=5, 1 hr exposure).

  15. Recovery of Cisco Router' Password%Cisco路由器的口令恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Cisco路由器口令的类别 (1)有效密码口令(enabled secret password):是一种安全级别最高的加密口令,适用于Cisco IOS10.3(2)以后的版本,在路由器的配置表中以加密的形式出现.

  16. 支持iSCSI和FCIP两种协议Cisco MDS 9000 IP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭军

    2003-01-01

    近日,Cisco发布了MDS 9000IP存储服务模块,该模块同时支持SCSI和IFCIP(IP光纤通道)。并能通过客户现有的联网基础设施.确保经济高效和远距离的SAN连接。IP存储服务模块与Cisco MDS 9000 SAN系

  17. How Cisco Systems Used Enterprise Architecture Capability to Sustain Acquisition-Based Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme; Henningsson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Value-creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. The case of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced enterprise architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the four phases of the acquisition process: pre-acquisition preparation, acquisition selection, acquisition integration and ...... and post-integration management. Cisco’s EA capability improves its ability to rapidly capture value from acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition-based growth strategy over time....

  18. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  19. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  20. The effects of temperature on sex determination in the bloater Coregonus hoyi: a hypothesis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Gary W.; Allen, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that temperature was an epigamic factor in bloater (Coregonus hoyi) sex determination in Lake Michigan was tested by rearing bloater larvae in the laboratory at 6, 11, and 15 degrees C for the first 80 days after hatching. The percentages of females of fish exposed to the three treatment temperatures did not differ significantly from the expected, 50%. Therefore, the null hypothesis, that temperature did not influence bloater sex determination within the confines of this study, could not be rejected. Our study of bloater sex determination was an attempt to explain the extreme female predominance (> 95%) that occurred in the Lake Michigan bloater population during the 1960s.

  1. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  2. Research on the Security of Network with Cisco Router%基于Cisco路由器的网络安全研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    介绍采用Cisco路由器阻止各种常见的网络攻击.%Cisco router is a device frequently used in network. Some kinds of method on using Cisco router to avoid network attack have been described.

  3. Physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaeranta, Matti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Myrberg, Kai [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance. (orig.)

  4. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  5. AirBaltic says RIX favors Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia lennujaama juht märkis 10. märtsi telesaates, et airBaltic ei saa oma arveid õigeks ajaks makstud. AirBaltic süüditab lennujaama Ryanairi soosimises. Valitsus kaalub airBalticule investorite otsimist

  6. BALTIC NATIONAL TRANSMISSION NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Olejnikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of Baltic transmission networks, related to the program of the European Union (EU to improve the security of energy supply, competitiveness and improve the development. Infrastructure projects to meet the needs of electricity in the EU are considered. The highlight issues are plan of Baltic energy markets merging and Latvian energy market development tendency

  7. The ACL Analyses on Cisco Routers%Cisco路由器ACL剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2010-01-01

    访问控制列表是Cisco IOS防火墙的核心技术,它包括标准ACL、扩展ACL、命名ACL、基于时间的ACL,动态ACL,自反ACL、基于上下文的访问控制(CBAC)等,这些ACL技术从简到繁、从网络层到应用层,为网络的边界安全提供了灵活的解决方案.

  8. CISCO SYSTEM’S STRATEGIC USE OF THE INTERNET AND BUSINESS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Celebi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are the key decision component of a firm’s business strategy. Cisco made use of internet and its information systems to accomplish its following strategies: to create a business ecology market its technology to networking world; to create a virtual organization and outsourcing many operational and customer services and focusing its resources on its own core product innovation strategy; to showcase its own internet use as a marketing tool. Cisco’s strategy enabled it to sustain high growth rates throughout 1990s. In late 2000, however Cisco’s market collapsed and experienced a loss of billions of dollars in unsold inventory.

  9. Cisco Networking Academy Program for high school students: Formative & summative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford-Wesley, Deanne

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Cisco Network Technology Program in enhancing students' technology skills as measured by classroom strategies, student motivation, student attitude, and student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness of this program. The study focused on two 11th grade classrooms at Hamtramck High School. Hamtramck, an inner-city community located in Detroit, is racially and ethnically diverse. The majority of students speak English as a second language; more than 20 languages are represented in the school district. More than 70% of the students are considered to be economically at risk. Few students have computers at home, and their access to the few computers at school is limited. Purposive sampling was conducted for this study. The sample consisted of 40 students, all of whom were trained in Cisco Networking Technologies. The researcher examined viable learning strategies in teaching a Cisco Networking class that focused on a web-based approach. Findings revealed that the Cisco Networking Academy Program was an excellent vehicle for teaching networking skills and, therefore, helping to enhance computer skills for the participating students. However, only a limited number of students were able to participate in the program, due to limited computer labs and lack of qualified teaching personnel. In addition, the cumbersome technical language posed an obstacle to students' success in networking. Laboratory assignments were preferred by 90% of the students over lecture and PowerPoint presentations. Practical applications, lab projects, interactive assignments, PowerPoint presentations, lectures, discussions, readings, research, and assessment all helped to increase student learning and proficiency and to enrich the classroom experience. Classroom strategies are crucial to student success in the networking program. Equipment must be updated and utilized to ensure that students are

  10. Environmental and genetic contributions to morphological differentiation in ciscoes (Coregoninae) of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.; Cable, Louella E.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory-produced progeny of Coregonus alpenae, C. zenithicus, C. hoyi, and C. kiyi and their wild parents were used to examine the contributions of genotype and environment to morphology. Morphological differences between parents and offspring were generally greater than those between species, indicating strong environmental effects. The phenotypic effects on most characters can probably be attributed to different developmental temperatures and perhaps to stresses in the hatchery not encountered in the Great Lakes. Genetic differences were inferred from morphological differences between offspring of different species raised under identical conditions. Genetic differences were demonstrated between C. hoyi and C. kiyi but not betweenC. alpenae and C. zenithicus which suggested that our samples of C. alpenae and C. zenithicusrepresented only a single species. The presence of unique stocks of coregonines in the Great Lakes, as well as of several species, suggests that management strategies should focus on both levels of diversity.Key words: Salmonidae, Coregoninae, Coregonus, morphology, Great Lakes, development, stocks

  11. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  12. Speciation reversal in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. caused by competitor invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripathi Bhat

    Full Text Available Invasion of exotic species has caused the loss of biodiversity and imparts evolutionary and ecological changes in the introduced systems. In northern Fennoscandia, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. is a highly polymorphic species displaying adaptive radiations into partially reproductively isolated and thus genetically differentiated sympatric morphs utilizing the planktivorous and benthivorous food niche in many lakes. In 1993, Lake Skrukkebukta was invaded by vendace (Coregonus albula (L. which is a zooplanktivorous specialist. The vendace displaced the densely rakered whitefish from its preferred pelagic niche to the benthic habitat harbouring the large sparsely rakered whitefish. In this study, we investigate the potential influence of the vendace invasion on the breakdown of reproductive isolation between the two whitefish morphs. We inferred the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between the two morphs collected at the arrival (1993 and 15 years after (2008 the vendace invasion using 16 microsatellite loci and gill raker numbers, the most distinctive adaptive phenotypic trait between them. The comparison of gill raker number distributions revealed two modes growing closer over 15 years following the invasion. Bayesian analyses of genotypes revealed that the two genetically distinct whitefish morphs that existed in 1993 had collapsed into a single population in 2008. The decline in association between the gill raker numbers and admixture values over 15 years corroborates the findings from the Bayesian analysis. Our study thus suggests an apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years (≃ 3 generations following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of "speciation in reverse".

  13. Speciation reversal in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) caused by competitor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shripathi; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Fevolden, Svein-Erik; Bernatchez, Louis; Præbel, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of exotic species has caused the loss of biodiversity and imparts evolutionary and ecological changes in the introduced systems. In northern Fennoscandia, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) is a highly polymorphic species displaying adaptive radiations into partially reproductively isolated and thus genetically differentiated sympatric morphs utilizing the planktivorous and benthivorous food niche in many lakes. In 1993, Lake Skrukkebukta was invaded by vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) which is a zooplanktivorous specialist. The vendace displaced the densely rakered whitefish from its preferred pelagic niche to the benthic habitat harbouring the large sparsely rakered whitefish. In this study, we investigate the potential influence of the vendace invasion on the breakdown of reproductive isolation between the two whitefish morphs. We inferred the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between the two morphs collected at the arrival (1993) and 15 years after (2008) the vendace invasion using 16 microsatellite loci and gill raker numbers, the most distinctive adaptive phenotypic trait between them. The comparison of gill raker number distributions revealed two modes growing closer over 15 years following the invasion. Bayesian analyses of genotypes revealed that the two genetically distinct whitefish morphs that existed in 1993 had collapsed into a single population in 2008. The decline in association between the gill raker numbers and admixture values over 15 years corroborates the findings from the Bayesian analysis. Our study thus suggests an apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years (≃ 3 generations) following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace) in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of "speciation in reverse".

  14. Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Fred; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Humborg, Christoph; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viestur; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Thodsen, Hans; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, wh...

  15. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Located in southern Mississippi, the Forrest County School District (FCSD) consists of six schools: three K-6 elementary schools, two K-8 elementary-middle schools, and one high school (grades 9-12), all of which have been involved in the Cisco Initiative since its inception. The district employed 16 administrators, 7 technology staff members, and…

  16. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County Agricultural High School. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Forrest County Agricultural High School (FCAHS) is located in Brooklyn, a small rural town in southern Mississippi and part of the Hattiesburg Metropolitan Statistical Area. Unlike the other schools that participated in the Cisco 21S initiative, FCAHS is not part of a larger school district. Therefore, the unit of analysis throughout this summary…

  17. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Harrison County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    There are 21 schools in the Harrison County School District (HCSD), located in southern Mississippi, in the Gulfport/Biloxi metropolitan area. Of those, only Harrison Central 9th Grade (HC9) and Harrison County High School (HCHS) participated in the Cisco 21S Initiative--therefore, this summary will focus on only administrators, teachers,…

  18. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit;

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...... the BSAP targets are set as target reductions for each countries.  The comparison reveals what the additional costs of fulfilling a political target for each country are instead pursuing a cost effective solution for the Baltic Sea.  In addition  we simulate cost minimising solutions for obtaining...

  19. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TALAL AL-KHAROBI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP, use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN, a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with maturity. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of a VoIP SIP protocol and CISCO VoIP system. The comparison involves the investigation of the vulnerabilities that target both systems and how secure each system is. With this comparison we present our conclusion on which system is more secure.

  20. Clustering the Parameters of Rhythmographic Analysis of the Events of the Corporate Network Traffic of the Cisco MARS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Lozhkarev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the clustering of the parameters of rhythmographic analysis of the events of the corporate network traffic of the Cisco MARS system. The author dwells upon classifying clustering methods and illustrates a conceptual clustering algorithm. The author infers that, firstly, the results of processing experimental data derived from network traffic logs substantiate the applicability of the methodology of rhythmographic analysis, which is accepted in cardiology, in the analysis of the rhythm of appearance of events in the Cisco MARS system; secondly, the results of clustering the fragments of the rhythm of events substantiate the effectiveness of the approach proposed; thirdly, the practical application of automatic detection of anomalies in network traffic events requires further research.

  1. ICND2 MAESTRO - An Android App Companion and Cisco IOS Command Guide for Interconnecting Networking Devices 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomar B. Maestro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and Android application specifically for AMA Computer College - Makati, to improve ICND 2 (CCNA R&S Modules 3 and 4 classes as well as to motivate and inspire Cisco Networking Academy students and instructors The cross platform application which is available for Android contains 18 summarized chapters from the 2 modules of ICND 2, as well as exercises, command guides, glossary of terms and cheat sheets. It also contains a quiz page that could help students review for examinations. Video tutorials are also made available for study. The software was evaluated on the basis of efficiency, reliability, accuracy, and user-friendliness, with the goals of being more efficient and user-friendly when compared with references provided by Cisco and other online resources, while maintaining a high level of accuracy and reliability.

  2. Mercury accumulation, and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction, in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both the somatic tissue and ovaries (n=5), while methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was determined in whole fish (n=18). Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g) was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g). MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to a difference in Hg concentration between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  3. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  4. Parasites of Bloater Coregonus hoyi (Salmonidae) from Lake Michigan, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Muzzall, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    In total, 158 bloaters Coregonus hoyi collected in September and October 2011 from 4 Lake Michigan, U.S.A., ports were examined for parasites. The ports included Waukegan (WK), Illinois; Port Washington (PW) and Sturgeon Bay (SB), Wisconsin; and Saugatuck (SG), Michigan. Parasites found in bloaters by port were cestodes Cyathocephalus truncatus (WK, PW, and SB) and Eubothrium salvelini (WK, PW, SB, and SG); the nematode Cystidicola farionis (WK, PW, SB, and SG); acanthocephalans Acanthocephalus dirus (WK and PW), Echinorhynchus salmonis (WK, PW, and SB), and Neoechinorhynchus tumidus (SB); and the copepod Salmincola corpulentus (WK and PW). Gravid individuals of all parasite species were found except for E. salvelini and A. dirus. Cystidicola farionis had the highest prevalence at each port, and the highest mean intensity and mean abundance at PW. The numbers of C. farionis at PW were significantly higher than those at WK and SB. Echinorhynchus salvelini had the highest mean intensities and mean abundances at WK, SB, and SG. The values for parasite species richness in bloaters were similar among ports. The total numbers of parasites were similar between WK and PW, but they were higher at these ports than at SB. The parasite faunas of bloaters were characterized by autogenic helminth species.

  5. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  6. Heavy metal contents in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) along a pollution gradient in a subarctic watercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nikolay A; Terentjev, Petr; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Koroleva, Irina M; Dauvalter, Vladimir A; Sandimirov, Sergey; Kashulin, Alexander; Knudsen, Rune

    2011-11-01

    Metallurgic industry is a source of serious environmental pollution related to the emission of heavy metals. Freshwater systems are focal points for pollution, acting as sinks for contaminants that may end up in fish and humans. The Pasvik watercourse in the border area between Finland, Norway and Russia is located in the vicinity of the Pechenganickel metallurgic enterprises, and the lower part of the watershed drains the Nikel smelters directly through Lake Kuetsjarvi. Heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg) concentrations in environment (water and sediments) and whitefish Coregonus lavaretus tissue (gills, liver, kidney and muscle) were contrasted between five lake localities situated along a spatial gradient of increasing distance (5-100 km) to the smelters. The heavy metal concentrations, in particular Ni, Cu and Cd, were highly elevated in Kuetsjarvi, but steeply declined with increasing distance to the smelters and were moderate or low in the other four localities. The study demonstrates that the majority of metal emissions and runoffs are deposited near the pollution source, and only moderate amounts of the heavy metal contaminants seem to be transported at further distances. Bioaccumulation of Hg occurred in all investigated tissues, and higher Hg concentrations in planktivorous versus benthivorous whitefish furthermore indicated that pelagic foraging is associated with higher levels of Hg biomagnification. Potential population ecology impacts of high heavy metal contaminations where mainly observed in whitefish in Kuetsjarvi, which showed depletions in growth rate, condition factor and size and age at maturation.

  7. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  8. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  9. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  10. [Polymorphism and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis Zeder, 1800 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) in the vendace Coregonus albula L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikieva, L V; Kharin, V N; Spektor, E N

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphism and phenotypic diversity of a hostal ecoform of Proteocephalus longicollis from its typical host, the vendace, Coregonus albula L., were studied. A complex phenotypic structure of the parasite population and presence of morphologically different groupings were revealed. We distinguished four groupings based on the external characters and three groupings based on the feed and reproduction features; among latter groupings one has very specific variations of features. We conclude that P. longicollis has high intraspecific and intrapopulation heterogeneity, and the host plays a stabilising role in the parasite species formation.

  11. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  12. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  13. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  14. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Colorado River near Cisco, Utah, 1930-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Colorado River upstream of gaging station 09180500 near Cisco, Utah, drains about 24,100 square miles in Utah and Colorado. Altitudes in the basin range from 12,480 feet near the headwaters to 4,090 feet at station 09180500. The average annual precipitation for 1894-1982 near the station was 7.94 inches. The average annual precipitation near the headwaters often exceeds 50 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the drainage basin upstream from station 09180500. Shale, limestone, siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute large quantities of sediment to the Colorado River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 09180500. Based on these records, the mean annual suspended-sediment load was 11,390,000 tone, ranging from 2,038,000 tons in water year 1981 to 35,700,000 tons in water year 1938. The minimum daily load of 14 tons was on August 22, 1960, and the maximum daily load of 2,790,000 tons was on October 14, 1941. (USGS)

  15. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  16. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  17. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  18. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  19. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  20. Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    it is neither exclusivist nor chauvinistic, and cooperation across national lines, particularly with other Baltic groups, is commonplace and effec... exclusivist or chauvinistic. Indeed, one of its trademarks has been an unflagging concern for the rights of other nations and a desire to coperate with

  1. Asynchrony in the inter-annual recruitment of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischke, Mitchell K.; Bunnell, David; Troy, Cary D.; Berglund, Eric K.; Caroffino, David C.; Ebener, Mark P.; He, Ji X.; Sitar, Shawn P.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2017-01-01

    Spatially separated fish populations may display synchrony in annual recruitment if the factors that drive recruitment success, particularly abiotic factors such as temperature, are synchronised across broad spatial scales. We examined inter-annual variation in recruitment among lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations in lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior using fishery-dependent and -independent data from 1971 to 2014. Relative year-class strength (RYCS) was calculated from catch-curve residuals for each year class across multiple sampling years. Pairwise comparison of RYCS among datasets revealed no significant associations either within or between lakes, suggesting that recruitment of lake whitefish is spatially asynchronous. There was no consistent correlation between pairwise agreement and the distance between datasets, and models to estimate the spatial scale of recruitment synchrony did not fit well to these data. This suggests that inter-annual recruitment variation of lake whitefish is asynchronous across broad spatial scales in the Great Lakes. While our method primarily evaluated year-to-year recruitment variation, it is plausible that recruitment of lake whitefish varies at coarser temporal scales (e.g. decadal). Nonetheless, our findings differ from research on some other Coregonus species and suggest that local biotic or density-dependent factors may contribute strongly to lake whitefish recruitment rather than inter-annual variability in broad-scale abiotic factors.

