Sample records for balsams

  1. True and common balsams

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    Dayana L. Custódio


    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  2. Balsam Woody Adelgid Survey of Freeland Tract 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On September 7, 2000, Volunteer Lousie Hoehl and Biologist Sturm surveyed the balsam fir stand on Freeland Tract to determine the level of infestation of the balsam...

  3. Balsam Woolly Adelgid Survey on Balsam Fir Stand in Central Tract 2002 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 14, 2002, Emily Grafton and Dawn Washington surveyed the balsam fir stand in the central tract, off of Delta 13 trail, near the Little Blackwater and Glade...

  4. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor (United States)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.


    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  5. Balsam Fir Wooly Adlegid Survey on CVNWR 2009 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 17, 2009 Amber Myers and I conducted a survey to check the status of Balsam Fir Wooly Adelgid on one hundred Balsam Fir Trees off of Freeland Trail. We...

  6. Balsam fir trees could disappear from W Va (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article discussing the balsam fir tree could disappear from the forests of West Virginia within the next decade, unless humans intervene to help. The West...

  7. [Pharmaceutical history of capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčan Part II. Capuchin balsam (Balsamum capucinorum)]. (United States)

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana


    The history of traditional capuchin balsam is the focal point of the second part of the article on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. Capuchin balsam, a medicinal speciality, was being manufactured in the monastery from the end of the 18th century till the year 1950. It is a spirit tincture, its prescription originating from the formulation by Oswald Croll. Balsamum Peruvianum, Gummiresina myrrha, Gummiresina olibanum, and Styrax are the main ingredients, besides assorted plants. The balsam was taken as an antiseptic, antiphlogistic, and analgesic. The balsam was a favoured rustic medicine, and it was sold also abroad (Germany, Poland, USA, Ireland, Belgium). The profit made from the sale of the balsam supported the reconstruction and the maintenance of the monastery and the local theological studies. Other medical formulations connected with the name of the capuchin order are also mentioned.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins capuchin balsam monastics pharmacies.

  8. Balsamic Vinegar Improves High Fat-Induced Beta Cell Dysfunction via Beta Cell ABCA1

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    Hannah Seok


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.MethodsIn this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.ResultsIn rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1 expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.ConclusionThese findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.

  9. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection. (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo


    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  10. Substitutos do " novo" mundo para as antigas plantas raras: um estudo de caso dos bálsamos " New" world substitutes for ancient rare plants: a study case on balsams

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    Ana Maria Alfonso-Goldfarb


    Full Text Available Convinced that the " true balsam" was lost forever, Conrad Gesner described other substances with similar healing virtues. However, he was not the only one in the 16th to search for other varieties of balsamic oleoresins. The arrival of the Europeans to the Americas allowed the finding of native plants with properties similar to those of the original balsam, including Balsam of Peru, Balsam of Tolu and particularly in the Brazilian area, Balsam of Copaiba. Focusing on the Brazilian context, this paper analyzes two different moments in the transit of the newly found varieties of balsams to the pharmacopeia and materia medica.

  11. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. 524.2620 Section 524.2620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...) Conditions of use. The drug is used as an aid in the treatment of external wounds and assists healing by...

  12. Pathology of a Gammabaculovirus in Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host

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    Christopher J. Lucarotti


    Full Text Available The Neodiprion abietis Gammabaculovirus (Baculoviridae: NeabNPV is virulent, highly contagious, and infects only midgut epithelial cells of balsam fir sawfly larvae, but infections can carry through to adult sawflies in the midgut. Larval infections are characterized by hypertrophy of midgut epithelial cell nuclei, where virogenic stromata develop to produce nucleocapsids that are singly enveloped before occlusion into occlusion bodies. Infected, occlusion body-laden cells slough from the midgut epithelium as a result of a dissolution of the basal lamina. Infected cells undergo lysis, and viral occlusion bodies exit affected larvae in a watery diarrhea to infect other balsam fir sawfly larvae. A budded virus stage was not observed, but nucleocapsid and occlusion body formation resembled the development of occlusion-derived virions and occlusion bodies in lepidopteran alphabaculoviruses.

  13. The clonal root system of balsam poplar in upland sites of Quebec and Alberta. (United States)

    Adonsou, Kokouvi E; DesRochers, Annie; Tremblay, Francine; Thomas, Barb R; Isabel, Nathalie


    Balsam poplar seeds are short-lived and require moist seedbeds soon after they are released to germinate. In addition to sexual reproduction, balsam poplar stands can regenerate clonally by root suckering. The origin of stands will in turn affect their genetic structure and root system architecture, which are poorly understood for upland forest stands. Three stands were hydraulically excavated in Quebec (moist) and Alberta (dry) to determine the origin of trees and to characterize root systems with respect to presence of parental roots and root grafts connections. Clones were identified using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), and all stems, roots and root grafts were aged using dendrochronology techniques. All 82 excavated trees were of sucker origin, and four of the six stands contained a single clone. Parental root connections were found between 22% and 25% of excavated trees, and 53% and 48% of trees were linked with a root graft between the same or different clones, in Alberta and Quebec, respectively. Mean distance between trees connected by parental root was significantly lower than the distance between unconnected trees (0.47 ± 0.25 m vs. 3.14 ± 0.15 m and 1.55 ± 0.27 m vs. 4.25 ± 0.13 m) in Alberta and in Quebec, respectively. The excavations also revealed many dead stumps with live roots, maintained through root connections with live trees. This research highlights that balsam poplar growing in upland stands is a clonal species that can maintain relatively high genotypic diversity, with frequent root connections between trees at maturity. Maintaining an extensive root system through root connections increases the chances of a clone surviving when the above ground tree is dead and may also enhance the resilience of balsam poplar stands after disturbance.

  14. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R.; de Carvalho-Silva, Samuel; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; Villas-Boas, Silas G.


    Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. PMID:27455339

  15. Determination of the monosaccharide and alcohol content of balsamic and other vinegars by enzymatic methods

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    Plessi, M.; Monzani, A.; Coppini, D.


    The contents of monosaccharides and alcohol in bulsamic and other vinegars were determined by the enzymatic method. The traditional, unique balsamic vinegar is produced by the traditional method in modena. The older the balsamic vinegar, the higher the contents of dextrose and fructose are. The existence of wine vinegar added to the traditional balsami vinegar can be judged from the contents of them. The contents of dextrose and fructose in apple vinegar are low or medium, while those in the wine vinegar is very low. The ratio of dextrose to fructose varies according to the samples. Although sorbitol is contained in the apple vinegar, it is hardly contained in the commercially available wine vinegar. A little xylitol is contained in all the samples, while a large amount of it is contained in the apple vinegar. A sure indication of the quality and sound preparation is given by the content of glycerol which is found in all the vinegars and most distingushed in the traditional balsamic vinegar. (6 tabs, 20 refs)

  16. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest. (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.


    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  17. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar. (United States)

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J


    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane.

  18. Contact allergy caused by fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru)--a retrospective study. (United States)

    Turić, Petra; Lipozencić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Kulisić, Sandra Marinović


    Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substances contained in the fragrance mix: cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, alpha-amyl cinnamal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). The most frequent allergens were isoeugenol 57.9% (91/157), eugenol 55.4% (87/157), cinnamyl alcohol 34.4% (54/157) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) 24.2% (38/157). There were 62 patients (39.5%) who exhibited an allergic reaction to both the fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). The results prove the importance of avoiding allergens in daily life, especially in industrial and cosmetic products. In order to prevent ACD, better cooperation between industry and dermatologists is needed.

  19. The Minnesota approach to non-timber forest product marketing: the balsam bough industry and other examples (United States)

    John. Krantz


    Minnesota is a leading state in the production of holiday wreaths. It is estimated that the companies producing wreaths in Minnesota have total sales exceeding $20 million and growing. Wreaths are sold in all states in the U.S., mainly by non-profit groups for fundraising. The boughs harvested from the balsam fir (Abies balsamea) are used in 98...

  20. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Larvae

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    Christopher J. Lucarotti


    Full Text Available Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study and peak (laboratory study phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea foliage, NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e, respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage, NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae.

  1. Growth responses of the balsam fir and black spruce spacing trials. Information report No. N-X-291

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    Karsh, M.B.; Lavigne, M.B.; Donnelly, J.G.


    The report describes the initial growth responses of plots thinned to a range of spacings in three balsam fir stands and three black spruce stands on the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland and western Newfoundland. Statistical analyses were conducted of nominal vs actual spacing and merchantable trees at rotation. Results are given for the effects of thinning on actual conditions, total volume growth, diameter growth and volume growth responses, and 10-year growth responses.

  2. Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on root colonization, growth, and nutrient uptake of aspen and balsam poplar

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    Quoreshi, A.M.; Khasa, D.P. [Symbiotech Research Inc. 201, 509-11 Avenue, Nisku, AB (Canada); Forest Biology Research Centre, University of Laval, Quebec (Canada)


    Aspen and balsam poplar seedlings were inoculated with six species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma longicaudum, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon vinicolor, and Suillus tomentosus), one species of endomycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices), two species of bacteria (Agrobacterium sp. and Burkholderia cepacia), treated with a growth hormone (SR3), and co-inoculated with a combination of Paxillus and Burkholderia. The seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under three different fertility regimes. Bacterial inoculation alone did not affect seedling growth and nutrition as observed when co-inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungus. The biomass and root collar diameter of aspen and balsam poplar were significantly increased when adequate mycorrhizas are formed and more prominent when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia and grown at the 67% fertilizer level. Except for R. vinicolor and S. tomentosus, the other four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and G. intraradices formed symbiotic associations with both plant species. Both ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal colonization were observed at all fertilizer levels and fertilizer applications did not affect the colonization rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly improved in both aspen and balsam poplar compared with control only when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia. However, plant net nitrogen uptake (content) increased significantly in all successful inoculation treatments and co-inoculated treatment when compared with control. These results hold promise for incorporation of inoculation of Populus sp. with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi and selected bacteria into commercial nursery system to improve the establishment of Populus in various sites. (author)

  3. Preparation of Health Drink of Balsam Pear and Apple%苦瓜苹果保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄运凤; 刘国凌


    [Objective] The study was to determine the optimal technical formula for health drink of balsam pear and apple. [ Method] With balsam pear and apple as the main materials, the health drink of balsam pear and apple was prepared. The effects of amounts of balsam pear juice, apple juice, honey and citric acid on quality of the product were studied through orthogonal test. [ Result ] The effects of main factors on quality of the product from big to small in order was balsam pear juice amount > citric acid amount > honey amount > apple juice amount. The optimal technical formula for health drink of balsam pear and apple was 20% balsam pear juice + 10% apple juice + 1. 5 g honey +0. 035 g citric acid. [ Conclusion ] Under the optimal technological conditions, the product was refreshing and sweet with rich nutrition and suitable taste.%[目的]确定苦瓜苹果保健饮料的最佳工艺配方.[方法]以苦瓜和苹果为主要原料制备苦瓜苹果保健饮料,采用正交试验研究苦瓜汁、苹果汁、蜂蜜和柠檬酸用量对产品品质的影响.[结果]影响产品品质的主要因素由大到小依次为:苦瓜汁用量>柠檬酸用量>蜂蜜用量>苹果汁用量;苦瓜苹果保健饮料的最佳工艺配方为:20%苦瓜汁+10%苹果汁+1.5 g蜂蜜+0.035 g柠檬酸.[结论]在最佳工艺条件下所制混合饮料清新甘甜、营养丰富、口感适宜.

  4. Timing of photoperiodic competency causes phenological mismatch in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.). (United States)

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Song, Minghua


    Plant phenology is expected to be sensitive to climate warming. In boreal trees, spring flush is primarily temperature driven, whereas height growth cessation and autumn leaf senescence are predominantly controlled by photoperiod. Cuttings of 525 genotypes from the full range of balsam poplar were planted into two common gardens (Vancouver and Indian Head, Canada) at similar latitudes, but with differing winter temperatures and growing seasons. There was clinal variation in spring and, particularly, summer and fall phenology. Bud flush and, despite milder climate, bud set and leaf drop were earlier at Vancouver than at Indian Head by 44, 28 and 7 d, respectively. Although newly flushed growth is insensitive to photoperiod, many genotypes at both sites became competent before the summer solstice. At Vancouver, high-latitude genotypes set dormant terminal buds in mid-spring. Most other genotypes grew until midsummer or set bud temporarily and then experienced a second flush. In both gardens and in a growth chamber experiment, earlier bud set was associated with reduced height growth and higher root/shoot ratios. Shoots attained competency ~5 weeks after flushing, which would normally prevent dormancy induction before the solstice, but may be insufficient if spring advances by more than a few weeks.

  5. [The virtue of that precious balsam...: approach to Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective]. (United States)

    Lopez-Munoz, F; Garcia-Garcia, P; Alamo, C


    The most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, Don Quixote, represents the source to which the different specialists who intend to deepen their knowledge of the late Renaissance society usually address. This masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes has been frequently approached from the psychopathological perspective to obtain a psychiatric diagnosis of its main character, Alonso Quijano. Also, other clinical approaches from the traumatological and general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms and other pharmacy preparations) have been frequent. We have tackled Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the therapeutical cures used during the Cervantine time for the treatment of insane and mentally disturbed people (sedatives like opium, laxatives like hellebore, tonics, irritants and surgical techniques like bloodlettings and ) and we analyze the limited and unspecific therapies, mainly of herbal origin (balms, purgatives and emetics), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, rhubarb root (Rumex alpinus), seeds of spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), main ingredient of Aparicio's oil, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous balsam of Fierabras, should be highlighted. We have also examined the possible scientific influences which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the works of Juan Huarte de San Juan The examination of men's wits and the one of Andres Laguna Dioscorides' materia medica.

  6. Balsamin, a novel ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Balsam apple Momordica balsamina. (United States)

    Kaur, Inderdeep; Yadav, Santosh K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Gupta, R C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Batra, Janendra K; Puri, Munish


    Plant seeds, a rich source of proteins, are considered important for their application as functional ingredients in a food system. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), balsamin was purified from the seeds of Balsam apple, Momordica balsamina. Balsamin was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose and gel filtration on superdex-75. It has a molecular weight of 28 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis. Balsamin inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate-based cell free translation assay with an IC(50) of 90.6 ng ml(-1). It has RNA N-glycosidase activity and releases a 400-base long fragment termed the Endo fragment from 28S rRNA in the same manner as does saporin-6 from Saponaria officinalis. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the first 12 amino acids of balsamin revealed that it shares 83% similarity with type I RIP α-MMC from Momordica charantia and 50% similarity with β-MMC (from Momordica charantia), bryodin I (from Bryonia dioica) and luffin a (from Luffa cylindrica). Balsamin was further characterized by mass spectrometry. CD spectroscopic studies indicate that secondary structure of balsamin contains helix (23.5%), β-strand (24.6%), turn (20%) and random coil (31.9%). Thus RIPs activity expressed in vegetables like Momordica sp. advocates its usage in diet.

  7. Balsam “Mercana-Artrovit warming” — efficacy and tolerability in knee osteoarthritis

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    E S Tsvetkova


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy, local and systemic tolerability of balsam “Mercana-Artrovit warming” (BMAW containing methylnicotinat, mint and eucalyptus ethereal oils, propylene glycol extracts of eucalyptus, linden, nettle, elecampane, common wormwood, tansy, terpentine oil in knee osteoarthritis (KOA Material and methods. 60 pts were included in a two-week double blind placebo controlled randomized study. BMAW 5 ml was administered in 30 pts (the main group twice a day (in the morning and in the evening on the target knee joint. 30 pts of control group received placebo containing only components of stuff. Demographic and clinical parameters in the main and the control groups were comparable. Inclusion criteria: age from 40 to 70 years, pain intensity in the target joint at least 40 mm on VAS, I-III radiological stage according to Kellgren, Leqesne score 4-10, treatment with NSAIDs during the previous 3 months. Exclusion criteria: indications for intra-articular glucocorticoid injection, clinically significant disturbances of internal organs function and skin damages in the region of knee joint. Clinical efficacy was assessed by WOMAC index, pain at movement and at rest, time of 15 meters walking, general assessment of efficacy (separately by the pt and by the doctor. Frequency and character of adverse events was registered. Results. Local BMAW administration provided statistically significant decrease of WO MAC summated score (p=0,008, pain at movement (p<0,001 and at rest (p<0,005. So analgesic effect of the drug is sufficient for improvement of functional activity of pts with KOA. General efficacy assessment was significantly higher in the main group (Fisher exact test, p<0,005. Placebo did not significantly change efficacy measures. Adverse events were absent in both groups. Conclusion. The results of the study allows to recommend BMAW for local therapy of KOA

  8. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defence-growth trade-off in balsam fir

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    Annie eDeslauriers


    Full Text Available During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L. Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage and defence. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation, moderately (M-trees, 41 to 60% and heavily (H-trees, 61 to 80% defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem, carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch and defence components in needles (terpenoids compound from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defence. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defence components and to non-structural (NCS and structural (growth carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilisation for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  9. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir (United States)

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio


    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  10. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  11. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae. (United States)

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred


    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  12. Development of a Dispersal Model for Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae, to Facilitate Landscape-Level Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Lass


    Full Text Available The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg attacks subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. Nutt. in eastern Washington, Oregon, and northern Idaho. Historical balsam woolly adelgid distributions present an opportunity to understand climatic factors that influence the species’ distribution at a landscape scale. The distribution data allows for creation of predictive models that detail the likelihood of occurrence and associated geographic data allow modeling of species dispersal. Predictive variables linked to the distribution of the hosts and to abiotic environmental conditions were utilized to create a spatial probability model of occurrence. Balsam woolly adelgid predominantly disperses by wind, and hence, both wind speed and wind direction were used to create a dispersal probability model. Results from wind dispersal modeling suggested that two-thirds of the new infestations were due to July and August wind direction and speed. Average July winds ranged from 0.5 to 3.27 m/s, flowing south westerly, and August winds ranged from 0.43 to 1.55 m/s, flowing north easterly. Land managers can use the results of the predictive model to better understand where current infestations are likely to expand. Prediction of where the balsam woolly adelgid might move allows managers to adjust actions to respond to future insect movement and establishment.

  13. 10°P of Balsam Pear Beer Model Developed%10°P清爽型苦瓜啤酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉平; 张文雅; 柯常毅; 邱平


    10°P balsam pear beer model is based on the traditional beer process, filter before the end of the beer fermentation add balsam pear juice, add 1-1.5%, has no effect on the non-biological stability of beer not only can be appropriately extend the shelf life of beer, also produce the flavor characteristics of both traditional beer and balsam pear fragrance and certain special efficacy of balsam pear beer.%10°P清爽型苦瓜啤酒是在传统啤酒工艺基础上,在啤酒发酵结束过滤之前加入苦瓜汁,添加量1-1.5%,对啤酒的非生物稳定性非但没有影响还可适当延长啤酒的保质期,生产出的苦瓜啤酒既有传统啤酒的风味特征又有苦瓜清香和一定特殊功效。

  14. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars. (United States)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos


    Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  15. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae, a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sreekala


    Full Text Available The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, honeybees, flies and butterflies are the major pollinators of Impatiens cuspidata. Pollen grains are oval, having an average diameter of 28.24μm. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Best pollen germination along with 1636μm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium. Stigma was more receptive (up to 80% on the first day of flower opening. It chiefly reproduced by means of cross pollination, where the fruit set was only 40%, but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced fruit set up to 80%. The plant is an obligate out-crosser and self incompatible, as confirmed by various hand pollination experiments. Seed germination in natural and controlled conditions was only 20%. Its dependence on a specialized habitat, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction, low percentage of seed germination and other abiotic factors could be reasons for its limited distribution and endemism.

  16. 超声波-表面活性剂协同萃取苦瓜皂苷%Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction of saponins from balsam pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 葛邦国; 宋烨; 李丹丹; 马晓燕; 吴茂玉


    Balsam pear (Momordica charantia L.), a climber belonging to family Cucurbitaceae, is commonly known as bitter gourd or bitter melon in English. It is cultivated throughout the world for use as vegetable as well as medicine. Balsam pear has been used traditionally as medicine in developing countries. Some of its common uses in most countries are for diabetes, a carminative and in treatment of colics. Topically it is used for treatment of wounds, internally as well as externally for management of worms and parasites. It is also used as emmenagogue, antiviral for measles and hepatitis. Balsam pear contains biologically active chemicals that include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixedoils, triterpenes. Saponins from all parts of the plant (fruit pulp, seed, leaves and whole plant) are most widely studied with regard to its antidiabetic effect. Ultrasound and surfactants have been individually shown to enhance saponins extraction. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound and surfactants on saponins extraction. In order to explore effective extracting method of saponins from balsam pear, response surface was used to study the effect of ultrasonic power (133-167 W/g), ethanol volume fraction (60%-80%) and mass concentrations of SDS (15-25 mg/mL) on extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear. Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction was compared with ethanol and ultrasound, respectively. The structures of the prepared saponins from balsam pear were identified. Results showed that the established model of extraction could well predict extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear under different conditions. Extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by ultrasonic power, ethanol volume fraction and mass concentrations of SDS, and there was synergistic effect between ultrasonic power and the mass concentration of SDS. Various factors affecting extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear in a

  17. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣


    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  18. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Drew Carleton

    Full Text Available Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  19. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue. (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon


    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China. (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai


    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  1. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec. (United States)

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian


    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  2. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2. (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan


    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis.

  3. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cinget

    Full Text Available The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea, a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data and 75 populations (cpDNA data was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only, but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen, indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  4. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America. (United States)

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean


    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  5. Three years of increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D'Orangeville


    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly, by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected to (i experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C and earlier snowmelt (2–3 weeks as well as (ii increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH415NO3. Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion exchange membranes (PRS™-probes and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees.

    After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3 or ammonium (NH4 availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion exchange membranes, except for an average 54% increase in the forest floor available NH4. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an eight-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010.