  2. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena abundance in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidat, M.; Gilles, A.; Kock, K. H.; Siebert, U

    2008-01-01

    Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is the only cetacean species resident in the Baltic Sea. At least 2 different subpopulations occur in this area, with a presumed demarcation line in the western Baltic Sea. Aerial surveys were conducted during different seasons in the years 2002 to 2006, to obtain estimates of porpoise abundance for the southwestern Baltic. Within the survey area, 3 strata were defined. In total, 46 surveys were completed for these strata. Abundance estimates and correspondi...

  3. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  4. Mitogenome sequencing reveals shallow evolutionary histories and recent divergence time between morphologically and ecologically distinct European whitefish (Coregonus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Orlando, Ludovic;

    2012-01-01

    the evolutionary history of the endangered Danish North Sea houting (NSH) and other closely related Danish and Baltic European lake whitefish (ELW). Two well-supported clades were found within both ELW and NSH, probably reflecting historical introgression via Baltic migrants. Although ELW and NSH...... colonized Denmark following the last glacial maximum, Bayesian Serial SimCoal analysis showed consistency with a scenario of long-term stability, resulting from a rapid initial sixfold population expansion. The findings illustrate the utility of mitogenome data for resolving recent intraspecific divergence...

  5. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  6. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  7. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  8. IPv6 and IPsec Tests of a Space-Based Asset, the Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, David; Wood, Lloyd; Jackson, Chris; Northam, James; Wilhelm, James

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support testing and demonstrating network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets, using IPv6 and IPsec. These tests were performed using the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), an experimental payload onboard the United Kingdom--Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite built and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). On Thursday, 29 March 2007, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cisco Systems and SSTL performed the first configuration and demonstration of IPsec and IPv6 onboard a satellite in low Earth orbit. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IP), designed to improve on the popular IPv4 that built the Internet, while IPsec is the protocol used to secure communication across IP networks. This demonstration was made possible in part by NASA s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and shows that new commercial technologies such as mobile networking, IPv6 and IPsec can be used for commercial, military and government space applications. This has direct application to NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. The success of CLEO has paved the way for new spacebased Internet technologies, such as the planned Internet Routing In Space (IRIS) payload at geostationary orbit, which will be a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. This is a sanitized report for public distribution. All real addressing has been changed to psueco addressing.

  9. Multimission satellite altimetric data validation in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of altimetric data is crucial for investigating the regional sea level variability. Few works has been performed to validate the altimetric data [1, 2] in the Baltic Sea. The exploring of multi-mission altimetric data in the Baltic Sea has yet to be published. The number of available...

  10. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  11. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge;

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  12. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...

  13. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing r...... catchability and thereby the assessment and exploitation patterns of this stock...

  14. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  15. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  16. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  17. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  18. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  19. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  20. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  1. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology......-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...

  2. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  3. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  4. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  5. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  6. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  7. Summary of investigations on the morphometry of the cisco, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), in the lakes of the northeastern highlands, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    The morphometric studies on the cisco or lake herring, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), which are briefly summarized in this paper are part of a program of investigation of the fishes of the lakes in the northeastern highland district, Wisconsin. For the morphometric studies, 1,548 specimens were employed, all of them collected in the summers of 1931 and 1932 from four 'type' lakes, selected on the basis of their size, depth, and physicochemical and biological characteristics. Of this number 753 individuals were used to determine the general nature of the morphological variations in the Trout Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Silver Lake, and Clear Lakes cisco populations, while 795, collected from Muskellunge Lake in 1932 were employed in a detailed examination of certain morphological differences between the 1928 and 1929 year classes of that population. An attempt is made in this paper to present all the important conculsions, together with a small amount of illustrative material.

  8. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Arvydas Kregzde; Gediminas Murauskas

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveal...

  9. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    by the prevailing winds and currents. Drift is almost exclusively to the east, but the magnitude and its impact on the structure of the affected stocks (Kattegat, western Baltic, and eastern Baltic) remains unresolved. Salinity limits the east–west exchange of eggs as a consequence of the stocks' differential...... for spawning by both western and eastern stocks, the advection of early life stages from the west and immigration/emigration from the east....

  10. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  11. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  12. Raising Network Security with Access-list of Cisco Router%利用Cisco路由器的Access-list提高网络安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉

    2001-01-01

    文中以Cisco2500系列路由器为说明对象,以Cisco—IOS11.2版本为例,深入挖掘访问列表(Access-list)的控制功能,讨论如何更好地利用和发挥现有设备的潜能,提高网络安全性能。

  13. Assessing feeding competition between lake whitefish Core-gonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cyl-indraceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MACPHERSON, John A. HOLMES, Andrew M. MUIR,David L. G. NOAKES

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum from the main basin of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America to investigate details of diet and feeding tactics of these species in different seasons. Lake whitefish supports important commercial fisheries in Lake Huron and both species make use of habitats near the Bruce Nuclear Power Development, on the eastern shore of Lake Huron. Most fish of both species showed generalist feeding behavior, but some lake whitefish appeared to show specialist prey selection. The invasive spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus was an important component of the diet of both species. There was considerable dietary overlap between the whitefish species, but the ecological implications of these dietary overlaps are mitigated by the fact that dominant prey species differed in most seasons. We conclude that the potential for ecologically significant interactions between lake whitefish and round whitefish resulting from competition for similar benthic food resources in the main basin of Lake Huron is probably low [Current Zoology 56 (1: 109–117 2010].

  14. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  15. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  16. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    CERN Document Server

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space astrometry realistic, resulting in the approval by ESA of the first astrometry satellite Hipparcos in 1980 which brought a revolution of high-precision astrometry of positions, motions and distances of stars. The correspondence with ten observatories shows that only one of them has any archive of letters at all from the 1950s, that is in Copenhagen where about 7000 letters on scientific and administrative matters are extant.

  17. Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Å.; Jönsson, A.; Rahm, L.

    2007-05-01

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension. The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40-60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle.

  18. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  19. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  20. Kas Baltic Talks on oma missiooni täitnud? / Tiit Meren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meren, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    21.-24. septembril toimus Tapal Läänemere-äärsete riikide reservohvitseride traditsiooniline suurfoorum Baltic Talks 2006. 1931. aastal Norra ja Rootsi reservohvitseride algatatud Nording Meeting ning Baltic Talks'i algus

  1. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  2. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  3. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  4. Characterizing seasonal and diel vertical movement and habitat use of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Clear Lake, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gorsky, Dimitry; Balsey, David

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and daily vertical activity of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis was studied in Clear Lake, Maine (253 ha), using acoustic telemetry from November 2004 to June 2009. Twenty adult lake whitefish were tagged with acoustic tags that had either a depth sensor or both depth and temperature sensors to assess vertical habitat use at a seasonal and daily resolution. Vertical habitat selection varied seasonally and was strongly influenced by temperature. Between December and April, when the lake was covered with ice, surface temperature was below 2°C and tagged individuals occupied deep areas of the lake (∼15 m). After ice-out, fish ascended into shallow waters (∼5 m), responding to increased water temperature and possibly to greater foraging opportunity. When surface water temperatures exceeded 20°C, fish descended below the developing thermocline (∼9 m), where they remained until surface temperatures fell below 20°C; fish then ascended into shallower depths, presumably for feeding and spawning. Through the winter, fish remained in thermal habitats that were warmer than the surface temperatures; in the summer, they selected depths with thermal habitats below 15°C. Though the amplitude varied greatly across seasons, lake whitefish displayed a strong diurnal pattern of activity as measured by vertical velocities. Fish were twofold more active during spring, summer, and fall than during winter. Lake whitefish exhibited diel vertical migrations, rising in the water column during nighttime and occupying deeper waters during the day. This pattern was more pronounced in the spring and fall and far less prominent during winter and summer. The strong linkage between temperature and habitat use may limit the current range of lake whitefish and may be directly impacted by climatic change.

  5. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  6. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  7. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Niemisto, L. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research (Finland)

    2001-04-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km{sup 2} of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep

  8. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  9. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones from Baltic amber (Palaeogene: Eocene; ca. 44–49 Ma is described as Piankhi steineri n. gen., n. sp. This enigmatic fossil expresses long, slender pedipalps without a tarsal claw, which is characteristic for the suborder Dyspnoi. The chelicerae are notably enlarged and the dorsal body surface is formed from a carapace with a separate prosomatic tergite (metapeltidium, plus a large opisthosomal scute (or scutum parvum. However these characters, combined with the distinctly spiny limbs and further rows of spines across the fossil's opisthosoma, have no parallel among the modern dyspnoid harvestmen that we are aware of. The fossil resolves features reminiscent of modern members of the dyspnoid families Ceratolasmatidae, Nipponopsalididae, Ischyropsalididae and Sabaconidae, but does not show unequivocal apomorphies of any one particular family. We must entertain the possibility that this is an extinct body plan from the Eocene of north-central Europe, and we tentatively refer the fossil to a new genus in an unresolved position among the Ischyropsalidoidea (Dyspnoi. An amorphous triangular structure behind the anal region is assumed to be faecal matter, rather than part of the original anatomy. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200007

  10. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  11. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  12. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  13. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  14. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  15. The concentrations of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was 241Pu activities determination in different components (water, plankton and fish of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. The determination of 241Pu in the samples was done indirectly by activity measuring the increment in 241Am from the decay of β-emitting 241Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed between the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of 241Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of 241Pu with Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small.

  16. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stålnacke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (% and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily. The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP, as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  17. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  18. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change.

  19. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...... the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management unit...

  20. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  1. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  2. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  3. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  4. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.;

    to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis.......The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...

  5. Causes of different impact of Major Baltic Inflows on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E. M.; Zezera, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of 1976, 1993, and 2003 on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea is considered based on calculations of the eastern Baltic cod egg abundance and offspring survival indices. The reproductive success (1976-1977) was defined by the elevation of the 11 psu isohaline and deepening of the 2 mL/L isooxygene surface, which provided the formation of a water layer suitable for cod spawning at a depth of 90-130 m. Prerequisites of the appearance of the reproductive layer in 1976-1977 were a previously high salinity level and penetrating two successive MBIs in one year. The cause of the weak MBI impact in 1993 was the previous salinity minimum; in 2003 it was rapid oxygen depletion due to an increase in temperature. As a result of their weaker influence, small and fragmented cod spawning biotopes appeared in the Gotland Basin.

  6. Primeiro registro da quenquém cisco-da-Amazônia Acromyrmex hystrix Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae para o estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    2010-12-01

    Abstract. It is recorded, for the first time, using pitfall traps, four workers of ant “quenquém-cisco-da-Amazônia”, Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae in a cave at state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. However, we could not imply any additional information about the abundance of this species in the region once that this record was accidental. The region where the individuals were found is placed at border of state of Maranhão and state of Tocantins suggesting that this species also occurs in this state.

  7. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  8. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  9. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  10. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  11. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season.

  12. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...

  13. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  14. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  15. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  16. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  17. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat, the comme...

  18. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  19. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  20. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  1. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  2. Inquiry Based Computer Network Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Cisco Network Academy%基于思科网院的高职计算机网络基础课程教学的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨畅

    2014-01-01

    CISCO Network Academy of the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) course system of interactive teaching, perfect training, examination, inspection link and teaching software, at the end of each chapter, the teacher will set up online quiz to conducive to the students timely and accurately find focus and difficult problems and consolidate the contents. The basis of computer network is an important part of talent network technology professional training program. In this paper, taking the CISCO Networking Academy Teaching Practice for example, conducted a preliminary study and exploration for the teaching system of the course design mode.%思科网络学院的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Associate)课程体系有完善的交互式教、练、考、验环节及教学软件,在每个章节结束,教师都会设置在线的测验以利于学生及时准确地发现不足和巩固所学内容的重点和难点。计算机网络基础是网络技术专业人才培养方案的重要组成部分。文中以思科网院教学实践为例,针对该课程的教学系统设计模式进行了初步的研究和探索。

  3. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  4. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  5. Reinventing the Baltic Sea Region: From the Hansa to the Eu-Strategy of 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael North

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The political changes of 1989 stimulated a new perception and perspective of the Baltic Sea Region. And this gained momentum with the Eastern Enlargement of the EU. The new situation encouraged research as well. In this context the “Baltic Sea” is not an unchangeable physical setting, but also a construction of different actors or protagonists. People and powers continuously reinvent the Baltic Sea Region. That is why; the following paper focuses on the different notions of the Baltic Sea Region from the Middle Ages up to now and also examines the recent EU-Strategy of this region.

  6. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies......, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern...

  7. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  8. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  9. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  10. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  11. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  12. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations.

  13. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.;

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort analysis....... Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning decreased...

  14. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  15. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  16. THE GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR OF INVESTORS FROM BALTIC STOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The inve...

  17. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  18. Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Rajib

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibilit...

  19. Emission Permits trade between the Nordic and Baltic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-05-01

    A bottom-up technology oriented model of the energy systems in the Nordic and Baltic countries have been constructed and used for analysing an optimal set of energy and emission trading within the region. The model used is MARKAL, which has been developed within the IEA-ETSAP. The analyses are based on national emission levels agreed on in the Kyoto protocol (and the following burden sharing negotiations within the European Union), and with an additional strengthening after 2010. Only energy related CO{sub 2} emissions are explicitly considered. Nuclear power in Sweden is assumed to be phased out. The results show that especially Norway and Sweden have large abatement costs when acting alone, whale the Baltic countries will probably not need to take domestic actions due to the Kyoto protocol if they act alone, as the restructuring of their economies in the beginning of the 1990ties cut emissions (and their economies) dramatically. It is shown that emission trading among the Nordic and Baltic countries can reduce abatement costs among the Nordic countries significantly, possibly down to a level equivalent to a world market (Annex I) permit price. Extending the Nordic common electricity market to Balticum will have minor influence on overall energy system costs. There is no pronounced direction for net electricity flow between the Nordic and Baltic countries. High marginal costs during peak hours in Balticum indicate that imports of Nordic hydro power during peak-hours could be a cost-effective option. This possibility could be implemented with a subsea AC/DC connection between Sweden and Latvia. It is politically viable to develop more hydropower in Norway, this country will be the major electricity exporter in the region, while Sweden will be the main importer. Changing scenario assumptions, i.e. no more Norwegian hydropower, but life extension of Swedish nuclear power, could change this picture. (author)

  20. The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    national cyber attack on Estonia, apparently mounted from Russia, is another point of friction. In the Baltic States, there are large Russian...results when it is presented as an attrac- tive proposition to the local populations and govern- ments. Soft power backed up by lies, bullying , and...All the 35 Estonians noted that national cyber protection was an important security concern. This is understandable, because in April and May 2007

  1. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

    2014-04-15

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.

  2. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals.

  3. Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, K.; Moros, M.; Porsche, C.; Neumann, T.; Adolphi, F.; Andersen, T.J.; Siegel, H.; Gerth, M.; Leipe, T.; Jansen, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas(1) such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the

  4. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  5. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  6. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  7. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  8. Artistic Alliances and Revolutionary Rivalries in the Baltic Art World, 1890-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Pushaw

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the areas now known as Estonia and Latvia, art remained a matter for the Baltic German minority throughout the nineteenth century. When ethnic Estonian and Latvian artists gained prominence in the late 1890s, their presence threatened Baltic German hegemony over the region’s culture. In 1905, revolution in the Russian Empire spilled into the Baltic Provinces, sparking widespread anti-German violence. The revolution also galvanized Latvian and Estonian artists towards greater cultural autonomy and independence from Baltic German artistic institutions. This paper argues that the situation for artists before and after the 1905 revolution was not simply divisive along ethnic lines, as some nationalist historians have suggested. Instead, this paper examines how Baltic German, Estonian and Latvian artists oscillated between common interests, inspiring rivalries, and politicized conflicts, questioning the legitimacy of art as a universalizing language in multicultural societies.

  9. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  10. Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Viktorsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010 in August–September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (−0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m−2 d−1, hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m−2 d−1 and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m−2 d−1. The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5–10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a

  11. Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.L. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States) Luleaa Univ. (Sweden)); Wright, J.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  13. Spatial and temporal dynamics of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) health indicators: linking individual-based indicators to a management-relevant endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jones, Michael L.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.; Brenden, Travis O.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Wright, Gregory M.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of health indicators in four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks located in northern lakes Michigan and Huron from 2003 to 2006. The specific objectives were to (1) quantify spatial and temporal variability in health indicators; (2) examine relationships among nutritional indicators and stock-specific spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogen prevalence and intensity of infection; and (3) examine relationships between indicators measured on individual fish and stock-specific estimates of natural mortality. The percent of the total variation attributed to spatial and temporal sources varied greatly depending on the health indicator examined. The most notable pattern was a downward trend in the concentration of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), observed in all stocks, in the polar lipid fraction of lake whitefish dorsal muscle tissue over the three study years. Variation among stocks and years for some indicators were correlated with the prevalence and intensity of the swimbladder nematode Cystidicola farionis, suggesting that our measures of fish health were related, at some level, with disease dynamics. We did not find relationships between spatial patterns in fish health indicators and estimates of natural mortality rates for the stocks. Our research highlights the complexity of the interactions between fish nutritional status, disease dynamics, and natural mortality in wild fish populations. Additional research that identifies thresholds of health indicators, below (or above) which survival may be reduced, will greatly help in understanding the relationship between indicators measured on individual fish and potential population-level effects.

  14. Croissance et alimentation des larves de corégones (Coregonus lavaretus dans le lac d'Annecy de mars à avril 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETENOY L.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available La capture de plus de 400 larves de Coregonus lavaretus à 7 dates différentes dans le lac d'Annecy de mars à avril 1996 a permis d'étudier conjointement leur croissance et l'évolution de leur régime alimentaire. Les larves capturées ont une taille comprise entre 8,5 et 20 mm et un stade larvaire allant de 0 à 4, ces deux paramètres étant fortement liés. À mesure qu'elles grandissent, les larves qui consomment d'abord préférentiellement les stades larvaires des copépodes, puis leurs stades adultes, se nourrissent ensuite majoritairement de cladocères. La comparaison des structures de taille des proies ingérées et du zooplancton présent dans le lac conduit à évoquer la notion d'expérience acquise par les larves pour expliquer cette dérive alimentaire.

  15. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  16. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area....... Multispecies predictions suggest that the cod stock in the Baltic should be reduced to a very low level of biomass in order to benefit from the higher productivity of herring and sprat, its major prey. Such a result stresses the need for incorporating socio-economic considerations in the definition of target...

  17. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about oxidation as a surface reaction during degradation of Baltic amber. A clear understanding of the amber-oxygen interaction modalities is essential to develop conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. Pellet-shaped samples......, obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part...

  18. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated...

  19. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat...... of data that recruitment depends on temperature conditions during the months when sprat gonads, eggs, and larvae are developing. We also show that recruitment can be predicted before adults spawn (and fully 15 months earlier than using present technology) by using linkages between recruitment, large...

  20. The Transformation of Energy Risk in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonavičius Vylius

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the process of energy risk transformation, which creates concrete hazards for citizens of the Baltic States. The article analyzes two sides of the same problem - district heating (DH and the renovation of multi-apartment houses. The article will show that the transformation of energy risk is affected by the legacy of a specific constellation of technological, economic and social elements of Soviet infrastructure that appears in a specific and particularly precarious shape under conditions of liberal market capitalism as regards energy security.

  1. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2016-01-01

    and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... and oxygen. Other important factors include prey availability for first-feeding larvae, egg predation by sprat and herring and cannibalism on juveniles, all in one way or the other related to the prevailing hydrographic conditions. These factors cannot explain increased reproductive success in the last...

  2. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  3. SAR-based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo;

    2011-01-01

    Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps...... deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images...

  4. Measurements of Scattering Function of sea water in Southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, W.; Król1, T.; Martynov, O. V.; Shybanov, E. B.; Hapter, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Volume Scattering Functions (VSF) were measured in Southern Baltic area. The instrument used to this aim allow to measure in full range of angles and for four wavelengths. Obtained characteristics create the set of data which is need to solve the radiative transfer equation. Measured functions were compared with Petzold Average-Particle Phase Function. Spectral variations of measured scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients are presented. Furthermore the instability of measured scattering ratios is discussed in this paper. Such instability have not been mentioned in the literature before.

  5. Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed are characterised by a low stationary phase of the demographic transition model (DTM. The situation proves to be unfavourable in the Polish regions under consideration and highly unfavourable in the remaining area.

  6. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  7. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  8. SatBałtyk - a project for satellite remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Ostrowska, M.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    The main aim of the five-year SatBałtyk (2010-2014) research project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) is to prepare the technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic environment. This system is to characterize on a routine basis the structural and functional properties of this sea on the basis of data supplied by the relevant satellites. The characterization and large-scale dissemination of the following properties of the Baltic is anticipated: the solar radiation influx to the sea's waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic water, distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary organic matter production and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water. It is also intended to develop and, where feasible, to implement satellite techniques for detecting slicks of petroleum derivatives and other compounds, evaluating the state of the sea's ice cover, and forecasting the hazards from current and future storms and providing evidence of their effects in the Baltic coastal zone. The ultimate objective of the project is to implement an operational system for the routine determination and dissemination on the Internet of the above-mentioned features of the Baltic in the form of distribution maps as well as plots, tables and descriptions characterizing the state of the various elements of the Baltic environment

  9. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    otolith growth rates before settling continued to grow fast after settling. On the slope, no relationship between growth before and after settling was found. These results indicate that the different settling habitats occupied by juvenile Baltic cod have different potential for settling and nursery areas.......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The growth, age at settling and vertical migration pattern were studied by otolith microstructure analysis...

  10. A summary and revision of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoan biozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viiu Nestor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biostratigraphical data on the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans are summarized. Based on the study of nine East Baltic drill cores, 28 regional chitinozoan zonal units, including 26 biozones and 2 interzones, are briefly characterized. In comparison with earlier publications, the Silurian chitinozoan biozonation chart is essentially updated, some biozonal units are added, some renamed and several previous subdivisions have been abolished or replaced. The ranges of the stratigraphically most important chitinozoan species throughout the East Baltic Silurian are discussed. Regional chitinozoan biozones are correlated with the global chitinozoan biozones and graptolite biozones, as well as with the regional stratigraphical units of Estonia, Latvia and the Kaliningrad district.

  11. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thøgersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological and economic consequences under the current cod management plan and that the negative effects on the economic performance of the fishermen as well as on the abundance of cod can be mitigated by reducing the target fishing mortality rate of cod. These results are obtained by simulating three management scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.

  12. Fostering Employee Engagement Through Gamification: AirBaltic Forecaster Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiga Ergle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Next to the employee productivity or indicators for staff turnover and absenteeism in organizations, Employee Engagement stands out as one of the most significant measurements for Human Resource Management efficiency. With younger generation representatives joining the workforce companies are bound to investigate and pursue some of the new tools and techniques that respond more effectively to engagement triggers of generations Y and Z. At AirBaltic Corporation in Riga, Latvia, management has been trying to foster engagement of the workforce through introduction of a business game, called Forecaster. According to management belief, in addition to improved internal communication, Forecaster has potential to save up to 1 million eur annually due to the resulting better quality management decisions. Within the article author looks at the theory and research related to application and effects of gamification within corporate settings, as well as reviews workplace environment at AirBaltic Corporation. Further in the article, Forecaster game is described in more detail and its impact on employee engagement and organizational performance is analysed. Finally, recommendations are drawn for organizations to consider when gamifying people management processes in their organizations.

  13. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  14. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  15. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  16. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R MacKenzie

    Full Text Available Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment.

  17. Changes in patterns of persistent halogenated compounds through a pelagic food web in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting...

  18. Real Estate Price Bubble and Its Impact in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tupėnaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of the real estate price bubble in the Baltic States. The definition of the real estate price bubble is discussed, the main reasons as well as bubble influencing fundamental and irrational factors and price bubble burst sequences to national economics are analysed. Based on the research model and developed by the authors, the practical research of the real estate market in the Baltic States was performed.Trends towards the real estate prices were researched and the influence of fundamental and irrational factors on the growth of the real estate prices was discussed. Research results proved the existence of the price bubble in the Baltic States real estate market during the period from 2004 to 2006. The influence of the real estate price bubble burst on the national economy of the Baltic States is discussed at the end of this article. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Baltic Listed Companies´ disclosure quality – far ahead or lagging behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbi Karmo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the level of average quality of disclosures made in English by biggest companies listed on Baltic stock exchanges and to analyse it in the context of biggest companies listed on other Central and Eastern European (CEE and three developed European (EU stock exchanges. Content analysis reveals that the disclosure quality level of Baltic listed companies outperforms that of other CEE peers by at least 30% and in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures 50 to 80%. Compared to companies listed on developed EU stock exchanges, the disclosure quality of Baltic listed companies is slightly lower in the company home page category, however, it outperforms in the context of stock exchange web page disclosures. This result raises concerns about possibly too restrictive stock exchange web page disclosure regulations which may have a negative impact on the future outlook of Baltic stock exchanges.

  20. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as ‘affected by eutrophication’. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over...... report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach...... using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected.We document improvements...

  1. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  2. [Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections] / Konrad Maier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maier, Konrad, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections (Proceedings of the Art Museum of estonia, 1 (6)). Hrsg. von Anu Allikvee und Tiina-Mall Kreem. (Tallinn, 2011)

  3. Baltic Graduate School for Social Sciences and Humanities founded in Tallinn / Maiki Voore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voore, Maiki, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Oktoobris 2008 allkirjastasid Tallinna Ülikooli, Läti Ülikooli ja Kaunase Vytautas Magnuse Ülikooli rektorid Baltimaade sotsiaal- ja humanitaarteaduste doktorikooli (Baltic Graduate School) asutamislepingu

  4. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  5. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.;

    2013-01-01

    is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y...... from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). Crown......The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow...

  6. What we know about the Baltic Sea: a summary of BSSC 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Uścinowicz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction    The Baltic Sea, an internal sea of the European Community, isone of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. It isquite unique in many respects, particularly in its natural featuresand in the cultural, political and socio-economic patterns ofthe countries bordering it.    After nearly 40 years, during which Baltic marine physicists,chemists, biologists and geologists had been holding separatescientific meetings, it was decided the time was ripe to arrangejoint scientific conferences with the purpose of getting togetherto discuss general and specific aspects of the Baltic Sea, toexchange information, to integrate efforts, and to get to knowand understand each other better. The Sopot 2005 Congress, precededby the Baltic Sea Science Congresses in Rønne (1997, Warnemünde(1999, Stockholm (2001 and Helsinki (2003, was the fifth jointmeeting of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers (CBO, BalticMarine Biologists (BMB and Baltic Sea Geologists (BSG. Likeall the previous congresses, the one held in Sopot bore witnessto the idea that we all, members of CBO, BMB and BSG, shouldcontinue to work together even more closely.    The meeting in Sopot instigated discussion on a broad spectrumof problems, from large-scale climate change-related processesto local, small-scale specific Baltic Sea features. Further subjectsfor deliberation included modelling as a research tool and asa way of providing services and forecasting certain phenomena,operational oceanography, and man's impact on the Baltic Seaenvironment and its resources.    We are indebted to our Scientific Committee for their work duringthe past months to sort out and select interesting contributionsto all the oral and poster sessions, and thus for making theCongress an attractive and quality event. We also thank the PolishAcademy of Sciences and the City of Sopot for their financialsupport.    We hope that the joint Congress and fruitful scientific

  7. The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abigail H; Eme, John; Mueller, Casey A; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2°C, 5°C or 8°C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3°C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2°C, 92d at 5°C, 50d at 8°C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3°C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8°C and 5°C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2°C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change.

  8. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

    2014-12-01

    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution.

  9. President of the Republic at the U. S.-Baltic Foundation Awards Dinner / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi kõne Ameerika-Balti Fondi auhindade üleandmise pidulikul õhtusöögil, 19. aprillil 2008 Washingtonis. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  10. Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Farnelid, Hanna; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Andersson, Anders F.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Jost, Günter; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus; Riemann, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N2 fixation was measured at the surface (5 m) and in anoxic water (200 m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and

  11. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  12. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate distinct changes in otolith increment width observed in demersal juveniles b......, performed vertical migrations during the second interval, and stayed in association with the seafloor in the subsequent interval, corresponding to the time after the breakdown of the thermocline....

  13. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  14. Microplastics in Baltic bottom sediments: Quantification procedures and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2017-01-30

    Microplastics in the marine environment are known as a global ecological problem but there are still no standardized analysis procedures for their quantification. The first breakthrough in this direction was the NOAA Laboratory Methods for quantifying synthetic particles in water and sediments, but fibers numbers have been found to be underestimated with this approach. We propose modifications for these methods that will allow us to analyze microplastics in bottom sediments, including small fibers. Addition of an internal standard to sediment samples and occasional empty runs are advised for analysis quality control. The microplastics extraction efficiency using the proposed modifications is 92±7%. Distribution of microplastics in bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Baltic Sea is presented. Microplastic particles were found in all of the samples with an average concentration of 34±10 items/kg DW and have the same order of magnitude as neighbor studies reported.

  15. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    inputs for WNN forecasting model. The paper examines non-linearity and non-stationary features of the BDTI and elaborates WNN model building procedures. Finally, the comparison of forecasting performance between WNN and ARIMA time series models show that WNN has better forecasting accuracy than...... modeling techniques used in freight rate forecasting. At the same time research in shipping index forecasting e.g. BDTI applying artificial intelligent techniques is scarce. This analyses the possibilities to forecast the BDTI by applying Wavelet Neural Networks (WNN). Firstly, the characteristics......Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...

  16. Market Behaviour: Case Studies of NASDAQ OMX Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines market behaviour, defines the concept of behavioural finance and exhaustively analyzes the varying behaviour of market participants and occurring examples. The article deals with the issues of possible anomalies describing their main features. The conducted research is aimed at investigating two anomalies in the Baltic Stock Exchanges, including branches in Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius. The publication selects specific stocks listed in the equity market and analyzes their features. The obtained results are compared to discuss differences and characteristics of the markets. The paper also presents an original examination of the practical aspects of momentum and contrarian anomalies, underlies recommendations and helps financial market participants with a better understanding of the influence of anomalies from an economic perspective and with improving their competitiveness thus helping them to make appropriate decisions.

  17. Utilisation of macroalgae from the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilising the macroalgae accumulating on the Sopot beach, a part of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea.During this work (2004-2006 a range of activities were undertaken: monitoring the occurrence of macroalgae, collection of plant material, taxonomic identification, laboratory analyses of contamination (metals - Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg;radionuclides - 137Cs, 40K; organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the stage of algal degradation and studying possible uses of the plant material collected on the beach. The most suitable way of utilising the plant material seems to be as a biofertiliser. Laboratorygrowth tests were carried out to assess this possible use; they were successful.

  18. Mercury and Methylmercury in Southern Baltic Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miotk M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Surficial sediment samples were collected in several areas of the southern Baltic Sea during cruises of R/V Oceania in spring 2009 and 2010 for all stations and in autumn 2009 for Gdansk Deep and Gotland Deep. Samples were collected with a gravity corer. The top five centimeters of sediment were sampled by cutting it away with a plastic spatula, mixed and stored frozen (-20°C in polyethylene bags until analyses in the laboratory. Sediment cores were analysed for total mercury [HgTOT]and methylmercury [MeHg]. Total Hg concentrations in sediments were between 5,81 ng·g-1 in Odra Eustary and 225 ng·g-1 in Gdansk Deep. Lowest concentration of methylmercury were recorded in Odra Estuary; 61,29 pg·g-1. Highest concentration of MeHg were found in Vistula Estuary, 940,07 pg·g-1.

  19. Survey of transportation of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posti, A.; Hakkinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study is made as a part of the Chembaltic (Risks of Maritime Transportation of Chemicals in Baltic Sea) project which gathers information on the chemicals transported in the Baltic Sea. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of handling volumes of liquid bulk chemicals (including liquefied gases) in the Baltic Sea ports and to find out what the most transported liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea are. Oil and oil products are also viewed in this study but only in a general level. Oils and oil products may also include chemical-related substances (e.g. certain bio-fuels which belong to MARPOL annex II category) in some cargo statistics. Chemicals in packaged form are excluded from the study. Most of the facts about the transport volumes of chemicals presented in this study are based on secondary written sources of Scandinavian, Russian, Baltic and international origin. Furthermore, statistical sources, academic journals, periodicals, newspapers and in later years also different homepages on the Internet have been used as sources of information. Chemical handling volumes in Finnish ports were examined in more detail by using a nationwide vessel traffic system called PortNet. Many previous studies have shown that the Baltic Sea ports are annually handling more than 11 million tonnes of liquid chemicals transported in bulk. Based on this study, it appears that the number may be even higher. The liquid bulk chemicals account for approximately 4 % of the total amount of liquid bulk cargoes handled in the Baltic Sea ports. Most of the liquid bulk chemicals are handled in Finnish and Swedish ports and their proportion of all liquid chemicals handled in the Baltic Sea is altogether over 50 %. The most handled chemicals in the Baltic Sea ports are methanol, sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia, sulphuric and phosphoric acid, pentanes, aromatic free solvents, xylenes, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol and ethanol solutions. All of these chemicals

  20. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  1. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  2. Try Talk on Distribution and Management Scheme of CISCO and H3C Switches in Practice%试谈在实践中CISCO和H3C交换机的配通和管理方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫

    2013-01-01

    介绍了CISCO和H3C交换机的基本知识,分析了CISCO和H3C的主要功能配置和管理方案,在实践中总结出CISCO/H3C交换机的配置规律和管理方案,以优化网络拓扑结构、通信性能和应用需求,使得不同厂家生产的交换机可以顺利配通.

  3. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L{sup −1} CaCO{sub 3}) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U{sub crit}) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U{sub crit} of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U{sub crit}. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U{sub crit} and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure

  4. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  5. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace elem...

  6. Modelling the influence of Major Baltic Inflows on near-bottom conditions at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991-2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions.

  7. Baltic Sea coccolithophores - an overview of insights into their taxonomy and ecology from the last 40 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge

    2016-01-01

    coccolithophores (i.e. Balaniger virgulosa HOL and HET, Papposphaera arctica HOL cfr. and Papposphaera iugifera). When including here also material examined from the Danish transitional waters connecting the North Sea and the Baltic proper, it is possible to generally support the presence in the western Baltic...

  8. Baltic salmon activates immune relevant genes in fin tissue when responding to Gyrodactylus salaris infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walther; Larsen, Thomas Bjerre; Ingerslev, Hans C.;

    2007-01-01

    A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection......A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection...