    We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  6. Increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

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    L. D'Orangeville


    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected during three consecutive growing seasons (2009–2011 to (i experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C and earlier snowmelt (2–3 weeks as well as (ii increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH4-15NO3. Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees. Results from the second (2010 and third (2011 year of treatment are reported. After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3 or ammonium (NH4 availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion-exchange membranes, except for NH4 in the forest floor, which increased by an average of 54% over the two years. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an 8-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010. We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  7. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klimaszewski


    Full Text Available Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszew­ski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey, Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin, Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say, Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605, Candida mesenterica (Geiger Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362, Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763, Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073, Candida sp. (accession number AY498864, Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246, Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345, Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581, Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630, Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501, Acremonium psammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287, Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946, Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750, and Aspergillus amstelodami (L. Mangin Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (KirchnerJordan (accession number BA000040 and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  8. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus


    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  9. 脱水苦瓜护绿和着色方法的研究和比较%Study and Comparison on Green-maintaining and Pigmentation Method of Dehydrated Balsam Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凌霄; 杨荣华; 汪洲国


    研究了苦瓜在加工过程中采用的护绿、着色方法及其效果,确定其工艺条件。结果表明,0.5 cm厚的苦瓜片,经0.20 mol/L的Na2CO3浸泡1 min后,于85~90℃水中烫漂2.5 min,充分快速冷却后,浸泡于200 mg/L的ZnAc2+0.3%CaCl2+800 mg/L EDTA护绿液中或置于200 mg/L的叶绿素铜钠盐溶液中,减压处理10~20 min,沥干后先于85℃烘2 h,再于50℃烘3 h,成品色泽理想。同时对叶绿素铜钠着色和护绿的色泽效果进行了比较。%The green-maintaining and pigmentation methods for green vegetables-balsam pear were studied. An optimum processing condition was found to be as follows: The fresh balsam pear firstly cut into 0.5cm thick pieces and immersed in 0.2mol/L Na2CO3 solution for 1 minute, then blanched in 85~90℃ water for 2.5 minutes. After being cooled quickly and completely, they are dipped into the green-maintaining solution of 250mg/L ZnAc2 +0.3% CaCl2+800mg/L MgCl2+100mg/L EDTA or the 200mg/L chlorophyllin copper complex sodium, and then kept in decreased atmosphere processing for 10 to 20 minutes. At last they are dry at 85℃ for 2h and at 50℃ for 3h respectively. By above processing, the green colour of balsam pear was maintained satisfactorily. In addition, the effect of chlorophyllin copper complex sodium salt and the green-maintaining solution were compared.

  10. 苦瓜降血糖活性成分提取与评价方法研究进展%Refinement of Dietary Fiber from Balsam Pear(Momordica charantia L.) by Enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴茂玉; 李丹丹; 马晓燕


    Balsam pear has a variety of health functions including hypoglycemic activity concerned by many people. Main active components playing hypoglycemic effect include saponins, flavonoids, polysaccharides. In this paper, extraction and evaluation methods of main active components were reviewed for the development of products and hypoglycaemic mechanism.%苦瓜具有多种保健功能,其降血糖活性一直是人们关注的热点。起到降血糖作用的活性成分主要包括皂苷、黄酮、多糖等物质。因此本文针对这些活性成分提取及评价方法加以综述,以利于降血糖机理及相关产品的开发。

  11. Experimental Study on T2DM Patients by Combining Sports Intervention with Drinking Balsam Pear Juice%联合运动干预结合饮用苦瓜汁对 T2DM患者的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭光泽; 付爱丽; 吴剑明


    To investigate the intervention effect on DM patients by combining drinking balsam pear juice with walking at medium speed,the paper selects 60 DM patients who were clinically diagnosed with only T2DM and who fit for the intensity of the experiment as its research object and randomly divides them into experiment group and control group.Under the condition of little absorption of high fat,high cholesterol food and hypoglycemic, lipid -lowering drugs,the combination of sports intervention with drinking balsam pear juice can help normalize or reach a normal level of (P <0.01)glucose metabolism indexes like FPG,GSP and GHB and lipid metabolism indexes like TG,CHOL,HDL,LDL and UA.So the combination can be popularized and applied as an effective way to cure T2DMpatients.%探讨饮用苦瓜果汁结合中速步行对 DM患者的干预效果,选取临床诊断为2型且无其他器质性疾病,适合本实验运动强度的 DM患者60名为研究对象,随机分成实验组和对照组,在不过多食用高脂、高胆固醇类食物且不服用任何降糖、降脂药物的情况下,通过饮用苦瓜果汁和联合运动干预实验,结果表明饮用苦瓜果汁结合联合运动干预可使 DM患者的 FPG、GSP、GHB 等糖代谢及 TG、CHOL、HDL、LDL、UA 等脂质代谢指标显著改善至正常或接近正常水平(P <0.01)。可作为2型 DM患者治疗的有效手段进行推广使用。

  12. Anti-t B toxopla Balsam asma g mocitru gondii us cam activit merune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    compound. Key words: ... access under th. Afric ty of c ... structures from African medicinal plants, Balsamocitrus ... melting points B-540) or on a microscope with heating platinum of ... Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) cells were infected by tachyzoites ..... Bioluminescence Imaging of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Living.

  13. Stable isotope ratio analysis for verifying the authenticity of balsamic and wine vinegar. (United States)

    Perini, M; Paolini, M; Simoni, M; Bontempo, L; Vrhovsek, U; Sacco, M; Thomas, F; Jamin, E; Hermann, A; Camin, F


    In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and ¹³C/¹²C in ethanol and acetic acid and of ¹⁸O/¹⁶O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the ¹³C/¹²C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM.

  14. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles. (United States)


    ... Mediterranean, Oriental. Momordica balsamina Balsam apple, hawthorn Peach. Momordica charantia Balsam pear, bitter melon Peach. Momordica cochinchinensis Balsam apple, gac Peach. Momordica spp Gourds Melon, Peach..., Momordica, and Trichosanthis spp.) Gourd, angled luffa (Luffa acutangula) Gourd, balsam apple (Momordica...

  15. 家常菜(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Balsam Pear and Egg苦瓜炒鸡蛋Ingredients:1 balsam pear,2 eggs,1/2 red pepper,salt and sugar. Preparations: 1 Wash the balsam pear,then use a tablespoon to scoop out the pulp.Cut the balsam pear and red pepper into slices (about 1-2 cm long);

  16. Preparation of Yogurt-drink Product Containing Balsam Pear%活性乳酸菌苦瓜饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁飞连; 张莉莉



  17. Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood). (United States)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Hefer, Charles A; Christe, Camille; Corea, Oliver; Lexer, Christian; Cronk, Quentin C B; Douglas, Carl J


    Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species Populus balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored the patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and admixed individuals from wild populations. Local ancestry analysis in admixed P. trichocarpa revealed a telomeric region in chromosome 15 with P. balsamifera ancestry, containing several candidate genes for local adaptation. Genomic analyses revealed signals of selection in certain genes in this region (e.g. PRR5, COMT1), and functional analyses based on gene expression variation and correlations with adaptive phenotypes suggest distinct functions of the introgressed alleles. In contrast, a block of genes in chromosome 12 paralogous to the introgressed region showed no signs of introgression or signatures of selection. We hypothesize that the introgressed region in chromosome 15 has introduced modular or cassette-like variation into P. trichocarpa. These linked adaptive mutations are associated with a block of genes in chromosome 15 that appear to have undergone neo- or subfunctionalization relative to paralogs in a duplicated region on chromosome 12 that show no signatures of adaptive variation. The association between P. balsamifera introgressed alleles with the expression of adaptive traits in P. trichocarpa supports the hypothesis that this is a case of adaptive introgression in an ecologically important foundation species.

  18. Investigation of processing gelated balsam pear yoghurt from lactic-acid fermentaion%凝固型乳酸发酵苦瓜酸乳的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢主兰; 雷晓凌



  19. Mounting mixed specimens of helminth eggs in neutral balsam%混合蠕虫虫卵树胶封片标本的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬如; 张锡林; 丁艳


    本文介绍了一种蠕虫虫卵长期性玻片标本的制备方法,该方法 制备的标本清晰,能长期保存,且虫卵形态和颜色保持良好,使用效果良好.%This paper describes a method of preparing permanent slides with a mixture of helminth eggs.Samples prepared using this method can be preserved for a long time, and the eggs retain their original shape and color.

  20. Environ: E00503 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AX:63360] Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family) Liquidambar orientalis balsam Crude... drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family) E00503 Liquidambar orientalis balsam ...

  1. BWA Survey of Freeland Tract 2002 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 6, 2002, Emily Grafton surveyed the balsam fir stand on the Freeland Tract to determine the level of infestation of the balsam wooly adelgid (BW A),...

  2. The effect of Planting Density and Training Methods on the yield of Precocious Balsam Pear%不同种植密度和整枝方式对早熟苦瓜产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄日红; 邓稳桥; 张艳



  3. Effect of balsam pear juice on mutagenicity induced by heterocyclic amine in rats%苦瓜汁抑制杂环胺类物质致突变活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation (United States)

    ... Domestic Violence. (2008). Overview of CPO protections for LGBT victims of domestic violence . Washington, DC. Balsam, K. ... Human Services. (2011). Improving data collection for the LGBT community . Washington, DC. Diamond, L. M. (2008). Female ...

  5. Establishment Report for Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots Inside and Outside Deer Exclosures in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, West Virginia (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two deer exclosures were built in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, WV in the fall of 2001 to protect young balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and to study and demonstrate the...

  6. Agriculture: Forestry (United States)

    Information about environmental requirements relating to timber tracts, tree farms, forest nurseries, and related activities, such as reforestation services and the gathering of gums, barks, balsam needles, and other forest products.

  7. Influence of acid deposition on regeneration dynamics along a disturbance intensity gradient (United States)

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Michael A. Jenkins; Shibu. Jose


    Now considered one of the most threatened vegetation communities in North America, spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have been devastated by the combined impacts of the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae, BWA) and chronic acid deposition.

  8. Mice and voles prefer spruce seeds (United States)

    Herschel G. Abbott; Arthur C. Hart


    When spruce-fir stands in the Northeast are cut, balsam fir seedlings often predominate in the regeneration that follows. Most landowners would prefer to have the spruce; but they do not get it, and they wonder why.

  9. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature. (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R


    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  10. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Emer

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  11. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks (United States)

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane


    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  12. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine (United States)

    Barton M. Blum


    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  13. Clinical patch test data evaluated by multivariate analysis. Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, J; Menné, T; Tanghøj, P;


    patch tested with the standard series of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (DCDG) over a period of 6 months. For the 8 test allergens most often found positive (nickel, fragrance-mix, cobalt, chromate, balsam of Peru, carba...

  14. The Evolution of USDA Forest Service Experimental Forest Research on Northern Conifers in the Northeast (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Nicole S. Rogers


    The degraded stand pictured in this 1955 USDA Forest Service photograph from Maine was dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), red maple (Acer rubrum), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Stands such as these were typical of second-growth, lowland...

  15. Linking the B ring hydroxylation pattern of condensed tannins to C, N and P mineralization. A case study using four tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Preston, C.M.; Verstraten, J.M.


    Condensed tannins are a major component of litter inputs, but little is known about the effects of tannin structural variations on soil biological processes and organic matter development. Four different condensed tannins (CTs) extracted from balsam fir, western red cedar, kalmia and black spruce we

  16. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests (United States)

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins


    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  17. Trying to compensate. Latest ranking of CEO compensation finds stock options still key to pay as experts monitor for effects of SEC rule changes. (United States)

    Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica


    Despite past outcries from critics, stock options continue to play a starring, albeit smaller, role in compensation for CEOs at top companies, based on research by accounting professor Steven Balsam, left. Read about the 30 healthcare executives who brought home the biggest pay packages in our annual ranking of CEOs' compensation.

  18. Técnica Alternativa para Montagem de Insetos em Lâminas Permanentes para Visualização em Microscopia Óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Huber


    Abstract. Various chemicals are used in the mounting of insects on permanent slides for optical microscopy. The high cost, little availability in ordinary commerce and the dangers make their use impractical for some studies. Among the various chemicals used for the microscopic mounting of insects are Xylene, Canada Balsam, Hydroxide Potassium, Alcohols, Phenol and Creosote. All these chemicals present, individually or collectively, some risks to human health. In order to find alternative materials of easy access and low toxicity, for the permanent mout of insects, this study tested the efficacy of some alternatives materials. Were tested: Colorless varnish (Acrilex ® as a substitute for Canada balsam and solvent (Acrilex ®, Immersion Oil for microscopy (Merck ® and Xylene as substitutes for creosote. There were mounted especimens of Ctenocephalides sp., Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Pediculus sp.. The use of Varnish Colorless proved to be an efficient and cheap substitute to Canada Balsam because it offered transparency, optimal visualization, and rapid drying. The immersion oil might be used instead of Creosote, both mounted in Balsam, as in varnish. The last combination was more advantageous due to rapid drying of the varnish. Solvent did not get good results appearing to damage insect chitin, an effect observed especially when combined with the varnish.

  19. [Observations and research on an extract of Inula viscosa Ait ]. (United States)

    Lauro, L; Rolih, C


    The folk medical tradition ascribes to Inula viscosa (a suffrutescent plant of Compositae widely spread along the Mediterranean basin) balsamic, antipyretic, antiphlogistic and antiseptic properties. Pharmacological test on rabbits, made hyperpyretic in laboratory, gave satisfactory antipyretic results. Gas chromatographical separation from a high-boiling fraction of seven azulenes, two of them identified as 1,4-dimethyl-azulene (about 50% and chamazulene (32%), confirmed the antiphlogistic action ascribed to the plant. By the present research (solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography are described in detail) eucalyptol was identified in a fraction of essential oil obtained from fresh leaves of the plant. This datum supports the balsamic and antiseptic properties of Inula viscosa Ait.

  20. Climatic change and indigenous and non-indigenous ravagers : a new reality?; Changements climatiques et les ravageurs indigenes et exotiques : une nouvelle realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniere, J.; Cooke, B.; Logan, J.A.; Carroll, A.; Safranyik, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service


    The impact that climate change may have on ecological diversity was discussed with particular reference to the movement of indigenous and non-indigenous insects that are harmful to trees. Insects in particular, are more likely to evolve rapidly and adapt to ecological change. Those with a high rate of reproduction and which can move long distances will colonize new habitats and survive a wide range of bio-physical conditions. This PowerPoint presentation included a series of graphs, tables and charts to illustrate the increased presence of various harmful insects in northern forests, including the balsam twig aphid, balsam gall midge, gypsy moth, hemlock looper, western spruce budworm, and forest tent caterpillar. It was shown that large changes in ecosystems are expected to occur at northern latitudes and higher altitudes. tabs., figs.

  1. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A


    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  2. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests. (United States)

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves


    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  3. Stomatal factors and vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation in poplars. (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Thomas, Barb R; Tyree, Melvin T


    The relationships between the vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, and leaf and stem water potential were examined in six hybrid poplar (P38P38, Walker, Okanese, Northwest, Assiniboine and Berlin) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones. Stem xylem cavitation resistance was examined with the Cavitron technique in well-watered plants grown in the greenhouse. To investigate stomatal responses to drought, plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding watering for 5 (mild drought) and 7 (severe drought) days and to stress recovery by rewatering severely stressed plants for 30 min and 2 days. The clones varied in stomatal sensitivity to drought and vulnerability to stem xylem cavitation. P38P38 reduced stomatal conductance in response to mild stress while the balsam poplar clone maintained high leaf stomatal conductance under more severe drought stress conditions. Differences between the severely stressed clones were also observed in leaf water potentials with no or relatively small decreases in Assiniboine, P38P38, Okanese and Walker. Vulnerability to drought-induced stem xylem embolism revealed that balsam poplar and Northwest clones reached loss of conductivity at lower stem water potentials compared with the remaining clones. There was a strong link between stem xylem resistance to cavitation and stomatal responsiveness to drought stress in balsam poplar and P38P38. However, the differences in stomatal responsiveness to mild drought suggest that other drought-resistant strategies may also play a key role in some clones of poplars exposed to drought stress. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  4. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N;


    in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...... of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems....

  5. Bioatividade de plantas medicinais no controle de Sclerotinia isolado de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni


    DINIZ, S. P. S. S.; Utumi, H.; Bonzanini, F.; Bueno, M.S.


    The microorganism Sclerotinia was isolated from roots of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni in plantations in the northwest of Parana and submitted to the cultivation in the presence of extracts and vegetable balsams of Tarragon (Artemisia draconculus), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), Manjerona (Origanum majorona), Mint citrata (Mintpiperita var. citrata), Purple Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Andiroba (Carapa guanensis) and Copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke). The first five oils were extracted by st...

  6. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, fill...... of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems....

  7. Environmental Assessment for Upgrades to Target and Road Facilities in the Oklahoma Range, Fort Greely, Alaska (United States)


    the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Singapore Air Force, Japanese Defense Forces, and other national forces...blackpoll warbler . Sensitive species include Osprey and Trumpeter Swan (Alaska Army Lands Withdrawal Renewal. Final EIS 1998). 21 OKLAHOMA RANGE...communities. Mixtures of balsam poplar, quaking aspen and white spruce dominate this community. A closed needle leaf forest consisting of stands of white

  8. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior. (United States)

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E


    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem.

  9. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.


    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  10. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus......), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAV...

  11. Ecosystem Responses to Partial Harvesting in Eastern Boreal Mixedwood Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Harvey


    Full Text Available Partial harvesting has been proposed as a key aspect to implementing ecosystem management in the Canadian boreal forest. We report on a replicated experiment located in boreal mixedwoods of Northwestern Quebec. In the winter of 2000–2001, two partial harvesting treatments, one using a dispersed pattern, and a second, which created a (400 m2 gap pattern, were applied to a 90-year-old aspen-dominated mixed stand. The design also included a clear cut and a control. Over the course of the following eight years, live tree, coarse woody debris, regeneration and ground beetles were inventoried at variable intervals. Our results indicate that all harvesting treatments created conditions favorable to balsam fir (Abies balsamea sapling growth and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides sapling recruitment. However, balsam fir and trembling aspen regeneration and ground beetles response to gap cuts were closer to patterns observed in clear cuts than in dispersed harvesting. The underlying reasons for these differing patterns can be linked to factors associated with the contrasting light regimes created by the two partial harvesting treatments. The study confirms that partially harvesting is an ecologically sound approach in boreal mixedwoods and could contribute to maintaining the distribution of stand ages at the landscape level.

  12. Vinegar classification based on feature extraction and selection from headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography volatile analyses: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Pizarro, C; Esteban-Díez, I; Sáenz-González, C; González-Sáiz, J M


    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and multivariate data analysis were applied to classify different vinegar types (white and red, balsamic, sherry and cider vinegars) on the basis of their volatile composition. The collected chromatographic signals were analysed using the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) method, thus simultaneously performing feature selection and classification. Several options, more or less restrictive according to the final number of considered categories, were explored in order to identify the one that afforded highest discrimination ability. The simplicity and effectiveness of the classification methodology proposed in the present study (all the samples were correctly classified and predicted by cross-validation) are promising and encourage the feasibility of using a similar strategy to evaluate the quality and origin of vinegar samples in a reliable, fast, reproducible and cost-efficient way in routine applications. The high quality results obtained were even more remarkable considering the reduced number of discriminant variables finally selected by the stepwise procedure. The use of only 14 peaks enabled differentiation between cider, balsamic, sherry and wine vinegars, whereas only 3 variables were selected to discriminate between red (RW) and white wine (WW) vinegars. The subsequent identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the volatile compounds associated with the discriminant peaks selected in the classification process served to interpret their chemical significance.

  13. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products. (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P


    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  14. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes. (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping


    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  15. Identification and quantification of the main organic components of vinegars by high resolution {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caligiani, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy)]. E-mail:; Acquotti, D. [Centro Interfacolta Misure, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 23A, 43100-Parma (Italy); Palla, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy); Bocchi, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy)


    A detailed analysis of the proton high-field NMR spectra of vinegars (in particular of Italian balsamic vinegars) is reported. A large number of organic substances belonging to different classes, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, organic acids, volatile compounds and amino acids, were assigned. The possibility of quantification of the substances identified in the whole vinegar sample, without extraction or pre-concentration steps, was also tested. The data validity was demonstrated in terms of precision, accuracy, repeatability and inter-day reproducibility. The effects of the most critical experimental parameters (sample concentration, water suppression and relaxation time) on the analysis response were also discussed. {sup 1}H NMR results were compared with those obtained by traditional techniques (GC-MS, titrations), and good correlations were obtained. The results showed that {sup 1}H NMR with water suppression allows a rapid, simultaneous determination of carbohydrates (glucose and fructose), organic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic, citric, succinic and tartaric acids), alcohols and polyols (ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hydroxymethylfurfural), and volatile substances (ethyl acetate) in vinegar samples. On the contrary, the amino acid determination without sample pre-concentration was critical. The {sup 1}H NMR method proposed was applied to different samples of vinegars, allowing, in particular, the discrimination of vinegars and balsamic vinegars.

  16. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panja Arindrajit


    Full Text Available Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%, PABA 3 (15.78%, promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, balsam of peru 2 (10.52%, usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reaction each (5.26% suggesting either phototoxicity or photo sensitization. Patch and photo patch test positive reaction suggesting allergic sensitisation was seen to balsam of peru 3 (23.0% perfume mix 3 (23.0% promethazine hydrochloride 2 (15.3% and PABA, 6 methyl coumarin, tribromosalicylanilide, atranorin and wood mix showed positive reaction in one case each (7.69%. We conclude that photoxic or photo allergic reaction is a problem in India and patch photo patch test should be performed in all cases of idiopathic light eruptions to rule out photo sensitisation and in cases where photo sensitivity of exogenous origin is suspected.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula). (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta


    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction. (United States)

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D


    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  19. Retraction of "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research". (United States)


    The Editors of Tissue Engineering are officially retracting the published article entitled "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research," by Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Mueller-Stahl K, Boublik J, Ruhparwar A, Mertsching H, Balsam L, Robbins R, Haverich A. Tissue Eng 2003 Jun;9(3):517–523. This article is being retracted due to the discovery of multiple publications of identical data in the following three journals: Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Boublik J, Theodorou P, Martin U, Ruhparwar A, Fischer S, Eschenhagen T, Kubis HP, Kraft T, Leyh R, Haverich A. In vitro engineering of heart muscle: artificial myocardial tissue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002 Jul;124(1):63–69. Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Boublik J, Mueller-Stahl K, Leyh R, Fischer S, Haverich A. A novel bioartificial myocardial tissue and its prospective use in cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 Aug;22(2):238–243. Kofidis T, Balsam L, de Bruin J, Robbins RC. Distinct cell-to-fiber junctions are critical for the establishment of cardiotypical phenotype in a 3D bioartificial environment. Med Eng Phys 2004 Mar;26(2):157–163. Tissue Engineering is committed to the highest standards of scientific content and integrity, and does not tolerate such improprieties.

  20. Developmental polymorphism in a Newfoundland population of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). (United States)

    Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Hébert, Christian; Brodeur, Jacques


    The hemlock looper [Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée)], a widespread and highly polyphagous Geometridae, is considered one of the most economically important defoliators of North American coniferous forests. Variations in the number of larval instars between geographic populations of this species have been previously reported in the literature. However, whether such developmental polymorphism occurs within a given population is unknown. In this study, we report the presence of both four and five larval instar individuals within a population of hemlock looper in Newfoundland when reared on balsam fir. For both sexes, the majority of individuals reared on balsam fir shoots went through four larval instars, but more than one third of the females (35.3%) went through five larval instars. Females with four larval instars developed faster and had smaller pupal weight than females with five larval instars. However, a growth-related index (weight gain per unit of time) was similar for the two ecotypes (four or five larval instars). No significant difference was observed between the two ecotypes in terms of reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size). We also found significant differences in life history traits between males and females. Results indicate that developmental polymorphism, in this case, the variation in the number of larval instars, might provide some adaptive attributes that allowed exploitation of a broader ecological niche.

  1. Characterization of vegetation by microwave and optical remote sensing (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T. (Principal Investigator); Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.


    Two series of carefully controlled experiments were conducted. First, plots of important crops (corn, soybeans, and sorghum), prairie grasses (big bluestem, switchgrass, tal fescue, orchardgrass, bromegrass), and forage legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and crown vetch) were manipulated to produce wide ranges of phytomass, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. Second, coniferous forest canopies were simulated using small balsam fir trees grown in large pots of soil and arranged systematically on a large (5 m) platform. Rotating the platform produced many new canopies for frequency and spatial averaging of the backscatter signal. In both series of experiments, backscatter of 5.0 GHz (C-Band) was measured as a function of view angle and polarization. Biophysical measurements included leaf area index, fresh and dry phytomass, water content of canopy elements, canopy height, and soil roughness and moisture content. For a subset of the above plots, additional measurements were acquired to exercise microwave backscatter models. These measurements included size and shape of leaves, stems, and fruit and the probability density function of leaf and stem angles. The relationships of the backscattering coefficients and the biophysical properties of the canopies were evaluated using statistical correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Results from the corn density and balsam fir experiments are discussed and analyses of data from the other experiments are summarized.

  2. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips (United States)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi


    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  3. Description of Trichophoromyia uniniensis, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Amazonas State, Brazil. (United States)

    Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando


    A new species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 genus is described, based on males collected in Jaú National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil. The Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam. They were measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer objective and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. This new species named Trichophoromyia uniniensis sp. nov. is closely related to Trichophoromyia omagua (Martins, Llanos & Silva, 1976). The former can be distinguished from the latter by the shape of its paramere that has the lower apical region turned up in the new species. With the new species here described a total of 39 species belonging to the Trichophoromyia genus are now known, most of them present in the Amazon rainforest.

  4. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation. (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A


    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  5. Remote detection of forest damage (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.


    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  6. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud


    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis.

  7. Systemic contact dermatitis to foods: nickel, BOP, and more. (United States)

    Fabbro, Stephanie K; Zirwas, Matthew J


    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD), a cutaneous reaction that is a direct manifestation of systemic exposure to a known allergen in a sensitized individual, has been increasingly recognized as a cause of persistent cutaneous contact dermatitis that is refractory to conventional therapies. While SCD in response to drugs has been described well in the literature, SCD to allergens in common foodstuffs is a less well-articulated phenomenon. Several foods that are universally consumed throughout the world contain potent allergens including nickel, balsam of Peru, trace metals, urushiol, and sesquiterpene lactones as well as a host of others that may cause a distinctive clinical picture. In this review article, the authors review the typical presentation and prevalence of SCD to foods, pathophysiology, the most common offensive ingestible food allergens, several appropriate diets, and effectiveness of dietary avoidance for situations in which SCD is suspected.

  8. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Mathews


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4% for staining with Gomori’s trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality.

  9. [The first report of Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) from nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) in Turkey]. (United States)

    Dik, Bilal


    In this study, two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) were examined for ectoparasites. They were investigated macroscopically for lice. Then, they were placed into a plastic box and propoxur applied to their whole bodies. The ectoparasites which fell to the bottom of the box were collected and preserved in a vial with 70% of alcohol. No ectoparasite was observed on one nightjar while eleven lice specimens were collected from the other. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% of KOH until they were transparent. The lice were mounted on slides using by Canada balsam and dried in an incubater. They were examined under the light microscope and identified as Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842). This is the first time the genus Mulcticola and the species M. hypoleucus has been reported from the nightjars in Turkey.

  10. [The first case of Ophionyssus natricis (Gervais, 1844) on a sea snake (Natrix tessellata, Laurente 1768) (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) in Turkey]. (United States)

    Dik, Bilal


    This study was carried out to increase information about Ophionyssus natricis (Gervais, 1844) detected on the sea snake (Natrix tessellata). The mite individuals collected from the cage of a sea snake were brought to our laboratory by the owner of the snake. They werepreserved in 70% alcohol, and then the mites were mounted on slides in Canada balsam, after making them transparent in lacto phenol for a few days. They were identified to species in respect of their morphological characters under the light microscope. A total of nine mite individuals were collected from the cage of a sea snake, and all of them were identified as Ophionyssus natricis as the result of microscopical examination. Ophionyssus natricis was recorded from the sea snake for the first time in Turkey. knowledge about this mite is provided in this paper.

  11. Leptopsylla algira costai (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae: New host and new geographical record

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    Ali Yousefi


    Full Text Available Objective: To access the emerging ectoparasites associated with shrews in Hamedan Province of Iran. Methods: We have captured bicoloured white-toothed shrews [Crocidura leucodon (C. leucodon] using the live traps in April 2014. Ectoparasites collected by brushing the skins were removed and preserved in 70% ethanol containing 5% glycerin, and subsequently they were sent to the parasitology laboratory and processed. The fleas isolated from infested specimen were cleared in 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using reliable keys. Results: In general, eight fleas (one male, seven females were collected from C. leucodon in Hamedan Province, Western Iran. The fleas were identified as Leptopsylla algira costai Smit, 1955. Conclusions: Fleas are medically important because they transmit a wide variety of diseases to their hosts. In addition, this aricle reports Leptopsylla algira costai for the first time in new host (C. leucodon and new geographical region (Iran.

  12. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis. (United States)

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F


    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDTOF-MS: 0.3, 1.2 and 0.9 ngmL(-1) for 2-F, 5-MF and 5-HMF, respectively). It was applied to different commercial food matrices: honey, white, demerara, brown and yellow table sugars, and white and red balsamic vinegars. This one-step, sensitive and direct method for the analysis of furfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet.

  13. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae). (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J


    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  14. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

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    Viviane Cristina Toreti


    Full Text Available Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis.

  15. The epistemological and historical concept of nostoc from an indiciary lecture of George Canguilhem's "The cell theory"

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    Maurício de Carvalho Ramos


    Full Text Available Through an indiciary lecture of Canguilhem's article  "The cell theory", I propose, methodically guided by a epistemological-historical style research, the construction of the concept of nostoc as a metamorphic concept that integrated the concepts of primordial blastema and biblical slime of the French botanist Charles Naudin, set up a scientific culture of broad reach committed to solving the riddle of the morphological unity of organic and vital beings. The concept of Nostoc refers alchemically a gelatinous substance from the stars and endowed with balsamic medical virtues and botanically, a cianoficea algae of Nostoc genus. Examined the ideas of Canguilhem, Naudin, Jung and Paracelsus, this concept is proposed as a nucleoplasmatic oscillation, understood as a specific form of expression of the mythical-scientific theme of tension between continuity and discontinuity, as shown by Canguilhem in his history of cell concept.

  16. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker. (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke


    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  17. Leptopsylla algira costai (Siphonaptera:Leptopsyllidae):New host and new geographical record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Yousefi; Mohammad Naser Ghorbani; Sadegh Salehi-Guilandeh


    Objective:To access the emerging ectoparasites associated with shrews in Hamedan Province of Iran. Methods: We have captured bicoloured white-toothed shrews [Crocidura leucodon(C. leucodon)] using the live traps in April 2014. Ectoparasites collected by brushing the skins were removed and preserved in 70% ethanol containing 5% glycerin, and subsequently they were sent to the parasitology laboratory and processed. The fleas isolated from infested specimen were cleared in 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using reliable keys. Results:In general, eight fleas(one male, seven females) were collected fromC. leucodonin Hamedan Province, Western Iran. The fleas were identified asLeptopsylla algira costai Smit, 1955. Conclusions:Fleas are medically important because they transmit a wide variety of diseases to their hosts. In addition, this aricle reportsLeptopsylla algira costai for the first time in new host (C. leucodon) and new geographical region (Iran).

  18. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm. (United States)

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel


    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected.

  19. Evaluation of an aerial spray strategy against the spruce budworm (choristoneura fumiferana clem.) using fenitrothion and B.t., (bacillus thuringiensis): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettela, E.G.


    This report presents results from a series of trials to evaluate replicate test sites, two treated with fenitrothion followed by an application of Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) and two treated with two applications of B.t. A team of Cessna 188 aircraft equipped with Micronair AU4000 rotary atomizers applied all spray treatments; there were also unsprayed control plots for comparison. The investigators conducted biological evaluations of 60 selected balsam fir trees at each treatment site to record such information as number of buds and shoots, defoliation category for each bud/shoot, number of spruce budworms, and state of development of each bud/shoot. They also determined spray deposition. The report concludes with an assessment of the comparative efficacy of the treatments studied on spruce budworm mortality.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to latanoprost. (United States)

    Jerstad, Kelly Michele; Warshaw, Erin


    An 85-year-old male with glaucoma presented with a 1-1/2 year history of tearing; red eyes; and pruritic, edematous, eczematous eyelids. Treatment for presumed ocular rosacea and seborrhea was unhelpful. Patch testing to our standard 64 antigens yielded a positive reaction to Balsam of Peru. Notably, benzalkonium chloride, thimerosal, and other preservatives elicited negative reactions. Repeat open application testing elicited positive results to Xalatan (latanoprost) 0.005% ophthalmic solution (Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI). A second session of patch tests to 10 personal products, in addition to Xalatan 0.005% solution and the Xalatan vehicle (provided by the manufacturer), elicited a strong positive reaction only to the full preparation of Xalatan 0.005% solution. This report describes the first known case of ACD to latanoprost, a new prostaglandin analog that is widely prescribed for treatment of glaucoma.

  1. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.J. [Dames and Moore, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Guerin, T.F. [Minenco Bioremediation Services, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)


    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  2. Composição química, atividade citotóxica e antioxidante de um tipo de própolis da Bahia

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    Darlan C. dos Santos

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex mixture composed by salivary secretions of bees and a resinous and balsamic material collected by them from different part of plants. This material is well employed by people due its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral properties beside others. However, the chemical composition varies according the habitat and season. This work describes the identification of saturated hydrocarbons, methyl cinnamate, sitosterol cinnamate and ananixanthone isolated from the brown propolis produced in Bahia, Brazil, classified as Propolis Type 6. Besides, antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity of the extracts were evaluated by the DPPH quenching and Brine Shrimp Test. The extracts showed weak antioxidant activities and high cytotoxicity, especially the methanol and chloroformic extracts.

  3. Propolis ve Hayvan Beslemede Kullanımı


    Seven, Ismail; AKSU, Taylan; SEVEN, Pınar TATLI


    Propolis bal arıları tarafından çeşitli bitki kaynaklarından toplanmış reçinemsi materyalin genel adıdır. Propolisin tam olarak kompozisyonu kaynağına bağlı olarak değişir. Genellikle propolis % 50 reçine ve bitki balsamı, % 30 balmumu, % 10 esansiyel yağlar, % 5 polen ve % 5 diğer çeşitli maddelerden oluşur. Propolis, özellikle etonolik ektraktları, antioksidan, antibakteriyal, antifungal, antiviral ve hepatoprotektif etkileri ile geniş spektrumlu aktivite gösterir, bu yüzden günümüzde diyet...

  4. Albariño wine aroma enhancement through the use of a recombinant polygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces marxianus. (United States)

    Sieiro, Carmen; Villa, Tomás G; da Silva, Abigaíl F; García-Fraga, Belén; Vilanova, Mar


    The possible biotechnological application of a recombinant endopolygalacturonase of Kluyveromyces marxianus (KMPG) for the aroma enhancement of Albariño wine was studied. The addition of this enzyme to the must gives rise to a significant increase of the total compounds responsible for the aroma as opposed to the effect when using a commercial pectic enzyme. This increase also results in a significant rise of the odoriferous aglycones which are direct determinants of the aroma. Wines made by using the KMPG enzyme are characterised by a greater richness and diversity with regard to the number of aromatic compounds present, clearly differing from those obtained with a commercial pectic preparation. Based on compounds with odour activity values (OAV)>1, the wines obtained with the enzyme KMPG are richer in citric, balsamic, spicy and above all floral (violet and rose) aromas than untreated wines or wines supplemented with a commercial enzyme.


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    Full Text Available The Subsection for Sightless People belongs to the Ornamental Section and started in the autumn of 1991. In 2008 we tried to reorganize this subsection, first of all by enriching the collection of species exposed to the visitors, introducing a new model of labels and using especial props for the plants. Many species from Lamiaceae family have been chosen, characterized by a high level of essential oils, volatile phenolic compounds, alkaloids, balsams, tannins, liberating strong-scented odors, which facilitate their recognition by the sightless persons. At the same time, a lot of Asteraceae species are displayed, while in the autumn the sightless people enjoy the numerous chrysanthemum varieties from the Botanic Garden’s collection. All of the specimens bear labels with information in Latin and Braille System.

  6. Registro de ácaros em avestruz no estado do Rio de Janeiro Report of mites in ostrich in Rio de Janeiro State

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    D.G. Mattos Jr


    Full Text Available For the first time, it was identified a mite in a three-year-old male ostrich that had lost feathers and showed skin irritation. The animal belonged to a flock of 50 birds, located in Baixada Fluminense, in Rio de Janeiro State. After they were fixed in 70% alcohol, clarifyed in lactophenol and mounted in Canada balsam, the mites were identified in the laboratory. They belonged to the Pterolichidae family and Struthioperolichus sculpturatus species (Hirst. The ostrich was treated by ivermectin in dose of 200µg/kg of body weight, with recovery and disappearance of the clinical symptoms. The occurrence of mite infestation by the described species in ostrich should be monitored by professionals and farmers, as they cause fall of feathers and economic losses.

  7. Use of terpenoids as natural flavouring compounds in food industry. (United States)

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Aprea, Eugenio


    Terpenoids represent the oldest known biomolecules, having been recovered from sediments as old as 2.5 billion years. Among plant secondary metabolites, they are the most abundant and diverse class of natural compounds. The diversity of terpenoids is probably a reflection of their many biological activities in nature, which has made them a widely used resource for traditional and modern human exploitation. They are usually the main constituents of essential oils of most plants offering a wide variety of pleasant scents from flowery to fruity, to woody or balsamic notes. For this reason terpenoids constitute a very important class of compounds for flavour and fragrance industries, in fact, in the US alone, the demand is forecast to grow 3.7 percent per year to $5.3 billion in 2012. The recent patents on production and extraction of terpenoids commonly used as natural flavouring compounds in food industries are reviewed in the present manuscript.

  8. Mode of coniferous wood decay by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa as elucidated by FTIR and ToF-SIMS. (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonam; Jeremic, Dragica; Goacher, Robyn E; Master, Emma R


    The softwood degrading white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, was investigated for its ability to degrade two coniferous woods: balsam fir and lodgepole pine. P. carnosa grew similarly on these wood species, and like the hardwood-degrading white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, P. carnosa demonstrated selective degradation of lignin, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lignin degradation across cell walls of decayed pine samples was also evaluated by ToF-SIMS and was shown to be uniform. This study illustrates softwood lignin utilization by a white-rot fungus and reveals the industrial potential of the lignocellulolytic activity elicited by this fungus.

  9. Scaling the effects of moose browsing on forage distribution, from the geometry of plant canopies to landscapes (United States)

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.; Hodgson, A.L.


    Landscape heterogeneity influences large herbivores by altering their feeding rates, but as herbivores attempt to maximize feeding rates they also create spatial heterogeneity by altering plant growth. Herbivore feeding rates thus provide a quantitative link between the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in herbivore-dominated ecosystems. The fractal geometry of plant canopies determines both the density and mass of twigs available to foraging herbivores. These properties determine a threshold distance between plants (d*) that distinguishes the mechanisms regulating herbivore intake rates. When d* is greater than the actual distance between plants (d), intake is regulated by the rate of food processing in the mouth. But when d* moose browsing from 2001 to 2005 at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA. For aspen saplings, fractal dimension of bite density, bite mass, and forage biomass responded quadratically to increasing moose browsing and were greatest at -3-4 g-g.m-2.yr"1 consumption. For balsam fir, in contrast, these same measures declined steadily with increasing moose browsing. The different responses of plant canopies to increased browsing altered d* around plants. In summer, d* > d for aspen saplings at all prior consumption levels. Food processing therefore regulated summer moose feeding rates across our landscapes. In winter, changes in bite mass due to past browsing were sufficient to cause d* < d for aspen and balsam fir. Therefore, travel velocity and food processing jointly regulated intake rate during winter. Browsing-induced changes in the small-scale geometry of plant canopies can determine intake rate at larger spatial scales by changing d* relative to d and, hence, which mechanisms determine intake rate, essentially altering how herbivores sense the distribution of their food resources. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes. (United States)

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis


    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca.

  11. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States. (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin


    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  12. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees (United States)

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.


    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  13. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

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    Michael B Wilson

    Full Text Available The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides, and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees.

  14. Study on the Assistant Hypoglycemic Efficacy of Six Functional Food Materials%六种保健食品原料的辅助降血糖功效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董义; 王斯慧; 曾里; 曾凡骏


    选择苦瓜、苦荞、葛根、桑叶、西洋参、绞股蓝6种具有辅助降血糖功能的保健食品原料进行降血糖功效研究。采用相同提取工艺得到提取物,以检测其对α-淀粉酶和α-葡萄糖苷酶活力的抑制作用作为辅助降血糖体外评价方法,与拜糖平在相同条件下进行对比,分别研究其辅助降血糖功效。实验得出,六种原料均有明显辅助降血糖功效。其中,苦瓜效果最好,其次为苦荞和绞股蓝,可作为辅助降血糖功能食品的原料。%Six materials, balsam melon, Tartary buckwheat, kudzu root, mulberry leaves, American ginseng and gynostemma pentaphylla, which could be used in functional food were chosen to have tests on its assistant hypoglycemic efficacy. The extractions were prepared through same process. By detecting the inhibition effect toα-amylase andα-glucosidase as the in-vitro evaluation method, the assistant hypoglycemic efficacy of these six materials' extracts were compared with Acarbose under the same condition. The result showed that all of these six materials could help to reduce the blood sugar levels. Among them, balsam melon has the best effect followed by Tartary buckwheat and gynostemma pentaphylla, which can be used as the raw material in functional foods.

  15. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirjana, Marlene, E-mail:; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi [School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  16. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

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    Timothy Work


    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae and ground beetles (Carabidae, immediately following 1 stem-only harvesting (SOH, in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches are retained on site, and 2 whole-tree harvesting (WTH, in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, A. klagesi, A. strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae. Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH and stem only (SOH harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the lower epidermis whereas Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides showed the presence of mucilage gland in the upper epidermis. Epidermal cell of Chromolaena odorata are very large with undulating cell walls. The species studied had various adaptive anatomical features. The stomatal frequency of Azadirachta indica was very high. With the exception of Chromolaena odorata the stomatal frequencies of the species were relatively high. The stomatal dimensions showed that most of the species maintained constant stomatal length during the study period except Griffonia simplicifolia that increased the stomatal width during the afternoon. Unlike Morinda lucida, Griffonia simplicifolia and Chromolaena odorata, that showed reduction in the breadth of stomata, the other species maintained constant stomatal width.

  18. Fun in the Kitchen

    CERN Multimedia


    You may be familiar with Microcosm's "Fun with Physics" hands-on activities programme, which is the delight of young and old alike. In order to demonstrate the different states of matter, the "Fun with Physics"1 guides use liquid nitrogen to freeze various substances. Yoghurts, for example, are instantaneously turned into mouth-watering ice-creams! But, did you know that a distinguished chef also uses this technique? Ettore Bocchia, chef at the Grand Hotel Villa Serbelloni in Italy, uses liquid nitrogen at -196°C to freeze the dishes he prepares. Mix some yoghurts, add a soupçon of balsamic vinegar, pour in some liquid nitrogen at -196°C and the result is some delicious ice-cream. This was the recipe that Ettore Bocchia (in the centre of the picture on the left), the distinguished Italian chef, presented at the Gourmet Festival. He gave a demonstration of his skills at the St. Moritz Gourmet Festival, during the week beginning 2 February, in which the best chefs from around the world took part. CERN, whic...

  19. Pervasive influence of large-scale climate in the dynamics of a terrestrial vertebrate community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forchhammer Mads C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale climatic variability has been implicated in the population dynamics of many vertebrates throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but has not been demonstrated to directly influence dynamics at multiple trophic levels of any single system. Using data from Isle Royale, USA, comprising time series on the long-term dynamics at three trophic levels (wolves, moose, and balsam fir, we analyzed the relative contributions of density dependence, inter-specific interactions, and climate to the dynamics of each level of the community. Results Despite differences in dynamic complexity among the predator, herbivore, and vegetation levels, large-scale climatic variability influenced dynamics directly at all three levels. The strength of the climatic influence on dynamics was, however, strongest at the top and bottom trophic levels, where density dependence was weakest. Conclusions Because of the conflicting influences of environmental variability and intrinsic processes on population stability, a direct influence of climate on the dynamics at all three levels suggests that climate change may alter stability of this community. Theoretical considerations suggest that if it does, such alteration is most likely to result from changes in stability at the top or bottom trophic levels, where the influence of climate was strongest.

  20. Ecological genomics meets community-level modelling of biodiversity: mapping the genomic landscape of current and future environmental adaptation. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Keller, Stephen R


    Local adaptation is a central feature of most species occupying spatially heterogeneous environments, and may factor critically in responses to environmental change. However, most efforts to model the response of species to climate change ignore intraspecific variation due to local adaptation. Here, we present a new perspective on spatial modelling of organism-environment relationships that combines genomic data and community-level modelling to develop scenarios regarding the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to environmental change. Rather than modelling species within communities, we use these techniques to model large numbers of loci across genomes. Using balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) as a case study, we demonstrate how our framework can accommodate nonlinear responses of loci to environmental gradients. We identify a threshold response to temperature in the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA-5 (GI5), suggesting that this gene has experienced strong local adaptation to temperature. We also demonstrate how these methods can map ecological adaptation from genomic data, including the identification of predicted differences in the genetic composition of populations under current and future climates. Community-level modelling of genomic variation represents an important advance in landscape genomics and spatial modelling of biodiversity that moves beyond species-level assessments of climate change vulnerability.