  9. Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the

  10. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Baltic amber eupnoid and dyspnoid types (Arachnida: Opiliones in the Berendt collection are redescribed from their repository in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Type specimens of Caddo dentipalpis (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Nemastoma (? incertum Koch & Berendt, 1854, Mitostoma (? denticulatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 and Histricostoma (? tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 are all redescribed and the first photographs and camera lucida drawings of this material are presented. N.  (? incertum is removed from synonymy with M.  (? denticulatum. The status of the other Baltic amber harvestman types and their affinities are discussed. The type of Sabacon bachofeni Roewer, 1939 (= S. claviger (Menge, 1854 held in the Bavarian State collection, Munich is also redescribed here, but the repository of three other Roewer harvestman types and all of Menge’s types remains uncertain. The problematic Cheiromachus coriaceus Menge, 1854 is considered a nomen dubium, as is Phalangium succineum Presl, 1822, which may not even be a harvestman. Typenmaterial der Weberknecht-Gruppen Eupnoi und Dyspnoi (Arachnida: Opiliones vom Baltischen Bernstein aus der Berendt-Sammlung des Museums für Naturkunde Berlin wurde bearbeitet. Dabei wurde das Typusmaterial von Caddo dentipalpis (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Nemastoma (? incertum Koch & Berendt, 1854, Mitostoma (? denticulatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 und Histricostoma (? tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 revidiert und die ersten Fotografien und camera lucida-Zeichnungen dieses Materials hergestellt. N.  (? incertum wurde aus der Synonymie von M.  (? denticulatum herausgenommen. Der Status der anderen Weberknecht Typen aus dem Baltischen Bernstein und ihre Stellung werden diskutiert. Sabacon bachofeni Roewer, 1939 (= S. claviger (Menge, 1854 wird anhand des Holotypus aus der Bayerischen Staatssammlung M

  11. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  12. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/MSC-W model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 yr: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13 %. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11 % in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13 % to +17 % of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly deposition pattern is similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13 % and Denmark 8–11 %. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–9 %, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5 %.

  13. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  14. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  15. The Baltic States in the Propaganda Activities of the Third Reich during the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Valleau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the propaganda of the Third Reich on the territory of the Baltic States during the Second world war. The authors have selected as sources of post-soviet historiography on the Baltic States during the Second world war, as well as materials of personal origin – the memoirs of german and soviet military commanders and representatives of the administration. We used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the reviewed period in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. In particular, the historical-situational method was used when considering the history of the Baltic army units in the Wehrmacht and the Red army. The authors conclude that the german administration in the Baltic States has received the quite substantial support for its armed forces. However, this support could be even more serious if the German administration has gone on another propaganda move – the timely recognition of the Baltic States as allies.

  16. Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deutsch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether dissolved organic matter (DOM in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as δ13C values of high molecular weight DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM that reaches the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations our results indicate that substantial amounts of DOM (>50% seems to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.3, 2.7, and 4.1 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

  17. The Baltics in the Geography of the Largest Transnational Corporations of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the place of the Baltic States on the corporate world map, a contemporary, foreign-investment-driven alternative to the more familiar political map. To this end, the author studies the geographical place of the Baltics in the documentation of transnational corporations. The research database consists of financial reports and presentations of 60 leading European (including Russian transnational corporations. Special attention is paid to companies from countries with significant FDI stock in the Baltic States. This study is a first step towards analyzing international investors’ interpretation of the new European borders. The connection between the neighborhood effect on FDI distribution and geographical segmentation in the corporate paperwork is established. Some companies use a multilevel division (e. g. Europe/Eastern Europe, where the Baltics is usually associated with “Europe” (with or without Russia and Turkey. However, in some cases the Baltic States are clustered u nder “home market” (as is the case with some Swedish companies, “former Soviet Union” (some Russian companies, “Northern Europe and Central Asia,” and even “Middle East and Eastern Europe." Varying understanding of where exactly th borders of Europe lie could explain the plurality of attitudes of the European business establishment to the EU sanctions against Russia.

  18. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  19. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  20. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  1. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  2. Baltic Herring Fisheries Management: Stakeholder Views to Frame the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Haapasaari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive problem framing that includes different perspectives is essential for holistic understanding of complex problems and as the first step in building models. We involved five stakeholders to frame the management problem of the Central Baltic herring fishery. By using the Bayesian belief networks (BBNs approach, the views of the stakeholders were built into graphical influence diagrams representing variables and their dependencies. The views of the scientists involved concentrated on biological concerns, whereas the fisher, the manager, and the representative of an environmental nongovernmental organization included markets and fishing industry influences. Management measures were considered to have a relatively small impact on the development of the herring stock; their impact on socioeconomic objectives was greater. Overall, the framings by these stakeholders propose a focus on socioeconomic issues in research and management and explicitly define management objectives, not only in biological but also in social and economic terms. We find the approach an illustrative tool to structure complex issues systematically. Such a tool can be used as a forum for discussion and for decision support that explicitly includes the views of different stakeholder groups. It enables the examination of social and biological factors in one framework and facilitates bridging the gap between social and natural sciences. A benefit of the BBN approach is that the graphical model structures can be transformed into a quantitative form by inserting probabilistic information.

  3. The identity of Romanian amber (rumanite) with Baltic amber (succinite).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, E. C.; Beck, C. W.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Vassar Coll.

    2000-11-01

    Romanian amber (rumanite) has been considered to be a separate species of fossil resin for more than a century. While earlier investigators held it to be very similar to succinite (Baltic amber), modern scholars have assigned it a distinctly different botanical origin. We have found that almost all of the constituents of the ether-soluble fractions of 13 specimens of authentic rumanite identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have previously been reported in the soluble fraction of succinite, including succinic acid and its monoterpene esters. Additionally and significantly, the soluble fraction of rumanite contains a number defunctionalized compounds that do not preexist in succinite, but that are produced by pyrolysis of whole succinite or of its insoluble polymeric fraction. Simultaneous methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the polymeric fraction of seven of the rumanite specimens yielded further copious amounts of dimethyl succinate, a number of diterpene resin acid methyl esters, and additional defunctionalized compounds known to be pyrolysis products of succinite. The evidence shows conclusively that the botanical origin of rumanite is not distinct from that of succinite. Rather, rumanite is a succinite that has suffered partial thermal degradation in the course of the folding of the Oligocene Kliwa sandstone formation in which it is most commonly found.

  4. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  5. Seasonal activity budget of adult baltic ringed seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Harkonen

    Full Text Available Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females to 85% (males of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated.

  6. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  7. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju;

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be co......The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions...... to be considered for post-invasion management. Priority should be given to the establishment of a coordinated pan-Baltic monitoring programme and associated data storage and exchange, as well as the compilation of landing statistics of the round goby in commercial and recreational fisheries. While eradication...

  8. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  9. [The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles.

  10. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged.

  11. Overview of Financial Contagion Channels in the Banking Sector of Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gudelytė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article aims to determine and analyse the main features of channels of financial contagion in the banking sector of Baltic States. The most relevant channels seem to be the risk of common lender, the channel of real estate prices the channel of other macroeconomic shocks and the channel of volatility. This paper contributes to the further analysis of internal and external causes of financial crisis and its transmission channels in banking sector in Baltic States.Purpose To indicate and explain main problems related to the systemic risk and the channels of financial contagion in the banking sector of Baltic States.Design/methodology/approach – general overview of research papers presenting concepts and methodologies of assessment of systemic risk of the banking sector, statistical analysis of financial data.Findings determination of the main channels and extent of financial contagion that are relevant to banking sector of Baltic States.Research limitations/implications – the lack of information concerning the liquidity and asset structure of banking sector of Baltic States and the real estate prices in Baltic States. The most common problem analysing the financial contagion and systemic risk is the lack of information (especially about the structure of liabilities and assets of financial institutions, its maturity and the changing new banking regulatory conditions. Due the lack of data it is impossible to create stable and reliable statistical models describing the stochastic behaviour of financial contagion. We do not take into account the political factors concerning the reforms of financial market supervision that have also the impact on financial contagion and systemic risk ant the point of view to Baltic States of foreign investors. The findings of this article should ground the macro-prudential policy in the small countries of supervising institutions focussing on the external factors.Practical implications

  12. Floating along buoyancy levels: dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally...... ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (± standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3...... for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species...

  13. Sea surface temperature development of the Baltic Sea in the period 1990-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Siegel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea Surface Temperature (SST maps derived from NOAA weathersatellites for the period 1990-2004 were used to investigateseasonal and inter-annual variations in the Baltic Sea. A comparison between monthly mean SST and in situ measurements at the MARNET station "Arkona Sea" showed goodagreement with differences in July and August. Monthly means reflect strong seasonal and inter-annualvariations. The yearly means show a slight positive trend withan increase of 0.8 K in 15 years. In particular, summer and autumnmonths contribute to this positive trend, with stronger trendsin the northern than in the southern Baltic. The winters arecharacterised by a slightly negative trend. The winter minimumSST in the Arkona Sea correlates best with the WIBIX climateindex derived for the Baltic region.

  14. Glyphosate and AMPA in the estuaries of the Baltic Sea method optimization and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeff, Wael; Neumann, Christine; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2015-11-15

    Water samples from ten German Baltic estuaries were collected in 2012 in order to study the presence of the herbicide glyphosate, its primary metabolite AMPA and their potential transport to the marine environment. For the analyses an LC-MS/MS based analytical method after derivatization with FMOC-Cl was optimized and validated for marine water samples. All investigated estuarine stations were contaminated with AMPA and nine of them also with glyphosate. Concentration ranges observed were 28 to 1690ng/L and 45 to 4156ng/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively with strong spatial and temporal fluctuations. Both contaminants were found at inbound sampling sites in the stream Muehlenfliess and concentrations decreased along the salinity gradient to the estuaries of the Baltic Sea. The data obtained in this study clearly depict the transport of glyphosate and AMPA to the Baltic Sea. Hence, detailed fate and risk assessment for both contaminants in marine environments are required.

  15. Long-term development of inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll alpha in the open northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Laamanen, Maria; Kuosa, Harri; Haahti, Hannu; Olsonen, Riitta

    2008-03-01

    Eutrophication is an ongoing process in most parts of the Baltic Sea. This article reports on the changes during recent decades of several eutrophication-related variables in the open sea areas surrounding Finland (wintertime nutrient concentrations, wintertime nutrient ratios, and summer time chlorophyll alpha concentrations at the surface). The sum of nitrate- and nitrite-nitrogen ([NO3+NO2]-N) was observed to increase nearly fourfold in the Northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland and almost double in the Bothnian Sea from the 1960s until the 1980s or 1990s. The increase was followed by a decrease, which was modest in the two former subregions. Phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations followed a similar pattern in the Northern Baltic Proper (threefold increase and subsequent slight decrease) and Bothnian Sea (30% increase and subsequent decrease), but increased throughout the study in the Gulf of Finland, with the present concentration being threefold to the measurements made in the early 1970s. The PO4-P concentration decreased throughout the study in the Bothnian Bay. Silicate-silicon (SiO4-Si) concentrations decreased 30-50% from the early 1970s to the late 1990s and increased 20-40% thereafter in the Northern Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, and the Bothnian Sea. Chlorophyll alpha showed an increase of over 150% in the Northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland from the 1970s until the early 2000s. In the Bothnian Sea the chlorophyll alpha concentration increased more than 180% from the late 1970s until the late 1990s, and decreased thereafter. According to these long-term observations, the Gulf of Finland and Northern Baltic Proper show clear signs of eutrophication, which may be emphasized by hydrographical changes affecting the phytoplankton communities and thus the algal biomass.

  16. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  17. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  18. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  19. Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea. A preliminary survey of existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verta, M.; Salo, S.; Korhonen, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Koistinen, J.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Isosaari, P. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most contaminated areas with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins). The high load of dioxins in Baltic fish has lead to restrictions of the use of contaminated fish for human consumption. Uncertainties about sources, geographical distribution of these contaminants, the pathways of bioaccumulation and possible ecotoxicological and human health effects are of concern. POPs may enter the Baltic Sea from atmospheric deposition, riverine input and point sources along the coast. The ultimate sink for the majority of the compounds is the open sea and coastal sediments, although some fraction enters the food chain. Analysis of sediment has been widely used to study regional and temporal trends of dioxin pollution in freshwater and oceans and the Baltic Sea has been one of the most studied sea areas for dioxin-like compounds as well. Only a fraction (unknown) of the analytical results have been published in scientific papers, however. Here we present regional distribution of certain congeners of dioxins in surface sediments and in six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. New data is compared with data on earlier Finnish sediment surveys. Some data from published papers and unpublished data from the Kattegat Sound is also given for reference. The purpose of this paper is to: 1. get an ''draft'' picture of regional distribution (possible hot spots, major regional differences) along the Finnish-Swedish-Danish-German coastal and open sea sites in the Baltic 2. study differences in congener distributions (source identification) 3. study temporal changes in sediment profiles 4. identify major areas with gap of data 5. call for more data (both published and grey literature as well as new sediment surveys)

  20. POP load and vitamins as potential biomarkers in the Baltic seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routti, H.; Nyman, M.; Helle, E. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Backman, C. [National Veterinary and Food Research Inst. (Finland); Koistinen, J. [Div. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst. (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Exceptionally high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 1,1,1.trichloro- 2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (DDT) and its metabolites were reported in the Baltic seals in the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCB levels in ringed seals, in particular, are still high enough to threaten the well being of the animals. The observed difference in contaminant pattern between ringed and grey seals in the Baltic has not been explained, but could be partly due to species-specific food sources. Several pathological and biochemical changes observed in the Baltic seals correlate with the individual POP loads. Of the observed biochemical changes, elevated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels, decreased liver vitamin A stores and increased vitamin E levels in blubber or plasma, have been proposed as possible biomarkers of contaminant load in Baltic seals. However, as the vitamin A and E status of marine mammals also reflects the nutritional vitamin level, the lower vitamin A and elevated vitamin E levels observed in the Baltic seals could be a reflection of the levels of these vitamins in their food sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the contaminant load in the Baltic seals and to evaluate the utility level of potential exposure and effect biomarkers. Seals from less contaminated areas were used as reference material (Svalbard and Sable Island, Canada). In the present study, POP and vitamin levels were also studied in seal prey species in order to study the transfer of these compounds to grey and ringed seals from their main food sources.

  1. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  2. A New Species of Dactylolabis (Eobothrophorus) from Baltic Amber (Diptera:Limoniidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wies(l)aw KRZEMINSKI; Iwona KANIA; Ewa KRZEMINSKA

    2010-01-01

    A new species,Dactylolabis (Eobothrophorus) hoffeinsorum sp.nov.from the Baltic amber is described,based on one male.The distinctive characters are the shape of the discal cell in the wing and the shape of the process on tergite Ⅸ.The description of Dactylolabis (Eobothrophorus) lauryni Podenas,2003 is amended,based on an additional specimen.With the new species added herein,the number of species of this subgenus totals four.The wing venation,antennae,and tergai processes of all four species of the subgenus described from the Baltic amber are compared.

  3. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of benthic marine macroalgae to low salinities is believed to be a main determinant of their vertical distribution across the marine coastline and their horizontal distribution from oceanic regions into low-saline bays, fjords and estuaries. Salt tolerance should also be important...... distribution in the inner Baltic Sea (r: 0.32). A broad tolerance and high abundance of species in the Kattegat were significantly related to the contemporary distribution of Baltic macroalgae. Nonetheless, a large proportion of the interspecific variability was unaccounted for, presumably because a range...

  4. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the general nature of two-sector environmental and natural resource problems and highlights the issue of two sector models where one sector imposes a one-sided negative externality on the other sector, e.g. the polluting sector causes changes in the economic value of the fishery...... sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  5. Identification of potential target levels for Central Baltic Sea fishing mortalities, taking multispecies interactions into account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit

    2012-01-01

    The main biological interactions between Baltic cod, herring and sprat have been modelled in a stochastic multispecies (SMS) model. Based on this, a simple approach has been developed to quantify candidates for FMSY proxies (fishing mortality that produces the maximum sustainable yield) in a mult......The main biological interactions between Baltic cod, herring and sprat have been modelled in a stochastic multispecies (SMS) model. Based on this, a simple approach has been developed to quantify candidates for FMSY proxies (fishing mortality that produces the maximum sustainable yield...

  6. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  7. Coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) through axial bonding of substituted pyridines to nickel-porphyrins: sigma-donor versus pi-acceptor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Steffen; Bornholdt, Claudia; Köhler, Felix; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix; Herges, Rainer

    2010-09-03

    Nickel-porphyrins, with their rigid quadratic planar coordination framework, provide an excellent model to study the coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) effect because bonding of one or two axial ligands to the metal center leads to a spin transition from S=0 to S=1. Herein, both equilibrium constants K(1S) and K(2), and for the first time also the corresponding thermodynamic parameters DeltaH(1S), DeltaH(2), DeltaS(1S), and DeltaS(2), are determined for the reaction of a nickel-porphyrin (Ni-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) with different 4-substituted pyridines by temperature-dependent NMR spectroscopy. The association constants K(1S) and K(2) are correlated with the basicity of the 4-substituted pyridines (R: OMe>H>CO(2)Et>NO(2)) whereas the DeltaH(1S) values exhibit a completely different order (OMeCO(2)Et>NO(2)). 4-Nitropyridine exhibits the largest binding enthalpy, which, however, is overcompensated by a large negative binding entropy. We attribute the large association enthalpy of nitropyridine with porphyrin to the back donation of electrons from the Ni d(xz) and d(yz) orbitals into the pi orbitals of pyridine, and the negative association entropy to a decrease in vibrational and internal rotation entropy of the more rigid porphyrin-pyridine complex. Back donation for the nitro- and cyanopyridine complexes is also confirmed by IR spectroscopy, and shows a shift of the N-O and C-N vibrations, respectively, to lower wave numbers. X-ray structures of 2:1 complexes with nitro-, cyano-, and dimethylaminopyridine provide further indication of a back donation. A further trend has been observed: the more basic the pyridine the larger is K(1S) relative to K(2). For nitropyridine K(2) is 17 times larger than K(1S) and in the case of methoxypyridine K(2) and K(1S) are almost equal.