  1. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae). (United States)

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber


    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections.

  2. The life cycle of Bucephalus margaritae Ozaki & Ishibashi, 1934 (Digenea, Bucephalidae from the coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.5596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaber Pereira Junior


    Full Text Available The orange disease is considered the main parasitosis in Perna perna mussel. It is caused by a complex life cycle bucephalid, involving three hosts, among them mollusks and fishes. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of orange disease in mussel culture, the parasite life cycle was investigated. Experimental studies and monthly samples in the study area allowed the identification and characterization of the Bucephalus margaritae life cycle. Larvae and adults of B. margaritae were fixed in 5% formaldehyde, stained with Gomori’s trichrome, clarified in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. The cercariae are found in the first intermediate host P. perna inside the sporocysts, which have the form of orange and ramified filaments. The metacercariae encysts in the gills and gill cavity of the second intermediate host, the blenniid Hypleurochilus fissicornis. The definitive host Menticirrhus americanus is infected ingesting blenniids parasitized with metacercariae. The high parasitological indexes of B. margaritae suggests that M. americanus and H. fissicornis act as the main definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, in the trematode life cycle. The blenniid H. fissicornis is a new intermediate host to the species.

  3. Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate Application Enhances Aromatic Compound Concentration in Bog Bilberry Syrup Wine. (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Yang; Li, Yi-Qing; Li, Teng; Yang, Hang-Yu; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Bo-Lin; Zhu, Bao-Qing


    A nitrogen deficiency always causes bog bilberry syrup wine to have a poor sensory feature. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen source addition on volatile compounds during bog bilberry syrup wine fermentation. The syrup was supplemented with 60, 90, 120 or 150 mg/L dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP) before fermentation. Results showed that an increase of DAP amounts accelerated fermentation rate, increased alcohol content, and decreased sugar level. Total phenol and total flavonoid content were also enhanced with the increase of DAP amounts. A total of 91 volatile compounds were detected in the wine and their concentrations were significantly enhanced with the increase of DAP. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, levo-2,3-butanediol, 2-phenylethanol, meso-2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid exhibited a significant increase of their odor activity value (OAV) with the increase of DAP amounts. Bog bilberry syrup wine possessed fruity, fatty, and caramel flavors as its major aroma, whereas a balsamic note was the least present. The increase of DAP amounts significantly improved the global aroma attributes, thereby indicating that DAP supplementation could promote wine fermentation performance and enhance the sensory quality of bog bilberry syrup wine.

  4. Chiral MEKC-LIF of amino acids in foods: analysis of vinegars. (United States)

    Carlavilla, Davinia; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Fanali, Salvatore; Cifuentes, Alejandro


    The formation of D-amino acids (D-aa's) in many fermented foods depends, among other factors, on the particular fermentation conditions, the action and autolysis of the microorganisms involved. In this sense, the analysis of chiral amino acids is an interesting analytical strategy for food scientists, since these compounds can be used as bacterial markers and can help, e.g., to detect adulterations, microbiological contaminations, etc. In this work, a fast and sensitive method based on MEKC-LIF has been developed to analyze and quantitate L-amino acid (L-aa) and D-aa in vinegars. The chiral MEKC-LIF procedure uses 100 mM sodium tetraborate, 30 mM SDS, and 20 mM beta-CD at pH 9.7 as running buffer, obtaining a good separation of the main vinegar L-/D-aa previously derivatized with fluorescein isothiocianate. Namely, L/D proline, alanine, arginine, glutamic, and aspartic acid, plus the nonchiral amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid are separated in less than 20 min with high efficiency (up to 720,000 plates/m) and good sensitivity (LODs lower than 16.6 nM were achieved). Several D-aa's were detected and quantified in balsamic, sherry, white wine, and cider vinegars using this MEKC-LIF procedure, observing interesting differences in their L-aa and D-aa profiles and contents.

  5. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages (United States)

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.


    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  6. Simultaneous determination of preservatives in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption GC-MS. (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Takino, Masahiko; Yamashita, Satoru; Daishima, Shigeki; Heiden, Arnd C; Hoffmann, Andreas


    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven preservatives - sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters - in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks has been developed using the stir-bar sorptive extraction technique then thermal desorption GC-MS analysis. The extraction conditions - pH, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and extraction time - were examined. d5-Benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid sec-butyl ester were added as surrogate internal standards to compensate for the effect of sample matrix and coexisting analytes on the sorptive extraction. The linearity of the method was good over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 microg mL(-1) for sorbic acid, 10-1000 microg mL(-1) for benzoic acid, and 0.1-100 microg mL(-1) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9984. The limit of detection ranged from 0.015 to 3.3 microg mL(-1). The recoveries (95-105%) and precision (RSD: 0.86-6.0%) of the method were examined by analyzing a sparkling soft drink, white wine, red wine, balsamic vinegar, soy sauce, and quasi-drug drink samples fortified at the 5 to 50 microg mL(-1) level.

  7. The importance of mercury in leaves, bark and wood of eight tree species across four northeastern forests (United States)

    Yanai, R. D.; Yang, Y.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.


    Mercury (Hg) deposition affects forests even in remote areas, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known, in part because concentrations of Hg in wood are often below the analytical detection limit by ICP-OES. We analyzed Hg in wood, bark, and foliage of 8 tree species across four sites (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME) in the northeastern USA, using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (USEPA Method 7473). The hardwood species, namely American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), had lower Hg concentrations (averaging 7.7 ng g-1 in bark and 16.3 ng g-1 in foliage) than the conifers, namely red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) (averaging 22.5 ng g-1 in bark and 28.6 ng g-1 in foliage) (p forest vegetation.

  8. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec

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    Serge Payette


    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macrocharcoal analysis. Despite having experienced a different number of fire events, the fire history of the maple sites was broadly similar, with two main periods of fire activity, i.e., early- to mid-Holocene and late-Holocene. A long fire-free interval of at least 3500 years separated the two periods from the mid-Holocene to 2000 years ago. The maple sites differ with respect to fire frequency and synchronicity of the last millennia. According to the botanical composition of charcoal, forest vegetation remained relatively homogenous during the Holocene, except recently. Conifer and broadleaf species coexisted in mixed forests during the Holocene, in phase with fire events promoting the regeneration of boreal and temperate tree assemblages including balsam fir (Abies balsamea and sugar maple.

  9. The effectiveness of jewelweed, Impatiens capensis, the related cultivar I. balsamina and the component, lawsone in preventing post poison ivy exposure contact dermatitis. (United States)

    Abrams Motz, Vicki; Bowers, Christopher P; Mull Young, Linda; Kinder, David H


    Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) is native to the Eastern and Midwestern US and Canada. Many Native American tribes used I. capensis and its close relatives to treat/prevent rash from plant sources particularly Toxicodendron radicans and Urtica dioica. I. balsamina (garden balsam) a native of China was used by the indigenous people of Asia for similar purposes. This study aims to validate ethnopharmacological use of jewelweed in poison ivy (PI) dermatitis prevention and to refute scientific papers denying this efficacy. Additionally, the content of lawsone, the purported effective agent in jewelweed preparations, was measured to see if its concentration correlated with jewelweed preparation efficacy. Poison ivy was brushed onto forearms of volunteers in 6 locations and exposed areas were treated with jewelweed extracts, fresh plant mashes, soaps made of plant extracts, water and Dawn® dish soap. Rash development was scored on a scale of 0-14. Jewelweed mash was effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis, supporting ethnobotanical use. However, jewelweed extracts were not effective; and soaps made of these extracts were effective but no more so than jewelweed-free soaps. Lawsone content varied with harvest season and did not appear to affect rash development. Jewelweed is an efficacious plant for preventing development of dermatitis following poison ivy contact, but soap is more effective. Lawsone content does not correlate with PI rash prevention. Perhaps saponins, the soapy component of jewelweed are the effective agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). (United States)

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J


    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  11. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential. (United States)

    Laureysens, I; De Temmerman, L; Hastir, T; Van Gysel, M; Ceulemans, R


    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha(-1) of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha(-1) for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha(-1) for Zn over two years.

  12. [Chewing-lice species (Phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in Turkey]. (United States)

    Dik, Bilal


    This study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. Birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the Veterinary Faculty or Animal Keeping House of Konya Municipal. Firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. Then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. One long-eared owl, one Eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzards and five rock pigeons were found to be infested with lice, the others were not. The lice were mounted on slides into Canada balsam after being cleared in KOH 10 % and were identified to species under the light microscope. The lice were identified as Strigiphilus barbatus collected from the long-eared owl, as Kurodaia fulvofasciata collected from the Eurasian buzzard, as Crasspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Colpocephalum nanum collected from long-legged buzzards and as Columbicola columbae collected from rock pigeons. This is the first time that Kurodaia fulvofasciata from the Eurasian buzzard and Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl has been recorded in Turkey.

  13. Occupational dermatoses from colophony exposure

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    Aleš Christian Mihelač


    Full Text Available Colophony is a resin, obtained from pine trees. It has many applications in industry as well as in products for everyday life and exposure is virtually impossible to avoid. In article, we concentrate on occupational exposure, which is frequent in workers in electronics, furniture and paper industry, production of adhesives, plastics, printing ink and synthetic rubber as well as in everyone, daily in contact with products, which contain colophony, or pine wood, like carpenters and woodworkers. Main allergens are oxidation products of abietic-type acids, but cross-reactivity with fragrances, wood resins, Balsam of Peru, wood tar and oil of turpentine is also possible. Exposure to colophony manifests itself on skin in allergic patients mainly as allergic contact dermatitis. The diagnosis is based on history of exposure, clinical presentation and epicutaneous testing. Although the only effective treatment is complete avoidance of exposure, it is difficult to avoid colophony. Consequently, prophylaxis is essential and concentrates on safe working practices, personal hygiene and protection.

  14. Specimen Preservation and Slide Preparation for Newly Hatched Larvae Nymph of Scale Insects%蚧虫初孵若虫采集、保存和玻片标本制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰军; 王自力; 陈晓鸣


    蚧虫初孵若虫用FAA固定液固定有利于玻片制作和长期保存.在虫体软化、脱水、染色和清洗过程中,使用自制转移虫袋,使得虫体转移更为简易,并可以进行批量处理.用丁香油替代二甲苯、Euparal替代中性树脂或加拿大树胶,使制作过程更具有安全性.%Methods of fixation and slide preparation for newly hatched larvae nymph of scale insects are introduced. FAA fixation is favorable to long-term preservation and slide preparation for newly hatched larvae nymph of scale insets. Self-made bags were used to transfer the insects during maceration, dehydration, coloration, and cleaning, which made larvae transferring easier and mass production possible. The process of slide preparation would be more safety by replacing Canada balsam or neutral resins by euparal and xylene by clove oil, respectively.

  15. Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory. (United States)

    Schubert, Hans-Jürgen


    The aim of this study is to find out the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. Site inspection, dermatological examination and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with 4 perfume oils and 30 ingredients of them. The results showed 6 bottlers were found suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, 2 from irritant contact dermatitis, 12 workers showed different strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were 2 perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde(9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). Nobody was tested positive to balsam of Peru. Job changes for office workers, packers or printers to other rooms, where they had no longer contact with fragrances, led to a settling. To conclude, automation and replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and using gloves may minimize the risk.

  16. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, K E


    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested...... with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes...... and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix...

  17. DNA recovery from microhymenoptera using six non-destructive methodologies with considerations for subsequent preparation of museum slides. (United States)

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Suaste-Dzul, Alba P; Gallou, Adrien; Peña-Carrillo, Kenzy I


    Because of the tiny size of microhymenoptera, successful morphological identification typically requires specific mounting protocols that require time, skills, and experience. Molecular taxonomic identification is an alternative, but many DNA extraction protocols call for maceration of the whole specimen, which is not compatible with preserving museum vouchers. Thus, non-destructive DNA isolation methods are attractive alternatives for obtaining DNA without damaging sample individuals. However, their performance needs to be assessed in microhymenopterans. We evaluated six non-destructive methods: (A) DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit; (B) DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit, modified; (C) Protocol with CaCl2 buffer; (D) Protocol with CaCl2 buffer, modified; (E) HotSHOT; and (F) Direct PCR. The performance of each DNA extraction method was tested across several microhymenopteran species by attempting to amplify the mitochondrial gene COI from insect specimens of varying ages: 1 day, 4 months, 3 years, 12 years, and 23 years. Methods B and D allowed COI amplification in all insects, while methods A, C, and E were successful in DNA amplification from insects up to 12 years old. Method F, the fastest, was useful in insects up to 4 months old. Finally, we adapted permanent slide preparation in Canada balsam for every technique. The results reported allow for combining morphological and molecular methodologies for taxonomic studies.

  18. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions (United States)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip


    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  19. Seasonality on the antifungal potential of green propolis collected in Campo Grande - MS, Brazil

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    Daiane Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Apis melífera L. propolis is a resinous and balsamic material whose biological effects are related to its chemical composition. This chemical composition is greatly influenced by seasonality, so propolis from different seasons and regions has a different chemical composition. The increasing need for natural options to control fungi that cause damage to food crops makes propolis an alternative that deserves more research. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the antifungal potential of propolis collected in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, on the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae . Effects of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of green propolis on the mycelial growth of the pathogen were evaluated. Concentrations of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the samples were also determined by spectrophotometric methods. Results showed that the propolis extracts have a different chemical composition, potential fungi static effects on the tested fungus, and that there is interference of seasonality on the mycelial growth of the fungus, pointing to the concentration of 1250µg 100mL-1of the samples collected in the summer, in a first moment, as the most efficient.

  20. Patch test reactions to cosmetic allergens in 1995-1997 and 2000-2002 in Finland--a multicentre study. (United States)

    Hasan, T; Rantanen, T; Alanko, K; Harvima, R J; Jolanki, R; Kalimo, K; Lahti, A; Lammintausta, K; Lauerma, A I; Laukkanen, A; Luukkaala, T; Riekki, R; Turjanmaa, K; Varjonen, E; Vuorela, A-M


    Contact sensitivity to cosmetics is common, but the sensitizing chemicals vary between countries and study periods. The present survey aimed at revealing the recent trends in patch test sensitivity with cosmetic chemicals in Finland. We report a retrospective multicentre survey of patch test reactions focusing on cosmetic-related substances and comparing the test results in 1995-97 with those in 2000-02. The most striking increases in the frequency of the patch test sensitivity were found with balsam of Peru and propolis from 4.0% to 6.2% (P methyldibromo glutaronitrile increased, although not significantly, from 1.0% to 1.5%. An increasing tendency was also found with hair dye chemicals 4-aminophenol and toluene-2,5-diamine or toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate from 1.3% to 3.8% and from 1.4% to 5.2%, respectively, while such a tendency was not found among permanent wave chemicals. The sensitivity level of fragrance mix remained the same (6% - 7%). We conclude that surveys revealing the state of sensitivity to cosmetic chemicals should be performed periodically in different countries.

  1. Windthrow Dynamics in Boreal Ontario: A Simulation of the Vulnerability of Several Stand Types across a Range of Wind Speeds

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    Kenneth A. Anyomi


    Full Text Available In Boreal North America, management approaches inspired by the variability in natural disturbances are expected to produce more resilient forests. Wind storms are recurrent within Boreal Ontario. The objective of this study was to simulate wind damage for common Boreal forest types for regular as well as extreme wind speeds. The ForestGALES_BC windthrow prediction model was used for these simulations. Input tree-level data were derived from permanent sample plot (PSP data provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. PSPs were assigned to one of nine stand types: Balsam fir-, Jack pine-, Black spruce-, and hardwood-dominated stands, and, Jack pine-, spruce-, conifer-, hardwood-, and Red and White pine-mixed species stands. Morphological and biomechanical parameters for the major tree species were obtained from the literature. At 5 m/s, predicted windthrow ranged from 0 to 20%, with damage increasing to 2 to 90% for winds of 20 m/s and to 10 to 100% for winds of 40 m/s. Windthrow varied by forest stand type, with lower vulnerability within hardwoods. This is the first study to provide such broad simulations of windthrow vulnerability data for Boreal North America, and we believe this will benefit policy decisions regarding risk management and forest planning.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objectives.To determine the natural crustacean host,the Paragonimus species,and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals.Methods. The laboratory animals such as puppies,albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs,Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35~328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages.Results. A total of 11 worms,5 mature,5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae,worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus.Conclusion. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  3. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail:;;;;


    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  4. Vulnerability of the boreal forest to climate change: are managed forests more susceptible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gauthier, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Saint-Foy, PQ (Canada). Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre; Bergeron, Y.; Harvey, B. [Quebec Univ., Abitibi-Temiscaminque, PQ (Canada)


    This paper postulates that forests dominated by younger seral stages are less vulnerable to climate change that those composed of mature and overmature stands. To support this analysis, an overview of expected changes in climate conditions was provided. Expected changes include higher maximum temperatures, higher minimum temperatures and a decrease in periods of intense cold and fewer frost days; reduction in the diurnal temperature range; an increase in the apparent heat index; greater numbers of intense precipitation; and, increased risk of drought associated with air mass movements. A comparison between conditions in a managed forest mosaic and natural forests was made, with managed forests differing due to efforts to regulate the age structure. The inversion in the age structure of forest mosaics creates significant changes in structural characteristics and composition, including greater hardwood components and more even-aged stands. It was concluded that in Canada, managed boreal forests are younger and have less black spruce and more hardwoods and fir, making younger forests less vulnerable to fire and more amenable to fire control due to increased accessibility. It was also noted that because of their relative youth, managed forests are more vulnerable to regeneration failure and that managed forests with more balsam fir and trembling aspen are at greater risk for insect outbreaks. In addition, wind throw, a threat to older forests, is not significant in managed forests. 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Prevalence and relevance of secondary contact sensitizers in subjects with psoriasis

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    D S Krupashankar


    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis may be complicated by contact dermatitis due to an impaired cutaneous barrier. Patch testing helps elucidate sensitizers if any. Aims: To determine the prevalence and relevance of secondary contact dermatitis in subjects with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Patch testing with Indian Standard Series was done and readings interpreted after 48 and 96 hours. Results: Among 110 subjects 47 (42.7% showed reactions to at least one antigen. Fifteen (13.6% reacted to fragrance mix, 10 (9.1% to nickel sulfate, seven (6.4% to parthenium, and six (5.5% to balsam of Peru. Palmoplantar psoriasis was the commonest type of psoriasis patch tested. Fragrance mix was the commonest antigen showing 100% current relevance as an aggravating factor of psoriasis. Cosmetics, beauty preparations, skin and healthcare products followed by topical medications were found to be the most common sources of the patch test positivity. Conclusions: Secondary contact dermatitis is common in patients with psoriasis. Patch testing is necessary to determine the triggering or aggravating antigens in these patients to avoid sensitizers and improve quality of life.

  6. Nucleotide diversity among natural populations of a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae). (United States)

    Breen, Amy L; Glenn, Elise; Yeager, Adam; Olson, Matthew S


    Poplars (Populus spp.) comprise an important component of circumpolar boreal forest ecosystems and are the model species for tree genomics. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation and population differentiation in three nuclear genes among populations of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in North America. We examined nucleotide sequence variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), two well-studied nuclear loci in plants, and abscisic acid insensitivity 1B (ABI1B), a locus coincident with timing of seasonal dormancy in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of hybrid poplars. We compared estimates of baseline population genetic parameters for these loci with those obtained in studies of other poplar species, particularly European aspen (Populus tremula). Average pairwise nucleotide diversity (pi(tot) = 0.00216-0.00353) was equivalent to that in Populus trichocarpa, but markedly less than that in P. tremula. Elevated levels of population structure were observed in ABI1B between the northern and southern regions (F(CT) = 0.184, P boreal plant species.

  7. Major phenolic and volatile compounds and their influence on sensorial aspects in stem-contact fermentation winemaking of Primitivo red wines. (United States)

    Suriano, S; Alba, V; Di Gennaro, D; Basile, T; Tamborra, M; Tarricone, L


    In red winemaking de-stemming is crucial since the stems contain polymeric phenolic compounds responsible for the astringency of wine. Wine such as Primitivo has low phenolic constituents and tannins and stems affect aroma, taste body and olfactory characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of presence of stems during fermentation on polyphenolic, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of wine. Primitivo grapes vinified in presence of different percentage of stems: 100 % de-stemmed (D100), 75 % de-stemmed (D75) and 50 % de-stemmed (D50). Results confirmed that the wines vinified in presence of stems were higher in tannins, flavans, to vanillin and proanthocyanidins, colour intensity with lower anthocyanins. The presence of stems during fermentation conferred more structure and flavour to wines. They facilitated must aeration thus promoting synthesis of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast. In particular, a higher content of hexan-1-ol, hex-3-en-1-ol and 2-phenyl ethanol in D50 and D75 gave the wines that suggest green grass, herb and floral. Wine from D75 seemed to be better than D50 in terms of volatile compounds as well as fruity, floral and balsamic components preserved, without any unpleasant taste of long chain fatty acids found in D50.

  8. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields. (United States)

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok


    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided.

  9. Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors. (United States)

    Testa, Rylan J; Michaels, Matthew S; Bliss, Whitney; Rogers, Megan L; Balsam, Kimberly F; Joiner, Thomas


    Research has revealed alarmingly high rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. This study aims to analyze the role of factors from the gender minority stress and resilience (GMSR) model (Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting, 2015), the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010), and the potential integration of these factors, in explaining SI in this population. A convenience sample of 816 TGNC adults responded to measures of current SI, gender minority stressors, and IPTS factors. Path analysis was utilized to test 2 models. Model 1 evaluated the associations between external minority stressors and SI through internal minority stressors. Model 2 examined the relationships between internal minority stressors and SI through IPTS variables (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). All GMSR external stressors (rejection, nonaffirmation, victimization, and discrimination), internal stressors (internalized transphobia, negative expectations, and nondisclosure), and IPTS factors (thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) were related to SI. Both models demonstrated good fit. Model 1 revealed that rejection, nonaffirmation, and victimization were related to SI through experiences of internalized transphobia and negative expectations. Model 2 indicated that internalized transphobia and negative expectations were associated with SI through IPTS factors. The models demonstrate pathways through which GMSR and IPTS constructs relate to one another and confer risk for SI among TGNC individuals. These pathways and several recently proposed constructs examined here provide promising directions for future research and clinical interventions in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada

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    Dan A. MacIsaac


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce in Alberta (Canada with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter. Fixed effects models (without plot as subject including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter. Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models.

  11. Insect-plant interactions: endocrine defences. (United States)

    Bowers, W S


    It is the inevitable consequence of evolution that competitive species living together in a restricted space must try to exclude each other. Plants and insects are prime examples of this eternal competition, and although neither of these is in danger of extinction, their mutual defensive strategies are of compelling interest to the human race. Plant defences based on the insecticidal activity of certain of their secondary chemicals are readily apparent. Only through research into the fundamentals of insect physiology and biochemistry are more subtle defensive mechanisms revealed, linked to the disruption of the insect endocrine system. A diverse number of chemical structures are found in plants, which interfere with hormone-mediated processes in insects. Examples include: mimics of the insect's juvenile hormones such as juvabione from the balsam fir and the juvocimenes from sweet basil, which lethally disrupt insect development, and the precocenes found in Ageratum species, which act as anti-juvenile hormonal agents. The latter appear to serve as 'suicide substrates', undergoing activation into cytotoxins when acted on by specialized enzymes resident in the insect endocrine gland (corpus allatum) that is responsible for juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Consideration of these plant defensive strategies, which have been reached through aeons of evolutionary experimentation, may assist the human race in its defences against its principal competitors for food, fibre and health.

  12. Sexual epigenetics: gender-specific methylation of a gene in the sex determining region of Populus balsamifera (United States)

    Bräutigam, Katharina; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Champigny, Marc; Mansfield, Shawn; Douglas, Carl; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Cronk, Quentin


    Methylation has frequently been implicated in gender determination in plants. The recent discovery of the sex determining region (SDR) of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, pinpointed 13 genes with differentiated X and Y copies. We tested these genes for differential methylation using whole methylome sequencing of xylem tissue of multiple individuals grown under field conditions in two common gardens. The only SDR gene to show a marked pattern of gender-specific methylation is PbRR9, a member of the two component response regulator (type-A) gene family, involved in cytokinin signalling. It is an ortholog of Arabidopsis genes ARR16 and ARR17. The strongest patterns of differential methylation (mostly male-biased) are found in the putative promoter and the first intron. The 4th intron is strongly methylated in both sexes and the 5th intron is unmethylated in both sexes. Using a statistical learning algorithm we find that it is possible accurately to assign trees to gender using genome-wide methylation patterns alone. The strongest predictor is the region coincident with PbRR9, showing that this gene stands out against all genes in the genome in having the strongest sex-specific methylation pattern. We propose the hypothesis that PbRR9 has a direct, epigenetically mediated, role in poplar sex determination. PMID:28345647

  13. 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods. (United States)

    Degen, Julia; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas


    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), and methylglyoxal (MGO) together with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 173 food items like bakery products, pasta, nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages, sweet spreads, and condiments was performed. Following suitable cleanup procedures, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds were quantitated after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine via RP-HPLC with UV detection. 3-DG proved to be the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with concentrations up to 410 mg/L in fruit juices, 2622 mg/L in balsamic vinegars, and 385 mg/kg in cookies, thus exceeding the corresponding concentrations of HMF. 3-DGal was found to be of relevance in many foods even in the absence of galactose. MGO was only of minor quantitative importance in all foods studied, except for manuka honey. Dietary intake was estimated to range between 20 and 160 mg/day for 3-DG and 5 and 20 mg/day for MGO, respectively.

  14. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology. (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel


    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology ( Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Vidas e ilustrações de Santas penitentes desnudas, no deserto e em peregrinação,no Flos Sanctorum de 1513

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    António José de Almeida


    Full Text Available The attempt to identify a recumbent, half-naked female figure, which was recently discovered in a wall painting in the Church of Our Lady of Balsamão, in Chacim (Macedo de Cavaleiros, Trás-os-Montes, prompted the author of this paper to investigate the lives and illustrations of penitent naked female saints on Legendaries printed in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, with particular reference to the Iberian Peninsula, and specifically to the Flos Sanctorum em lingoagem portugues, printed in Lisbon at 1513. In them there are two kinds of naked female saints linked with penitential forms of life: those that lived in desert or uninhabited places (such as Saint Mary of Egypt or Saint Mary Magdalene, but also those that had went on pilgrimage (the three women of the Iberian legend of the Four Crowned Saints.In connection with his current subject of research, the author takes this opportunity of publishing also the results of his recent research in the field of prints illustrating the trifacial Holy Trinity holding the scutum fidei, and surrounded by the Evangelical tetramorph.

  16. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

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    Baby Joseph


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D


    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  18. Utilization of the invasive plant Impatiens parviflora DC. by the snail Columella edentula Draparnaud in oak-hornbeam forests

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    Renata Piskorz


    Full Text Available This study investigated the extend to which the snail Columella edentula is more strongly associated with the small balsam Impatiens parviflora than with other plants in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest, and to interpret the character of the interaction Impatiens parviflora - Columella edentula. Numbers of C. edentula and rates of colonization were compared on various plant species under natural and laboratory conditions. Seasonal variation in snail abundance on I. parviflora was observed on permanent plots. The leaf injuries caused by C. edentula were localized in respect of the morphological and anatomical structure of leaves. The results show that I. parviflora is one of the plant species of the herb layer that are most abundantly colonized by this snail in oak-hornbeam forest. Snail finds a plant particularly suitable as a place for resting. The most favoured attachment site is on the underside of the leaf, along the midrib, which provides the highest and relatively stable humidity, as well as protection from direct sunlight and predators. I. parviflora is also a food for the snails, but they do not eat these fragments of leaves where calcium carbonate is accumulated.

  19. Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in soft drinks, sauces and vinegars of Greek market using two liquid chromatography techniques. (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Moti, Sofia; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Goumenou, Marina; Nosyrev, Alexander E; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M


    The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers. A total of thirty-four samples (soft drinks, beers, balsamic vinegars, energy drinks and sauces) were collected and analyzed. The quality parameters for both analytical methodologies (linearity, accuracy, inter day precision, recovery) are presented. No detectable levels of 4-MEI are found in beers and soft drink samples, other than cola type. On the other hand, 4-MEI was detected in all cola type soft drinks (15.8-477.0 ng/ml), energy drinks (57.1%, 6.6-22.5 ng/ml) and vinegar samples (66.7%, 9.7-3034.7 ng/ml), while only one of the sauce samples was found to have a detectable level of 17.5 ng/ml 4-MEI.

  20. Holocene Vegetation Dynamics of Anticosti Island, Québec, and Consequences of Remoteness on Ecological Succession (United States)

    Lavoie, Martin; Filion, Louise


    The postglacial vegetation history of Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, was reconstructed from pollen analysis of three sites, providing the first paleoecological data for the island. The earliest plant communities (8550-7770 14C yr B.P.; 9500-8500 cal yr B.P.) were characterized by a high representation of green alder (Alnus crispa), indicating an open environment with sparse spruce (Picea). Between 7770 and 3700 14C yr B.P. (8500-4000 cal yr B.P.), the island was colonized by mixed deciduous and coniferous forests dominated by paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and spruce. A major increase in the abundance of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) occurred ca. 3700 14C yr B.P. (4000 cal yr B.P.), indicating development of the closed fir-spruce forests as they exist today. The island's remoteness from continental seed plant sources influenced plant colonization, afforestation, and ecological succession. The Gulf of St. Lawrence slowed plant migration, and tree species had to spread from the Gaspé Peninsula. Repeated drops in fir pollen percentages during the last 4,000 years may reflect the activity of defoliating insects.

  1. Involvement of allelopathy in inhibition of understory growth in red pine forests. (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake


    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forests are characterized by sparse understory vegetation although sunlight intensity on the forest floor is sufficient for undergrowth. The possible involvement of pine allelopathy in the establishment of the sparse understory vegetation was investigated. The soil of the red pine forest floor had growth inhibitory activity on six test plant species including Lolium multiflorum, which was observed at the edge of the forest but not in the forest. Two growth inhibitory substances were isolated from the soil and characterized to be 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid. Those compounds are probably formed by degradation process of resin acids. Resin acids are produced by pine and delivered into the soil under the pine trees through balsam and defoliation. Threshold concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid for the growth inhibition of L. multiflorum were 30 and 10μM, respectively. The concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the soil were 312 and 397μM, respectively, which are sufficient concentrations to cause the growth inhibition because of the threshold. These results suggest that those compounds are able to work as allelopathic agents and may prevent from the invasion of herbaceous plants into the forests by inhibiting their growth. Therefore, allelopathy of red pine may be involved in the formation of the sparse understory vegetation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers. (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G


    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  3. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts. (United States)

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph


    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities.

  4. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.


    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  5. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis: Three years retrospective results in Tekirdağ

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    Gamze Erfan


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in individuals who were sensitized with same allergens before. The causative allergens may change in time as well as vary among geographical and population based differences. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 169 patients-107 (63.3% male, 62 (36.7% female, who patch tested between 2011- 2014 with allergic contact dermatitis diagnosis and test results were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of all patients who had the most frequent occupation as service sector/house wife (26.6% were 41.06 years and the mean disease duration of all patients was 19.5 months. The most frequent localization of disease was hands (n: 105,%73 and %50.3 of patients had positivity with at least one allergen. The most frequent seven allergens with positivity were nickel sulfate (n: 50, %29.6, cobalt chloride (n: 23, %13.6, potassium dichromate (n: 22, %13, sesquiterpene lactone mix (n: 18, %10.7, thiuram (n: 10, %5.9, clioquinol mix (n: 10, %5.9 and 4-tert-butilfenol formaldehyde resin (n: 10, %5.9, respectively. On the other hand in all patients there were no positivity with N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, epoxy resin, balsam of peru, formaldehyde, quaternium-15, primin, tixocortol-21-pivalate, fragrance mix-2. Conclusion: In comparison of this study which first reports patch test results of patients in Tekirdağ-a city in Trakya region and other studies that report patch test results of different regions of our country; the mean age of patients of present study were older and there were similar results for occupations and localization of disease in between eastern region and present study. We believe that further studies are needed to specify allergen characteristics of Trakya region using multicenter studies, which include other cities as well.

  6. Effects of insecticide use on breeding birds in Christmas tree plantations in Quebec. (United States)

    Rondeau, G; Desgranges, J L


    : This research, which was carried out in the spring of 1989 and 1990 in seven balsam fir (Abies balsamea) plantations in southeastern Quebec, examines potential deleterious effects of three insecticides (i.e. dimethoate, diazinon and insecticidal soap) on breeding American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (n=87 nests) and Song Sparrows (Melospizsa melodia) (n=41 nests). Through analyses of blood serum cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) activity both prior to and the second day following applications of the two organophosphorus insecticides, we showed that adult American Robins, Song Sparrows and Chipping Sparrows (Spizella passerina) breeding in the treated plantations were exposed to diazinon and dimethoate (p<0.05). Signs of exposure to diazinon (p<0.05) were also found in young American Robins. However, despite sharp reductions in blood ChE (and, in some cases, marked inhibition confirmed by 2-PAM reactivation), no cases of adult mortality were recorded following the treatments. Cases of complete or partial mortality were recorded in American Robin and Song Sparrow nests, even among control birds (non-exposed birds). No mortality was recorded for broods exposed to the insecticidal soap. Abandonment of nests and egg infertility were ruled out as possible causes of mortality. The cases of total mortality observed in American Robin and Song Sparrow broods exposed to dimethoate were similar to those recorded for control nests (18 and 25% compared to 14 and 21%, respectively). However, among American Robin and Song Sparrow nestlings exposed to diazinon, essentially twice as many cases of total mortality (31 and 38%, respectively) were recorded as for the control nests. It appears that American Robin eggs are sensitive to diazinon and dimethoate, particularly when spraying is carried out early in the incubation stage. In the case of the Song Sparrow, it is mainly the nestlings that succumb after diazinon is sprayed on them or when dimethoate applications are made during the

  7. Forest restoration in a mixed-ownership landscape under climate change. (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Catherine; Scheller, Robert M; Mladenoff, David J; White, Mark A


    The extent to which current landscapes deviate from the historical range of natural variability (RNV) is a common means of defining and ranking regional conservation targets. However, climate-induced shifts in forest composition may render obsolete restoration strategies and conservation targets based on historic climate conditions and disturbance regimes. We used a spatially explicit forest ecosystem model, LANDIS-II, to simulate the interaction of climate change and forest management in northeastern Minnesota, USA. We assessed the relevance of restoration strategies and conservation targets based on the RNV in the context of future climate change. Three climate scenarios (no climate change, low emissions, and high emissions) were simulated with three forest management scenarios: no harvest, current management, and a restoration-based approach where harvest activity mimicked the frequency, severity, and size distribution of historic natural disturbance regimes. Under climate change there was a trend toward homogenization of forest conditions due to the widespread expansion of systems dominated by maple (Acer spp.). White spruce (Picea glauca), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were extirpated from the landscape irrespective of management activity; additional losses of black spruce (P. mariana), red pine (Pinus resinosa), and jack pine (P. banksiana) were projected in the high-emissions scenario. In the restoration management scenario, retention and conversion to white pine (P. strobus) restricted maple expansion. But, widespread forest loss in the restoration scenario under high-emissions projections illustrates the potential pitfalls of implementing an RNV management approach in a system that is not compositionally similar to the historic reference condition. Given the uncertainty associated with climate change, ensuring a diversity of species and conditions within forested landscapes may be the most effective means of ensuring the

  8. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

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    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD, who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1% female and 109 (35.9% male who applied to our clinic between the period of January 2003 and December 2008 and who were tested with patch test with the consideration of ACD. Patch test results were assessed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application.Results: Lesions of ACD were found to be most frequent on the hands (65.5%. A total of 95 (31.3% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (14.8% followed by cobalt chloride (9.2%, potassium dichromate (6.6%, balsam of Peru (3.6%, fragrance mix (3.3%, mercaptobenzothiazole (3% and colophonium (2.3%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to lanolin, mercapto mix, epoxy resin, paraben mix and quaternium-15 were relatively low, while no positive reaction was obtained to formaldehyde in any case. In 51.6% of patients with positive reaction, the responsible allergen was detected by testing with the European Standard Series.Conclusion: Although this study shows that sensitization rate to metals and fragrance are still high in our region, as well as in our country, and are more frequent in females than in males, future prospective multicenter studies with large number of patients would point out the adequacy of the European Standard Series in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 198-202

  9. European Standard Series patch test results from a contact dermatitis clinic in Israel during the 7-year period from 1998 to 2004. (United States)

    Lazarov, Aneta


    The results of a 7-year retrospective study (1998-2004) from patch testing with the European Standard Series (ESS) establishing the frequency of sensitization in a contact dermatitis clinic in Israel are presented. 23 allergens were patch tested on 2156 patients, 1462 females (67.8%) and 694 males (32.2%). Atopy and asthma were present in 21.9% of the patients. One or more allergic reactions were observed in 937 patients (43.5%). The highest yield of patch test positives from the 1076 positive reactions were obtained from nickel sulfate (13.9%), fragrance mix (7.1%), potassium dichromate (3.8%), Balsam of Peru (3.6%), CL+Me-isothiazolinone (3.4%) and cobalt chloride (3.4%). Allergens which produced the least amount of positive results were primin and clioquinol. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was established in 32.8%, whereas occupationally related allergic (8.0) and irritant contact dermatitis (5.6%) affected a total of 13.6% of the cases studied. The most common clinical forms of dermatitis were chronic dermatitis (47.7%) followed by acute dermatitis (22.8%), and lichenification and hyperkeratosis (7.9%). The hands (30.7%), face and neck (23.9%) and extremities (11.3%) were the most frequently affected areas. Four allergens in our study differed from the top 10 allergens in Europe namely: Cl+Me-isothiazolinone, formaldehyde, 4-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin and sesquiterpene lactone mix reflecting an existing difference in environmental exposure. Our study is the first to provide data on the frequency of sensitization and important allergens in the aetiology of ACD in Israel. In spite of the existing differences with Europe, we conclude that ESS is an appropriate screening system for the diagnosis of ACD in Israel.

  10. An empirical, hierarchical typology of tree species assemblages for assessing forest dynamics under global change scenarios. (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Coulston, John W; Wear, David N


    The composition of tree species occurring in a forest is important and can be affected by global change drivers such as climate change. To inform assessment and projection of global change impacts at broad extents, we used hierarchical cluster analysis and over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree assemblages across the U.S., and identified the indicator and dominant species associated with each. Cluster typologies in two levels of a hierarchy of forest assemblages, with 29 and 147 groups respectively, were supported by diagnostic criteria. Groups in these two levels of the hierarchy were labeled based on the top indicator species in each, and ranged widely in size. For example, in the 29-cluster typology, the sugar maple-red maple assemblage contained the largest number of plots (30,068), while the butternut-sweet birch and sourwood-scarlet oak assemblages were both smallest (6 plots each). We provide a case-study demonstration of the utility of the typology for informing forest climate change impact assessment. For five assemblages in the 29-cluster typology, we used existing projections of changes in importance value (IV) for the dominant species under one low and one high climate change scenario to assess impacts to the assemblages. Results ranged widely for each scenario by the end of the century, with each showing an average decrease in IV for dominant species in some assemblages, including the balsam fir-quaking aspen assemblage, and an average increase for others, like the green ash-American elm assemblage. Future work should assess adaptive capacity of these forest assemblages and investigate local population- and community-level dynamics in places where dominant species may be impacted. This typology will be ideal for monitoring, assessing, and projecting changes to forest communities within the emerging framework of macrosystems ecology, which emphasizes hierarchies and broad extents.

  11. Woody crops conference 2013; Agrarholz-Kongress 2013

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    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 19th and 20th February 2013 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Research funding of the BMELV in the field of the production of woody crops (Andreas Schuette); (2) ELKE - Development of extensive concepts of land use for the production of renewable raw materials as possible compensatory measures and substitute measures (Frank Wegener); (3) Knowledge transfer to the realm of practice, experiences of the DLG (Frank Setzer); (4) Results of the tests with fast growing tree species after 18 years of cultivation in Guelzow (Andreas Gurgel); (5) Latest findings on the production of woody crops in Brandenburg (D. Murach); (6) Phytosanitary situation in short-rotation coppices in Germany - Current state of knowledge and prognoses for the future (Christiane Helbig); (7) Evaluation of alternative delivery procedures in short-rotation coppices (Janine Schweier); (8) With a short-rotation coppice shredder through Germany (Wolfram Kudlich); (9) Changes of land-use of traditional crops rotation systems to short-rotation coppices consisting of poplar trees and willow trees, which sites are suitable? - Selected results from the ProLoc association (Martin Hofmann); (10) Cultivation of populus tremula for short-rotation coppices at agricultural areas (Mirko Liesebach); (11) Investigations of the resistance behaviour of newly developed black poplar clones and balsam poplar clones against the poplar leave rust Melampsora larici-populina (Christina Fey-Wagner); (12) A agri-forestry system for ligneous energy production in the organic farming - First results from cultivation experiments in Bavaria (Klaus Wiesinger); (13) Implementation of agri-forestry systems with energy wood in the rural area - the project AgroForstEnergie (Armin Vetter); (14) Impact of agroforestry land utilization on microclimate, soil fertility and quality of water (Christian Boehm).

  12. Watershed Watch - Student-driven Research Experiences That Attract Undeclared Undergraduate Students Into STEM Majors (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Graham, K. J.


    The NSF-sponsored partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), New Hampshire Community Technical College (NHCTC), and the College of the Albemarle (COA) has implemented a unique series of courses designed to attract undergraduate students with undeclared majors into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These courses incorporate student- driven research comparing the Merrimack River (NH/MA) and Pasquotank River watersheds (VA/NC). Entitled Watershed Watch (WW), the courses utilize pedagogical approaches based on hands-on, inquiry-based teaching and learning. In alternating years, a two-week WW summer institute is held in each watershed. Students conduct authentic research on various aspects of the watershed's geology, limnology, and landscape ecology. Then during the academic year, WW students enroll in a course where they are paired with faculty mentors, and engage in more in-depth research projects. Samples of student research include assessing calcium oxalate crystals as an indicator of plant stress in NH red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and GIS modeling/mapping coastal NC changes resulting from postulated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. After completing the first year in a five-year funding cycle, formative/summative evaluation methods have identified the following student perceptions regarding STEM disciplines: participating students found WW to be enjoyable, exciting, and meaningful; as a result of WW, 60 percent of undeclared students from the four-year institutions (UNH/ECSU) declared a STEM major or minor; and approximately 20 percent of the two-year students (NHCTC/COA) enrolled in four-year STEM programs or are employed in STEM fields.

  13. The Speed of Invasion: Rates of Spread for Thirteen Exotic Forest Insects and Diseases

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    Alexander M. Evans


    Full Text Available Invasive, exotic insects and diseases have a devastating effect on North American forests. The rate of spread, or range expansion, is one of the main determinants of an invasive organism’s impact, and can play a major role in structuring management response options. To better understand how exotic organisms have spread through our forests, this study employs a consistent, rigorous analytical framework to analyze a comprehensive geospatial database for the spread of seven exotic insects and six diseases. This study includes new data for six insects and two diseases in combination with five invasive species previously analyzed using the same technique. The quantile regression analysis of over 3000 records of infestation over the preceding century show that the rate of spread of invasive forest insects and diseases ranges from 4.2 km·year−1 to 57.0 km·year−1. The slowest disease spread was white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola at 7.4 km·year−1 while the most rapid disease spread was chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica at 31.3 km·year−1. The slowest insect spread was balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (4.2 km·year−1 while the fastest was emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis at 57.0 km·year−1. Species that can fly long distances or are vectored by flying insects have spread faster than those that are passively dispersed. This analysis highlights the difficulty of estimating spread rates from studies of individual dispersal or flight distances, but the estimated spread rates in this study are generally in line with previous estimates.