  8. GnRH在性成熟高白鲑神经系统及性腺中的分布定位%An Immunocytochemical Localization of GnRH in the Nerve System and Gonad of Mature Coregonus peled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉洁; 贾斌; 柳建新; 李志远; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    摘要:应用免疫组织化学方法,系统观察性成熟期高白鲑(Coregonus peled)神经系统及性腺中的促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH)的分布情况。结果表明,GnRH在大脑、小脑、中脑、脊髓、延髓中免疫阳性反应明显,且主要分布在神经元内。GnRH免疫阳性细胞在卵巢和精巢中均有分布,而且其阳性部位在卵巢主要分布于小生长期卵母细胞;在精巢中主要分布于间质细胞和精原细胞中。本文讨论了GnRH直接或间接参与高白鲑性腺发育成熟调节的可能性。%Immunocytochemical staining technique was used to study the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nervous system and gonad of Coregonus peled. The results showed that there were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the cerebrum,cerebellum,diencephalon,medulla oblongata,and spinal cord. There were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the ovary and testis. The positive staining was observed mainly in the small growing oocyte, and in the interstitial cells and spermatogonia. The possible physiological function and morphological evidence of GnRH regulation on the development of gonad in C. Peled were discussed.

  9. Calibration of the hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbulis, J.; Klints, I.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Let us consider the calibration issue for the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) which is a complex hydrogeological system in the southeastern Baltic with surface area close to 0.5 million square kilometers. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards. The age of sediments varies from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method model was developed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. No-flow boundary conditions were applied on the rock bottom and the side boundaries of BAB, while simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head. Constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux elsewhere and adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells. The calibration of the hydrogeological model is one of the most important steps during the model development. The knowledge about the parameters of the modeled system is often insufficient, especially for the large regional models, and a lack of geometric and hydraulic conductivity data is typical. The quasi-Newton optimization method L-BFGS-B is used for the calibration of the BAB model. Model is calibrated on the available water level measurements in monitoring wells and level measurements in boreholes during their installation. As the available data is not uniformly distributed over the covered area, weight coefficient is assigned to each borehole in order not to overestimate the clusters of boreholes. The year 2000 is chosen as the reference year for the present time scenario and the data from surrounding years are also taken into account but with smaller weighting coefficients. The objective function to be minimized by the calibration process is the weighted sum of squared differences between observed and modeled piezometric heads

  10. Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Sylwia; Latała, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia może być kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na tworzenie się masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazują, że zakwity sinic w Morzu Bałtyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie się nasiliły, dlatego tak ważne jest określenie stopnia oddziaływania allelopatycznego dominujących w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach określono wpływ związków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez bałtycką sinicę Nodularia spumigena hodowaną w różnych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy por

  11. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and carbon accumulation rates (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation. The Corg stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m-2 in Finland, while in Denmark the average Corg stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g C m-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha-1. Our results suggest that the Finnish eelgrass meadows are minor carbon sinks compared to the Danish meadows, and that majority of the Corg produced in the Finnish meadows is exported. Our analysis further showed that > 40 % of the variation in the Corg stocks was explained by sediment characteristics, i.e. dry density, porosity and silt content. In addition, our analysis show that the root : shoot ratio of Z. marina explained > 12 % and the contribution of Z. marina detritus to the sediment surface Corg pool explained > 10 % of the variation in the Corg stocks. The mean monetary value for the present carbon storage and carbon sink capacity of eelgrass meadows in Finland and Denmark, were 281 and 1809 EUR ha-1, respectively. For a more comprehensive picture of seagrass carbon storage capacity, we conclude that future blue carbon studies should, in a more integrative way, investigate the interactions between sediment biogeochemistry, seascape structure, plant species architecture and the hydrodynamic regime.

  12. Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Piwosz

    Full Text Available Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02 to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea. Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment, or prefiltered and subsequently 1∶10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

  13. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Gagnon

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions.

  14. Freak waves in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, I.; Kurennoy, D.; Soomere, T.

    2009-04-01

    We discuss freak wave events recorded in Tallinn Bay, Baltic Sea, in relatively low overall wave conditions. High resolution time series of water surface elevations collected using an ultrasonic echosounder LOG_aLevel® from General Acoustics. The measurement range of the sensor was 0.5-10 m to the water surface with an accuracy of ±1 mm. The surface water elevation data were collected almost continuously over 30 days (21 June - 20 July 2008) at a recording frequency of 5 Hz. The device was mounted at distance of about 100 m offshore from an effectively non-reflecting shore of the island of Aegna at a depth of ~2.7 m. A part of the experiment was performed in almost calm conditions (significant wave height below 10 cm). The typical significant wave height was 30 cm and reached 60-70 cm during short time intervals. The analysis of the record revealed several unexpectedly high and steep waves with periods close to the typical periods of the windseas. The most prominent freak wave event was recorded on July 9, 2008 when the significant wave height was about 40 cm and the peak period about 4 s. The height and period of the wave were 1.2 m and 5 s, respectively. The height of the freak wave therefore about 3 times exceeded the significant wave height. The wave arrived without any warning or "hole" ahead of it; instead, it was followed by a deep trough (about 40 cm). The wave was highly asymmetric: its crest reached over 80 cm whereas the typical crest elevation was below 20 cm. We also present several other examples of freak waves, analyze wind wave statistics in June-July 2008, and discuss the distribution functions of wave characteristics.

  15. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 1: Total chlorophyll a distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of three describing the modelling of the vertical different photosynthetic and photoprotecting phytoplankton pigments concentration distributions in the Baltic and their interrelationsdescribed by the so-called non-photosynthetic pigment factor.The model formulas yielded by this research are an integral part of the algorithms used in the remote sensingof the Baltic ecosystem. Algorithms of this kind have already been developed by our team from data relating mainly to oceanic Case 1 waters (WC1 and have produced good results for these waters. But their application to Baltic waters, i.e.,Case 2 waters, was not so successful. On the basis of empirical data for the Baltic Sea, we therefore derived new mathematical expressions for the spatial distribution of Baltic phytoplankton pigments. They are discussed in this series of articles. This first article presents a statistical model for determining the total concentration ofchlorophyll, a (i.e., the sum of chlorophylls a+pheo derived spectrophotometrically at different depths in the Baltic Sea Ca(z on the basis of its surface concentration Ca(0,which can be determined by remote sensing. This model accounts for the principal features of the vertical distributions of chlorophyll concentrations characteristic of the Baltic Sea. The model's precision was verified empirically: it was found suitable for application in the efficient monitoring of the Baltic Sea. The modified mathematical descriptions of the concentrations of accessory pigments (photosynthetic and photoprotecting in Baltic phytoplankton and selected relationships between them are given in the other two articles in this series (Majchrowski et al. 2007, Woźniak et al. 2007b, both in this volume.

  16. Hypoxia and cyanobacteria blooms - are they really natural features of the late Holocene history of the Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillén, L.; Conley, D. J.

    2010-08-01

    During the last century (1900s) industrialized forms of agriculture and human activities have caused eutrophication of Baltic Sea waters. As a consequence, the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased, especially during the last 50 years, and has caused severe ecosystem disturbance. Climate forcing has been proposed to be responsible for the reported trends in hypoxia (cyanobacteria blooms are not natural features of the Baltic Sea as previously deduced, but are a consequence of enhanced phosphorus release from the seabed that occurs during hypoxia.

  17. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection...

  18. Explaining ethnic politics in the Baltic States : reviewing the triadic nexus model / Vello Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Dovile Budryte. Taming nationalism? Political community building in the post-soviet Baltic States; David J. Galbreath. Nation-building and minority politics in post-socialist states : interests, influences and identities in Estonia and Latvia; Judith G. Kelley. Ethnic politics in Europe : the power of norms and incentives. Skeemid

  19. Wang Jinzhen Attended the Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta and Baltic Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On October 17,on behalf of CCPIT,Vice-Chairman Wang Jinzhen attended the opening ceremony of the 3rd Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta Region of China and Baltic Sea Region of Europe,where he delivered a speech.

  20. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea : A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstrom, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Hakan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been s

  1. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  2. Aastatepikkune visadus viis raudtee Baltic Rail Service'ile / Anneli Ammas, Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti erastamisagentuur sõlmis Baltic Rail Service'iga lepingu 66% Eesti Raudtee aktsiate müügiks. Vt. samas "Uus omanik lubab hakata Eesti Raudtee töötajaid koondama". Kronoloogia: Raudtee müük 1999, 2000, 2001

  3. 23. IV avati EKA galeriis projekti "Network Baltic" laureaatide graafikanäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise kunstiprojekti "Network Baltic - a new dimension" algatas Grafikenshus Rootsis Mariefredis, Eestist osaleb EKA graafikaosakond, kuraator - Enno Ootsing. Näitusel esinevad Kevin Lytsen Taanist, Kaija Kesa Soomest, internetikonkursil ära märgitud Helen Tago ja Eveli Varik

  4. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated...

  5. Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, K.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1736–1743.Recruitment variability of marine fish is influenced by the reproductive potential of the stock (i.e. stock characteristics and abundance) and the surviv...

  6. Life cycle and spring phenology of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Mohrholz, V.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal variation in abundance, biomass and vertical distribution of nauplii and copepodites of Temora longicornis in the Bornholm Basin was studied from March 2002 to May 2003 to understand the overwintering, spring development and life cycle of this species in the Baltic Sea. The analysis...

  7. Ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea. Part 1. Description of the ProDeMo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ProDeMo (Production and Destruction of Organic Matter Model, a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model, was formulated and applied to the whole Baltic Sea and the subregion of the Gulf of Gdansk. It describes nutrient cycles (phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon through the food web with 15 state variables, oxygen conditions and the parameterisation of water-sediment interactions. The present version of the model takes two groups of phytoplankton - diatoms and non-diatoms - as well as zooplankton into consideration. It covers the flow of matter and energy in the sea, including river discharges and atmospheric deposition. Numerical applications are embedded on a 1 NM grid for the Gulf of Gdansk and a 5 NM grid for the Baltic Sea.     Since the model results largely concur with observations, the model can be regarded as a reliable tool for analysing the behaviour of the Baltic ecosystem. Some examples of the spatial-temporal variability of the most important biological and chemical parameters are presented. The model results are compared with those of other modelling research in the Baltic Sea.     Both the ProDeMo model algorithm and its computing procedures need to be further developed. The next version should therefore enable more phytoplankton groups to be defined, for example cyanobacteria, which are able to take up molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere (nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the sediment phase should be divided into active and non-active layers.

  8. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  9. Simultaneity and asymmetry of returns and volatilities: the emerging Baltic States' stock exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Brännäs; J.G. de Gooijer; C. Lönnbark; A. Soultanaeva

    2012-01-01

    The paper suggests a nonlinear and multivariate time series model framework that enables the study of simultaneity in returns and in volatilities, as well as asymmetric effects arising from shocks and exogenous variables. The model is employed to study the three closely related Baltic States’ stoc

  10. Iodine Isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Hansen, Violeta;

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive 129I in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites ...

  11. Diversity of pico- to mesoplankton along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue O.O. Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  12. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  13. A remarkable new Middle Sandbian (Ordovician) hexactinellid sponge in Baltic erratics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botting, J.P.; Rhebergen, F.

    2011-01-01

    A new species of complex hexactinellid sponge, Haljalaspongia inaudita, is described from fluvially transported blocks found in northwestern Germany, near the Dutch border, but which probably originated from the eastern Baltic region. The heavily folded wall is composed of multiple spicule layers, i

  14. Microplastics and biogeochemical relationships in sediments from Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    This study is a first attempt in Denmark on assessing the presence of microplastics in our open & coastal waters from Baltic to North Sea. Among the conclusions: - Microplastic particles can be found in sediment in Danish waters and is a potential indicator for MSFD. - Normalisation to %TOC......, or the microplastics...

  15. Diseases and parasites of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the Mecklenburg Bight to the Estonian coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Lang, T.

    1999-01-01

    the Mecklenburg Bight in the southwest to the Estonian coast in the northeast of the Baltic Sea. Prevalences were highest in the western part, except for skeletal deformities, which were highest in the central part. The spatial distribution of pseudobranchial swellings, C. lingua and L. branchialis appeared...

  16. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  17. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siudek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following periods: November 2005–June 2006 and October 2007–January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg and Hg(II were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic – the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L−1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants. During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m−2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  18. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority...

  19. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  20. Ornithological surveys in the Baltic 2 wind farm area using high-resolution digital imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Nielsen, Rasmus Due; Stjernholm, Michael;

    Beskrivelse af fugle antal og frodeling i et undersøgelsesområde omkring Baltic 2 havvindmølleparken i Tysk Østersø. Optælling foretages med højopløseligt Vexcel Ultracam XP kamera fra fly, og fugle lokaliseres ved hjælp af semi-automatiseret procedure vha. software eCognition....

  1. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    in the Western Baltic. On average, 19% of the 0-group and 9% of the 1-group are consumed per year, i.e. 24% of the initial cohort is eaten before reaching age 2. Predation was most intense in 1978-1984, a period with high juvenile abundance and large adult stock sizes in both areas. Subsequently, stock...

  2. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal Interferometri

  3. Local environmental conditions shape generalist but not specialist components of microbial metacommunities in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Markus V.; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Casini, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Marine microbes exhibit biogeographical patterns linked with fluxes of matter and energy. Yet, knowledge of the mechanisms shaping bacterioplankton community assembly across temporal scales remains poor. We examined bacterioplankton 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from Baltic Sea transects to de...

  4. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  5. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...

  6. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautsky Lena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers.

  7. Sedimentation reduces recruitment success of Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Klemens; Johansson, Gustav

    2003-01-01

    During the last few decades, Fucus vesiculosus has decreased throughout the Baltic Sea, where it is the dominant canopy-forming macroalga of the sublittoral zone. Concurrently, the organic sedimentation originating from primary production has increased substantially due to a large-scale eutrophicati

  8. Mapping of sensitivity to oil spills in the Lithuanian Baltic Sea coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depellegrin, D.; Nerijus, B.; Groot, de R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This research develops an integrated environmental assessment tool for Lithuanian coastal area that takes due account of the major oil spill risks posed by the D-6 oil drilling platform, vessel traffic in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, and operation of the Butinge oil terminal. The goal of this paper

  9. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared as s...

  10. Environmental control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in the gassy sediments of Eckernforde Bay (German Baltic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Kruger, M.; Boetius, A.;

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of seasonal environmental changes on the rate and distribution of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in Eckernforde Bay sediments (German Baltic Sea) and identified organisms that are likely to be involved in the process. Surface sediments were sampled during Septembe...

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  12. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  13. PÖFF-i filmiturul Baltic Event sünnivad tuleviku kinomagnetid / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    12. PÖFFiga kaasnes ka Tallinnas 30. novembrist 3. detsembrini toimunud filmiturg Baltic Event, millel stsenaariumi staadiumis olevad filmiprojektid otsivad maailma filmitööstuse esindajatest koostööpartnereid. Eestist osales Jaak Kilmi ja Artur Talviku projekt "Rahad ette"

  14. Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

  15. A lasting legacy for the Baltic and North Sea GLOBEC Germany program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Dutz, Jörg; Voss, R.

    2012-01-01

    This preface introduces four manuscripts that form a special theme section of the GLOBEC Germany program within Progress in Oceanography. The four manuscripts link changes in physical forcing to the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas. The target species of GLOBEC...... Germany included various species of calanoid copepods and a small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)...

  16. Do toxic cyanobacteria blooms pose a threat to the Baltic ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mazur-Marzec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, otherwise known as blue-green algae, are oxygenic, photosynthetic prokaryotes. They occur naturally in many fresh, marine and brackish waters worldwide and play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In their long history, cyanobacteria have developed structures and mechanisms that enable them to survive and proliferate under different environmental conditions. In the Baltic Sea, the mass development of cyanobacteria is compounded by a high level of eutrophication. The dominant species in the Baltic, the filamentous Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, can fix dissolved atmospheric N2, as a result of which they can outcompete other phytoplankton organisms. Heterocystous, filamentous cyanobacteria also make a significant contribution to the internal nutrient loading in the Baltic. The blooms of N. spumigena are of particular concern, as this cyanobacterium produces nodularin (NOD, a hepatotoxic peptide. The concentration of the toxin in the sea is regulated mainly by dilution with uncontaminated water, photolysis, sorption to sediments and microbial degradation. The transfer of the toxin in the Baltic trophic chain through zooplankton, mussels, fish and birds has been reported, but biodilution rather than bioconcentration has been observed. Cyanobacterial blooms are thought to pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. Their harmful effects are related to the occurrence of a high biomass, oxygen depletion, a reduction in biodiversity, and the production of toxic metabolites.

  17. Effects of O2 on N2 fixation in heterocystous cyanobacteria from the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, M.J.; te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Harren, F.J.M.; Stal, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of O2 on nitrogenase activity in natural samples of heterocystous cyanobacteria from the Baltic Sea was studied using on-line laser photo-acoustic trace-gas detection. This technique records nitrogenase activity in near real-time and allows measurements in continuously changing O2 concent

  18. A New Species Of Globicornis (Hadrotoma (Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Megatominae From Baltic Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Háva J.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The species Globicornis (Hadrotoma ingelehmannae sp. n. from Baltic amber is described, illustrated and compared with all known amber species of Globicornis Latreille, 1829. New species differs by the shape of antennae and black setation on dorsal and ventral surfaces.

  19. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Peck, M.A.; Barz, K.