  14. Influence of manufacturing procedure on stability of Unguentum contra perniones preparations

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    Bošković Mirjana


    Full Text Available Background. Application of various technological procedures for the manufacture of officinal preparation ointment against chilblains (Unguentum contra perniones produce essential variations in the quality and stability of the final product. Changing the sequence of admixing active substances into the ointment base indicated the presence of incompatibility between the active substances, as well as between the active substances and the ointment base components. The aim was to examine the influence of various technological manufacturing procedures on quality and stability of the preparation. Methods. Changes in the samples of ointments and aqueous solutions of active substances were analyzed microscopically. Results. Microscopic analysis of hydrosoluble active substance solutions demonstrated destruction of ichthammol, induced by an acidic medium due to the dissolution of tannin and resorcinol, which is well known from the literature. It also demonstrated the destruction of tannin and resorcinol in aqueous solution, which had not been described in the literature. Application of the prescribed procedure for the manufacturing of ointment against chilblains, conceals the incompatibility reactions due to a slow dissolution of the tannin suspended in the officinal ointment base Unguentum cera lanae. Admixture of an ready-made aqueous solution of tannin caused an instant contact between ichthammol and the acidic medium, which caused the destruction or the complete absence of the formation of emulsion droplets. The problem of incompatibility reactions between lanolin alcohols in the ointment base and ichthammol and resorcinol, as well as the reaction between Peruvian balsam and sulfur from the ichthammol sulfate ion was observed. Numerous incompatibility reactions of ointment against chilblains, components indicated that it was necessary to introduce alterations in both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the preparation. Conclusion. Excipient

  15. Synthesis of NiCo2O4 nanostructures with different morphologies for the removal of methyl orange (United States)

    Tian, Yaxi; Li, Haizhen; Ruan, Zhongyuan; Cui, Guijia; Yan, Shiqiang


    Aiming to investigate the adsorption removal performance of NiCo2O4 as water purification adsorbents, magnetic materials NiCo2O4 with six different morphologies were successfully synthesized by a facile method. NiCo2O4 with six different morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry. In this study, we mainly explored the effect of specific surface area, pore volume and pore size on the performance for the removal of methyl orange, and the adsorption capacity followed an order of (b) NiCo2O4 nanorods > (e) balsam-like NiCo2O4 > (f) rose-like NiCo2O4 > (d) NiCo2O4 nanoribbons > (a) NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructures > (c) dandelion-like NiCo2O4 spheres. The results indicated that NiCo2O4 nanorods exhibited better adsorption performance. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of NiCo2O4 nanorods were also discussed in depth by analyzing scale and surface characteristics. Besides, NiCo2O4 could be easily recovered from solution, which may avoid potential secondary pollution. Moreover, adsorption kinetics, the influence of pH and adsorption mechanism were comprehensively investigated. This finding indicated that NiCo2O4 were promising adsorbents for water purification.

  16. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization]. (United States)

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G


    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents.

  17. Magruder Park Swamp (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.


    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  18. The Study of a Liquid Droplet Falling Through Two Immiscible Layers of Liquids (United States)

    Mesa, Bianca


    In an exploratory experiment, we noticed the unusual behaviors of liquid droplets falling through layers of oil and water. A rectangular container was filled with an aqueous solution and a layer of oil. A dropper was used to control the size of the droplet. Water was mixed with Bromothymol Blue dye, a chemical indicator, to visualize the flow processes. Surface tension and the buoyancy of the oil layer between the liquid droplet and the water below caused the liquid droplet to be stopped at the interface. Over time, the support weakened and the droplet would fall quickly through the water. The first of two cases was a salt water solution with NaOH, and the second consisted of balsamic vinegar and NaOH. Once the salt water droplet touched the aqueous solution, it collapsed, sank and spread rapidly at the interface. The sinking motion dragged the spreading fluid back to its center and then down. For the second case, a trace amount of the droplet spread rapidly at the interface while the main portion of the droplet sank and then spontaneously exploded. The difference in behavior is mainly due to the surface tension of the droplet in water. The underlying mechanisms of the droplet's flow instability are from the effects of diffusion weakening the surface tension. Bianca Mesa is an undergraduate student in the Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Department at Florida Atlantic University. She is pursuing a B.S. degree in Ocean Engineering. In addition to her academic interests, she is also an avid sailor.

  19. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.


    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  20. Genetic variation of the bud and leaf phenology of seventeen poplar clones in a short rotation coppice culture. (United States)

    Pellis, A; Laureysens, I; Ceulemans, R


    Leaf phenology of 17 poplar ( Populus spp.) clones, encompassing spring phenology, length of growth period and end-of-year phenology, was examined over several years of different rotations. The 17 poplar clones differed in their latitude of origin (45 degrees 30'N to 51 degrees N) and were studied on a short rotation experimental field plantation, situated in Boom (province of Antwerpen, Belgium; 51 degrees 05'N, 04 degrees 22'E). A similar, clear pattern of bud burst was observed during the different years of study for all clones. Clones Columbia River, Fritzi Pauley, Trichobel (Populus trichocarpa) and Balsam Spire (Populus trichocarpa x Populus balsamifera) from 45 degrees 30'N to 49 degrees N reached bud burst (expressed as day of the year or degree day sums) almost every year earlier than clones Wolterson (Populus nigra), Gaver, Gibecq and Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) (50 degrees N to 51 degrees N). This observation could not be generalised to end-of-season phenology, for which a yearly returning pattern for all clones was lacking. Late bud burst and early leaf fall of some clones (Beaupré, Boelare, IBW1, IBW2, IBW3) was brought about by increasing rust incidence during the years of observation. For these clones, the variability in leaf phenology was reflected in high coefficients of variation among years. The patterns of genetic variation in leaf phenology have implications for short rotation intensive culture forestry and management of natural populations. Moreover, the variation in phenology reported here is relevant with regard to the genetic mapping of poplar.

  1. Lesões múltiplas de osteoma cutis na face: terapêutica minimamente invasiva em pacientes com sequela de acne - relato de casos Multiple injuries of osteoma skin in the face: therapeutical least invasive in patients with acne sequela - case report

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    Ian Göedert Leite Duarte


    Full Text Available Osteoma cutis é a formação óssea no interior da pele, podendo ser primária ou secundária. Única ou múltipla, de tamanhos variados e acometendo ambos os sexos, é uma lesão cutânea rara, de etiopatogenia e classificação ainda discutidas. Nosso objetivo foi relatar o diagnóstico e a terapêutica minimamente invasiva de lesões múltiplas de osteoma cutis na face em pacientes com sequelas de acne. Fizemos a retirada dos osteomas com agulhas BD 0,70 x 25 22G1, sem anestésicos tópicos ou injetáveis no local. As pequenas incisões foram deixadas expostas, com pomada cicatrizante. Obteve-se um excelente resultado estético em 15 dias.Osteoma cutis is a bone formation in the dermis can to be primary or secondary forms. Only, multiples, many forms, occurring on either sex, they are a rare cutaneous disease. The pathogenesis and classification remains unclear. Our objective was the diagnostic and small invasive surgery treatment of the osteoma cutis multiple of the face, in patients as a sequel of acne. To remove the osteoma we used needle BD 0,70x25 22G1, without anesthetic topic or inject able site. The small wounds were exposed with scarring balsam. We got an excellent esthetic result after 15 days.

  2. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape. (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui; Swift, D Edwin


    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  3. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy


    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  4. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

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    Rajneesh Sharma


    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  5. Origin and Availability of Large Cavities for Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a Species at Risk Inhabiting the Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest

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    Marie-Andrée Vaillancourt


    Full Text Available Large secondary-nesting birds such as ducks rely on appropriate cavities for breeding. The main objective of this study was to assess the availability of large cavities and the potential of a managed boreal coniferous landscape to provide nesting trees within the breeding area of the eastern population of Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a cavity-nesting species at risk in Canada. Woodpecker surveys were conducted in both conifer and mixed-wood landscapes, and cavities were sought in line transects distributed in unharvested and linear remnant stands of balsam fir (Abies balsamea and black spruce (Picea mariana as well as in cutblocks. No Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus were detected in the breeding area of Barrow's Goldeneye, but the species was present in the nearby lowland area in which trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides is abundant. Only 10 trees (0.2% of those sampled supported cavities considered suitable for Barrow's Goldeneye in terms of dimensions and canopy openness. Most of the suitable cavities found during this study were nonexcavated apical (chimney cavities in relatively short snags that showed advanced states of decay. A diameter-at-breast-height threshold was determined for each tree species, after which the probability of cavity occurrence was enhanced in terms of potential cavity trees for Barrow's Goldeneye. Remnant linear forest sites had lower potential tree densities than did their unharvested equivalents. Large cavities were thus a rare component in this boreal landscape, suggesting that they may be a limiting factor for this population at risk. Current even-aged forest management that mainly relies on clear-cut practices is likely to further reduce the potential of this landscape to provide trees with suitable cavities.

  6. Studies on the Application Rate of Mg,B and Mo for Main Vegetables in Pearl River Delta%珠江三角洲几种主要蔬菜的镁硼钼适用量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑仪; 廖新荣; 蓝佩玲; 王荣萍; 邵鹏; 蔡绵聪; 肖旭林


    为获得珠江三角洲地区蔬菜中微量元素的合理用量,通过在2地进行3种蔬菜施镁、硼、钼的田间试验,研究三种元素不同配比对三种蔬菜的影响。结果显示:(1)不同品种的蔬菜对中微量元素的需求量不同;相同品种蔬菜在不同地点土壤上的施镁、硼、钼肥效应不同;相同蔬菜镁、硼、钼配施比单独使用的施用量可大幅度减少,尤其是硼和钼可减少50%。(2)在施氮磷钾基础上单独施用镁、硼、钼,菜心的Mg适施量约为13.350~15.750 kghm^-2;B的适施量约为0.990~1.065 kghm^-2;Mo的适施量为0.375~0.420 kg hm^-2。蒜青的Mg适施量约为1.500 kg hm^-2;B的适施量约为0.450 kg hm^-2;Mo的适施量为0.240 kg hm^-2。苦瓜的施硼适用量范围在1.050 kg hm^-2左右。(3)在施氮磷钾基础上镁、硼、钼配合施用,菜心的Mg适施量约为12.000 kghm^-2、B适施量约为0.450 kghm^-2、Mo适施量约为0.240 kghm^-2;苦瓜的Mg适施量约为12.000~18.000 kghm^-2、B适施量约为0.450~1.800 kg hm^-2、Mo适施量为0.120~0.240 kg hm^-2;蒜青的B和Mo适用量分别为0.900 kg hm^-2和0.210 kg hm^-2、镁的施用量则应〈1.350 kg hm^-2。(4)镁和硼的施用量不仅受试验地土壤交换性镁和有效硼含量水平的影响,还与土壤pH值和蔬菜目标产量有关。%Flowering Chinese cabbage(Brassica parachinensis Bailey),Garlic Plants(Allium Sativum L.) and Balsam pear(Momordica charantia L.) were main vegetables in southern China.The field experiments were carried out to study the rational application rates of magnesium,boron and molybdenum on these three vegetables in two soils.The results showed that:(1) The demands of middle-element and microelement varied between different varieties of vegetables,and the effects of Mg,B and Mo fertilizers on the same variety of vegetable also changed between different soils.The usage of middle-element and microelement could be

  7. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.


    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  8. Using dendrochonology to crossdate year of death in trees: limitations with stressed trees in a diffuse mortality context. (Invited) (United States)

    Angers, V. A.; Bergeron, Y.; Drapeau, P.


    Dendrochronological crossdating of dead trees is commonly used to reconstruct mortality patterns over time. This method assumes that the year of formation of the last growth ring corresponds to the year of the death of the tree. Trees experiencing important stress, such as defoliation, drought or senescence, may rely on very few resources to allocate to growth and may favour other vital physiological functions over growth. Even if the tree is still living, growth may thus be reduced or even supressed during a stressful event. When a tree dies following this event and that there is a lag between year of last ring production and year of actual death, crossdating underestimates the actual year of death. As ring formation is not uniform across the bole, growth may occur only in some parts of the tree and may be detectable only if multiple bole samples are analysed. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the growth patterns of dying trees influence estimation of year of death when crossdating. Our research questions were the following 1) Is there a difference (hereafter referred as 'lag') between the last year of growth ring formation in disc samples collected at different heights in dead trees? 2) If so, what is the range of magnitude of these lags? and 3) Is this magnitude range influenced by the causes of death? Sampled sites were located in northwestern Quebec (Canada), over an area overlapping the eastern mixedwood and coniferous boreal forests. Four tree species were examined: Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP). Trees that died following fire, self-thinning, defoliation and senescence were sampled. Two to three discs were collected on each dead tree (snags and logs) at different heights. Dendrochronological analyses were conducted to determine year of last growth ring production by crossdating. The more severe the disturbance, the

  9. Effects of Boreal Well Site Reclamation Practices on Long-Term Planted Spruce and Deciduous Tree Regeneration

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    Laurie A. Frerichs


    Full Text Available Well site development associated with oil sands exploration is common in boreal mixedwood forests of northern Alberta, Canada, and necessitates reforestation to accommodate other land uses. Little is known about the impact of soil and debris handling strategies during well site construction on long-term forest regeneration. This study addresses the impact of soil disturbance intensity, debris treatment, soil storage, and planting on the reforestation of 33 well sites reclaimed prior to 2006. Data on the survival and growth of planted white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and the regeneration density of deciduous trees, including trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx, are presented from 2014 to 2015. The survival of planted spruce increased from 81% to 88% at well sites with a high relative to low soil disturbance. The total tree densities were lower in most treatments (≤2.69 stems m−2 than those in clear cuts (5.17 stems m−2, with the exception of root salvage areas where clear cuts had greater balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L. densities (2.05 stems m−2 vs. <0.71 stems m−2 on all other treatments. Aspen densities were up to five times greater at well sites with low disturbance when compared to those with high disturbance, and this was further aided by shallow mulch at low disturbance sites. Spruce growth did not respond to well site treatments. Aspen growth (diameter and height remained similar between well site disturbance regimes; aspen exposed to high disturbance underperformed relative to low disturbance well sites and clear cut controls. With high disturbance, progressive soil piling led to increases in the density of aspen and birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall. Few long-term changes in soil were found due to well site development, with a greater soil pH in high disturbance sites compared to low disturbance sites. Overall, these results indicate that the nature of well site construction, including the extent of soil

  10. The life cycle of Bucephalus margaritae Ozaki & Ishibashi, 1934 (Digenea, Bucephalidae from the coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil = O ciclo de vida de Bucephalus margaritae Ozaki e Ishibashi, 1934 (Digenea, Bucephalidae da costa do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Natalia da Costa Marchiori


    Full Text Available The orange disease is considered the main parasitosis in Perna perna mussel. It is caused by a complex life cycle bucephalid, involving three hosts, among them mollusks and fishes. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of orange disease in mussel culture, the parasite life cycle was investigated. Experimental studies and monthly samples in the study area allowed the identification and characterization of the Bucephalus margaritae life cycle. Larvae and adults of B. margaritae were fixed in 5% formaldehyde, stained with Gomori’s trichrome, clarified in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. The cercariae are found in the first intermediate host P. perna inside the sporocysts, which have the form of orange and ramified filaments. The metacercariae encysts in the gills and gill cavity of the second intermediate host, the blenniid Hypleurochilus fissicornis. The definitive host Menticirrhus americanus is infected ingesting blenniids parasitized with metacercariae. The high parasitological indexes of B. margaritae suggests that M. americanus and H. fissicornis act as the main definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, in the trematode life cycle. The blenniid H. fissicornis is a new intermediate host to the species.A bucefalose é considerada a principal parasitose do mexilhão Perna perna. É causada por um Bucephalidae, de ciclo de vida complexo, envolvendo três hospedeiros, entre eles, moluscos e peixes. Com o objetivo de se contribuir para o conhecimento da bucefalose em mexilhões de cultivo, foi investigado o ciclo de vida deste parasito. Estudos experimentais e coletas mensais na área de estudo permitiram caracterizar o ciclo de vida de Bucephalus margaritae. Larvas e adultos do parasito foram fixados em formol 5%, corados com tricrômico de Gômori, clarificados em creosoto e montados em lâminas permanentes com bálsamo do Canadá. As cercárias ocorrem no primeiro hospedeiro intermediário P. perna, no interior dos

  11. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

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    Thais F. Fagundes


    laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  12. Métodos de coloração de Roeser (1972: modificado - e Kropp (1972 visando a substituição do azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX Staining methods of modified Roeser (1972 and Kropp (1972, aiming at substituing the astra blue by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX

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    Rebeca Luque


    Full Text Available Em folhas de Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica e Nymphaea mexicana foram testados métodos de coloração baseados em Roeser (1972 modificado e Kropp (1972, visando a substituição do corante azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA, desidratadas em série butílica terciária e incluídas em parafina. Os cortes histológicos transversais foram corados segundo diferentes baterias de coloração, modificadas quanto ao tipo de corante usado, diferenciador e série de desidratação. As lâminas permanentes foram preparadas com bálsamo-do-canadá sintético. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o método de Roeser (1972 modificado é melhor que o de Kropp (1972, nas condições deste experimento. O azul de astra pode ser substituído por azul de alcião 8GX e a desidratação pode ser em série isopropílica ou etílica, sem grande diferença entre elas. São discutidos os resultados provenientes das diferentes colorações.Staining methods based on modified Roeser (1972 as well as that of Kropp (1972 were done with leaves of Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica and Nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX. Samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. The histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. Permanent slides were prepared with synthetic Canada balsam. The results obtained indicate that the modified Roeser method (1972 is better than that of Kropp (1972 under present experimental conditions. The astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8GX and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. The results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.

  13. Development of pollen grain in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Passifloraceae

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    Margarete Magalhães de Souza


    Full Text Available To clarify events occurring during pollen grain formation in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, floral buds were collected at different stages of development. After bracket, petal and sepal removal the anthers were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 10 mum and after differential dying with safranin O and fast green, mounted in Canada balsam and observed under optical microscope. Formation of the male gamete followed the normal pattern for angiosperms. Observation covered final sporogenic mass phase up to pollen grain formation; microsporangium tissue modifications were also observed. Microsporogenesis was characterized by sporogenic tissue differentiation in microsporic mother cells, followed by meiosis and resulting in tetrads. Microgametogenesis began with callose microspore release, subsequent mitosis, in addition to radial and tangential tapetum wall degradation, parietal layer compression nearer to the tapetum and endothecium widening, terminating in mature pollen grain formation.Visando elucidar os processos que ocorrem durante a formação dos grãos de pólen em maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, foram coletados botões em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. As anteras foram desidratadas, embebidas em parafina, cortadas a 10 mm e, após a coloração diferencial com safranina e verde rápido, montadas em bálsamo do Canadá e observadas sob microscópio óptico. A formação do gameta masculino seguiu padrão normal para angiospermas. A observação foi iniciada na fase final de massa esporogênica indo até a formação do grão de pólen, tendo sido também observadas as modificações ocorridas nos tecidos do microsporângio. A microsporogênese foi caracterizada pela diferenciação do tecido esporogênico em células-mãe de micrósporos, passando por meiose e resultando em tétrades. A microgametogênese iniciou-se com a liberação dos micrósporos da calose, os

  14. Role of multi-component functional foods in the complex treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. (United States)

    Drăgan, Simona; Nicola, Teodora; Ilina, R; Ursoniu, S; Kimar, A; Nimade, S; Nicola, T


    Cancer increases free radicals and that certain diets can influence oxidative stress. There is little evidence about the functional effect of multi-component functional foods on oxidative stress in breast cancer. 34 female patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer, stages IIIB and IV were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. All patients filled out the Quality of Life questionnaire FACT-B version 4, translated in Romanian and validated, obtained from Evanston North-Western Health Care, Illinois, USA. Seventeen patients, mean age 57.84 +/- 11.2, were put on a special diet consisting of 15 ml/day balsamic vinegar from apples and honey, with seabuckthorn berry rich in carotenoids, rosemary, sage and basil extracts, to be used in salads and vegetable soups, 150 g/day whole wheat bread with 2.5% of the nutraceutic mixture VITAPAN, 15 ml/day grape seed extract rich in polyphenols (gr. 1). Seventeen patients served as control (gr. 2). Parameters of the metabolic syndrome were measured: serum lipids, IR-HOMA insulin resistance index. Oxidative stress was measured by the FORT (free oxygen radical) test. Total hydro- and liposoluble antioxidants (ACW, ACL) in serum were measured by chemo-luminometry. All investigations were done at entry and after 3 months. Student's t test was applied to compare the means within group and between the 2 groups. The Physical well being subscale score of the QOL FACT-B version 4 questionnaire showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.001). Also, functional well being subscale (p = 0.004), FACT-G (p = 0.003) and FACT-B (p = 0.002) showed significant differences on comparison. Breast Cancer Score (Additional Concerns) had a borderline significant difference (p = 0.057). Social/Family Well being subscale and Emotional well being subscale scores showed no significant difference. At inclusion, radical activity > 310 FORT units, relevant for increased oxidative stress were present in 95.1% cases. After 3 months

  15. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases. (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S


    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  16. GC-MS profiling of the phytochemical constituents of the oleoresin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and a preliminary in vivo evaluation of its antipsoriatic effect. (United States)

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Cavalchini, Alberto; Maffei Facino, Roberto


    Copaiba is the oleoresin (OR) obtained from Copaifera (Fabaceae), a neotropical tree which grows in Amazon regions. The balsam, constituted by an essential oil and a resinous fraction is used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases and for its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Aim of this work was (a) to carry out a characterization by GC-MS of the volatile and nonvolatile constituents of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. oleoresin (OR); (b) to investigate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity; (c) to evaluate its antipsoriatic effect after oral intake/topical application. The volatile fraction (yield: 22.51%, w/w) shows: α-bergamotene (48.38%), α-himachalene (11.17%), β-selinene (5.00%) and β-caryophyllene (5.47%). The OR residue (77.49%, w/w), after derivatization, showed as main constituents the following compounds: copalic, abietic, daniellic, lambertinic, labd-7-en-15-oic, pimaric, isopimaric acids and kaur16-en18-oic acid. Preincubation of LPS-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes with increasing concentrations of the OR purified fraction (OR-PF), containing diterpene acids, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes, reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in a dose-range of 0.1-10 μM. In addition, in cell culture system of human THP-1 monocytes, 1 μM OR-PF counteracts LPS-driven NF-κB nuclear translocation. In a preliminary clinical trial three patients affected by chronic psoriasis, treated with oral intake or topical application of the OR, exhibited a significant improvement of the typical signs of this disease, i.e. erythema, skin thickness, and scaliness. In conclusion, the results of this work, beside an extensive analytical characterization of the OR chemical composition, provide strong evidences that its anti-inflammatory activity is related to the inhibition of the NF-κB nuclear translocation, and consequently of proinflammatory cytokines secretion.