    2012-01-01

    on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between predators and prey. As fish and gelatinous plankton often feed in distinct layers and/or exhibit feeding migrations, the inhomogeneous distribution...

  20. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  1. CLIMATE CHANGES AND ADAPTATION POLICIES IN THE BALTIC AND THE ADRIATIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bosnjakovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of differences and similarities of the current climate changes in the Baltic and Adriatic coastal regions and appropriate adaptation policies on national, regional and European level. All reparian countries are at different stages of developing and implementing national adaptation strategies. The proposal for an overall BSR wide Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan has been launched with the aim to recommend actions for climate change adaptation in the Baltic region. No similar agreement has been concluded yet on the protection of the semi-closed Adriatic Sea, the surface of which is about 1/2 of that of the Baltic Sea, and whose coastal region is home to about 1/4 of that of the Baltic Sea. The differences in the socio-economic characteristics and indicators may be partly responsible for the differring attitudes, actions and reporting concerning the adaptation to climate change, both between individual countries, as well as between the two regions as a whole

  2. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measure...

  3. Public finance systems for coping with the crises: lessons from the three Baltic States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Jaansoo, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Of all EU member states the three Baltic countries were hit the hardest by the economic crises in 2008-2010 but they recovered relatively quickly, with all three countries even being able to qualify for EMU membership (Estonia joined the Eurozone in 2011, Latvia in 2014 and Lithuania in 2015). The s

  4. Corpore pälvis turunduskommunikatsiooni kategoorias Baltic PR Awards 2011 peaauhinna / Aleksandra Moorast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moorast, Aleksandra, 1980-

    2012-01-01

    Üritus "Electrolux VIP koertepidu - koerad punasel vaibal" tõi suhtekorraldusfirmale Corpore'i konkursil Baltic PR Awards 2011 turunduskommunikatsiooni kategoorias esikoha. Ürituse eesmärk oli toetada Electroluxi kaubamärki ning tutvustada uut tolmuimejat, mis on mõeldud lemmikloomade karvade koristamiseks

  5. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  6. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  7. The housing boom and bust in the Nordic and Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    This article presents the findings of a comparative study of the housing markets in the Nordic and the Baltic countries and in the United Kingdom. The study was performed as part of the VISURF research network. Generally all the housing markets were affected by the global financial crisis...

  8. The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

  9. New Records Of The Dipteran Genera Triphleba (Phoridae And Prosphyracephala (Diopsidae In Rovno And Baltic Ambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkovsky E. E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran insects constitute 51 % among arthropods of the Rovno Amber. There are 99 species and 23 genera of the Diptera described from the Rovno Amber; however, to date only 32 species are shared with the Baltic Amber fauna, including two species that are treated in this paper. Triphleba schulmanae Brown, 2003 (Phoridae, originally described from the Baltic Amber, is recorded in the Rovno Amber for the first time and its amended description is supplied. Genus Prosphyracephala Hennig, 1965 (Diopsidae, earlier known from the Baltic and Saxonian ambers, the Upper Eocene of Ruby River (Montana, USA and the Lower Oligocene of Céreste (France, is recorded in the Rovno Amber for the first time. Prosphyracephala aff. succini (Loew, 1873 is the first diopsid record from Ukraine. A second specimen of Prosphyracephala kerneggeri Kotrba, 2009 is found in the Baltic amber; the complete wing venation is described for the first time for this species. Vast majority of the Old World Diopsidae are strictly thermophilous. In fact, all of them but the five species of brevicornis group of Sphyracephala Say (three Palearctic and two Nearctic ones frequent tropic and the warmest subtropic areas, however the thermophilous Diopsidae are known in the New World neither in past nor in contemporary fauna.

  10. A swarm of whiteflies—the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed.

  11. Influence of underwater light fields on pigment characteristics in the Baltic Sea - results of statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stoń-Egiert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in phytoplankton pigment concentrations in case 2 waters (such as those of the Baltic Sea were analysed in relation to the lightintensity and its spectral distribution in the water. The analyses were based on sets of empirical measurements containing two typesof data: chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations obtained by HPLC, and the distribution of underwater light fields measured with a MER2049 spectrophotometer - collected during 27 research cruises on r/v "Oceania" in 1999-2004. Statistical analysis yielded relationshipsbetween the total relative (to chlorophyll a concentrations concentrations of major groups of phytoplankton pigments andoptical depth τ, between the total relative concentrations of major groups of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls b (Cchl b tot / Cchl a tot, chlorophylls c (Cchl c tot / Cchl a totand photosynthetic carotenoids (CPSC tot / Cchl a tot and the spectral fitting function (the "chromatic acclimation factor",and between the total relative concentrations of photoprotective carotenoids (CPPC tot / Cchl a tot in Baltic waters and the potentially destructive radiation (PDR, defined as the absolute amount of energy in the blue part of the spectrum (400-480 nm absorbed by unit mass ofchlorophyll a. The best approximations were obtained for the total chlorophyll c content, while the relative estimation errors were thesmallest (σ_ = 34.6% for the approximation to optical depth and spectral fitting function. The largest errors related to the approximation ofchlorophyll b concentrations: σ_ = 56.7% with respect to optical depth and 57.3% to the spectral fitting function.      A comparative analysis of the relative (to chlorophyll a content concentrations of the main groups of pigments and the corresponding irradiance characteristics in ocean (case 1 waters and Baltic waters (case 2 waters was also carried out. The distribution of Cchl b tot / Cchl a tot ratios with respect to optical depth reveals a

  12. FREQUENT CLONALITY IN FUCOIDS (FUCUS RADICANS AND FUCUS VESICULOSUS; FUCALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE BALTIC SEA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Johansson, Daniel; Larsson, Karl H; Huenchuñir, Cecilia J; Perus, Jens; Forslund, Helena; Kautsky, Lena; Pereyra, Ricardo T

    2011-10-01

    Asexual reproduction by cloning may affect the genetic structure of populations, their potential to evolve, and, among foundation species, contributions to ecosystem functions. Macroalgae of the genus Fucus are known to produce attached plants only by sexual recruitment. Recently, however, clones of attached plants recruited by asexual reproduction were observed in a few populations of Fucus radicans Bergström et L. Kautsky and F. vesiculosus L. inside the Baltic Sea. Herein we assess the distribution and prevalence of clonality in Baltic fucoids using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci and samples of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus from 13 Baltic sites. Clonality was more common in F. radicans than in F. vesiculosus, and in both species it tended to be most common in northern Baltic sites, although variation among close populations was sometimes extensive. Individual clonal lineages were mostly restricted to single or nearby locations, but one clonal lineage of F. radicans dominated five of 10 populations and was widely distributed over 550 × 100 km of coast. Populations dominated by a few clonal lineages were common in F. radicans, and these were less genetically variable than in other populations. As thalli recruited by cloning produced gametes, a possible explanation for this reduced genetic variation is that dominance of one or a few clonal lineages biases the gamete pool resulting in a decreased effective population size and thereby loss of genetic variation by genetic drift. Baltic fucoids are important habitat-forming species, and genetic structure and presence of clonality have implications for conservation strategies.

  13. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros.

  14. Tobacco taxation policy in three Baltic countries after the EU accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the EU in 2004 and had to increase tobacco excise rates. The aim of the paper is to explore the impact of tax policies on tobacco consumption, revenue and tobacco market in the Baltic countries.METHODS: Data on tobacco sales, tax rates, prices, revenues, and smoking prevalence were taken from databases and reports. Tobacco affordability index was calculated using data on prices and GDP. RESULTS: Tobacco taxation policy had three similar stages in Baltic countries: (1 In 2004-2007, tax rates increased slowly and cigarettes became more affordable in years of economic boom. Tobacco consumption and smuggling out of Baltic countries was on the rise, which caused increase of sales and revenues. (2 In 2008-2009, Baltic countries had to hike excise and VAT rates in years of economic recession, which caused sharp decline of cigarette affordability and resulted in large decline of consumption and sales and some excise revenue downfall in 2009-2010; however, all countries had higher revenues in 2010 than in 2007. (3 In 2011, economic situation improved and tobacco sales and revenue increased. The tobacco taxation policy in Baltic countries in 2004-2011 resulted in: (1 decline of total (licit + illicit annual cigarette consumption by 30% both in Latvia and Lithuania, and by 10% in Estonia; (2 decline of daily smoking prevalence by 10-20%; (3 decline of the out-of-country smuggling; (4 almost no changes in volumes of smuggling into Lithuania and Estonia; (5 three-fold increase of the annual tobacco revenues in three countries combined.CONCLUSIONS: Decrease of tobacco affordability caused by tax hikes and economic recession was the key factor of tobacco consumption decline. Tobacco tax hike is a win-win policy, while in years of economic boom it has more fiscal benefits and in years of economic recession it has more public health benefits.

  15. THE GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR OF INVESTORS FROM BALTIC STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The investors’ irrational behaviour is influenced by actions, feelings and impulses that are intertwined: mimicry, fear, trust, greed, optimism, pessimism, euphoria, panic. These features highlight an erroneous perception of investors in point of unsustained increase in prices, which has been generated by the stock prices deviations from their fundamental value.Under these premises, optimism, overreaction and speculative bubbles are appearing on the market and may constitute triggering factors of a financial crash.The probability of the occurrence of the speculative bubbles and financial crashes is influenced by the continuous entry on the market of new investors and less informed participants, which often act based on impulse, following a benchmark, without considering their own analysis and information that they hold. The existence of a “collective behaviour” of the investors, which is manifested by their tendency to imitate other market participants actions and to “follow the herd”, so ignoring their own beliefs, may increase market sensitivity to shocks and the probability of the occurrence of the systemic risk.In order to identify the investors’ herding behaviour, I have applied an adjusted CSSD model proposed by (Yao, Ma, Peng He, 2014, which implies the inclusion of two additional variables, the first one, to reduce the effect of multicollinearity and a second one, a lag term of the dependent variable, in order to improve the power of the

  16. City of Helsinki and the evaluation of the Baltic Sea Challenge-actions; Helsingin kaupungin Itaemerihaaste-toimenpiteiden toteutumisen arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, I.

    2010-06-15

    The Baltic Sea Challenge initiative was made in June 2007 by the mayors of the cities of Helsinki and Turku in order to improve the state of the Baltic Sea. Its objective is to influence the status of the water, both locally and throughout the Baltic Sea. In addition to the concrete water protection measures, the cities of Helsinki and Turku are also committed to increase international co-operation on the environment, investigation of water protection and to provide general information and assistance. The challenge for improving the state of the Baltic Sea has already been sent to approximately 750 actors. In December 2009 about 165 positive responses have been received, of which 60 are cities, municipalities and joint local authorities in Finland, whereas 12 of them are cities in other Baltic Sea countries The actions of the city of Helsinki for saving the Baltic Sea are reducing the amount of point source loading and diffuse source loading (agriculture and scattered settlements), dredging of contaminated sediments, reducing discharges from shipping and boating, international environment cooperation, research projects and establishment of a professorship, and increasing awareness about the state of the Baltic Sea. Administrative branches of the city carry out the Baltic Sea Challenge. The administrative branches of the city of Helsinki are Port of Helsinki, Helsinki Water, Real Estate Department, Sports Department, City Planning Department, Public Works Department, Administration Centres department in the international operations and Environment centre. In addition, also other entities were summoned to participate in the voluntary improvement of the Baltic Sea. These were government agencies and research institutions, NGOs (nongovernmental organization) and associations, companies, schools and other organisations. The aim of this research was to examine the city of Helsinki's own Baltic Sea Challenge-actions from 2007 to 2009. The study dealt with all seven

  17. Baltijskij makroregion: geograficheskie makrostruktury, specifika kommunikacii, innovacionnyj potencial [The Baltic macroregion: geographical macrostructures, communication features, innovative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyasov Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers and assesses the influence of macro-geographical factors on communication behaviour of people in the course of transition to innovative economy through the example of the Baltic Sea region.

  18. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...... in an increased condition index, as seen in the benthic Baltic Sea mussels transferred to cages suspended in the water column....

  19. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  20. Multi-decadal scale variability in the eastern Baltic cod fishery 1550-1860 - Evidence and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Bager, M.; Ojaveer, H.;

    2007-01-01

    reduction in cod fishing mortality and suitable hydrographic conditions which promote successful cod reproduction. Historical ecology investigations in the Baltic can contribute to scientifically based fishery and ecosystem management and recovery plans. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... is unknown, as is the relative role of fishing, climate variability/regimes, eutrophication and reduction of marine mammal predator populations. We have begun to investigate whether historical fisheries information (landings, effort, distribution) from before the 1880s is available in Baltic archives...... affecting cod reproduction and ecology in the Baltic Sea. The recovered data show that the Baltic ecosystem was able to support modest-large cod populations even though it was oligotrophic and contained large populations of cod predators (e.g., marine mammals). Current ecosystem management policy...

  1. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  2. Cisco Router Configuration with IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.

  3. Coastal environmental gradients – Key to reproduction habitat mapping of freshwater fish in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kallasvuo, Meri

    2010-01-01

    Habitat requirements of fish are most strict during the early life stages, and the quality and quantity of reproduction habitats lays the basis for fish production. A considerable number of fish species in the northern Baltic Sea reproduce in the shallow coastal areas, which are also the most heavily exploited parts of the brackish marine area. However, the coastal fish reproduction habitats in the northern Baltic Sea are poorly known. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the ...

  4. Evaluation report of the Nordic-Baltic annex to the INEX-2-FIN-exercise April 17, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Under the auspices of the NKS programme and as a part of EKO-4 project a special Nordic-Baltic emergency exercise was carried out. In order to rationalise exercise activities it was organised as an annex to the international INEX-2-FIN exercise arranged by the OECD/NEA on April 17, 1997. Some countries carried out simultaneous national exercises as well. Only the Nordic-Baltic exercise is discussed in this report. The objectives of the INEX-2-FIN exercise were to test real time information exchange, decision making based on plant conditions and real weather, and public information. These objectives determined the framework for the scenario and necessary scripts of the exercise. For the Nordic-Baltic annex of the exercise five more detailed objectives, subordinated to the INEX-2-FIN objectives, were defined by the planning group under EKO-4 project. Since the exercise was the first of this kind for the Baltic countries only one of the special objectives was designed for them, namely N4. An independent evaluators group, consisting of one member from each participating country plus a chairperson, was set to evaluate the Nordic-Baltic annex of the INEX-2-FIN exercise. However, because of lack of personnel in the Baltic countries the evaluators were the same persons as in the planning group. (au)

  5. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Jaspers

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29 and in laboratory experiments (6-33. Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25 than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15 and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6. Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

  6. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the stagnant water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. These strong inflows are known to be forced by persistent westerly wind conditions. In this study, MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well, and hence LVCs have been calculated for the period 1887-2015 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting in at least 60 km3 of water volume change excluding the volume change due to runoff have been chosen for a closer study (1948-2013) of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of LVCs is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones move along characteristic storm tracks. Furthermore, MBIs are characterized by even higher cyclonic activity compared to average LVCs. We obtained four main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 56-60°N, passing the northern North Sea, northern Denmark, Sweden and the Island of Gotland. A second broad corridor of frequent cyclone pathways enters the study area north of Scotland between 60 and 66°N turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. This branch bifurcates into smaller routes. One

  7. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  8. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Baretta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (oversaturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic, or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs. The model indicates the

  9. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  10. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  11. The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the

  12. Mussel farming as a nutrient reduction measure in the Baltic Sea: consideration of nutrient biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadmark, J; Conley, D J

    2011-07-01

    Nutrient loads from the land to the sea must be reduced to combat coastal eutrophication. It has been suggested that further mitigation efforts are needed in the brackish Baltic Sea to decrease nutrients, especially in eutrophic coastal areas. Mussel farming is a potential measure to remove nutrients directly from the sea. Mussels consume phytoplankton containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); when the mussels are harvested these nutrients are removed from the aquatic system. However, sedimentation of organic material in faeces and pseudo-faeces below a mussel farm consumes oxygen and can lead to hypoxic or even anoxic sediments causing an increased sediment release of ammonium and phosphate. Moreover, N losses from denitrification can be reduced due to low oxygen and reduced numbers of bioturbating organisms. To reveal if mussel farming is a cost-effective mitigation measure in the Baltic Sea the potential for enhanced sediment nutrient release must be assessed.

  13. Material Culture and Diasporic Experiences: A Case of Medieval Hanse Merchantsin the Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The Hanseatic League, a late medieval merchant association with roots in northern German towns, is credited with the establishment of extensive economic and geographic connections and considerable impact on the development of urban culture around the Baltic and the North Sea. Its merchants, regul......’ lives after relocation, constructing a sense of diaspora community and maintaining connections with families they left behind.......The Hanseatic League, a late medieval merchant association with roots in northern German towns, is credited with the establishment of extensive economic and geographic connections and considerable impact on the development of urban culture around the Baltic and the North Sea. Its merchants......, regularly crossing the Seas and settling in foreign ports, created a network of diasporic communities often maintaining close physical and emotional connections with their home towns. This chapter focuses on the late medieval German diaspora in Kalmar (Sweden) and Tallinn (Estonia) and examines cultural...

  14. Forecasting fish stock dynamics under climate change: Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolino, V.; Margonski, P.; Lindegren, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic disturbances may affect marine populations and ecosystems through multiple pathways. In this study we present a framework in which we integrate existing models and knowledge on basic regulatory processes to investigate the potential impact of future scenarios of f......-term fish dynamics can be an informative tool to derive expectations of the potential long-term impact of alternative future scenarios of exploitation and climate change...... of fisheries exploitation and climate change on the temporal dynamics of the central Baltic herring stock. Alternative scenarios of increasing sea surface temperature and decreasing salinity of the Baltic Sea from a global climate model were combined with two alternative fishing scenarios, and their direct...... of the herring stock only in combination with sustainable fisheries management (i.e., Fmsy). Conversely, projections of herring spawning stock biomass (SSB) were generally low under elevated fishing mortality levels (Fhigh), comparable with those experienced by the stock during the 1990s. Under the combined...