  17. Mercury Pollution Characteristics in Tongren Mercury Mining Area,Guizhou Province, China%贵州省铜仁汞矿区汞污染特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏吉成; 胡平; 王建旭; 张华; 冯新斌


    铜仁汞矿位于铜仁市碧江区云场坪镇,曾是贵州省最大的汞矿之一.为了了解该矿在闭坑后矿区的汞污染特征,采集了矿区的大气、水体、矿渣、土壤和农作物样品,分析了汞的分布特征.结果表明,矿区大气汞浓度为7.29~ 139 ng·m-3、地表水汞浓度为81.6~425×103 ng·L-1、矿渣汞含量为2.79~510 mg·kg-1、土壤汞含量为3,06~2.92× 103 mg· kg-1.可见,大气、水体、矿渣和土壤中的汞含量远高于对照区或国家相关标准.共采集了10种农作物玉米(Zea mays L)、高粱(Chinese sorghum)、枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill)、梨(Pyrus spp)、茄子(Solanum melongena)、丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)、西红柿(Lycopersicon esculentum)、南瓜(Cucurbita moschata duchesne)、苦瓜(Balsam pear)和辣椒(Capsicum annuum),除了茄子和南瓜外,其余农作物可食部分的汞含量都高于国家《食品安全国家标准》.综上所述,铜仁汞矿开采和冶炼带来的汞污染已严重影响周边生态环境和食品安全,矿区汞污染不容忽视.

  18. Combining near infrared spectra of feces and geostatistics to generate forage nutritional quality maps across landscapes. (United States)

    Pierre-Olivier, Jean; Bradley, Robert L; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D


    An important asset for the management of wild ungulates is recognizing the spatial distribution of forage quality across heterogeneous landscapes. To do so typically requires knowledge of which plant species are eaten, in what abundance they are eaten, and what their nutritional quality might be. Acquiring such data, however, may be difficult and time consuming. Here, we are proposing a rapid and cost-effective forage quality monitoring tool that combines near infrared (NIR) spectra of fecal samples and easily obtained data on plant community composition. Our approach rests on the premise that NIR spectra of fecal samples collected within low population density exclosures reflect the optimal forage quality of a given landscape. Forage quality can thus be based on the Mahalanobis distance of fecal spectral scans across the landscape relative to fecal spectral scans inside exclosures (referred to as DISTEX). The Gi* spatial autocorrelation statistic can then be applied among neighboring DISTEX values to detect and map "hot spots" and "cold spots" of nutritional quality over the landscape. We tested our approach in a heterogeneous boreal landscape on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada), where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations over the landscape have ranged from 20 to 50 individuals/km2 for at least 80 years, resulting in a loss of most palatable and nutritious plant species. Our results suggest that hot spots of forage quality occur when old-growth balsam fir stands comprise >39.8% of 300 ha neighborhoods, whereas cold spots occur in laggs (i.e., transition zones from forest to peatland). In terms of ground-level indicator plant species, the presence of Canada bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) was highly correlated with hot spots, whereas tamarack (Larix laricina) was highly correlated with cold spots. Mean DISTEX values were positively and significantly correlated with the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents of feces. While our

  19. Própolis: atualizações sobre a química e a farmacologia Propolis: updates on chemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Lustosa


    Full Text Available Própolis é uma mistura complexa, formada por material resinoso e balsâmico. Sua composição química é complexa e variada, estando relacionada com a flora de cada região visitada pelas abelhas e com o período de coleta da resina. Inclui flavonóides, ácidos aromáticos, terpenóides e fenilpropanóides, ácidos graxos e vários outros compostos. A própolis tem sido objeto de intensos estudos farmacológicos e químicos nos últimos 30 anos. Em várias partes do mundo é indicada para melhorar a saúde e prevenir doenças. Atualmente, é disponível em várias formas farmacêuticas como cápsulas, extratos, enxaguatório bucal, na forma de pó, entre outras. Ainda são necessários estudos correlacionando a composição química com a atividade biológica, definindo cada tipo de própolis com a sua aplicação terapêutica. É uma tarefa imprescindível para um mercado cada vez maior e exigente em todo o mundo.Propolis (bee glue is a complex mixture, formed by resinous and balsamic material. Its chemical composition is variable and complex, being related with the flora of each region visited by the bees and with the period of resins collection. Flavonoids, aromatic acids, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, fatty acids, and other compounds are found in propolis. In the last 30 years, propolis has become subject of intense pharmacological and chemical studies. In different parts of the world it is indicated to improve health and prevent illnesses. Currently, it is available in some pharmaceutical forms as capsules, extracts, mouthrinses, powder form, among others. Indeed, studies correlating the chemical composition with the biological activity are necessary, defining each type of propolis with its therapeutic application. It is an essential task for a market ever bigger and demanding in the whole word.

  20. D-酪氨酸荧光猝灭法同时测定6-苄基腺嘌呤和糠氨基嘌呤%Simultaneous Determination of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Kinetin Based on D-Tyr Fluorescence Quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小辉; 朱乾华; 贺薇; 周尚; 杨琼; 黎小艳; 杨季冬


    [Aims] The method of simultaneous determination of 6-benzylaminourine and kinetin was established by D-Tyr fluorescence quenching. [Methods] The two natural exogenous cytokinins 6-benzylaminourine and kinetin were analyzed qualitatively by the degree of fluorescence polarization(p) and fluorescence anisotropy(r) based on the measurements of the polarized fluorescence signals, and quantified simultaneously based on the fluorescence quenching spectra signals and the double standard curve method. [Results] The degree of fluorescence polarization and fluorescence anisotropy of the D-Tyr-6-BA system were larger than that of the D-Tyr-KT system, and the two natural cytokinins mixed systems could be studied and characterized via calculating the degree of fluorescence polarization and fluorescence anisotropy. [Conclusions] The method was applied to simultaneous determination of 6-benzylaminourine and kinetin in plum skin and balsam pear skin with satisfactory results.%[目的]采用D-酪氨酸荧光猝灭法建立同时测定6-苄基腺嘌呤和糠氨基嘌呤的定量分析方法.防法]利用荧光偏振信号计算获得的荧光偏振度(p)和荧光各向异性(r)来区分6-苄基腺嘌呤和糠氨基嘌呤这2种天然植物性激素,同时利用荧光猝灭信号和双标准曲线计量分析法同时测定这2种天然植物性激素.[结果]D-酪氨酸-6-苄基腺嘌呤体系对应着较大的荧光偏振度和荧光各向异性度,而D-酪氨酸-糠氨基嘌呤体系则对应着较小的荧光偏振度和荧光各向异性度,因此通过计算其荧光偏振度和荧光各向异性可对这2种细胞分裂素的混合体系进行研究与表征.[结论]该法可以应用于市售李子和苦瓜样品表皮中6-苄基腺嘌呤和糠氨基嘌呤的同时测定,结果令人满意.

  1. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood (United States)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  2. 屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜绿化降温试验%Greening and Temperature Cooling Test for Cultivating Lianoid Vegetables on Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解盼; 龙岳林


    Roof thermal radiation is an important reason causing urban thermal environment effect, and the roof greening is an effective way to reduce the thermal radiation. This study selects the balsam pear, lentils and towel gourd as test materials and adopts box-type cultivation method on the roof with steel mesh stent to respectively observe their growth adaptability and compare their temperature cooling effect for roof. The results showed that before middle July, the growth of sponge gourd and bitter melon was vigorous, but gradually declined with increasing temperature after middle July, but lentils had strong ability to resist high temperature, so it can maintain a strong growth state until met the frost; for greening and temperature cooling effect, before middle July, there was no significant difference among three kinds of vegetable, but lentils was obviously better than sponge gourd and bitter after middle July. Cultivating lianoid vegetables on roof has significant temperature cooling effect, the higher the temperature is, the temperature cooling effect the more obvious, especially at 12:00, the temperature cooling range was the largest by 8.7℃.%屋顶热辐射是导致城市热环境效应产生的一个重要原因,屋顶绿化是减轻热辐射的一项有效措施。选用苦瓜、扁豆和丝瓜作试验材料,在屋顶上采用箱式栽培方式,搭建钢丝网作支架,分别观测其生长适应性,并比较屋面降温效果。结果表明:7月中旬前丝瓜与苦瓜生长旺盛,7月中旬后随着温度升高而逐渐衰退,而扁豆具有较强的抗高温能力,一直保持旺盛生长状态,直到遇霜枯死;绿化降温效果7月中旬之前3种蔬菜无明显差异,7月中旬以后扁豆明显优于丝瓜和苦瓜。屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜降温效果显著,气温越高降温越明显,特别是在中午12:00降温幅度最大,达到8.7℃。

  3. Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera promote soil erosion from riparian zones? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus


    Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam) was introduced into Europe in the mid-19th century, whereupon its invasive tendency has facilitated its expansion throughout many mainland European countries. Its rate of expansion can be attributed to certain lifecycle traits that allow it to become rapidly established and crowd-out many native floral species. Its preferred habitat includes damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as along riparian zones. Once present, nearby watercourses then inadvertently act as conduits that facilitate the movement of seeds downstream into un-colonised parts of a catchment. Once established, individual plants form discrete and often mono-cultural stands of dense vegetation that can typically range in area from a few m-2 to > 150 m-2. Impatiens glandulifera is cold-intolerant however, and in temperate countries rapidly dies when exposed to the first frosts of the season. Once die-back occurs, it is hypothesised that a reduction in the protection afforded to the underlying soil by the vegetation canopy will promote the mobilisation of material from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera at a greater rate that areas supporting indigeneous vgetation, due to their increased exposure to erosion processes. An investigation was conducted to test this hypothesis in a contaminated sub-catchment of the Birs River in northwest Switzerland. A measurement technique consisting of erosion pins, an erosion bridge and a digital caliper was employed to quantify changes in the soil profile, as this approach represented the least invasive way of repeatedly measuring through vegetation without undue disturbance. An initial soil surface profile was established at five contaminated sites in late summer 2012 before die-back occurred, as well as at five nearby reference sites where I. glandulifera was absent. All soil surface profiles were re-measured at ca. 25-day intervals and the average net change was

  4. Epidemiology of contact allergy in adults. (United States)

    Schäfer, T; Böhler, E; Ruhdorfer, S; Weigl, L; Wessner, D; Filipiak, B; Wichmann, H E; Ring, J


    We aimed to determine the prevalence of contact sensitization in the general population and to investigate associations with important sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Within a population-based nested, case-control study in Germany, we performed patch tests with 25 standard allergens in 1141 adults (50.4% female, age median 50 years). Additional information was obtained by a dermatologic examination, a standardized interview, and blood analysis. At least one positive reaction was exhibited by 40.0% of the subjects, with reactions most frequently observed to fragrance mix (15.9%), nickel (13.1%), thimerosal (4.7%), and balsam of Peru (3.8%). Women were sensitized more often than men (50.2% vs 29.9%, OR 2.36, CI 1.84-3.03), and this was also significant for fragrance mix, nickel, turpentine, cobalt chloride, and thimerosal. Contact sensitization was more frequent in subjects who reported adverse skin reactions (53.8% vs. 32.6%; OR 2.41, CI 1.85-3.14), and this was particularly true for sensitization to nickel (45.5% vs 8.8%, OR 8.64, CI 5.67-13.17) and fragrance mix (29.0% vs 14.0%, OR 2.51, CI 1.60-3.91) and the corresponding intolerance of fashion jewelry and fragrances. Contact sensitization decreased with increasing degree of occupational training (unskilled 45.9%, apprenticeship 40.1%, technical college 40.4%, and school of engineering 12.5%; P=0.023; trend test P=0.042). Significant associations of contact sensitization and presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies, atopic eczema, or psoriasis were not observed. Frequency estimates for the general adult population based on these findings were 28.0% for overall contact sensitization and 11.4% for fragrance mix, 9.9% for nickel, and 3.2% for thimerosal. It is concluded that contact allergy is influenced by sociodemographic parameters and plays an important role in the general population.

  5. The Importance of Measuring Mercury in Wood (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Yanai, R. D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.


    Forests are important receptors of Hg deposition, and biological Hg hotspots occur mainly in forested regions, but few efforts have been made to determine the Hg content of trees. Mercury concentrations in stem tissue are lower than the foliage and bark, so low that they have often been below detection limits, especially in hardwood species. However, because wood is the largest component of forest biomass, it can be a larger Hg pool than the foliage, and thus quantifying concentrations in wood is important to Hg budgets in forests. The objective of our study was to determine the methods necessary to detect Hg in bole wood of four tree species, including two hardwoods and two conifers. We also evaluated the effect of air-drying and oven-drying samples on Hg recovery, compared to freeze-drying samples prior to analysis, which is the standard procedure. Many archived wood samples that were air-dried or oven-dried could be appropriate for Hg analysis if these methods could be validated; few are freeze-dried. We analyzed samples for total Hg using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Method 7473, USEPA 1998). The result of the method detection limit study was 1.27 ng g-1, based on apple leaf standards (NIST 1515, 44 ± 4 ng/g). Concentrations in the hardwood species were 1.48 ± 0.23 ng g-1 for sugar maple and 1.75 ± 0.14 ng g-1 for American beech. Concentrations were higher in red spruce and balsam fir. Samples that were analyzed fresh, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 65 ˚C were in close agreement, after correcting for moisture content. However, Hg concentrations were 34 to 45% too high in the air-dry samples, presumably reflecting absorption from the atmosphere, and they were 44 to 66% too low in the samples oven-dried at 103 ˚C, presumably due to volatilization. We recommend that samples be freeze-dried or oven-dried at 65 ˚C for analysis of Hg in wood; archived samples that have been oven-dried at

  6. [Anatomy of the vegetative organs of two species of Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) from Venezuela]. (United States)

    Jáuregui, Damelis; Castro, Mercedes; Ruiz-Zapata, Thirza; Lapp, Marlene


    In Venezuela, Atriplex is represented by A. cristata and A. oestophora, the latter being endemic; they inhabit coastal areas with high temperatures, high solar radiation and sandy soils with high salt content. This work aimed to provide information to facilitate and clarify these species taxonomic delimitation, throughout the study of the anatomy of their vegetative organs; this may also clarify our understanding of their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions prevailing in areas they inhabit. The plant material was collected from at least three individuals of each species in Punta Taima Taima and Capatárida, Falcon. Segments of roots, located near the neck and towards the apex, apical, middle and basal internodes of stems, were taken; and of leaves, located in the middle portion of plants. This material was fixed in FAA (formaldehyde, acetic acid, 70% ethanol) until processing. Semipermanent and permanent microscope slides were prepared with transverse or longitudinal sections, made using a razor (free-hand) or a rotation microtome, in this latter case, after paraffin embedding; besides, additional plates were mounted with portions of leaf epidermis, obtained by the maceration technique. The sections were stained with aqueous toluidine blue (1%) or safranin-fast-green, and mounted in water-glycerin or in Canada balsam. In order to calculate the vulnerability index, the vessel diameter in the vascular rings of roots, as well as their density, were quantified. Our results revealed structural features in the different organs, that resulted of taxonomic value and allowed the distinction of the species: in the leaf, the presence of aquifer tissue, the number of vascular bundles and their organization in the midrib, and the collenchyma differentiation in this part of the leaf; in the roots, the xylem and phloem arrangement in the growth rings, the nature of conjunctive tissue, and the presence of included phloem in one species. In addition, the species showed

  7. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone (United States)

    Nezat, C. A.


    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied

  8. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh


    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not ‘idle bystanders’ but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is ‘bitter melon’ (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter

  9. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)? (United States)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan


    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  10. Application of monascus in liquor production%红曲霉在白酒行业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁国兴; 刘秀河


    In order to study the application and prospects of monascus in liquor brewing, this paper introduces some applications of monascus, including the application of its esterifying power in liquor production and in liquor's fermentation wastewater - - yellow serofluid, and the application of secondary fermentation metabolite in liquor industry. Monascus possesses a good esterifying power and a saccharification fermenting power, and it can produce a variety of secondary metabolites beneficial to human body in the fermentation processing. The addition of monascus in the liquor production can increase the alcohol yield and the content of ethyl acetate, and produce more nutrition and health value. Besides, monascus can he used to change the yellow serofluid into balsam liquid in the solid fermentation of liquor production. In the end, the application prospects of monascus in liquor industries are also put forward.%为了研究红曲霉在酒类酿造中的应用方向及前景,介绍了红曲霉的酯化能力在白酒生产中的应用、在白酒发酵废液--黄浆水中的应用和次级发酵代谢产物在白酒行业的应用,说明红曲霉具有较强的酯化力和发酵糖份的能力,同时还产生多种对人体有益的次级代谢产物,用于白酒的发酵生产,可以提高出酒率及乙酸乙酯的含量,增加酒的营养保健价值,还可处理白酒固态发酵产生的废弃物黄浆水产生“酯香液”作为白酒风味物质。同时展望了红曲霉在白酒行业的应用前景。

  11. Verniz vitral incolor 500®: uma alternativa de meio de montagem economicamente viável Verniz vitral incolor 500®: a mounting medium alternative and economically viable

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    José Geraldo Antunes de Paiva


    Full Text Available Há diferentes meios de montagem comercializados a preço relativamente alto para a produção de lâminas permanentes de tecidos vegetais corados. Esses meios endurecem à medida que secam e possibilitam a manutenção do material botânico em boas condições de conservação por tempo indeterminado. Os meios de montagem mais utilizados em anatomia vegetal são: Bálsamo-do-canadá, Euparal®, Entellan® e Permount®. Visando a redução dos custos de produção de lâminas permanentes para anatomia vegetal, foram testados meios alternativos, produzidos por empresas brasileiras, principalmente para uso em artesanato. Entre os diferentes meios sintéticos testados, o verniz vitral incolor 500® demonstrou propriedades compatíveis para o uso eficiente como meio de montagem, em substituição às resinas sintéticas importadas, com custo baixo e sem alteração do processo rotineiro de trabalho. O verniz vitral incolor 500® permitiu a montagem de lâminas permanentes com órgãos seccionados a mão livre ou em micrótomo rotatório, após o emblocamento em parafina ou historresina, mantendo inalteradas as características dos materiais vegetais e da coloração. Os resultados evidenciaram que os meios de montagem tradicionais podem ser substituídos pelo verniz vitral incolor 500®, sem comprometimento da qualidade das lâminas.There are different imported mounting mediuns commercialized at a relative high price for producing permanent slides of stained plant sections. These mounting mediuns become harder as they dry and preserve the good conditions of the plant material for indetermined time. The most used mouting mediuns to plant anatomy are: Canada balsam, Euparal®, Entellan® and Permount®. Aiming to reduce costs of producing permanent plant anatomy slides, alternative mediuns produced by brazilian industries, used mostly in artesanal work, were tested. Among the different synthetic mediuns tested, the verniz vitral incolor 500® showed

  12. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress (United States)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew


    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  13. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D


    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  14. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy) (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano


    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  15. A single method to stain Malassezia furfur and Corynebacterium minutissimum in scales Um método simples para corar Malassezia furfur e Corynebacterium minutissimum nas escamas

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    Antar Padilha-Gonçalves


    Full Text Available A single and practical method to slain Malassezia furfur and Corynebacterium minutissimum in lesions' scales is described. The scales are collected by pressing small pieces of scotch tape (about 4 cm lenght and 2 cm width onto the lesions and following withdrawl the furfuraceous scales will remain on the glue side. These pieces are then immersed for some minutes in lactophenol-cotton blue stain. Following absorption of the stain the scales are washed in current water to remove the excess of blue stain, dried with filter paper, dehydrated via passage in two bottles containing absolute alcohol and then placed in xylene in a centrifugation tube. The xylene dissolves the scotch tape glue and the scales fall free in the tube. After centrifugation and decantation the scales concentrated on the bottom of the tube are collected with a platinum-loop, placed in Canada balsam on a microscopy slide and closed with a cover slip. The preparations are then ready to be submitted to microscopic examination. Other stains may also be used instead of lactophenol-cotton blue. This method is simple, easily performed, and offers good conditions to study these fungi as well as being useful for the diagnosis of the diseases that they cause.É descrito um método simples e prático para corar Malassezia furfur e Corynebacterium minutissimum nas escamas das lesões. O material é colhido com o auxílio de fita durex que será usada na maior parte das etapas do método para ajudar a fácil execução do processo de coloração. Para colher as escamas, pequenos pedaços de fita durex com cerca de 4 cm de comprimento por 2 cm de largura são colocados e pressionados sobre as lesões, e quando retirados trazem aderidas as escamas furfuráceas na face com goma. Esses pedaços de fita durex são imersos por alguns minutos no corante lactofenol-azul cotton e logo que as escamas estiverem coradas em azul são lavadas em água corrente para remover o excesso de corante azul, secos

  16. The influence of vinegars on exposure of dentinal tubules: a SEM evaluation Influência de vinagres na exposição dos túbulos dentinários: avaliação em MEV

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    Daniela Leal Zandim


    Full Text Available Dentin hypersensitivity is a common painful condition observed in clinics. Dietary habits have been much associated with its development and persistence during and following periodontal treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of vinegars on the removal of smear layer and exposure of dentinal tubules. Extracted human teeth were submitted to manual scaling with Gracey curettes in order to remove the cementum as well as to form a smear layer. Dentin samples with 3 mm² were obtained and distributed into six experimental groups: one control and five types of vinegars (alcohol, apple, rice, white wine and balsamic. Each group included two methods of vinegar application: topical and friction. After routine preparation for SEM analysis, photomicrographs were assessed by a calibrated and blind examiner using an appropriate index system. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant influence of vinegars on smear layer removal. There was a statistically significant difference between groups treated with apple, white and rice vinegars and the control group (p A hipersensibilidade dentinária cervical é uma condição dolorosa muito comum nos consultórios. A dieta tem sido bastante associada ao seu aparecimento, assim como a sua persistência após o tratamento periodontal. o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a influência dos vinagres na remoção de "smear layer" e exposição dos túbulos dentinários. Dentes de humanos foram instrumentados com curetas Gracey para a remoção do cemento e formação de "smear layer". Foram obtidas amostras de dentina com 3 mm², divididas entre o grupo controle (água destilada e cinco grupos de vinagre: branco, maçã, arroz, vinho branco e balsâmico. Cada grupo incluiu duas formas de aplicação da substância, tópica ou por fricção. Após o preparo para observação em MEV (microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as fotomicrografias foram avaliadas por um examinador

  17. Prosthenhystera obesa (Digenea, parasita de Salminus maxillosus (Characidae da planície de inundação alto rio Paraná, Brasil: influência do tamanho e do sexo do hospedeiro Prosthenhystera obesa (Digenea, parasite of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae of the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Paraná Brazil: influence of the size and sex of host

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    Ricardo Massato Takemoto