  15. Modelling the mixing of herring stocks between the Baltic and the North Sea from otolith data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Post, Søren Lorentzen; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks, mainly North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS) and western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS), which is managed through a single TAC. Catches of these two stocks are split using otolith microstructures from Danish...... as provide solutions to the complex management of this mix. The stock‐specific seasonal trends in distribution of the two main stocks from otolith data were analysed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) of stock composition. The results show a clear seasonal and age‐related pattern...... and are consistent with existing ideas about the migration patterns of WBSS and NSAS within Division IIIa and adjacent waters. This work therefore provides the foundation for the development of a more rational management of the herring stocks in this area...

  16. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years......, with a negligible temporal trend when compared against drifting and moored buoys. Analysis of the SST CDR reveals that the monthly anomalies for the North Sea, the Danish straits, and the central Baltic Sea regions show a high degree of correlation for interannual and decadal time scales, whereas the monthly...

  17. Improving selectivity of the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery: Experiments to assess the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Tschernij, Vesa; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Due to declining cod (Gadus morhua) stocks, the Baltic Sea was one of the first areas regulated by the European Communities where selective escape windows were implemented to improve the exploitation pattern. Increasing discard rates and the potential for a significant increase of the spawning...... stock and the yield of the fishery are important reasons to further improve the selectivity of the fishery and to asses the potential next step in this process. In this study, we tested three relatively different design concepts, in the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery, that are relevant to past...... or present legislation and that were developed to meet requirements of increased selectivity performance. A standard nominal 135 mm diamond mesh codend, a codend with two nominal 125 mm bottom windows, and a codend with a nominal 125 mm nominal top window were tested using the covered codend method. A Danish...

  18. Gender Segregated Labour Markets in the Baltics: What are Prevailing – Similarities or Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vöörmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on men and women and the gender segregation of jobs in the Baltic countries. Based on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian labour force survey data, a look is taken at the employment structure of men and women by industries and occupations, as well as at the question whether or not gender segregation in the labour market has been increased after the collapse of the communist systems in the region under consideration. Empirical data demonstrate that in respect to industrial gender segregation there is some increase in Estonia and Latvia, but not in Lithuania. Occupational gender segregation demonstrates more stability in all three Baltic States. Compared to the Western European countries, the main trend is towards bigger similarities.

  19. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinaite V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia, whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania.

  20. High resolution re-analysis for the Baltic Sea region during 1965-2005 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhamaa, Andres; Maennik, Aarne [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kimmel, Kaarel; Room, Rein [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)

    2011-02-15

    Regional reanalysis database BaltAn65+ comprising meteorological data for Baltic Sea region for the time period 1965-2005 is described. For data assimilation and hindcasts, the numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM 7.1.4 is applied, with 11 km horizontal and 60-layer vertical resolution. Reanalysis includes three-dimensional weather analysis data. Standard surface observations and meteorological soundings together with ship and buoy measurements from WMO observational network are used in analysis. Boundary fields are obtained from ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis. The BaltAn65+ can be considered as a regional refinement of ERA-40 for Baltic Sea region, providing the historical weather and climate data with enhanced spatial resolution, which is main motivation for creation of this novel reanalysis database. (orig.)

  1. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-02-01

    Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).

  2. Geological-lithological criteria for predicting oil content of the Cambrian in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepikov, K.R.; Nikishin

    1981-01-01

    An examination is made of the features of spread of sandy collectors of oil of different types in the middle Cambrain in the water area of the Baltic syneclise because of the modern and paleo-depth of their occurrence. A conclusion is drawn regarding the dependence of the postsedimentation quartz formation of Cambrian sandstones on the duration of their stay at considerable depths. A high evaluation is made of the possible oil content of the Liyepay-More elevation located in the zone of development of good pore collectors. It is suggested that the data of marine geophysics be used to pinpoint the concepts regarding the paleotectonics of productive deposits of the Cambrian and dispersal of different types of collectors on the Baltic water area, as well as rhythm-facial analysis for predicting oil traps of the nonanticlinal types in the Cambrian.

  3. National innovation system dynamics in East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    . The results highlight the importance of political and economic freedom, science and education for promoting innovation. According to the principal component analyses, the best performing countries, in terms of their national innovation systems, of the East Central Europe and the Baltic Countries have......Here, the structure and dynamics of national innovation systems are explored to produce a comprehensive picture of the current, as well as the past, performance of the countries of East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia vis-à-vis their competiveness and innovative capability...... developed rapidly after the disintegration of the Soviet bloc and compare well in global rankings of innovative capabilities and competitiveness with standings above the countries of Latin America and South-East Asia. The countries under closer examination here that are members of the EU seem...

  4. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  5. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    +) accumulating in the deep, anoxic water body. Inflow of oxygenated water causes oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn4+ and precipitation of MnO2, which accumulates in Mn-rich layers at the sediment surface. When the bottom water becomes anoxic again, MnO2 degradation release Mn2+ into the pore water, and alkalinity......The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary...... on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...

  6. Trends and extremes of wave fields in the north-eastern part of the Baltic Prope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Broman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the longest contemporarywave measurements in the northern Baltic Sea, performed at Almagrundet1978-2003. This record contains the roughest instrumentally measuredwave conditions (significant wave height = c. 7.8 m in the northernBaltic Proper until December 2004. The data for the years 1979-95,the period for which the data are the most reliable, show a linearrising trend of 1.8% per annum in the average wave height. Theseasonal variation in wave activity follows the variation inwind speed. The monthly mean significant wave height varies from0.5 m in May-July to 1.3-1.4 m in December-January. No correctionshave been made in the analysis to compensate for missing values,for their uneven distribution, or for ice cover.

  7. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2012-01-01

    This study describes lipid composition and antioxidants of Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. during the reproductive cycle, and investigates whether they reflect its dominant prey and whether levels of fatty acids important for reproductive performance were low. Reasons for a shift in peak spawning time...... of Baltic cod from spring/early summer to midsummer since the early 1990s remain unresolved and may partly be diet related. This study demonstrated that a substantial amount of lipid was invested in cod ovarian development, and that lipid composition varied substantially with the reproductive cycle...... ovaries and decreased in late maturing and spawning fish, most likely due to their antioxidant protection activity. The fatty acid composition of cod liver reflected its clupeid prey. The ratio of 18:1n-9 to DHA was almost twice as high in sprat as in herring and indicated the ratio of sprat and herring...

  8. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... some of the uncertainties and complexities associated with forecasting how fish populations, communities and industries dependent on an estuarine ecosystem might respond to future climate change.......The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...

  9. Governance of complex socio-environmental risks: the case of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Gilek, Michael; Udovyk, Oksana

    2011-03-01

    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and sociopolitical controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  10. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  11. The role of Baltic identity and cooperation in political developments / Andres Kasekamp ; interviewed by Karoliina Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasekamp, Andres, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Politoloog räägib oma raamatust "A History of Baltic states", leiab, et Baltimaade koostööst peaks Läänemeremaade koostöö saama, märgib, et Vene-USA suhete "restart" peaks ka Baltimaade-Vene suhetele hästi mõjuma ja rõhutab, et Eesti, Läti ning Leedu peaks tegema koostööd ka energeetika vallas

  12. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  13. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present wo...

  14. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5). An executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Pyhala, M.; Kotilainen, P.; Bartnicki, J.; Knuuttila, S.; Durkin, M.

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes and combines the main results of the Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (HELCOM 2011) which covers waterborne loads to the sea and data on atmospheric loads which are submitted by countries to the co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), which subsequently compiles and reports this information to HELCOM.

  15. Two Competing Normative Trajectories in the Context of the First Baltic Gay Pride Parade in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Mažylis Liudas; Rakutienė Sima; Unikaitė-Jakuntavičienė Ingrida

    2014-01-01

    For a long time post-Soviet space has been perceived as homophobic and intolerant of LGBT persons. The three Baltic States - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia - as former Soviet republics and current members of the European Union, represent the space where a strong homophobic post-Soviet atmosphere competes with pro-LGBT Western influence. This article examines how the first LGBT Pride Parade (which occurred in Vilnius in 2010) is reflected in Lithuanian media portals. The article also presents t...

  16. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

  17. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  18. The Foreign Commercial Banks In The Baltic States: Aspects Of The Financial Crisis Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Aarma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization practice of financial institutions has been intensively studied since the 1960s. Due to increase in international capital flows, foreign direct investments and international trade at that time active development of international or cross-border banking began. At present the world is undergoing a very complex process with a high uncertainty in the global banking and financial markets. This article focuses on the banking sector development and some aspects of management of commercial banks in the Baltic States. The main subject of the article is comparative analysis of the inwards and outwards development in international banking. The main stress is placed on aggregated credit enlargements in the Baltic States during the first decade of the 21st century. During the last global economic crisis commercial banks have been looking for a possible optimization of activities and consequently changes in their networks could be an option for the assessment of their development. However the priority could be to identify the cross-border international credit expansion in the Baltic countries. On the other hand these activities rely on the countries' macroeconomic indicators, mainly to the accumulated money supply. There is a scientific self-determination described in this paper in line with an analysis of identifying the particular Baltic countries in the dynamics of accumulated deposits and credits of international banks. Subsequently it increased the money supply growth. Nowadays banks are required to make sensible strategic decisions in order to maintain sustainable banking businesses in the future. However influences of the financial institutions to the global economic recession affect international banks creating the negative feedback to their previous problems. 

  19. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  20. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  1. Interpolative mapping of mean precipitation in the Baltic countries by using landscape characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kalle Remm; Jaak Jaagus; Agrita Briede; Egidijus Rimkus; Tiiu Kelviste

    2011-01-01

    Maps of the long-term mean precipitation involving local landscape variables were generated for the Baltic countries, and the effectiveness of seven modelling methods was compared. The precipitation data were recorded in 245 meteorological stations in 1966–2005, and 51 location-related explanatory variables were used. The similarity-based reasoning in the Constud software system outperformed other methods according to the validation fit, except for spring. The multivariate adaptive regression...

  2. Outflow of radiocaesium from the Baltic Sea detected in brown algae along the southern Norwegian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straelberg, E.; Christensen, G.C. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)

    2002-12-01

    Our calculations, based on measurements of {sup 137}Cs in Fucus vesiculosus, show that at present the major source of radiocaesium in the seaweed at the coast of southern Norway is the Chernobyl fallout. The major part of this activity is due to the outflow from the Baltic Sea. A maximum of 25 % of the radiocaesium in the seaweed may originate from Norwegian rivers. (au)

  3. Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of competition and cooperation in the field of energy in the Baltic region, first of all, those related to the export of Russian oil and oil products, the Nord Stream gas pipeline, and the construction of nuclear plants in Poland, the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania, and Belarus. The author shows that, though Russia and the EU occasionally pursue opposite goals, there is considerable interdependence between them, and a confrontation is disadvantageous for both parties.

  4. Evaluation of MERIS Case-II Water Processors in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Pedrero, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Projecte realitzat en col.laboració amb Helsinki University of Technology Four MERIS Case-II Water Processors are studied, compared and evaluated: Coastal Case 2 Regional Processor, Boreal Lakes Processor, Eutrophic Lakes Processor and FUB/Wew Water Processor. In situ data from the Baltic Sea have been used to evaluate the water constituent estimations. In addition, the effect of adjacency effect ICOL on the estimation has been analyzed. For this purpose, a set of tools has been d...

  5. Algorithm for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem (DESAMBEM. Part 1: Mathematical apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first of two papers on the remotesensing methods of monitoring the Baltic ecosystem, developedby our team. Earlier, we had produced a series of detailed mathematicalmodels and statistical regularities describing the transportof solar radiation in the atmosphere-sea system, the absorptionof this radiation in the water and its utilisation in a varietyof processes, most importantly in the photosynthesis occurringin phytoplankton cells, as a source of energy for the functioningof marine ecosystems. The comprehensive DESAMBEM algorithm, presentedin this paper, is a synthesis of these models and regularities.This algorithm enables the abiotic properties of the environmentas well as the state and the functioning of the Baltic ecosystemto be assessed on the basis of available satellite data. It canbe used to determine directly a good number of these properties:the sea surface temperature, the natural irradiance of the seasurface, the spectral and spatial distributions of solar radiationenergy in the water, the surface concentrations and verticaldistributions of chlorophyll~{it a} and other phytoplanktonpigments in this sea, the radiation energy absorbed by phytoplankton,the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis and the primary productionof organic matter. On the basis of these directly determinedproperties, other characteristics of processes taking place inthe Baltic ecosystem can be estimated indirectly. Part 1 of this series of articles deals with the detailedmathematical apparatus of the DESAMBEM algorithm. Part 2 willdiscuss its practical applicability in the satellite monitoringof the sea and will provide an assessment of the accuracy ofsuch remote sensing methods in the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem(see Darecki et~al. 2008 -- this issue.

  6. Effects of high CO2 and warming on a Baltic Sea microzooplankton community

    OpenAIRE

    Henriette G Horn; Boersma, Maarten; Garzke, Jessica; Löder, Martin G. J.; Sommer, Ulrich; Aberle, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification are among the most important stressors for aquatic ecosystems in the future. To investigate their direct and indirect effects on a near-natural plankton community, a multiple-stressor approach is needed. Hence, we set up mesocosms in a full-factorial design to study the effects of both warming and high CO2 on a Baltic Sea autumn plankton community, concentrating on the impacts on microzooplankton (MZP). MZP abundance, biomass, and species composition wer...

  7. Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms.

  8. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea

    OpenAIRE

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Sara A. O. Cousins; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change p...

  9. Key actors of German ‘soft power’ in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megem Maksim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Germany’s key ‘soft power’ actors promoting the country’s interests in the Baltics. The authors analyse the policies of ‘soft power’ aimed to create a positive image of Germany in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The article examines the activity of German political foundations, research institutions, communities, language centres, and scientific and cultural organisations. It is stressed that Germany makes use of the Baltics’ historical familiarity with German traditions in implementing its policy in these countries. The study suggests that German political and educational foundations are major actors of German soft power. It is shown that the development of a multilevel German language learning system incorporating various courses and scholarship programmes is one of the central strategies of German foundations. This strategy uses ‘High German’ as a means to integrate the Baltic audience into the German information space. The German language serves as a basis for popularisation of the German educational system and educational standards, on the one hand, and partnership institutionalisation, cooperation, and integration on the other. It is concluded that, alongside Sweden and Russia, Germany is a major foreign policy player in the Baltics.

  10. High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

  11. Algorithms for the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem (DESAMBEM. Part 2: Empirical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second of two articles on the methodology ofthe remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem. In Part~1 the authorspresented the set of DESAMBEM algorithms for determining themajor parameters of this ecosystem on the basis of satellitedata (see Wo/xniak et al.~2008 -- this issue. That article discussedin detail the mathematical apparatus of the algorithms. Part2 presents the effects of the practical application of the algorithmsand their validation, the latter based on satellite maps of selectedBaltic ecosystem parameters: the distributions of the sea surfacetemperature, the Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PARat the sea surface, the surface concentrations of chlorophyll~{it a}and the total primary production of organic matter.~Particularemphasis was laid on analysing the precision of estimates ofthese and other parameters of the Baltic ecosystem, determinedby remote sensing methods. The errors in these estimates turnedout to be relatively small; hence, the set of DESAMBEM algorithmsshould in the future be utilised as the foundation for the effectivesatellite monitoring of the state and functioning of the Balticecosystem.

  12. Methods comparison, transport and distribution of polar herbicides in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeff, Wael; Orlikowska, Anna; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2017-01-30

    Two LC-MS/MS methods including different sample preparation and quantitative processes showed a good agreement for analysis of the herbicides MCPA, mecoprop, isoproturon, bentazon and chloridazon, and the metabolite chloridazon-methyl-desphenyl (CMD) in estuarine waters. Due to different sensitivity of the methods only one could be used to analyze marine samples. The transport of these compounds to the Baltic Sea via ten German estuaries and their distribution between coastal water and sediments was studied. The results showed that all selected compounds can be transported to the Baltic Sea (0.9-747ng/L). Chloridazon, bentazon, isoproturon and CMD were detected (0.9-8.9ng/L) in the coastal waters and chloridazon and isorproturon in the sediments (5-136pg/g d.w.). Levels of contaminants in the sediments could be influenced by the total organic carbon content. Concentrations observed in the Baltic Sea are most likely not high enough to cause acute effects, but long term effect studies are strongly recommended.

  13. {sup 241}Pu concentrations in water, plankton and fish from the southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, D.I.; Skwarzec, B. [Gdansk, Univ. (Poland). Facuty of Chemistry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the work was to determine {sup 241}Pu activities in different components (water, plankton and fish) of the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem. Measurement of {sup 241}Pu in the samples was done indirectly by determining the increment in {sup 241}Am from the decay of the {beta}-emitting {sup 241}Pu in samples collected 10-15 years after the Chernobyl accident. Enhanced levels of {sup 241}Pu were observed in all analyzed Baltic samples. The highest {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish were found in Perciformes: benthic round goby (0.863 {+-} 0.066 mBq/g ww) and pelagic perch (0.666 {+-} 0.001 mBq/g ww). Plutonium is also non-uniformly distributed in the organs and tissues of the analyzed fish; especially pelagic herring and cod as well as benthic flounder. Most of {sup 241}Pu in flounder, herring and cod is located in soft tissues, especially digestive organs (stomach, intestine, liver). The annual individual effective doses calculated on the basis of {sup 241}Pu concentrations in fish indicated that the impact of the consumption of {sup 241}Pu containing Baltic fish on the annual effective dose for a statistical inhabitant of Poland was very small. (orig.)