    Full Text Available Foram analisados 126 espécimes de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849, coletados na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná em ambiente lótico, representado pelos rios Paraná, Ivinheima e canal Cortado e semi-lótico, representado pelo rio Baía. Para a captura dos hospedeiros utilizaram-se redes de espera de malhagens variadas. Os parasitas foram comprimidos e fixados em AFA (álcool, formalina, ácido acético, corados em carmalúmen de Mayer, desidratados em sequência alcoólica, clarificados em creosoto e montados em bálsamo do Canadá. Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 apresentou prevalência de 14,3% e intensidade média de infecção de 1,75 (amplitude: 1-3. A prevalência de P. obesa não apresentou correlação com o comprimento-padrão do hospedeiro, o que poderia indicar homogeneidade no comportamento de S. maxillosus durante parte de seu desenvolvimento. A intensidade de infecção está diretamente relacionada com o aumento no tamanho do hospedeiro. O sexo dos hospedeiros não influenciou o prevalência e a intensidade de infecção de P. obesa, sugerindo uma semelhança no comportamento em relação ao hábito alimentar e habitat de machos e fêmeas. Todos os hospedeiros parasitados foram capturados em ambiente lóticoA hundred and twenty-six specimens of Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849, were analyzed. Fishes were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná river in lotic environments, represented by the Paraná and the Ivinheima rivers and by the Cortado channel, and a semi-lotic one represented by the Baía river. Capture of hosts was undertaken by gill nets of various mesh sizes. Prior to light microscopy, the specimens were fixed in AFA (alcohol, formalin, acetic acid under slight coverslip pressure, stained in Mayer’s acid carmalum, dehydrated in an alcohol series, cleared in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. Prevalence of Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 was 14.3% and mean intensity of

  18. 超高效液相色谱-串联质谱测定多种食品中抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的残留量%Simultaneous determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in several food samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉健; 黄惠玲; 禤开智; 蔡伟凯; 汪春光


    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was established for the simultaneous determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in several matrixes, such as balsam pear, pawpaw, pineapple, tea-drink. The effect of extraction condition, mobile phase,and tandem mass spectrometric parameters were investigated. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% glacial acetic acid. And PSA was used for cleaning-up. Then the analysis was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by employing the external standard method. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0 ~ 18 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) for the five pesticides were 0. 005 mg/kg. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of the five pesticides could meet the demand for the detection of residues when the spiked levels were 0. 005 mg/kg, 0. 010 mg/kg and 0. 020 mg/kg. The method was fast, convenient and accurate. And it could be used as a reliable means for simultaneous quantitative determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in food-matrixes.%建立了超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定苦瓜、木瓜、菠萝、绿茶饮料等4种食品基体中抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的方法,对提取条件、净化条件、流动相、质谱条件进行了研究.待测样品直接用含1%冰乙酸的乙腈提取,乙二胺-N-丙基硅烷(PSA)吸附剂除杂,采用电喷雾离子源(ESI)、多反应监测正离子模式扫描,外标法定量.抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵在1~18ng/mL范围内浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,方法的检出限为0.005mg/kg.添加水平为0.005、0.010、0.020mg/kg时抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的平均回收率和相对标准偏差范围符合农药残留检测要求.本方法可用于多种食品基体中抑

  19. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic. (United States)

    Siekacz, Liliana


    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  20. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus


    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  1. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

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    Márcio Dionizio Moreira


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae. The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth., rue (Ruta graveolens L., lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R.Br., jimson weed (Datura stramonium L., baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L., mint (Mentha piperita L., wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L., and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.. The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g-1 a.i.. The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar plantas com atividade inseticida, para isolar, identificar e avaliar a bioatividade de compostos inseticidas presentes nessas plantas, contra as seguintes pragas de produtos armazenados da ordem Coleoptera: Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae e Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae. As espécies de plantas usadas foram: anis (Ocimum selloi Benth, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., cordão-de-frade (Leonotis nepetifolia L., datura (Datura stramonium L., erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea L., hortelã (Mentha piperita L., mel

  2. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow


    grains – 10-25 μm, lack of balsam on the exine surface, starch accumulation in pollen. In con

  3. Motherland Image Evolution in Chinese Free Verse of the 20th Century%20世纪中国新诗中"祖国"意象的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永睿; 张向东


    In Chinese free werse of the 20th century, "the motherland" (or"China")is a common image, as a result of China's destiny ups and downs in 20th century, "mother land's" image connotation in free poetry also changes. By the end of Qing Dynasty, motherland was the mountains and rivers broken as well as Chinese territory overrun and occupied by the enemy; During May Forth Movement, motherlan is"the nirvana phoenix", "youth China", "motherland like flower's"; During 1920's and 1930's China is" the nightmare hanging from cliff","a ditch despairs stagnant water"; During Sino-Japanese War, motherland is"coldly blocking China", covers entirely by" the blood and the muds"; After the liberation, great motherland is grand"Tian'an men",the bright"Five-Starred Red Flag"and the great leader; Since the new time,motherland's connotation has been richly colorful, not only"riverside worn-out old waterwheel"but also"the crimson daybreak", prosperous" scaffold"and" railway line"" the language and the quarry stone throw build" the spiritual home;In overseas Chinese eyes, motherland is"specially anchors of Chinese local accent" "the Chinatown" ,several millennium bright cultures"sad kind nurses with hardship""the Baiyu balsam pear".%"祖国"(或"中国")是二十世纪中国诗歌中常见的一个意象,由于二十世纪中国命运的坎坷多变,诗歌中"祖国"意象的内涵也与时俱变.清末诗歌中的祖国是山河破碎、神州陆沉;五四的祖国是"涅槃的凤凰"、"少年中国"、"如花的祖国";二、三十年代的中国是"噩梦挂着悬崖"的"一沟绝望的死水";抗战期间的祖国是被"寒冷封锁着的中国"、布满"血和泥"的中国;解放后的伟大祖国,是雄伟的"天安门"、鲜艳的"五星红旗"和伟大领袖;新时期以来的祖国,其内涵丰富多彩,既是"河边破旧的老水车",也是"绯红的黎明",欣欣向荣的"脚手架"和"铁道线",又是"语言和乱石投筑"的精神家园;在海外华人眼中,祖国则

  4. 不同酶和酵母对干红葡萄酒香气影响的差异分析%Effection of different yeasts and maceration enzymes on aromatic components of cabernet gernischt red wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英霞; 蒋玉梅; 李霁昕; 米兰; 马腾臻; 杭洁; 陈玉蓉; 胡妍芸


    , apple and strawberry to samples. In order to determine the characteristic flavor of Cabernet Gernischt red wine, the aroma substances were divided into nine series on the basis of aroma sensory characteristics which were fruit, balsam, solvents, flora, vegetal, phenol, fat, empyreumatic and spice , to calculate OAV values of aroma compositions of each series and made the map of aroma intensity. The results of aroma intensity analysis showed that aroma intensity of the fruit of Cabernet Gernischt red wine was the strongest, the vegetal, fat and flora followed. Aroma intensity of the fruit, vegetal, fat and flora in EX-V and D254 samples were higher than that of in EX, HC and BDX samples. Aroma intensity of grass, strawberry, green apple and banana in EX-V samples was significantly higher than EX samples. Aroma intensity of Strawberry and green apple in D254 samples was significantly higher than BDX samples, while aroma intensity of the pear, orange, pineapple is 1.8, 2.5, 1.75 times of BDX sample.%为提高甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒的香气品质,优化酿酒工艺,该文采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分析比较了添加不同浸渍酶和酵母发酵的蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒的香气构成。结果显示:蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒中初步定性香气化合物75种,主要为酯、醇、酸、萜烯和酚类物质。比较酯类、萜烯类等香气成分质量浓度和香气物质释放总量,EX-V酒样明显高于EX和HC酒样,D254酒样明显高于BDX酒样。各组酒样主要香气成分构成相似,但微量香气成分差异显著。果香是香气强度最高的香气系列,植物香、脂肪香、花香次之,其香气强度EX-V酒样高于EX和HC酒样,D254酒样高于BDX酒样。浸渍酶和酵母对甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒香气品质的影响评价显示,浸渍酶EX-V优于EX和HC,酵母D254优于BDX。研究结果可为甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄

  5. Effects of Harvesting Time on Fruit Quality and Aromatic Compounds in Muscat Hamburg Grape%采收时间对玫瑰香葡萄果实品质及芳香化合物组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商佳胤; 田淑芬; 朱志强; 李树海; 集贤; 高扬


    In order to investigate the effect of different harvesting time on fruit quality and aroma composition of Muscat Hamburg' grape,solid phase micro-extraction(SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC/MS) were used for determination the relative content of aromatic compounds in different harvesting time. The results showed the total sugar, SSC and peel primary anthocyanin content of harvested on October 10th were 20. 09% , 21. 3% and 5. 53 mg/g and they were significantly higher than earlier harvested treatments. The kinds of aroma composition of Muscat Hamburg grape harvested on August 24th,September 8th,September 21st,October 10th were 41 ,34 ,36 and 39 respectively. The relative content of terpenols alcohols in different harvesting time were 52. 98% , 58. 29% ,70. 91% ,43. 62% respectively;the relative content of linalool harvested on September 8th and September 21st were the highest which had the most heavy odor aroma composition,they were 29.47% and 49.02% respectively. The relative content of dihydrocarveol, Terpineol, Linalool oxide,-Myrcene, 3-Carene with heavy flavour of potpourri,balsam, rose aroma were all significantly higher than that on August 24th and October 10th. The relative content of 2 ,4-bis( 1 ,1-dimethylethyl) -Phenol,4 ,6-di-tert-Butyl-m-cresol, Geranyl vinyl ether with pungent odour were significantly increased in fruits of harvesting October 10th; And the relative content of ethanol which influenced the grape's postharvest storage quality respectively increased 103.77% ,77. 05% and 39. 36% compared with that on August 24th,September 8th and September 21st. It is showed that the terpenols alcohols contributes more fruit flavor in maturation process of Muscat Hamburg' grape;So the best harvesting time of Muscat Hamburg' grape was the last 20-day period of September in Tianjin.%使用固相微萃取技术及气相-质谱联用技术测定不同采收时期玫瑰香葡萄果实芳香化合物相对含量,研究采收期对葡萄果实

  6. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil Características agravantes por infestación residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, en una región del Noreste de Brasil Características agravantes por infestação residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, em Olinda, PE

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    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia


    2010. Las observaciones se realizaron en residencias sin la presencia de criaderos preferenciales, para identificar características que pueden contribuir como agravantes para el desarrollo del mosquito. Cinco características agravantes fueron analizadas: cobertura vegetal en el peridomicilio, número de habitantes por residencia, almacenamiento de agua, drenaje de cloacas, drenaje de agua. Se evaluó la presencia o ausencia de estas características y como indicadores de niveles de infestación, estimados por monitoreo de la densidad de huevos (trampas de oviposición BR-OVT y adultos (trampas luminosas de tipo CDC. RESULTADOS: El drenaje de cloacas hacia el pozo séptico/rudimentario y hacia el ambiente fue lo más frecuente en las residencias (91,8%, a pesar de que sólo la presencia de vegetación haya influenciado significativamente en el aumento de las "balsas" (p=0,02. Las BR-OVT se presentaron positivas en 95,1% de las evaluaciones, con presencia de por lo menos una balsa/mes. Se capturaron 2.366 especímenes adultos, con relación mosquito/cuarto/noche de 32,9, sin diferencia significativa en el número de mosquitos capturados en las residencias. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que las condiciones de saneamiento y de abastecimiento de agua influencien en la densidad poblacional de C. quinquefasciatus, características de la residencia que normalmente no son consideradas en las medidas de control pueden ser factores agravantes en el mantenimiento de la población de mosquito.OBJETIVO: Analisar como as condições de saneamento básico, abastecimento de água e habitações afetam a densidade de Culex quinquefasciatus. MÉTODOS: Monitorou-se a população de C. quinquefasciatus em 61 residências do município de Olinda, PE, de outubro de 2009 a outubro de 2010. As observações foram realizadas em residências sem a presença de criadouros preferenciais, para identificar características que contribuíssem como agravantes para o desenvolvimento do mosquito. Cinco

  7. Rapidly detecting total acid distribution of vinegar culture based on hyperspectral imaging technology%高光谱图像技术快速预测发酵醋醅总酸分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑶迪; 邹小波; 石吉勇; 赵杰文; 林颢


    固态发酵是镇江香醋生产的重要环节之一,直接决定着成品醋的风味和品质。但目前固态发酵的生产控制主要依赖人工经验,难以有效保障镇江香醋的品质。该文分析了总酸(total acid content,TAC)、pH值、含水率在不同阶段的变化规律;采用高光谱图像技术结合联合区间偏最小二乘法(synergy interval partial least squares,siPLS)快速预测固态发酵基质(醋醅)的TAC、pH值和含水率,其最佳模型的相关系数R分别为0.8316、0.9455和0.8503;同时利用主成分分析和逐步多元线性回归模型(stepwise multiple linear regression,SMLR)对醋醅高光谱图像进行分析,研究了总酸在醋醅中的分布情况,以此来快速判断醋醅发酵的均匀性。研究表明,利用高光谱图像技术快速预测醋醅的理化参数及其分布的方法是可行的,结果可为镇江香醋固态发酵的工艺控制提供基础数据和技术手段。%In China and Southeast Asian countries, the solid-state fermentation (SSF) process is maintained empirically, especially in fed-batch fermentation by layers. In this study, the feasibility of determination of the total acid content (TAC), pH value and moisture content of Zhenjiang balsamic vinegar during SSF process were investigated. Hyperspectral imaging technology (HSIT) was combined with an appropriate multivariate analysis method. A synergy interval partial leastsquare (siPLS) was used to select the efficient spectral subintervals and wavelengths by k-fold cross-validation during the development of model. The performance of the final model was evaluated by use of the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and correlation coefficient (Rc) for the calibration set, and verified by use of the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (Rp) for the validation set. The changes of TAC, pH value and moisture were obtained by normal standard

  8. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

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    Mahjooneh Keshmiri


    Full Text Available 1-Introduction The Kopeh-Dagh as an inverted basin (Allen et al. 2003 is extended from the east of the Caspian Sea to NE Iran, north Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Following the closure of palaeo-Tethys in the Middle Triassic and the opening of Neo-Tethys during the early to middle Jurassic, the Kopeh-Dagh basin formed during the early to middle Jurasic. Sedimentation took place continuously from the Jurassic through the Neogene time in the Kopeh-Dagh basin (Afshar-Harb 1979. The first geological study on these strata was done by Amiranian oil company from 1937 to 1938. Many biological and stratigraphical studies had been carried on later on this basin. Kalantari (1969, Seyed-Emami (1980, Seyed-Emami and Aryai (1981, Seyed-Emami et al. (1984, 1994, 1996, Immel et al (1997, Raisossadat and Mousavi-Harami (2000, Raisossadat (2004, 2006 and Mahanipour et al. (2011 are among those who studied the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cretaceous strata of this basin. In this paper we report on palynological and paleoecological data from two mid-Cretaceous formations (Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh in Baghak section situated in eastern part of Kopeh-Dagh basin. 2-Materials and Methods Fifteen samples from the Sarcheshmeh and thirty five samples from Sanganeh formation were processed palynologically. The preparation method of Traverse, 2007 was used. Cold hydrochloric (20% and hydrofluoric (50% acids were used to dissolve carbonates and silicates. The residue was neutralized and centrifuged in ZnCl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved at 15 um using a nylon mesh, and mounted on microscope slides using liquid Canada balsam. Three slides were made from each sample. The microscope slides were examined under a light microscope and the index dinocysts were photographed and presented in two plates. In order to study palynofacies, in each slide numbers of organic materials including phytoclasts, marine palynomorphs and non-structural organic materials were

  9. Effect of slope and stoniness on the distribution of rainwater, its quantification and application to the study of vegetation in arid zones

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    Marcos Salas Pascual


    that allows both better explain the distribution of vegetation in arid areas and on large scales (: 25.000 or higher 1 is provided. To test the model and test its usefulness, it has made a study of it in different localities in arid areas of the island of Gran Canaria, one of the Canary Islands. On this island 14 towns located in arid environments, with precipitation always less than 200 mm/m2 were chosen. Among these locations, with similar climatic conditions, there is a very important plant diversity. Most are occupied by a crasicaule very open scrub dominated by Euphorbia balsamífera, called tabaibal de tabaiba dulce, typical of the most barren areas of the Canary Islands, and considered the potential of its arid and hyper-arid vegetation areas. But other situations are occupied by a lush vegetation: the cardonal, almost totally enclosed high scrub, dominated by Euphorbia canariensis, the cardón; and even formations characterized by the presence of a undertree thicket where different woody species such as Olea cerasiformis, wild olive, Juniperus turbinata subsp. canariensis, the sabina, and even the Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis. These same plant formations appear as potential in areas with higher rainfall, so its presence in these arid areas should be related to some variable affecting the distribution of water resources. For each of these locations was made calculating the amount of water available to plants, obtaining results that meet the alleged contradiction to find different types of vegetation, with different water requirements in the same climatic zone. Thus it is improving the proposed model provides when it comes to study how vegetation is distributed in arid and territories detail scale is checked. It is clear that as we decrease the scale of the study of the distribution of vegetation in any territory, it is essential to increase the parameters analyzed, especially if it comes to analyzing the situation of vegetation in arid, where the

  10. 家蝇共生真菌的抗菌活性筛选及菌株CY-03的初步鉴定%Screening of Antimicrobial Active Substance from Symbiotic Fungi in Housefly and Initial Identification of Strain CY-03

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛艳琴; 邵明伟; 周璇; 文丹; 潘倩倩; 张应烙


    fermented broth had better inhibition against the pathogens of poplar ulcer,tomato early blight,and balsam pear firing with inhibition rate of over 45%;when the tested concentra-tion was at 30μg/filter paper,the AAE had medium inhibition against Streptococcus aureus,Bacillus substilis,and E. coli,with inhibition rings ranged at 14. 8~23. 0 mm. The strain was initially identified as Fusarium oxysporum mor-phologically and through 5. 8S rDNA sequence analysis. CY-03 is worthy to study further as antimicrobial preparation of microbial resources.


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    Savel’eva NN


    used toothpaste and rinse "Forest Balsam" for the duration of treatment and 1 month after the end of therapy. The effect of the proposed and conventional therapy on local immunity judged on the content of lysozyme, sIgA, mIgA, IgG, total protein, extracellular peroxidase activity and bactericidal oral secretions. Statistical processing of materials made using mathematical statistical methods for data analysis. Results & discussion. Under the influence of the proposed therapy in patients of the group increases the activity of local immunity factors and attenuates the inflammatory process in the periodontium. On the 1st day of the end of therapy in this group of patients significantly increases the content of lysozyme in the oral secretions and sIgA to normal values, with elevated levels of IgG and mIgA, which differed before treatment, reduced to normal values (p˂0,05 and remain so the entire period of observation for 6 months. Patients comparison group in the application of traditional therapy of total protein content in the oral secretions to the 6-month observation is not reduced to normal, but there was a positive trend in the growth of the content of sIgA and lysozyme and decreased total protein levels in the oral secretions. The level in the oral secretions mIgA and IgG in patients with the comparison group were not significantly changed the whole period of study. Patients of the main group under the influence of the therapy took place dynamic normalization of extracellular peroxidase activity, whereas in patients with comparison groups to restore the values of the rate of extracellular peroxidase activity did not occur. Between indicators peroxidase activity of patients of the main group and the comparison group, respectively, in all periods of the study were significant differences (p˂0,05. Study of the bactericidal activity of saliva showed that the study group patients who received the combined treatment immunokorregirujushchej therapy by the end of the

  12. 甘肃省高原夏菜种植气候区划%Climate division of plateau summer vegetables in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 张玉鑫; 陈年来; 王晓巍; 康恩祥; 高世铭


    ,selecting indexes of heat,water and light for climate division of plateau summer vegetables in Gansu Province,vegetables suitable to each planting area were determined according to the biological characteristics and the demand of ecological conditions of summer vegetables.【Result】 26 counties were divided into 8 planting designs:the arid planting region of heat tolerance vegetables,the suitable vegetables being balsam pear and wax gourd and luffa;the arid planting region of thermophilic and heat tolerance vegetables,the suitable vegetables onion,tomato,pepper,summer squash,bean,melon;the arid planting region of thermophilic vegetables,the suitable vegetables cucumber,pepper,summer squash,bean;the arid planting region of semi-hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables pea,cabbage,Chinese cabbage,cauliflower;the arid planting region of thermophilic and semi-hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables onion,tomato,pepper,bean,Chinese cabbage,cabbage,lettuce and carrot;the semi-arid planting region of semi-hardy and hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables cabbage,west celery,Chinese cabbage,baby cabbage,cauliflower,garlic,spinach,coriander;the semi-humid planting region of semi-hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables cabbage,Chinese cabbage,cauliflower,welsh onion and carrot;the arid planting region of semi-hardy and hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables cauliflower,cabbage,Chinese cabbage,lettuce,west celery,carrot and garlic.【Conclusion】 According to the biological characteristic and demand of ecological conditions of plateau summer vegetables suitable planting vegetables in each planting region were determined.

  13. Alterações nucleares das cellulas do figado nas infecções de Macacus Rhesus e M. Cynomolgus pelo virus da febre amarella

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    C. Magarinos Torres


    blood of yellow fever patients or experimentally infected M. rhesus; the others were monkeys used in an unbroken series of passages of the virus through M. rhesus, and perhaps this accounts for notable differences found in the histopathology of the liver from case to case, as under natural conditions the virus never passes directly from man to man. The degree in which the oxychromatic degeneration occurs is in no way dependent upon the degree in which fatty and necrobiotic changes are found; in one instance it was the only change present in the liver, being there particularly intense. The acidophilic intranuclear inclusions (oxychromatic degeneration were not present in several M. rhesus not inoculated and dying of tuberculosis or obscure causes; notwithstanding in these livers, fatty infiltration and degeneration associated to necrobiotic changes were found. Some stages ("butterfly" and "entamoeba-like" intranuclear figures, s. coloured Plate figs. g, and h are rather frequent and by its characteristic shape facilitate the recognition of oxychromatic degeneration in sections made by a rapid technique (small pieces of liver fixed in folmaldehyde heated to 60ºC-thirty minutes, frozen sections, hematoxylin, eosin, absolute alcohol, phenol-xylol-creosote, xylol, balsam having no peculiar importance besides this. Since the fatty degeneration and infiltration, necrosis and necrobiosis of the cells present considerable variations in degree from case to case in an unbroken series of passages of the virus through M. rhesus, lacking in two animals the liver of which was able to reproduce typical symptoms and lesions in the following passage, the acidophilic intranuclear inclusions (oxychromatic degeneration, as a rule, were found with much more regularity...