  14. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  15. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  16. Assessing the Role of Environmental Factors on Baltic Cod Recruitment, a Complex Adaptive System Emergent Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Krekoukiotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fish recruitment has been a subject of intensive research with stock–recruitment models commonly used for recruitment prediction often only explaining a small fraction of the inter-annual recruitment variation. The use of environmental information to improve our ability to predict recruitment, could contribute considerably to fisheries management. However, the problem remains difficult because the mechanisms behind such complex relationships are often poorly understood; this in turn, makes it difficult to determine the forecast estimation robustness, leading to the failure of some relationships when new data become available. The utility of machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs for solving complex problems has been demonstrated in aquatic studies and has led many researchers to advocate ANNs as an attractive, non-linear alternative to traditional statistical methods. The goal of this study is to design a Baltic cod recruitment model (FishANN that can account for complex ecosystem interactions. To this end, we (1 build a quantitative model representation of the conceptual understanding of the complex ecosystem interactions driving Baltic cod recruitment dynamics, and (2 apply the model to strengthen the current capability to project future changes in Baltic cod recruitment. FishANN is demonstrated to bring multiple stressors together into one model framework and estimate the relative importance of these stressors while interpreting the complex nonlinear interactions between them. Additional requirements to further improve the current study in the future are also proposed.

  17. The Baltic-Pontic region in the Europe-Eurasia dual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the Baltic-Pontic Sea region not only as a geographical space of Intermarium (Międzymorze, Tarpjūris etc. but also as Intermundium or the interface of European and Russian (Eurasian civilization. The study sets out to clarify the logic of changing patterns shaping this geopolitical area. To this end, the concept of the Baltic-Pontic conflict system proposed by Vadim Tsymbursky is applied and further developed. In contrast to his agent-focused vehicle of analysis disclosing the power interactions in Intermarium, the authors advance an alternative structure-focused model of the Baltic-Pontic system (BPS as a multidimensional evolving space of heterogeneous interactions, which include cooperation. The authors suggest applying the BPS models in interpreting and clarifying historical developments in the area from the late 14th century until the present. The article analyses the spatial, geopolitical and geochronopolitical characteristics of the region, as well as the models of intercivilisational interaction between Europe and Eurasia. The author addresses the issue of the political identity of the region and its ability to play an independent role in the world politics.

  18. Steps towards a SAR-based wind atlas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo;

    In the EU-Norsewind project (2008-2012) one task was to assess the wind climate in the Baltic Sea using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations. The presentation outlines the methodology and key results. The Baltic Sea has been mapped relatively frequently by Envisat ASAR since 2002 and during...... deviation of 1.88 m/s (20.11°), and linear correlation coefficient R2 of 0.783 (0.95°). The second step was estimation of the mean wind speed, the Weibull scale and shape parameters, and energy density based on over 1000 SAR-based wind maps for the Baltic Sea. The results were compared to the FINO-2...... these years several offshore meteorological masts have been in operation. The first step was to assess the accuracy of SAR-based wind mapping in this region. We compared SAR-based wind maps retrieved from ANSWRS the APL/NOAA SAR Wind Retrieval System. The NOGAPS wind direction data were interpolated in space...

  19. The Baltic-Pontic region in the Europe-Eurasia dual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Mikhail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the Baltic-Pontic Sea region not only as a geographical space of Intermarium (Międzymorze, Tarpjūris etc. but also as Intermundium or the interface of European and Russian (Eurasian civilization. The study sets out to clarify the logic of changing patterns shaping this geopolitical area. To this end, the concept of the Baltic-Pontic conflict system proposed by Vadim Tsymbursky is applied and further developed. In contrast to his agent-focused vehicle of analysis disclosing the power interactions in Intermarium, the authors advance an alternative structure-focused model of the Baltic-Pontic system (BPS as a multidimensional evolving space of heterogeneous interactions, which include cooperation. The authors suggest applying the BPS models in interpreting and clarifying historical developments in the area from the late 14th century until the present. The article analyses the spatial, geopolitical and geochronopolitical characteristics of the region, as well as the models of intercivilisational interaction between Europe and Eurasia. The author addresses the issue of the political identity of the region and its ability to play an independent role in the world politics.

  20. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  1. Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea - transport and transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A medium-sized inflow (about 200 km3 according to IOW data, - personal communication of saline water into the southern Baltic Sea occurred during January 2003. Unlike any previously observed inflow, this one brought very cold water, of temperatures around 1-2oC and less. Since the temperature of the deep water in the southern Baltic before the inflow was exceptionally high (11-12oC, the inflowing waters produced dramatic changes and a steep temperature gradient. The movement of the inflowing waters through the deep basins and channels of the Baltic Sea from the Arkona Basin to the Gdańsk Deep during next 4-8 months is described. Frequent mesoscale structures and intensive mixing followed the eastward transport of the inflow water, particularly in the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. The present paper is based on data collected during 6 cruises r/v "Oceania" between December 2002 and August 2003. The last cruise in August took place in order to assess the long-term consequences of the inflow.

  2. Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John; Ekman, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water bodies, using high throughput sequencing of environmental DNA and RNA. Collectively the data illustrate that Baltic Sea microbes are unique and highly diverse, and well adapted to this brackish-water ecosystem, findings that represent a novel base-line knowledge necessary for monitoring purposes and a sustainable management. More specifically, the data relate to environmental drivers for microbial community composition and function, assessments of the microbial biodiversity, adaptations and role of microbes in the nitrogen cycle, and microbial genome assembly from metagenomic sequences. With these discoveries as background, prospects of using metagenomics for Baltic Sea environmental monitoring are discussed.

  3. Quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Baltic: a new mathematical expression for remote sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical relationships between the quantum yield of photosynthesis Φ and selected environmental factors in the Baltic have been established on the basis of a large quantity of empirical data. The model formula is the product of the theoreticalmaximum quantum yield ΦMAX = 0.125 atomC quantum-1 and five dimensionless factors fi taking values from 0 do 1:Φ = ΦMAX fa fΔ fc(Ca(0 fc(PARinh fE,t.To a sufficiently good approximation, each of these factors fi appears to be dependent on one or at most two environmental factors, such as temperature, underwater irradiance, surface concentration of chlorophyll a, absorption properties of phytoplankton and optical depth. These dependences have been determined for Baltic Case 2 waters. The quantum yield Φ, calculated from known values of these environmental factors, is then applicable in the model algorithmfor the remote sensing of Baltic primary production. The statistical error of the approximate quantum yields Φ is 62%.

  4. The non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea can be detected in GNSS coordinate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J. V.; Nordman, M.; Virtanen, H.; Nyberg, S.; Makinen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The tides in the Baltic Sea are minute and variation in the mass distribution of the sea is mostly caused by atmospheric pressure changes and wind. The same factors also control the so-called fill level of the Baltic, i.e., the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variation in the sea level can be abrupt and large, for example during storms. The variable load causes significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. Unlike tidal ocean loading, non-tidal ocean loading is so far not routinely corrected for in geodetic measurements. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea at 193 geodetic stations in northern Europe, for all the main geodetic observables: 3-D position, gravity, tilt and strain. For this we have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org), to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions using the program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg). The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series can be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. Here we concentrate on the computed 3-D deformation. We compare it with daily GPS coordinate time series, both from precise point positioning and from double-difference solutions. Both vertical and horizontal deformation due to the Baltic loading can be detected in the GPS time series. The standard deviation of time series of coordinate differences are reduced by up to 30% when the loading is corrected for.

  5. Dissolved organic phosphorus in the Baltic Sea - temporal variability and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Günther; Nausch, Monika; Steinrücken, Pia; Balke, Jana; Woelk, Jana

    2014-05-01

    The temporal variability of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) concentrations in the Baltic Sea was investigated during three cruises in summer 2008, late winter/early spring 2009 and summer 2012 with focus on the central Baltic Sea. In summer 2008, characteristic cyanobacteria blooms occured in the Baltic Proper and DOP concentrations in the surface layer of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM have been estimated. In summer 2012, meteorological conditions did not favour intense cyanobacteria development and DOP concentrations were with 0.24 ± 0.04 µM lower on average. DOP degradation in autumn and winter resulted in lower concentrations of 0.21 ± 0.06 µM as can be seen in the winter cruise 2009. During the first two cruises also the spatial distribution of DOP in the surface layer between the Skagerrak and the northern Gulf of Bothnia could be measured. Highest summer concentrations of 0.32 ± 0.05 µM were found in the Baltic Proper, followed by the Gulf of Finland having on mean 0.25 ± 0.01 µM. DOP decreased down to 0.12 µM in the phosphorus limited Bay of Bothnia. Similar low concentrations were measured in the Skagerrak. The same spatial DOP pattern as in summer 2008 was observed in late winter/early spring 2009, but on lower concentration levels, except the Skagerrak and Kattegat were the spring bloom already has started. In addition, the bioavailable and refractory DOP fractions (B-DOP and R-DOP) were measured in time course experiments in 2008 and 2012, excluding C- and N- limitation. In summer 2008, the R-DOP constituted a higher proportion of DOP compared to B-DOP. A gradient has been observed from the northernmost station in the Bothnian Bay to the southern Baltic Proper. In the Bothnian Bay, only 0.01µM B-DOP could be detected, comprising 8% of DOP whereas B-DOP constituted a proportion of 25-29% in the Gotland Basin and up to 46% in the Gulf of Finland. In summer 2012, B-DOP concentrations of 0.09 ± 0.02 µM were measured in the eastern Gotland Basin

  6. Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  7. Spatial sensitivity of inorganic carbon to model setup: North Sea and Baltic Sea with ECOSMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano Primo, Rocio; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    In ocean biogeochemical models it is critical to capture the key processes adequately so they do not only reproduce the observations but that those processes are reproduced correctly. One key issue is the choice of parameters, which in most cases are estimates with large uncertainties. This can be the product of actual lack of detailed knowledge of the process, or the manner the processes are implemented, more or less complex. In addition, the model sensitivity is not necessarily homogenous across the spatial domain modelled, which adds another layer of complexity to biogeochemical modelling. In the particular case of the inorganic carbon cycle, there are several sets of carbonate constants that can be chosen. The calculated air-sea CO2 flux is largely dependent on the parametrization chosen. In addition, the different parametrizations all the underlying processes that in some way impact the carbon cycle beyond the carbonate dissociation and fluxes give results that can be significantly different. Examples of these processes are phytoplankton growth rates or remineralization rates. Despite their geographical proximity, the North and Baltic Seas exhibit very different dynamics. The North Sea receives important inflows of Atlantic waters, while the Baltic Sea is an almost enclosed system, with very little exchange from the North Sea. Wind, tides, and freshwater supply act very differently, but dominantly structure the ecosystem dynamics on spatial and temporal scales. The biological community is also different. Cyanobacteria, which are important due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and they are only present in the Baltic Sea. These differentiating features have a strong impact in the biogeochemical cycles and ultimately shape the variations in the carbonate chemistry. Here the ECOSMO model was employed on the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model is set so both are modelled at the same time, instead of having them run separately. ECOSMO is a 3-D coupled

  8. The geological history of the Baltic Sea. A review of the literature and investigation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    The bedrock in Sweden mainly comprises Proterozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks older than a billion or one and a half billion years with few easily distinguished testimonies for the younger history. For the construction of a geological repository for deposition of nuclear waste this later, brittle, history is of great consequence. In the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea and the countries on the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Sea, the Proterozoic bedrock of the Svecofennian Province continues underneath a cover of sedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic, Palaeozoic and in the south up to Tertiary age. By studying these, lithologies, basin analyses, preserved structures, topography, etc., information may be gained on the later history, not only in the basins but also in the exposed shield area. The deformation is governed by the plate tectonic scenario and mantle configuration of a specific time and suitable structures are utilized and reactivated. The collision and amalgamation of the different tectonic terranes that comprise the basement left it strongly heterogeneous and the sutures between these rheologically different segments ample for future deformation and the adjustment between the segments to the changing and prevailing plate tectonic scenarios; the assembling and break-up of Rodinia, Laurasia and Pangea. Glaciations induce bending of the plate. Suitable datum surfaces for assessment of the deformation are the base of major sedimentary sequences, often linked to plate tectonic cycles, specifically the sub-Cambrian peneplain, the base of the Devonian, Mesozoic, Oligocene, Rupelian and Pleistocene, as well as major differences in metamorphic grade and style of deformation in adjacent rock blocks. The Baltic Sea with its Gulfs has almost since the beginning of history been the locus for rifting and extensional events, e.g. the rapakivi magmatism, 1.5-1.6Ga, formation of the Mesoproterozoic Jotnian sandstone basins and the opening of the Tornquist Sea

  9. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Hindcast simulations for the period 1902-1998 have been performed using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Daily sea level observations in Kattegat, monthly basin-wide discharge data, and reconstructed atmospheric surface data have been used to force the Baltic Sea model. The reconstruction utilizes a statistical model to calculate daily sea level pressure and monthly surface air temperature, dew point temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover fields on a 1 deg x 1 deg regular horizontal grid for the Baltic Sea region. An improved turbulence scheme has been implemented into the Baltic Sea model to simulate saltwater inflows realistically. The results are validated against available observational datasets for sea level, salinity, saltwater inflow, volume transport, and sea ice. In addition, a comparison is performed with simulations for the period 1980-1993 using 3-hourly gridded atmospheric observations from synoptic stations. It is shown that the results of the Baltic Sea model forced with the reconstructed data are satisfactory. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to explore the impact of internal mixing, fresh and saltwater inflows, sea ice, and the sea level in Kattegat on the salinity of the Baltic Sea. It is found that the decadal variability of mean salinity is explained partly by decadal volume variations of the accumulated freshwater inflow from river runoff and net precipitation and partly by decadal variations of the large-scale sea level pressure over Scandinavia. During the last century two exceptionally long stagnation periods are found, the 1920s to the 1930s and the 1980s to the mid 1990s. During these periods precipitation, runoff and westerly winds were stronger than normal. Stronger westerly winds caused increased eastward surface-layer transports. Consequently, the mean eastward lower layer transports through the Stolpe Channel is reduced. The response time scale of the Baltic Sea is of the order of 30-40 years. The large

  10. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Variations in oxygen conditions below the permanent halocline influence the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea through a number of mechanisms. In this study, we examine the effects of physical forcing on variations in the volume of deep oxygenated water suitable for reproductive success of central Baltic...

  11. Embryotoxic potential of persistent organic pollutants extracted from tissues of guillemots (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, de D.F.; Gustavsson, M.B.; Rantalainen, A.L.; Klomp, A.V.; Koeman, J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a heavily polluted area. To assess the current contaminant pressure on the common guillemot (Uria aalge) living there, whole-body extracts of guillemots from the Baltic Sea were prepared and subdivided over six fractions, which differed in composition due to lipophilicity and polar

  12. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  13. Латвия обсуждает будущее airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti valitsus peab lähiajal otsustama lennufirma airBaltic likiviidsuse küsimuse. Bookinghouse'i valdav firma JSC Interno Partners teatas, et lennufirma Air Baltic segane finantsseis sunnib neid ettevõtte piletimüügi peatama

  14. Mezhdunarodnoe nauchnoe sotrudnichestvo v Baltijskom regione: naukometricheskij analiz [International research cooperation in the Baltic region: a scientometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the processes of international research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. It focuses on research works published in the leading periodicals in 1993—2012. The empirical material is collected from the world’s largest abstract and citation database, SciVerse Scopus, which makes it possible to evaluate macroindicators at the national and global levels as well as the contribution of scholars to the global progress. The article also offers an assessment of the efficiency of research activities in the Baltic Sea region countries. It is based on a number of scientometric indicators that reflect the performance of universities in terms of research journal publications and the development of research cooperation in the field of Baltic studies. The authors consider the dynamics of research contribution and academic cooperation in the Baltic Sea countries in four leading fields — i. e. agricultural and biological sciences, Earth sciences, ecology and social sciences presented in the SciVerse Scopus scientometric database. The article provides a map of research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  15. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  16. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  17. Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process and results of the geopolitical and geoeconomic changes in the Baltic Sea region at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries. The authors assess the political, economic and military potential of individual countries and groups of countries. Ranking the selected countries and grouping them according to the similarity of their characteristics requires a variety of methods — the economic, statistical, cartographic, graphic-analytical methods, to name just a few. In the late 1980s — early 1990s, there were three socialist countries in the Baltic Sea region. They were signatories of the Warsaw Pact and members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany. The Baltic Sea region housed four market economies (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany. Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark. At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and the same two countries, Sweden and Finland, remain outside the bloc. Russia, the legal successor of the USSR, is neither a NATO, nor an EU member. The authors explore similarities and differences between countries of the Baltic Sea region in terms of their territory, population, GDP, foreign trade turnover and the number of regular armed forces. The article stresses the importance of international cooperation in increasing the growth rates of economic development of all countries of the Baltic Sea region.

  18. Pozicija mezhdunarodnogo soobshhestva po voprosu «vosstanovlenija» nezavisimosti Baltijskih respublik [The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  19. Environmental law in the Baltic Sea area in international legal bibliographies. Umweltrecht im Ostseeraum in internationalen Rechtsbibliographien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansky, R.

    1991-03-01

    This is a revised translation of the lecture 'Environmental Law in the Baltic Sea Area in internationale legal biblio-/R graphies' held on 29 August 1990 at the international conference on 'Ecology and law in the Baltic Sea Area': sources and developments in liga, Latvia. Several international legal bibliographies are considered with the intention of determining their value in terms of the literature on environmental law in the countries bordering on the Baltic Sea. International bibliographies are not always compiled and published by international organizations. The term 'international' refers to the fact that they coverthe literature of various countries. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; Höglund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

    2012-09-01

    We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper.