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Sample records for balsams

  1. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  2. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  3. New insights in the chemical composition of benzoin balsams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pauline; Casale, Alexandre; Kerdudo, Audrey; Michel, Thomas; Laville, Rémi; Chagnaud, Francis; Fernandez, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Benzoin balsam is an anthropic exudate obtained from the bark of several species of Styrax trees that is mainly used as a perfume fixative as well as a flavouring agent. Benzoe tonkinensis Laos (also commercialized under the denomination Siam benzoin balsam) displaying characteristic vanilla notes and already being largely used to flavour all kinds of edible goods, was intended to be proposed by Agroforex Company to the Codex Committee on Food Additives for evaluation as a food additive. For this purpose, the present paper reports the phytochemical characterisation of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of benzoin balsams and the quantitation of some of the major components by gas and liquid chromatography techniques. Four coniferyl and two morinol derivatives were characterised for the first time in Benzoe tonkinensis Laos. Finally, two liquid chromatographic methods used to easily discriminate Siam from Sumatra balsam (also known as Benzoe sumatranus Indonesia) were developed. PMID:27211689

  4. Understanding the physiology of postharvest needle abscission in balsam fir

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    Mason Thane Macdonald

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Balsam fir (Abies balsamea trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding.

  5. Production, Application, and Field Performance of AbietivTM, the Balsam Fir Sawfly Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti; Benoit Morin; Robert I. Graham; Renée Lapointe

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1990s, the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) became a significant defoliating insect of precommercially thinned balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stands in western Newfoundland, Canada. In 1997, a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV) was isolated from the balsam fir sawfly and, as no control measures were then available, NeabNPV was developed for the biological control of balsam fir sawfly. In order to register NeabNPV for operational use under the Canadian Pest Control Products Act, research was carried out in a number of areas including NeabNPV field efficacy, non-target organism toxicology, balsam fir sawfly ecology and impact on balsam fir trees, and NeabNPV genome sequencing and analysis. As part of the field efficacy trials, approximately 22 500 hectares of balsam fir sawfly-infested forest were aerially treated with NeabNPV between 2000 and 2005. NeabNPV was found to be safe, efficacious, and economical for the suppression of balsam fir sawfly outbreak populations. Conditional registration for the NeabNPV-based product, Abietiv(, was received from the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (Health Canada) in April 2006. In July 2006, Abietiv was applied by spray airplanes to 15 000 ha of balsam fir sawfly-infested forest in western Newfoundland in an operational control program.

  6. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  7. [Pharmaceutical history of capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčan Part II. Capuchin balsam (Balsamum capucinorum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The history of traditional capuchin balsam is the focal point of the second part of the article on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. Capuchin balsam, a medicinal speciality, was being manufactured in the monastery from the end of the 18th century till the year 1950. It is a spirit tincture, its prescription originating from the formulation by Oswald Croll. Balsamum Peruvianum, Gummiresina myrrha, Gummiresina olibanum, and Styrax are the main ingredients, besides assorted plants. The balsam was taken as an antiseptic, antiphlogistic, and analgesic. The balsam was a favoured rustic medicine, and it was sold also abroad (Germany, Poland, USA, Ireland, Belgium). The profit made from the sale of the balsam supported the reconstruction and the maintenance of the monastery and the local theological studies. Other medical formulations connected with the name of the capuchin order are also mentioned.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins capuchin balsam monastics pharmacies.

  8. Substitutos do " novo" mundo para as antigas plantas raras: um estudo de caso dos bálsamos " New" world substitutes for ancient rare plants: a study case on balsams

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Alfonso-Goldfarb; Márcia H. M. Ferraz; Maria Helena Roxo Beltran

    2010-01-01

    Convinced that the " true balsam" was lost forever, Conrad Gesner described other substances with similar healing virtues. However, he was not the only one in the 16th to search for other varieties of balsamic oleoresins. The arrival of the Europeans to the Americas allowed the finding of native plants with properties similar to those of the original balsam, including Balsam of Peru, Balsam of Tolu and particularly in the Brazilian area, Balsam of Copaiba. Focusing on the Brazilian context, t...

  9. Springtime resumption of photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodine, G K; Lavigne, M B; Krasowski, M J

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was measured in the field at two locations in New Brunswick, Canada from late winter to late spring in 2004 and 2005. No photosynthesis was detectable while the soil remained below 0 degrees C throughout the rooting zone. In both years, photosynthesis began once soil temperature rose to 0 degrees C. In potted seedlings in growth chambers, there was no photosynthesis at an air temperature of 10 degrees C if the pots were frozen. These findings suggest that, once air temperatures permit photosynthesis, it is the availability of unfrozen soil water that triggers the onset of photosynthesis. In the field, full recovery of photosynthetic capacity following the onset of soil thaw was dependent on air temperature and took 5 weeks in 2005, but 10 weeks in 2004. There were two substantial frost events during the recovery period in 2004 that may explain the extended recovery period. In 2005, recovery was complete after the accumulation of 200 growing degree days above 0 degrees C after the start of soil thaw. PMID:18450571

  10. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  11. Balsamic Vinegar Improves High Fat-Induced Beta Cell Dysfunction via Beta Cell ABCA1

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    Hannah Seok

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.MethodsIn this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.ResultsIn rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1 expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.ConclusionThese findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.

  12. [Poisoning caused by the cutaneous application of camphorated balsam ointment in a nursing infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelli, M M; Pesenti, P; Ronconi, G F

    1987-01-01

    We describe a case of camphor and balsamic oil poisoning observed in a 1-month-old infant. Because of toxic effects of camphor and volatile oils on central nervous system, these compounds show no therapeutical usefullness in children. PMID:3697334

  13. Pathology of a Gammabaculovirus in Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host

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    Christopher J. Lucarotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neodiprion abietis Gammabaculovirus (Baculoviridae: NeabNPV is virulent, highly contagious, and infects only midgut epithelial cells of balsam fir sawfly larvae, but infections can carry through to adult sawflies in the midgut. Larval infections are characterized by hypertrophy of midgut epithelial cell nuclei, where virogenic stromata develop to produce nucleocapsids that are singly enveloped before occlusion into occlusion bodies. Infected, occlusion body-laden cells slough from the midgut epithelium as a result of a dissolution of the basal lamina. Infected cells undergo lysis, and viral occlusion bodies exit affected larvae in a watery diarrhea to infect other balsam fir sawfly larvae. A budded virus stage was not observed, but nucleocapsid and occlusion body formation resembled the development of occlusion-derived virions and occlusion bodies in lepidopteran alphabaculoviruses.

  14. Does tree seedling growth and survival require weeding of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera)?

    OpenAIRE

    Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Wördehoff, René; Lamatsch, Klaus; Bachmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) on survival and growth of naturally regenerated silver birch (Betula pendula) and planted Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba) seedlings was studied in a weeding experiment over 3 years. Three different treatments were applied: control, mowing, and hand weeding by pulling out the entire plant. There were no consistent treatment effects on height and diameter of the tree seedlings. The coverage of Rubus fruticosus had a...

  15. Contact Allergy Caused by Fragrance Mix and Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam Of Peru), a Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Turčić, Petra; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Višnja; Marinović Kulišić, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substanc...

  16. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R.; de Carvalho-Silva, Samuel; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; Villas-Boas, Silas G.

    2016-01-01

    Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. PMID:27455339

  17. Determination of the monosaccharide and alcohol content of balsamic and other vinegars by enzymatic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessi, M.; Monzani, A.; Coppini, D.

    1988-01-23

    The contents of monosaccharides and alcohol in bulsamic and other vinegars were determined by the enzymatic method. The traditional, unique balsamic vinegar is produced by the traditional method in modena. The older the balsamic vinegar, the higher the contents of dextrose and fructose are. The existence of wine vinegar added to the traditional balsami vinegar can be judged from the contents of them. The contents of dextrose and fructose in apple vinegar are low or medium, while those in the wine vinegar is very low. The ratio of dextrose to fructose varies according to the samples. Although sorbitol is contained in the apple vinegar, it is hardly contained in the commercially available wine vinegar. A little xylitol is contained in all the samples, while a large amount of it is contained in the apple vinegar. A sure indication of the quality and sound preparation is given by the content of glycerol which is found in all the vinegars and most distingushed in the traditional balsamic vinegar. (6 tabs, 20 refs)

  18. Lead isotopes reveal different sources of lead in balsamic and other vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-eight brands of balsamic vinegars were analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) to test the findings of a previous study indicating relatively high levels of lead contamination in some of those vinegars - more than two thirds (70%) of them exceeded California's State Maximum Level (34 μg/L) based on consumption rates ≥ 0.5 μg Pb per day. The Lead isotopic fingerprints of all those vinegars with high lead concentrations were then found to be primarily anthropogenic. This isotopic analysis unquestionably reveals multiple contamination sources including atmospheric pollutant Pb and an unidentified contamination source, likely occurring after grape harvest. Organically grown grape vinegars display the same Pb content and isotopic signatures as other vinegars. This implies that pesticides might not be a significant source of pollutant Pb in vinegars. A significant post-harvest contamination would be inherited from chemicals added during production and/or material used during transport, processing or storage of these vinegars. This is consistent with the highest Pb levels being found in aged vinegars (112 ± 112 μg/L) in contrast to other vinegars (41.6 ± 28.9 μg/L) suggesting contamination during storage. It is, therefore, projected that lead levels in most vinegars, especially aged balsamic and wine vinegars, will decrease with improvements in their manufacture and storage processes consequential to recent concerns of elevated levels of lead in some vinegars. - Highlights: → First extensive study on content and possible sources of lead in balsamic vinegars. → Half of the vinegars exceed California's State Maximum Level for human consumption. → Lead content in vinegars seems to be mainly post-harvest from industrial processes.

  19. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane.

  20. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane. PMID:27342227

  1. Genome analysis and characterization of a tobacco mosaic virus isolate infecting balsam (Impatiens balsamina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Bong-Nam

    2009-01-01

    The complete RNA genomic sequence of a tobacco mosaic virus isolate infecting Impatiens balsamina, designated as TMV-IM, has been determined. The genomic sequence and the predicted gene products of TMV-IM were similar to those of other members of the genus Tobamovirus. The CP ORF of TMV-IM showed sequence identities of 95.0-99.5% with the corresponding ORFs of other TMV strains. Full-length cDNA of TMV-IM was amplified by RT-PCR with a 5'-end primer harboring a T7 promoter sequence and a 3'-end TMV-specific primer. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA was cloned into plasmid vectors. Capped transcripts synthesized from the cDNA clone were highly infectious and caused characteristic symptoms in balsam plants, similar to wild-type TMV-IM and TMV-U1. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of TMV in balsam. PMID:19381775

  2. Spread of a Gammabaculovirus within Larval Populations of Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host Following Its Aerial Application

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    Dan T. Quiring

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials and assessments of the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV: Baculoviridae, Gammabaculovirus against its natural host were conducted in July and August 2002 near Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in naturally regenerated, precommercially thinned stands dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea. Two experimental blocks, each with its own untreated control, were established. The purpose of the Island Pond block was to examine the spread of NeabNPV from a 313-ha aerial treatment block out into adjacent populations of balsam fir sawflies. The purpose of the Old Man’s Pond block (2,093 ha was to determine whether NeabNPV could disperse into populations of balsam fir sawflies within a 200-m zone between spray swaths. NeabNPV was applied to treatment blocks by a Cessna 188B AgTruck aircraft equipped with MicronAir AU4000 rotary atomizers at an application rate equivalent to 1 × 109 NeabNPV occlusion bodies/ha in 2.5 L of 20% aqueous molasses. At Island Pond, NeabNPV infection increased with time following the spray, especially for individuals close to the treatment block, and infection rate decreased to a measured distance of 400 m from the treatment block. At Old Man’s Pond, NeabNPV infection rose higher (80% vs. 15% and sawfly densities declined more (84% vs. 60% in the area between spray swaths than in the control block.

  3. Genetic variation among lake states balsam poplar populations is associated with geographic origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemenschneider, D.E.; McMahon, B.G. (USDA Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Variation among populations of balsam poplar from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan (the Lake States) in tree height, phenology, and sylleptic branching was associated with geographic origin based on bivariate correlation, canonical correlation, principal component, and cluster analyses. Ninety percent of the joint variation in five traits was explained by two principal components, the first associated with late season growth and tree height, the second associated with number of sylleptic branches. Populations were delineated into northwestern, central, and southeastern clusters based on principal component one and two coordinates using Ward's minimum variance method. Populations from the southeastern cluster grew taller, produced more late season leaves, and set bud later than populations from the northwestern and central clusters. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Dahl, Wivecke; Debiton, Eric; Pichette, André; Madelmont, Jean-Claude

    2003-05-01

    The antitumor activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir oil) was evaluated against several solid tumor cell lines including MCF-7, PC-3, A-549, DLD-1, M4BEU and CT-26. Balsam fir oil was found to be active against all the solid tumor cell lines tested, with GI 50 values ranging between 0.76 and 1.7 mg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS and the cytotoxicity of each oil constituent was determined. Balsam fir oil is essentially constituted of monoterpenes tau; 96 %) and some sesquiterpenes. All the compounds tested were inactive (tau; 250 microM) except for alpha-humulene (GI50 = 55 to 73 microM) which thus seems responsible for the cytotoxicity of the oil. We also tested the cytotoxicity of caryophyllene oxide, which proved inactive, and gamma-caryophyllene which was found to be active against all solid tumor cell lines tested. We evaluated the effects of balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene on the cellular glutathione (GSH) content and on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cellular GSH content and an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil. PMID:12802719

  5. Terpene synthases and their contribution to herbivore-induced volatile emission in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    OpenAIRE

    Irmisch, S.; Jiang, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; Physics Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Chen, F.; Gershenzon, J.; Köllner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background As a response to caterpillar feeding, poplar releases a complex mixture of volatiles which comprises several classes of compounds. Poplar volatiles have been reported to function as signals in plant-insect interactions and intra- and inter-plant communication. Although the volatile blend is dominated by mono- and sesquiterpenes, there is much to be learned about their formation in poplar. Results Here we report the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family of western balsam poplar (Populu...

  6. Preparation of Health Drink of Balsam Pear and Apple%苦瓜苹果保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄运凤; 刘国凌

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to determine the optimal technical formula for health drink of balsam pear and apple. [ Method] With balsam pear and apple as the main materials, the health drink of balsam pear and apple was prepared. The effects of amounts of balsam pear juice, apple juice, honey and citric acid on quality of the product were studied through orthogonal test. [ Result ] The effects of main factors on quality of the product from big to small in order was balsam pear juice amount > citric acid amount > honey amount > apple juice amount. The optimal technical formula for health drink of balsam pear and apple was 20% balsam pear juice + 10% apple juice + 1. 5 g honey +0. 035 g citric acid. [ Conclusion ] Under the optimal technological conditions, the product was refreshing and sweet with rich nutrition and suitable taste.%[目的]确定苦瓜苹果保健饮料的最佳工艺配方.[方法]以苦瓜和苹果为主要原料制备苦瓜苹果保健饮料,采用正交试验研究苦瓜汁、苹果汁、蜂蜜和柠檬酸用量对产品品质的影响.[结果]影响产品品质的主要因素由大到小依次为:苦瓜汁用量>柠檬酸用量>蜂蜜用量>苹果汁用量;苦瓜苹果保健饮料的最佳工艺配方为:20%苦瓜汁+10%苹果汁+1.5 g蜂蜜+0.035 g柠檬酸.[结论]在最佳工艺条件下所制混合饮料清新甘甜、营养丰富、口感适宜.

  7. Timing of photoperiodic competency causes phenological mismatch in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Song, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenology is expected to be sensitive to climate warming. In boreal trees, spring flush is primarily temperature driven, whereas height growth cessation and autumn leaf senescence are predominantly controlled by photoperiod. Cuttings of 525 genotypes from the full range of balsam poplar were planted into two common gardens (Vancouver and Indian Head, Canada) at similar latitudes, but with differing winter temperatures and growing seasons. There was clinal variation in spring and, particularly, summer and fall phenology. Bud flush and, despite milder climate, bud set and leaf drop were earlier at Vancouver than at Indian Head by 44, 28 and 7 d, respectively. Although newly flushed growth is insensitive to photoperiod, many genotypes at both sites became competent before the summer solstice. At Vancouver, high-latitude genotypes set dormant terminal buds in mid-spring. Most other genotypes grew until midsummer or set bud temporarily and then experienced a second flush. In both gardens and in a growth chamber experiment, earlier bud set was associated with reduced height growth and higher root/shoot ratios. Shoots attained competency ~5 weeks after flushing, which would normally prevent dormancy induction before the solstice, but may be insufficient if spring advances by more than a few weeks.

  8. Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Bálint

    Full Text Available Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction.

  9. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defence-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eDeslauriers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L. Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage and defence. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation, moderately (M-trees, 41 to 60% and heavily (H-trees, 61 to 80% defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem, carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch and defence components in needles (terpenoids compound from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defence. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defence components and to non-structural (NCS and structural (growth carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilisation for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  10. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  11. Balsam “Mercana-Artrovit warming” — efficacy and tolerability in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Tsvetkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy, local and systemic tolerability of balsam “Mercana-Artrovit warming” (BMAW containing methylnicotinat, mint and eucalyptus ethereal oils, propylene glycol extracts of eucalyptus, linden, nettle, elecampane, common wormwood, tansy, terpentine oil in knee osteoarthritis (KOA Material and methods. 60 pts were included in a two-week double blind placebo controlled randomized study. BMAW 5 ml was administered in 30 pts (the main group twice a day (in the morning and in the evening on the target knee joint. 30 pts of control group received placebo containing only components of stuff. Demographic and clinical parameters in the main and the control groups were comparable. Inclusion criteria: age from 40 to 70 years, pain intensity in the target joint at least 40 mm on VAS, I-III radiological stage according to Kellgren, Leqesne score 4-10, treatment with NSAIDs during the previous 3 months. Exclusion criteria: indications for intra-articular glucocorticoid injection, clinically significant disturbances of internal organs function and skin damages in the region of knee joint. Clinical efficacy was assessed by WOMAC index, pain at movement and at rest, time of 15 meters walking, general assessment of efficacy (separately by the pt and by the doctor. Frequency and character of adverse events was registered. Results. Local BMAW administration provided statistically significant decrease of WO MAC summated score (p=0,008, pain at movement (p<0,001 and at rest (p<0,005. So analgesic effect of the drug is sufficient for improvement of functional activity of pts with KOA. General efficacy assessment was significantly higher in the main group (Fisher exact test, p<0,005. Placebo did not significantly change efficacy measures. Adverse events were absent in both groups. Conclusion. The results of the study allows to recommend BMAW for local therapy of KOA

  12. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines

  13. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos, E-mail: rrc@fcm.unicamp.br

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  14. Specific features of the dynamics of epiphytic and soil yeast communities in the thickets of Indian balsam on mucky gley soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities were studied in the phyllosphere, on the flowers, and on the roots of Indian balsam ( Impatiens glandulifera Royle) and in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of this plant. It was shown that typical phyllosphere yeast communities with a predominance of the red-pigmented species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodotorula glutinis and the typical epiphyte Cryptococcus magnus are formed on the leaves of this annual hygrophyte. However, yeast groups with a predominance of the ascosporous species Saccharomyces paradoxus, Kazachstania barnettii, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, which are not typical of soils at all, were found in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of Indian balsam. Thus, the epiphytic and soil yeast complexes under the thickets of Indian balsam are represented by two entirely discrete communities without common species. In other biogeocenoses of the forest zone, the rearrangement of the structure of yeast communities in passing from the aboveground substrates to the soil proceeds gradually, and most of the species can be isolated both from the aboveground parts of plants and from the soil. The strong difference between the yeast communities in the phyllosphere of Indian balsam and in the soil under its thickets is apparently related to the fact that the annual hygrophytes are decomposed very quickly (during several days after the first frosts). Because of this, an intermediate layer between the phyllosphere and the soil (the litter layer), in which epiphytic microorganisms can develop, is not formed under these plants.

  15. Development of a Dispersal Model for Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae, to Facilitate Landscape-Level Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Lass

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg attacks subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. Nutt. in eastern Washington, Oregon, and northern Idaho. Historical balsam woolly adelgid distributions present an opportunity to understand climatic factors that influence the species’ distribution at a landscape scale. The distribution data allows for creation of predictive models that detail the likelihood of occurrence and associated geographic data allow modeling of species dispersal. Predictive variables linked to the distribution of the hosts and to abiotic environmental conditions were utilized to create a spatial probability model of occurrence. Balsam woolly adelgid predominantly disperses by wind, and hence, both wind speed and wind direction were used to create a dispersal probability model. Results from wind dispersal modeling suggested that two-thirds of the new infestations were due to July and August wind direction and speed. Average July winds ranged from 0.5 to 3.27 m/s, flowing south westerly, and August winds ranged from 0.43 to 1.55 m/s, flowing north easterly. Land managers can use the results of the predictive model to better understand where current infestations are likely to expand. Prediction of where the balsam woolly adelgid might move allows managers to adjust actions to respond to future insect movement and establishment.

  16. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae), a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sreekala; A.G. Pandurangan; R. Ramasubbu; S.K. Kulloli

    2011-01-01

    The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, ho...

  17. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae, a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sreekala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, honeybees, flies and butterflies are the major pollinators of Impatiens cuspidata. Pollen grains are oval, having an average diameter of 28.24μm. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Best pollen germination along with 1636μm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium. Stigma was more receptive (up to 80% on the first day of flower opening. It chiefly reproduced by means of cross pollination, where the fruit set was only 40%, but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced fruit set up to 80%. The plant is an obligate out-crosser and self incompatible, as confirmed by various hand pollination experiments. Seed germination in natural and controlled conditions was only 20%. Its dependence on a specialized habitat, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction, low percentage of seed germination and other abiotic factors could be reasons for its limited distribution and endemism.

  18. Identifying Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa Attacked by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae Using Spectral Measurements of the Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Cook

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Balsam woolly adelgid is an invasive pest of firs in the United States. Aerial surveys are conducted for detection of adelgid infestations but other remotely sensed data may also be useful. Our objective was to determine if high spectral resolution, branch-level data can be used to distinguish infested from noninfested trees. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a three-variable model (the red-green index and two narrow-bands (one at 670 nm and the other at 1912 nm that classified infested versus non-infested trees with 94% accuracy compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model. The response of trees in narrow spectral bands was integrated across wavebands to simulate measurements from the multispectral SPOT5-HRVIR sensor. Stepwise discriminant analysis again yielded a three-variable model (simple ratio, the SPOT5-HRVIR band in the SWIR region and NDVI with similar accuracy (93% at discriminating infested from non-infested trees compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model.

  19. 超声波-表面活性剂协同萃取苦瓜皂苷%Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction of saponins from balsam pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 葛邦国; 宋烨; 李丹丹; 马晓燕; 吴茂玉

    2013-01-01

    Balsam pear (Momordica charantia L.), a climber belonging to family Cucurbitaceae, is commonly known as bitter gourd or bitter melon in English. It is cultivated throughout the world for use as vegetable as well as medicine. Balsam pear has been used traditionally as medicine in developing countries. Some of its common uses in most countries are for diabetes, a carminative and in treatment of colics. Topically it is used for treatment of wounds, internally as well as externally for management of worms and parasites. It is also used as emmenagogue, antiviral for measles and hepatitis. Balsam pear contains biologically active chemicals that include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixedoils, triterpenes. Saponins from all parts of the plant (fruit pulp, seed, leaves and whole plant) are most widely studied with regard to its antidiabetic effect. Ultrasound and surfactants have been individually shown to enhance saponins extraction. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound and surfactants on saponins extraction. In order to explore effective extracting method of saponins from balsam pear, response surface was used to study the effect of ultrasonic power (133-167 W/g), ethanol volume fraction (60%-80%) and mass concentrations of SDS (15-25 mg/mL) on extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear. Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction was compared with ethanol and ultrasound, respectively. The structures of the prepared saponins from balsam pear were identified. Results showed that the established model of extraction could well predict extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear under different conditions. Extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by ultrasonic power, ethanol volume fraction and mass concentrations of SDS, and there was synergistic effect between ultrasonic power and the mass concentration of SDS. Various factors affecting extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear in a

  20. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  1. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Drew Carleton

    Full Text Available Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  2. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  3. The potential influence of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the ecohydromorphic functioning of inland river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Phil) Greenwood, Philip; Fister, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to repeated speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been empirically proven during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain

  4. 不同类型苦瓜在苦瓜多糖提取上的比较性研究%Comparative study of different types of balsam pear in the extraction of polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨税; 吴梦婷; 李洋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To extract polysaccharide from momordica charantia rate as the index,the extraction rate of pol-ysaccharide as different types of balsam pear,determine the best source of extracting balsam pear momordica charantia poly-saccharides. Methods The experimental method was two enzymes hydrolysis,different types and different time of momordi-ca charantia was experimentized. Results The short round and oblong strip balsam pear balsam pear,white(old)strip of balsam pear is green(tender)strip of bitter melon is good. Conclusion To determine the best bitter gourd type played an important role in the yield and content of polysaccharide of improvement,but also after the extraction of polysaccharide from momordica charantia provided a basis for further exploration.%目的:以苦瓜多糖的提取率为指标,比较不同类型苦瓜的苦瓜多糖提取率,确定提取最佳的苦瓜多糖的苦瓜类型。方法以双酶水解法为实验方法,选择不同类型、不同时间段苦瓜进行实验。结果条形苦瓜较短圆形和长圆形苦瓜好,白(老)条形苦瓜较青(嫩)条形苦瓜好。结论确定最佳苦瓜类型在多糖的产量与含量的提高上具有重要的意义,也为以后苦瓜多糖提取的进一步探索提供一定的依据。

  5. Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Flavonoids from Balsam Pear%苦瓜黄酮类化合物提取条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江珊; 王运强; 刘焰; 赵斌; 刘越; 李俊丽

    2013-01-01

    以蒸馏水为浸提溶剂,采用热浸提法从苦瓜(Momordica charantia)中提取黄酮类化合物.在单因素试验的基础上,设计正交试验优化苦瓜中黄酮类化合物的提取条件.结果表明,料水质量比对苦瓜黄酮类化合物提取量的影响最大,其次是浸提温度,浸提时间的影响最小.优化的提取方案为浸提温度90℃、料水质量比1∶20、浸提时间4h,所得苦瓜黄酮类化合物提取量为1.937 mg/g.%Flavonoids were extracted from balsam pear (Momordica charantia) by heat extraction method using distilled water as extract solvent.The extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal experiment based on single factor tests.The results showed that the effects of extraction conditions on yield of flavnoids ranked from high to low as mass ratio of material to water,extraction temperature,extraction time.The optimum extraction craft was extracting at 90 ℃ with mass ratio of material to water at 1∶20 for 4 h,and the yield of balsam pear flavonoids was 1.937 mg/g.

  6. 丝瓜作砧木嫁接对苦瓜生长、产量和品质的影响%Effects of Grafting with Loofah as Stock on the Growth, Yield and Quality of Balsam Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱进

    2012-01-01

    The effects of grafting with loofah (Luffa cylindrica L.) as stock on the growth, yield and quality of balsam pear (Momordica choranlia L.) were investigated. The results showed that grafting with loofah as stock significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weight, leaf length, yield, vitamin C content in the fruits of balsam pear; while significantly decreased the content of soluble sugar of balsam pear. Shoot and root fresh weight, content of vitamin C of balsam pear grafting with S-02 loofah was significantly higher than that of S-01 and S-03; and its yield was the highest, thus S-02 was an ideal gourd rootstock.%研究了丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica L.)作砧木嫁接对苦瓜(Momordica charantia L.)生长、产量和品质的影响.结果表明,丝瓜作砧木嫁接显著增加了苦瓜的地上部鲜重和根鲜重、叶片长、单株产量和果实中维生素C含量,显著降低了苦瓜果实中可溶性糖含量.S-02丝瓜嫁接的苦瓜地上部鲜重和根鲜重、维生素C含量均显著高于S-01和S-03嫁接的苦瓜,单株产量也最高,S-02是较理想的丝瓜砧木.

  7. Estimation of daytime net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange over balsam fir forests in eastern Canada : combining averaged tower-based flux measurements with remotely sensed MODIS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Q.K.; Bourque, C.P.A.; Meng, F-R. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management

    2006-12-15

    Considerable attention has been placed on the unprecedented increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and associated changes in global climate change. This article developed a practical approach for estimating daytime net CO{sub 2} fluxes generated over balsam fir dominated forest ecosystems in the Atlantic Maritime ecozone of eastern Canada. The study objectives were to characterize the light use efficiency and ecosystem respiration for young to intermediate-aged balsam fir forest ecosystems in New Brunswick; relate tower-based measurements of daytime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR); use a digital elevation model of the province to enhance spatial calculations of daily photosynthetically active radiation and APAR under cloud-free conditions; and generate a spatial calculation of daytime NEE for a balsam fir dominated region in northwestern New Brunswick. The article identified the study area and presented the data requirements and methodology. It was shown that the seasonally averaged daytime NEE and APAR values are strongly correlated. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis.

  9. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis. PMID:27311112

  10. Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn applied on foliage and bark surfaces on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn in balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] seedlings were studied with the radioisotopes applied directly on shoot or main-stem surfaces in a growth chamber. Concentration and distribution of the absorbed radioisotopes in different plant parts depended on distances between source (the application site) and sink (the rest of the seedling), as well as on tissue growth activity. Acidic wetness significantly enhanced radioisotope absorption. 54Mn and 65Zn were found to be concentrated primarily in 1-year old needles at the middle and top levels of the seedling crown. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences in accumulation (Bq g−1) between 54Mn and 65Zn in needles and twigs from foliar uptake. The absorption by seedlings (including the washed application shoot) 70 days after application was 24–32% of the remaining activities for 54Mn and 25–30% for 65Zn. Less than 1% of the absorbed isotopes was translocated from the bark application sites to other plant organs, whereas more than 54% of the activity absorbed at 1-year old shoots moved to the rest of the seedling. (author)

  11. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klimaszewski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszew­ski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey, Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin, Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say, Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605, Candida mesenterica (Geiger Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362, Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763, Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073, Candida sp. (accession number AY498864, Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246, Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345, Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581, Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630, Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501, Acremonium psammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287, Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946, Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750, and Aspergillus amstelodami (L. Mangin Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (KirchnerJordan (accession number BA000040 and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  12. Increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Houle, D.; Côté, B.; Duchesne, L.; Morin, H.

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected during three consecutive growing seasons (2009-2011) to (i) experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C) and earlier snowmelt (2-3 weeks) as well as (ii) increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH4-15NO3). Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes) and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees. Results from the second (2010) and third (2011) year of treatment are reported. After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3) or ammonium (NH4) availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion-exchange membranes, except for NH4 in the forest floor, which increased by an average of 54% over the two years. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an 8-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010. We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  13. Three years of increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Houle, D.; Côté, B.; Duchesne, L.; Morin, H.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly, by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected to (i) experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C) and earlier snowmelt (2-3 weeks) as well as (ii) increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH4-15NO3). Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion exchange membranes (PRS™-probes) and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees. After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3) or ammonium (NH4) availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion exchange membranes, except for an average 54% increase in the forest floor available NH4. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an eight-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010. We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  14. Three years of increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D'Orangeville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly, by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected to (i experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C and earlier snowmelt (2–3 weeks as well as (ii increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH415NO3. Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion exchange membranes (PRS™-probes and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees.

    After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3 or ammonium (NH4 availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion exchange membranes, except for an average 54% increase in the forest floor available NH4. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an eight-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010.

    We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  15. Increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D'Orangeville

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected during three consecutive growing seasons (2009–2011 to (i experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C and earlier snowmelt (2–3 weeks as well as (ii increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH4-15NO3. Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees. Results from the second (2010 and third (2011 year of treatment are reported. After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3 or ammonium (NH4 availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion-exchange membranes, except for NH4 in the forest floor, which increased by an average of 54% over the two years. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an 8-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010. We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  16. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  17. The potential influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the hydro-geomorphic functioning of inland river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Greenwood, P.; Fister, W.

    2014-12-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. It favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been shown during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain sediment and associated contaminants during their passage from terrestrial

  18. 山区秋植苦瓜早播高产优质栽培技术%Early-sowing,high-yielding and high-quality cultivation techniques of fall-planting balsam pear in the hilly area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春旺

    2012-01-01

    利用山区中高海拔特有的地理气候资源优势,采用秋苦瓜早播技术,包括品种选择、播期安排、培育壮苗、合理密植、田间管理等技术,达到提早上市、提高经济效益的目的。%This study introduced some cultivation techniques including the selection of varieties,the arrangement of sowing time,cultivation of healthy seedlings,rational planting density and field management based on the geographical and climatic advantages at middle and high altitude in the hilly area,to reach the goals of making balsam pear earlier on market and improving its economic benefit.

  19. Experimental Study on T2DM Patients by Combining Sports Intervention with Drinking Balsam Pear Juice%联合运动干预结合饮用苦瓜汁对 T2DM患者的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭光泽; 付爱丽; 吴剑明

    2015-01-01

    探讨饮用苦瓜果汁结合中速步行对 DM患者的干预效果,选取临床诊断为2型且无其他器质性疾病,适合本实验运动强度的 DM患者60名为研究对象,随机分成实验组和对照组,在不过多食用高脂、高胆固醇类食物且不服用任何降糖、降脂药物的情况下,通过饮用苦瓜果汁和联合运动干预实验,结果表明饮用苦瓜果汁结合联合运动干预可使 DM患者的 FPG、GSP、GHB 等糖代谢及 TG、CHOL、HDL、LDL、UA 等脂质代谢指标显著改善至正常或接近正常水平(P <0.01)。可作为2型 DM患者治疗的有效手段进行推广使用。%To investigate the intervention effect on DM patients by combining drinking balsam pear juice with walking at medium speed,the paper selects 60 DM patients who were clinically diagnosed with only T2DM and who fit for the intensity of the experiment as its research object and randomly divides them into experiment group and control group.Under the condition of little absorption of high fat,high cholesterol food and hypoglycemic, lipid -lowering drugs,the combination of sports intervention with drinking balsam pear juice can help normalize or reach a normal level of (P <0.01)glucose metabolism indexes like FPG,GSP and GHB and lipid metabolism indexes like TG,CHOL,HDL,LDL and UA.So the combination can be popularized and applied as an effective way to cure T2DMpatients.

  20. Structure elucidation of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) flavonoids from balsam poplar buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, François; Gauthier, Charles; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Pichette, André

    2016-09-15

    There is nowadays an urgent need for developing novel generations of antibiotic agents due to the increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria. As a rich reservoir of structurally diverse compounds, plant species hold promise in this regard. Within this framework, we isolated a unique series of antibacterial flavonoids, named balsacones N-U, featuring multiple cinnamyl chains on the flavan skeleton. The structures of these compounds, isolated as racemates, were determined using extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis in tandem with HRMS. Balsacones N-U along with previously isolated balsacones A-M were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several of the tested balsacones were potent anti-MRSA agents showing MIC values in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships study highlighted some important parameters involved in the antibacterial activity of balsacones such as the presence of cinnamyl and cinnamoyl chains at the C-3 and C-8 positions of the flavan skeleton, respectively. These results suggest that balsacones could represent a potential novel class of naturally occurring anti-MRSA agents. PMID:27436809

  1. Stable isotope ratio analysis for verifying the authenticity of balsamic and wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, M; Paolini, M; Simoni, M; Bontempo, L; Vrhovsek, U; Sacco, M; Thomas, F; Jamin, E; Hermann, A; Camin, F

    2014-08-13

    In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and ¹³C/¹²C in ethanol and acetic acid and of ¹⁸O/¹⁶O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the ¹³C/¹²C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM.

  2. Survival and growth of balsam fir seedlings and saplings under multiple controlled ungulate densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, B.; Tremblay, J.P.; Cote, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Tree species composition in forests can be strongly modulated by high densities of cervid herbivores ultimately leading to local extirpation of species. To establish which cervid densities are compatible with the recruitment of a browse sensitive tree species, seedlings and saplings should be survey

  3. 家常菜(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Balsam Pear and Egg苦瓜炒鸡蛋Ingredients:1 balsam pear,2 eggs,1/2 red pepper,salt and sugar. Preparations: 1 Wash the balsam pear,then use a tablespoon to scoop out the pulp.Cut the balsam pear and red pepper into slices (about 1-2 cm long);

  4. 蔬菜苦瓜在临床医药上的应用%Although the balsam pear isnot lookest but it is good medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许应龙; 蓝静; 丁世先

    2004-01-01

    苦瓜拉丁文叫Momordica Charantia L.是蔬菜与药用两面性的绿色植物.它在蔬菜中是比较难看,疙瘩遍及全身,但是它的作用是人们难于知悉的.只有在医疗战线上勤勤恳恳为人民服务,工作刻苦勤奋的人才会知道它的贡献.它是可降低血糖,医治糖尿病人和肿瘤病人的好药物.现让笔者把它的光彩一面展现在众人面前.

  5. Induction of Multiple Buds from Cotyledonary Nodes of Balsam Pear (Momordica charantia L.)%苦瓜子叶节丛生芽的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林义章; 罗燕华; 张志忠

    2006-01-01

    以苦瓜(Momordica charantia L.)子叶节为材料,建立了苦瓜高效再生体系,并比较了不同基因型、不同激素浓度配比、苗龄和肌醇浓度对不定芽诱导率的影响.结果表明:子叶直立、略微分开,颜色呈浅绿色时子叶节诱导率最高;培养于MS+3.0 m/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/LIAA中的子叶节诱导率最高;不同基因型的诱导率有一定差异,以"南屿"苦瓜子叶节诱导率最高;添加一定浓度的肌醇可以促进不定芽的分化;低浓度6-BA的培养基有利于芽的伸长;低浓度IAA有利于不定根的发生,生根率高达91.7%.

  6. Experimental Study on Hot Air Drying of Balsam Pear Slice%苦瓜切片热风干燥试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华红; 赵士杰; 张博

    2013-01-01

      通过恒温干燥以及变温干燥两种不同的热风干燥方式,研究了苦瓜切片在不同热风温度、切片厚度以及风速等因素条件下的热风干燥特性,并绘制了含水率曲线及干燥速率曲线。结果表明:热风温度和风速对苦瓜干燥影响较大,厚度影响相对较小;变温干燥时,干品色泽比恒温干燥好。这些可为苦瓜切片热风干燥工艺的改进提供一定的理论依据。%Through constant temperature and variable temperature drying , the two different hot air drying methods , this paper has studied the hot air drying characteristics of bitter gourd slices in different air temperature , wind speed , the slice thickness and other factors , and drawn the water cut curves and drying rate curves .The results show that:the hot air temperature and wind velocity have a big effect on the drying process , thickness effect is relatively small .Variable tem-perature drying is better than the constant temperature drying from the dry goods color perspective .The research can pro-vide a certain theory basis for improvements of bitter gourd slices hot-air drying process .

  7. 苦瓜保健功能及开发利用研究进展%Progress in study on health functions and use of balsam pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴道宏; 周丽娟; 孙术国

    2009-01-01

    苦瓜具有降血糖、抗氧化、抗菌、抗癌、减肥等功能特性,从苦瓜糖制品、苦瓜饮料、苦瓜酒、苦瓜口含片、苦瓜豆腐、苦瓜冰淇淋等的开发进行论述,为今后对苦瓜开发利用提供依据.

  8. Environ: E00503 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AX:63360] Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family) Liquidambar orientalis balsam Crude... drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family) E00503 Liquidambar orientalis balsam ...

  9. Clarification and Browning Inhibition Technology of Balsam Pear Honeydew Processing%苦瓜蜜汁加工工艺中澄清和褐变的处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔乃妮; 陈益元

    2011-01-01

    To improve the information monitoring ability in quality and safety of agricultural products and reverse the weak foundation in Hubei province, a lot of work had been done by agricultural departments of Hubei province in recent years and a monitoring platform was built. In the platform, four levels of monitoring system including province, prefectures, counties and monitoring points were set up. It could be used to monitor the contents such as "Qualified products to sell", "Market permission", routine monitoring, supervision inspection, quality census, agricultural inputs and products origin traceability and it could realize the the objectives of complete coverage, zero risk and responsibility investigation system for quality and safety of agricultural products.%为了解决苦瓜(Momordica charantia)蜜汁饮料加工工艺中易浑浊和褐变的问题,分别采用4种澄清方法和4种褐变与沉淀控制方法对苦瓜蜜汁进行了处理.结果表明,明胶单宁澄清法进行澄清处理效果较好,PVPP吸附法可有效解决苦瓜蜜汁褐变和沉淀问题.

  10. Comparative Experiments on Several Cultivars of Balsam Pear in Plastic House in Nanning%南宁市大棚苦瓜冬春茬栽培品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芬肖

    2002-01-01

    对南宁市4个苦瓜(Momordica charantia)品种进行了冬春茬大棚栽培比较试验.结果表明:新育成的春丰40号比春丰45号、广西特选2号和广西大肉二号高产;春丰40号开花时间较早,首次开雌花的节位较低(第7节),其它3个品种首次开雌花的节位较高(第11节),开花期略迟(晚2~5 d);春丰40号苦瓜的抗病虫性比广西特选2号、春丰45号强;春丰40号实收单瓜重于其它3个品种.

  11. Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Balsam Pear to Escherichia coli%苦瓜内生真菌对大肠杆菌拮抗菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁翠玲; 张云霞; 黄江华

    2010-01-01

    以大肠杆菌(Escherichia coil)为测试菌,对77株分离自健康苦瓜(Momordica charantia L)根、茎、叶、花、果的内生真菌菌株进行抗菌活性筛选.结果表明,77株内生真菌中,有31株具较强的拮抗作用,其中苦瓜内生镰刀菌菌株中62.96%具较强的拮抗作用;另外还有4个不产孢菌株也具有较强的拮抗作用.

  12. Effect of balsam pear juice on mutagenicity induced by heterocyclic amine in rats%苦瓜汁抑制杂环胺类物质致突变活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐枫

    2007-01-01

    目的:对苦瓜汁抑制杂环胺类物质致突变活性的研究.方法:外周血双核淋巴细胞微核测试法测试畸变率,UDPGT、r-GT、GST和NK活性的测定,整体腹腔巨噬红细胞的方法评价巨噬细胞功能,溶血空斑法测定脾细胞抗体生成细胞数PFC.结果:苦瓜汁使双核淋巴细胞微核细胞率显著降低,使UDPGT、GST活性增高,对免疫功能有保护作用.结论:苦瓜汁可抑制杂环胺类物质致癌和致突变.

  13. 苦瓜多糖对人食管癌EC-109细胞形态结构的影响%The influence of shape and structure in human esophageal cancer EC-109 by purification of Balsam pear polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐君懿; 邵淑丽; 车加祥

    2014-01-01

    Study to human esophageal cancer EC-109 as the research object,explore purification MCP2 of momordica charantia polysaccharide on morphological structure of human esophageal cancer EC-109.The inhibitory ratio of cells was measured by trypan blue stain assay.By inverted microscope to observe different concentrations of purification MCP2 of momordica charantia polysaccharide to act on human esophageal cancer EC-109 cell morphological changes.The result shown that purification MCP2 of momordica charantia polysaccharide can inhibit proliferation of human esophageal cancer EC-109,and induce apoptosis of human esophageal cancer EC-109,and in a range of time,dose-dependent,the IC50 is (285.45±36.64)μg/mL.Purification MCP2 of Momordica charantia polysaccharide can make human esophageal cancer EC-109 DNA fragmentation.%以人食管癌EC-109细胞为研究对象,探讨苦瓜多糖组分MCP2对人食管癌EC-109细胞生长的抑制,以及对其形态、结构的影响.采用台盼蓝拒染法测定人食管癌EC-109细胞生长抑制曲线,通过倒置显微镜观察不同质量分数的苦瓜多糖组分MCP2作用于人食管癌EC-109细胞导致的形态变化.结果表明,苦瓜多糖组分MCP2能抑制人食管癌EC-109细胞增殖,诱导人食管癌EC-109细胞凋亡,在一定范围内呈时间、剂量依赖性,作用48 h的IC50为(285.45±36.64)μg/mL.经苦瓜多糖组分MCP2诱导后,人食管癌EC-109细胞形态结构出现典型的凋亡特征.

  14. Pharmacological experiments of freeze-dried powder of balsam pear (Momordica charantia L. ) on lowering the blood glucose level to mice and its acute toxicity%苦瓜冻干粉对动物的降血糖作用及急性毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭悦宇; 周义锋; 陈重明; 金萍; 王梦; 钱红美

    2000-01-01

    对药食同源植物苦瓜(Momordica charantia L.)的鲜汁冻干粉对动物的降血糖作用及急性毒性进行了药理实验,苦瓜冻干粉(生药量20 g/kg和40 g/kg)对药物性高血糖小鼠具有显著的降血糖作用,同时对正常小鼠血糖没有影响;苦瓜冻干粉的小鼠口服LD50为生药量704.8 g/kg(95%可信限生药量618.4~804 g/kg),其产生降糖药效的剂量仅为其LD50的1/35~1/17.

  15. 锌钼营养对苦瓜产量、叶片多胺、激素含量与活性氧代谢的影响%Effects of Zinc and Molybdenum Nutritions on Yields,Polyamines,Hormone Contents and Active Oxygen Metabolism in Leaves of Balsam Pear (Momordica charantia cv.Zhuzhou Changbai)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施木田; 陈如凯

    2004-01-01

    苦瓜(株洲长白Momordica charantia cv.Zhuzhou Changbai)叶片喷施硫酸锌和钼酸钠均可显著增加苦瓜产量,提高叶片多胺(PAs)、抗坏血酸(ASA)、吲哚乙酸(LAA)、赤霉素(GA3)含量以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性,减少脱落酸(ABA)、丙二醛(MDA)含量和自动氧化速率(AOR),从而抑制膜脂过氧化,延缓叶片衰老.苦瓜产量与叶片IAA、GA3、PAs、SOD、POD、CAT呈极显著正相关,而与MDA、AOR、ABA呈极显著负相关,叶片MDA含量与ABA、AOR呈极显著正相关,而与PAs、IAA、GA3、SOD、POD、CAT呈显著负相关.

  16. The effect of impatiens extracts on growth and development of selected plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Podboj, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the allelophatic effect of three different species of touch-me-not growing in Slovenia. We prepared watter extracts from the roots and leaves of himalayan balsam (I. glandulifera), small balsam (I. parviflora) and touch-me-not plant (I. noli-tangere) that were tested on corn seeds (Zea mays) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus). The main interest was to determine the differences in inhibitory effect between all three species, the diferences between root and leaf extracts ...

  17. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Sood V; Dewan S

    1994-01-01

    Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35%) being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5...

  18. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  19. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Emer

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  20. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  1. Clinical patch test data evaluated by multivariate analysis. Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, J; Menné, T; Tanghøj, P;

    1989-01-01

    patch tested with the standard series of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (DCDG) over a period of 6 months. For the 8 test allergens most often found positive (nickel, fragrance-mix, cobalt, chromate, balsam of Peru, carba...

  2. GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

  3. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population...

  4. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... the City of Moses Lake, 401 S. Balsam, Moses Lake, Washington 98837. Before including your address... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council AGENCY... a meeting of the Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council. The meeting on March 21, 2013,...

  5. 78 FR 13695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Chambers of the City of Moses Lake, 401 S. Balsam, Moses Lake, Washington 98837. Discussion will focus on... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council AGENCY.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Washington Resource Advisory...

  6. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  7. Técnica Alternativa para Montagem de Insetos em Lâminas Permanentes para Visualização em Microscopia Óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Huber

    2011-03-01

    Abstract. Various chemicals are used in the mounting of insects on permanent slides for optical microscopy. The high cost, little availability in ordinary commerce and the dangers make their use impractical for some studies. Among the various chemicals used for the microscopic mounting of insects are Xylene, Canada Balsam, Hydroxide Potassium, Alcohols, Phenol and Creosote. All these chemicals present, individually or collectively, some risks to human health. In order to find alternative materials of easy access and low toxicity, for the permanent mout of insects, this study tested the efficacy of some alternatives materials. Were tested: Colorless varnish (Acrilex ® as a substitute for Canada balsam and solvent (Acrilex ®, Immersion Oil for microscopy (Merck ® and Xylene as substitutes for creosote. There were mounted especimens of Ctenocephalides sp., Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Pediculus sp.. The use of Varnish Colorless proved to be an efficient and cheap substitute to Canada Balsam because it offered transparency, optimal visualization, and rapid drying. The immersion oil might be used instead of Creosote, both mounted in Balsam, as in varnish. The last combination was more advantageous due to rapid drying of the varnish. Solvent did not get good results appearing to damage insect chitin, an effect observed especially when combined with the varnish.

  8. Climatic change and indigenous and non-indigenous ravagers : a new reality?; Changements climatiques et les ravageurs indigenes et exotiques : une nouvelle realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniere, J.; Cooke, B.; Logan, J.A.; Carroll, A.; Safranyik, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service

    2005-07-01

    The impact that climate change may have on ecological diversity was discussed with particular reference to the movement of indigenous and non-indigenous insects that are harmful to trees. Insects in particular, are more likely to evolve rapidly and adapt to ecological change. Those with a high rate of reproduction and which can move long distances will colonize new habitats and survive a wide range of bio-physical conditions. This PowerPoint presentation included a series of graphs, tables and charts to illustrate the increased presence of various harmful insects in northern forests, including the balsam twig aphid, balsam gall midge, gypsy moth, hemlock looper, western spruce budworm, and forest tent caterpillar. It was shown that large changes in ecosystems are expected to occur at northern latitudes and higher altitudes. tabs., figs.

  9. Contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Silvia; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2014-12-01

    Most foods included within the western diet are subjected to heat processing. During such treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place, generating brown polymers known as melanoidins. Melanoidins could have health beneficial properties such as chemopreventive, antimicrobial or antioxidant capacity. Here we have established the content of melanoidins in thermally processed foods consumed regularly in the Spanish diet (chocolate, sweet wine, balsamic vinegar, beer, bread, breakfast cereals and biscuits) and their antioxidant capacity by different in vitro methodologies (ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, ORAC, HOSC). The mean intake of melanoidins is 12.2g/person/day within the Spanish diet, bread, pilsner beer and biscuits being the foods that contributed most. The most antioxidant melanoidins were those from coffee, followed by balsamic vinegar and sweet wine. Finally, the average intake of antioxidant capacity coming from melanoidins was 717 μmol Trolox/day, melanoidins from coffee, biscuits, pilsner beer and chocolate being those which possessed more antioxidant capacity.

  10. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  11. Cellulose digestion in Monochamus marmorator Kby. (coleoptera: Cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukol, J.J.; Martin, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Larvae of the balsam fir sawyer, Monochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (Deuteromycetes, Moniliales, Moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. When larvae are maintained on a fungusfree diet, their midgut fluids lack cellulolytic activity, and they are unable to digest cellulose. Cellulolytic capacity can be restored by feeding the larvae wood permeated by fungi. We conclude that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae. Instead, the larvae acquire the capacity to digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood.

  12. Penentuan Komponen Propolis Dengan Metode Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(Gc-Ms)

    OpenAIRE

    Simangunsong, Grace Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product collected by honeybees from various resin, buds of trees and plants were then mixed with saliva to protect the nests of other animal disorders. Propolis is complex product and its chemical constituens include waxes, resins, balsams, essential oils, amino acids, sugars and various secondary metabolites, the composition depending on the botanical sources available to the honeybees. Quantity and quality of the chemical components is affected by geographic origin and...

  13. LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-01-01

    Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the low...

  14. Early Winter Habitat Use by Mountain Caribou in the North Cariboo and Columbia Mountains, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, E; McLellan, B.; Watts, G.; J. Flaa

    1996-01-01

    Winter habitat use was compared between two mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) populations in British Columbia. Regional differences were apparent during November and December. Radio-collared caribou inhabiting the gentle plateaus of the northern Cariboo Mountains, near Prince George, B.C. primarily used mid-elevation balsam-spruce stands on moderate slopes (<30%). In contrast, radio-collared caribou in the North Columbia Mountains, near Revelstoke, B.C. used low elevation hemloc...

  15. Monitoring vybraných geograficky nepůvodních druhů rostlin ve vybraných lokalitách Jihočeského kraje (na příkladu okresů Český Krumlov a České Budějovice)

    OpenAIRE

    KORFOVÁ, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to determine the global occurence of geografically non-indigenous plant species - Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera), Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonika), Sakhalin knotweed (Reynoutria sachalinensis) and Reynoutria x bohemika in selected locations of the South Bohemian region, for example in district of Český Krumlov and České Budějovice. The theoretical part is focused on the characteristics of selected...

  16. Comparaison of the flower scents of two Impatiens species

    OpenAIRE

    Marlet, Christelle; Lognay, Georges; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Vervoort, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    The Giant balsam, Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Balsaminaceae) was introduced in Europe from the Himalayas as a garden ornamental plant in 1839. Due to its great success from nursery gardeners (1), it is now considered as one of the 100 worst invasive species in Europe. On the contrary, the native I. noli-tangere L. is considered to be in decline. Both species are annuals that absolutely need reproductive output to maintain or extend their populations. High fecundity has frequently been assoc...

  17. The impact of invasive alien species impatiens glandulifera on environmental conditions in the habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Ropret, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of literature together with the results of field measurements of a non-native species called Himalayan Balsam, Impatiens glandulifera. Since the measurements were conducted near the Tržiška Bistrica river, a short description of its characteristics is provided and so is the importance of the riparian zone. A description of a non-native and invasive species follows combined with its characteristics. Hereinafter, the physical conditions which affect the growt...

  18. An Annotated Catalog of the Type Material of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the Entomology Research Museum, University of California at Riverside

    OpenAIRE

    Triapitsyn, Serguei Vladimirovich; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The catalog provides information on the type material of 75 valid species of the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the collection of the Entomology Research Museum, University of California, Riverside. 7,390 specimens were remounted from Hoyer's medium into Canada balsam, including 309 primary types, 2,473 secondary types, and 4,608 non-type specimens. Lecotypes are designated for 11 species

  19. Highlights of forest pest conditions in the maritimes at the end of June, 1993. Technical note No. 285. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This note describes forest pest conditions in the Maritimes at the end of June, 1993. It discusses diseases and pests found including forest tent caterpiller, gypsy moth, red shoots of balsam fir, aspen leafroller, spruce budworm, poplar serpentine leafminer, maple leafroller, and spruce spider mite. Others include elm leafminer, leafroller of birch, satin moth, cherry blight, aspen twoleaf, fall cankerworm, winter moth, and leaf and twig blight of aspen.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit ...

  1. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  2. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone : I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Amanda D.; MacQuarrie, Chris J. K.; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J. Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar ...

  3. Contact sensitivity to oak moss

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F.; Gonçalo, Margarida

    1988-01-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components.

  4. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components. PMID:3233955

  5. Identification and characterization of CYP79D6v4, a cytochrome P450 enzyme producing aldoximes in black poplar (Populus nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Irmisch, Sandra; Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2013-01-01

    After herbivore feeding, poplar trees produce complex volatile blends containing terpenes, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, and nitrogen-containing compounds such as aldoximes and nitriles. It has been shown recently that volatile aldoximes released from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar-damaged black poplar (Populus nigra) trees attract parasitoids that are caterpillar enemies. In western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa), volatile aldoximes are produced by 2 P450 monooxygenases, CYP79D...

  6. The influence of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on the moose (Alces alces) population of Isle Royale.

    OpenAIRE

    Vucetich, John A.; Rolf O Peterson

    2004-01-01

    Long-term, concurrent measurement of population dynamics and associated top-down and bottom-up processes are rare for unmanipulated, terrestrial systems. Here, we analyse populations of moose, their predators (wolves, Canis lupus), their primary winter forage (balsam fir, Abies balsamea) and several climatic variables that were monitored for 40 consecutive years in Isle Royale National Park (544 km2), Lake Superior, USA. We judged the relative importance of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic fac...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and fractions of Vernonia polyanthes Less (assa-peixe) flowers

    OpenAIRE

    K.K. WALTRICH; J. HOSCHEID; I.S. PROCHNAU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vernonia polyanthes, known as “assa-peixe”, is a plant native to Brazil, and the decoction or infusion of its flowers, roots and leaves are used in folk medicine, being considered sources of diuretic, balsamic, anti-rheumatic substances, and are used in cases of bronchitis and persistent cough. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extract/fractions obtained by methanol maceration and infusion of V. polyanthes flower, also including qualitative identi...

  8. Oryzalin Treatment Modified Plant Morphology of Impatiens balsamina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ria Defiani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens balsamina L. is well known as garden balsam that flowers are very usefull. The flowers can be arranged in coconut leaves for praying or as a decoration in pots. Garden balsam plants are tall. The flowers are easy to decay especially in rainy season. Vigorous plants with bigger flower for potted plant can be produced by using oryzalin through seedlings treatment of garden balsam. Seedlings were treated in oryzalin at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, then grown in the field. As a result, for M1 generation, interaction between oryzalin concentration and incubation time was significant for plant height, number of branch and flower weight. Plants height decreased about 54% for treatment of 0.01% oryzalin in 48 h incubation. Oryzalin application also increased the weight of flower. In the next generation (M3, mixoploid plants were obtained from treatment 0.02% oryzalin for 12 h incubation. Based on this study, oryzalin can be used for producing compact potted plants

  9. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  10. Tree farming. Traedjordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1992-07-01

    Fallowed land can initially provide very favourable conditions for tree farming, thus enabling rapid canopy closure and a short rotation period. There may be justification for fertilization, particularly close to the time of canopy closure. Heavy clay soils should be avoided on account of poor tree growth. Crosses of balsam poplar are easy to regenerate through cuttings. The plantation should either be done with small plants protected against damage by game, or with planting stems branched at the bottoms in spacing patterns that are not too dense (3.5x3.5 - 5x5m). Branches at the bottom help to avoid rubbing by deer. Drainage systems are clogged by tree roots and fields drained by subsurface drainage systems should be avoided. Open ditches are sufficient for the requirements of the trees. Selected clones of balsam poplar crosses may have great resistance against disease. However, they do not have a growth rhythm that is ideally suited to Swedish conditions. Further breeding is probably necessary. The main use for balsam poplar is expected to be in the manufacture of pulp, mechanical or chemical. Other uses are veneer, building, glulam and fuel. Under good conditions, height and diameter development suggests a very high production. In plantations with suitable spacing patterns, the economically optimum rotation time is 15-20 year and the plantation appears to withstand high demands for return on investments and price competition. Future activities should foremost be concentrated on development of additional clone material, investigations of wood quality and the establishment and following up of further production experiments. (48 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.).

  11. Tree farming; Traedjordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1992-07-01

    Fallowed land can initially provide very favourable conditions for tree farming, thus enabling rapid canopy closure and a short rotation period. There may be justification for fertilization, particularly close to the time of canopy closure. Heavy clay soils should be avoided on account of poor tree growth. Crosses of balsam poplar are easy to regenerate through cuttings. The plantation should either be done with small plants protected against damage by game, or with planting stems branched at the bottoms in spacing patterns that are not too dense (3.5x3.5 - 5x5m). Branches at the bottom help to avoid rubbing by deer. Drainage systems are clogged by tree roots and fields drained by subsurface drainage systems should be avoided. Open ditches are sufficient for the requirements of the trees. Selected clones of balsam poplar crosses may have great resistance against disease. However, they do not have a growth rhythm that is ideally suited to Swedish conditions. Further breeding is probably necessary. The main use for balsam poplar is expected to be in the manufacture of pulp, mechanical or chemical. Other uses are veneer, building, glulam and fuel. Under good conditions, height and diameter development suggests a very high production. In plantations with suitable spacing patterns, the economically optimum rotation time is 15-20 year and the plantation appears to withstand high demands for return on investments and price competition. Future activities should foremost be concentrated on development of additional clone material, investigations of wood quality and the establishment and following up of further production experiments. (48 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.).

  12. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  13. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  14. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  15. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours...... chocolates were characterised as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. Despite differences in the volatile aroma profile, the inoculated chocolates could not be distinguished from a spontaneously fermented control in a triangle test by a panel of un-trained judges. Arguably...

  16. Use of propolis extract as a natural antioxidant for plant oils

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Musa

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of propolis were tested in natural olive oil stored at 60ºC. The concentration of extracts in olive oil varied from 0.02 to 0.08%. Extracts at 0.06 and 0.08% concentrations had better antioxidant activity as compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0.01% levels. The greatest antioxidant activities were exhibited by propolis balsam extract at 0.08% levels. lt can be said that the antioxidant act...

  17. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved. PMID:17500397

  18. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy, describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series.

  19. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P

    2004-03-01

    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  20. [Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalti, M; Lucadei, P; Fioriti, M; Luchetti, E; Sanchez, M A; Filippousi, M; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2007-01-01

    We want to evaluate the incidence of allergic problems in a population of catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course. We enrolled in the study 601 students of a professional catering school: 412 in the first year and 189 in the fifth years. We used two questionnaires to investigate respiratory problems and dermatological ones. All the subjects were also patch tested with 10 aptens. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. We can observe a rising in positive reaction between the two group of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic. In particular we found an higher incidence of positive patch reaction in female population. On the contrary the rising in positive reaction to Garlic is higher in male. About two third of the subjects positive to garlic present a sensitization to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. The higher incidence of allergic pathology between students during fifth year of school and students at first year is probably due to scholastic practical activity. PMID:18410000

  1. Identification and quantification of the main organic components of vinegars by high resolution {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caligiani, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: augusta.caligiani@unipr.it; Acquotti, D. [Centro Interfacolta Misure, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 23A, 43100-Parma (Italy); Palla, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy); Bocchi, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Usberti 17A, 43100-Parma (Italy)

    2007-02-28

    A detailed analysis of the proton high-field NMR spectra of vinegars (in particular of Italian balsamic vinegars) is reported. A large number of organic substances belonging to different classes, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, organic acids, volatile compounds and amino acids, were assigned. The possibility of quantification of the substances identified in the whole vinegar sample, without extraction or pre-concentration steps, was also tested. The data validity was demonstrated in terms of precision, accuracy, repeatability and inter-day reproducibility. The effects of the most critical experimental parameters (sample concentration, water suppression and relaxation time) on the analysis response were also discussed. {sup 1}H NMR results were compared with those obtained by traditional techniques (GC-MS, titrations), and good correlations were obtained. The results showed that {sup 1}H NMR with water suppression allows a rapid, simultaneous determination of carbohydrates (glucose and fructose), organic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic, citric, succinic and tartaric acids), alcohols and polyols (ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hydroxymethylfurfural), and volatile substances (ethyl acetate) in vinegar samples. On the contrary, the amino acid determination without sample pre-concentration was critical. The {sup 1}H NMR method proposed was applied to different samples of vinegars, allowing, in particular, the discrimination of vinegars and balsamic vinegars.

  2. Commercial Thinning to Meet Wood Production Objectives and Develop Structural Heterogeneity: A Case Study in the Spruce-Fir Forest, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Michel Gauthier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effectiveness of commercial thinning mainly from below (CT; 0, 26%, 32% and 40% merchantable basal area removals in meeting wood production demands and developing structural heterogeneity in a balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L. Mill and spruce (Picea spp. stand. After 10 years, 32%–40% removals showed a 12%–18% increase in mean diameter and 27%–38% increase in gross merchantable volume (GMV per tree compared to the unthinned control. At the stand level, all thinning treatments generated as much cumulative GMV (harvested volume + GMV after 10 years and gross sawlog volume per hectare as the unthinned control. As for stand structure, eight out of nine thinned experimental units showed increased structural heterogeneity after 10 years, i.e., irregular, positively-skewed diameter distribution with an elongated right tail toward larger trees. The diameter distribution in the unthinned control became more symmetric, unimodal and regular over time, with fewer saplings than at the beginning of the experiment and lower density of larger trees compared to CT. Regeneration density and stocking were abundant in all treatments, largely dominated by balsam fir. Results indicate that thinning can be used to meet wood production objectives and help develop structural heterogeneity in this forest.

  3. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  4. A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Callejón, R M; Morales, M L; García-Parrilla, M C

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) in balsamic, apple, and red, white, and Sherry wine vinegars. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) with mixed-mode resins method was used before analysis. The method was successfully validated obtaining adequate values of selectivity, response linearity, precision, accuracy, and low detection and quantification limits. The total content of biogenic amines in vinegars ranged from 23.35 to 1445.2 μg/L, being lower than those reported in wines. Putrescine was the amine that showed the highest concentrations in most samples. Methylamine and phenylethylamine were not determined in any vinegar. Balsamic and "Pedro Ximénez" Sherry vinegars reached the highest amounts of biogenic amines, while apple, white and Sherry wine vinegars had the lowest concentrations. Principal component analysis using the biogenic amines as variables, allowed to separate the different kind of vinegars, excepting red vinegars. PMID:23871015

  5. Identification and quantification of the main organic components of vinegars by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, A; Acquotti, D; Palla, G; Bocchi, V

    2007-02-28

    A detailed analysis of the proton high-field NMR spectra of vinegars (in particular of Italian balsamic vinegars) is reported. A large number of organic substances belonging to different classes, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, organic acids, volatile compounds and amino acids, were assigned. The possibility of quantification of the substances identified in the whole vinegar sample, without extraction or pre-concentration steps, was also tested. The data validity was demonstrated in terms of precision, accuracy, repeatability and inter-day reproducibility. The effects of the most critical experimental parameters (sample concentration, water suppression and relaxation time) on the analysis response were also discussed. (1)H NMR results were compared with those obtained by traditional techniques (GC-MS, titrations), and good correlations were obtained. The results showed that (1)H NMR with water suppression allows a rapid, simultaneous determination of carbohydrates (glucose and fructose), organic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic, citric, succinic and tartaric acids), alcohols and polyols (ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hydroxymethylfurfural), and volatile substances (ethyl acetate) in vinegar samples. On the contrary, the amino acid determination without sample pre-concentration was critical. The (1)H NMR method proposed was applied to different samples of vinegars, allowing, in particular, the discrimination of vinegars and balsamic vinegars. PMID:17386654

  6. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  7. Identification and quantification of 56 targeted phenols in wines, spirits, and vinegars by online solid-phase extraction - ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Malacarne, M; Larcher, R

    2015-12-01

    Phenolic compounds seriously affect the sensory and nutritional qualities of food products, both through the positive contribution of wood transfer in barrel-aged products and as off-flavours. A new targeted analytical approach combining on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up to reduce matrix interference and rapid chromatographic detection performed with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/high-resolution mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap), was developed for the quantification of 56 simple phenols. Considering the advantages of using on-line SPE and a resolving power of 140,000, the proposed method was applied to define phenolic content in red (N=8) and white (8) wines, spirits (8), common (8) and balsamic (8) vinegars. The final method was linear from the limits of quantification (0.0001-0.001μgmL(-1)) up to 10μgmL(-1) with R(2) of at least 0.99. Recovery, used to define method accuracy, ranged from 80 to 120% for 89% of compounds. The method was suitable for analytical requirements in the tested matrices being able to analyse 46 phenols in red wines, 41 phenols in white wines and in spirits, 42 phenols in common vinegars and 44 phenols in balsamic vinegars. PMID:26582576

  8. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panja Arindrajit

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%, PABA 3 (15.78%, promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, balsam of peru 2 (10.52%, usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reaction each (5.26% suggesting either phototoxicity or photo sensitization. Patch and photo patch test positive reaction suggesting allergic sensitisation was seen to balsam of peru 3 (23.0% perfume mix 3 (23.0% promethazine hydrochloride 2 (15.3% and PABA, 6 methyl coumarin, tribromosalicylanilide, atranorin and wood mix showed positive reaction in one case each (7.69%. We conclude that photoxic or photo allergic reaction is a problem in India and patch photo patch test should be performed in all cases of idiopathic light eruptions to rule out photo sensitisation and in cases where photo sensitivity of exogenous origin is suspected.

  9. Ecosystem Responses to Partial Harvesting in Eastern Boreal Mixedwood Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Harvey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Partial harvesting has been proposed as a key aspect to implementing ecosystem management in the Canadian boreal forest. We report on a replicated experiment located in boreal mixedwoods of Northwestern Quebec. In the winter of 2000–2001, two partial harvesting treatments, one using a dispersed pattern, and a second, which created a (400 m2 gap pattern, were applied to a 90-year-old aspen-dominated mixed stand. The design also included a clear cut and a control. Over the course of the following eight years, live tree, coarse woody debris, regeneration and ground beetles were inventoried at variable intervals. Our results indicate that all harvesting treatments created conditions favorable to balsam fir (Abies balsamea sapling growth and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides sapling recruitment. However, balsam fir and trembling aspen regeneration and ground beetles response to gap cuts were closer to patterns observed in clear cuts than in dispersed harvesting. The underlying reasons for these differing patterns can be linked to factors associated with the contrasting light regimes created by the two partial harvesting treatments. The study confirms that partially harvesting is an ecologically sound approach in boreal mixedwoods and could contribute to maintaining the distribution of stand ages at the landscape level.

  10. Retraction of "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Editors of Tissue Engineering are officially retracting the published article entitled "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research," by Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Mueller-Stahl K, Boublik J, Ruhparwar A, Mertsching H, Balsam L, Robbins R, Haverich A. Tissue Eng 2003 Jun;9(3):517–523. This article is being retracted due to the discovery of multiple publications of identical data in the following three journals: Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Boublik J, Theodorou P, Martin U, Ruhparwar A, Fischer S, Eschenhagen T, Kubis HP, Kraft T, Leyh R, Haverich A. In vitro engineering of heart muscle: artificial myocardial tissue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002 Jul;124(1):63–69. Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Boublik J, Mueller-Stahl K, Leyh R, Fischer S, Haverich A. A novel bioartificial myocardial tissue and its prospective use in cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 Aug;22(2):238–243. Kofidis T, Balsam L, de Bruin J, Robbins RC. Distinct cell-to-fiber junctions are critical for the establishment of cardiotypical phenotype in a 3D bioartificial environment. Med Eng Phys 2004 Mar;26(2):157–163. Tissue Engineering is committed to the highest standards of scientific content and integrity, and does not tolerate such improprieties.

  11. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  12. Forest tenant farming in practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupe, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    The concept and application of forest tenant farming is explained, based on the model currently being tested on two large tracts of private forest owned by Abitibi-Consolidated in Quebec. One of these two (the Lac Metis seigneury) encompasses 33,933 hectares in the balsam fir-white birch and balsam fir-yellow birch domains, 75 km southeast of Rimouski. The other parcel of forest land (the Nicolas Riou seigneury) covers an area of 13,687 hectares in the sugar maple-yellow birch and balsam fir-yellow birch domains, 40 km southwest of Rimouski. There are 16 forest tenants in the Lac-Metis seigneury and nine in the Nicolas Riou seigneury; each farm comprises about 1,000 hectares. The profitability of each farm was simulated in advance, based on assumptions of self-employed workers, conservative allowable cut, zero marketing problems, no commercial herbicides, lump sum for hauling, and the same stumpage fees as for public lands. Tenant farmers were selected based on such criteria as entrepreneurship, attitude towards innovation, education, learning capacity, team work, social involvement, and forestry experience. In essence, tenant farmers agree to manage and operate their forest farms in a sustainable manner in exchange for payment of a royalty to the landowner on the value of the timber harvested and sold. Tenants farmers are obliged to sign a contract, committing them to operate the forest farm in a sustainable manner and to comply with a multi-resource management plan developed for each of the model forest territories. The rate varies according to the species' commercial value. The sums collected are managed by the Foret modele du Bas-Saint-Laurent and used for payment of property taxes and forest protection costs. A portion of the stumpage fee is reinvested by Abitibi-Consolidated partly in a compensation fund, partly a fixed asset fund and in roads and silviculture works. Any surplus is retained by the Corporation( owner of the forests) as a return on

  13. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Mathews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4% for staining with Gomori’s trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality.

  14. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  15. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  16. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected.

  17. Effects of a dwarfing compound, CCC, on the production and export of gibberellin-like substances by root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D M; Carr, D J

    1967-03-01

    (2-Chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (Cycocel or CCC), an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, when repeatedly supplied to the root systems of balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) plants reduces growth in height and the level of gibberellin-like substances in the bleeding sap that exudes from the stumps of detopped plants. Within twelve hours after a single application of the inhibitor to decapitated field peas (Pisum arvense), there are quantitative and qualitative changes in the gibberellins of the sap compared with those in sap collected over the same period of time from untreated plants. These changes are interpreted in terms of the possible blockage by CCC of normal gibberellin production and diversion of precursors into synthesis of "abnormal" gibberellins. PMID:24554364

  18. [The first report of Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) from nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) were examined for ectoparasites. They were investigated macroscopically for lice. Then, they were placed into a plastic box and propoxur applied to their whole bodies. The ectoparasites which fell to the bottom of the box were collected and preserved in a vial with 70% of alcohol. No ectoparasite was observed on one nightjar while eleven lice specimens were collected from the other. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% of KOH until they were transparent. The lice were mounted on slides using by Canada balsam and dried in an incubater. They were examined under the light microscope and identified as Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842). This is the first time the genus Mulcticola and the species M. hypoleucus has been reported from the nightjars in Turkey.

  19. THE SUBSECTION FOR SIGHTLESS PEOPLE IN “ANASTASIE FĂTU” BOTANIC GARDEN, “ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA” UNIVERSITY OF IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STĂNESCU IRINA-ELENA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Subsection for Sightless People belongs to the Ornamental Section and started in the autumn of 1991. In 2008 we tried to reorganize this subsection, first of all by enriching the collection of species exposed to the visitors, introducing a new model of labels and using especial props for the plants. Many species from Lamiaceae family have been chosen, characterized by a high level of essential oils, volatile phenolic compounds, alkaloids, balsams, tannins, liberating strong-scented odors, which facilitate their recognition by the sightless persons. At the same time, a lot of Asteraceae species are displayed, while in the autumn the sightless people enjoy the numerous chrysanthemum varieties from the Botanic Garden’s collection. All of the specimens bear labels with information in Latin and Braille System.

  20. Evaluation of an aerial spray strategy against the spruce budworm (choristoneura fumiferana clem.) using fenitrothion and B.t., (bacillus thuringiensis): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettela, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    This report presents results from a series of trials to evaluate replicate test sites, two treated with fenitrothion followed by an application of Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) and two treated with two applications of B.t. A team of Cessna 188 aircraft equipped with Micronair AU4000 rotary atomizers applied all spray treatments; there were also unsprayed control plots for comparison. The investigators conducted biological evaluations of 60 selected balsam fir trees at each treatment site to record such information as number of buds and shoots, defoliation category for each bud/shoot, number of spruce budworms, and state of development of each bud/shoot. They also determined spray deposition. The report concludes with an assessment of the comparative efficacy of the treatments studied on spruce budworm mortality.

  1. Canopy, snow, and lichens on woodland caribou range in southeastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available I examined the relationships among snow cover (api, lichen abundance, and canopy composition on the range of the Aikens Lake population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Percent cover of forage lichens (Cladina spp. was positively correlated with maximum total thickness and with maximum vertical hardness of api. Mixed communities of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides, spruce (Picea spp., and balsam fir (Abies balsamea showed the most favourable nival conditions for caribou but had low lichen abundance; those dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana were the converse. The results suggest an energetic compromise for woodland caribou when foraging for terrestrial lichens. During winter, caribou exhibited significant selection for jack pine communities whereas mixed communities were avoided.

  2. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens. PMID:26764601

  3. Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, Compositae oleoresins and other plant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thune, P O; Solberg, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with verified light sensitivity to both UVB and UVA wavebands showed allergic reactions to various lichen plants (Parmelia spp., Hypogymnia spp., Pseuodovernia spp., Cladonia spp., Platismatia spp., Physcia spp., Umbilicaria spp. and Cetraria spp.). Among the aromatic lichen compounds, atranorin was observed to be the most frequently involved allergen but also several other isolated lichen acids were immunologically active: d-usnic, evernic, stictic, fumarprotocetraric, lobaric, salazinic, diffractaic and physodic/physodalic acid. Several patients showed allergy to other plant substances from other sources such as seven different species from the Compositae family, alantolactone, balsam of Peru, colophony and wood tars. Sensitivity to known photosensitizers was observed in four patients. Aromatic lichen acids are UV-absorbing substances and several are evidently able to photosensitive human skin. PMID:7398280

  4. A new flea from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  5. Scaling the effects of moose browsing on forage distribution, from the geometry of plant canopies to landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.; Hodgson, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity influences large herbivores by altering their feeding rates, but as herbivores attempt to maximize feeding rates they also create spatial heterogeneity by altering plant growth. Herbivore feeding rates thus provide a quantitative link between the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in herbivore-dominated ecosystems. The fractal geometry of plant canopies determines both the density and mass of twigs available to foraging herbivores. These properties determine a threshold distance between plants (d*) that distinguishes the mechanisms regulating herbivore intake rates. When d* is greater than the actual distance between plants (d), intake is regulated by the rate of food processing in the mouth. But when d* geometry due to past browsing could change the rate at which herbivores encounter and process bites of plant tissue, modify d* relative to d, and thus change intake rates and the distribution of mechanisms regulating it across landscapes. We measured changes in the geometry of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) saplings along gradients of moose browsing from 2001 to 2005 at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA. For aspen saplings, fractal dimension of bite density, bite mass, and forage biomass responded quadratically to increasing moose browsing and were greatest at -3-4 g-g.m-2.yr"1 consumption. For balsam fir, in contrast, these same measures declined steadily with increasing moose browsing. The different responses of plant canopies to increased browsing altered d* around plants. In summer, d* > d for aspen saplings at all prior consumption levels. Food processing therefore regulated summer moose feeding rates across our landscapes. In winter, changes in bite mass due to past browsing were sufficient to cause d* geometry of plant canopies can determine intake rate at larger spatial scales by changing d* relative to d and, hence, which mechanisms determine intake rate, essentially altering how

  6. Relationship between genotype and soil environment during colonization of poplar roots by mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliński, Leszek; Rudawska, Maria; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, Barbara; Leski, Tomasz

    2010-06-01

    Poplars are among the few tree genera that can develop both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) associations; however, variable ratios of ECM/AM in dual mycorrhizal colonizations were observed in the roots of a variety of poplar species and hybrids. The objective of our study was to analyze the effect of internal and external factors on growth and dual AM and ECM colonization of poplar roots in three 12-15-year-old common gardens in Poland. We also analyzed the abundance of nonmycorrhizal fungal endophytes in the poplar roots. The Populus clones comprised black poplars (Populus deltoides and P. deltoides x Populus nigra), balsam poplars (Populus maximowiczii x Populus trichocarpa), and a hybrid of black and balsam poplars (P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa). Of the three sites that we studied, one was located in the vicinity of a copper smelter, where soil was contaminated with copper and lead. Poplar root tip abundance, mycorrhizal colonization, and soil fungi biomass were lower at this heavily polluted site. The total mycorrhizal colonization and the ratio of ECM and AM colonization differed among the study sites and according to soil depth. The influence of Populus genotype was significantly pronounced only within the individual study sites. The contribution of nonmycorrhizal fungal endophytes differed among the poplar clones and was higher at the polluted site than at the sites free of pollution. Our results indicate that poplar fine root abundance and AM and ECM symbiosis are influenced by environmental conditions. Further studies of different site conditions are required to characterize the utility of poplars for purposes such as the phytoremediation of polluted sites. PMID:19921284

  7. The effect of Puccinia komarovii Tranzsch. infection on characters of Impatiens parviflora DC. in Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum (R. Tx. 1937 Oberd. 1957 forest association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piskorz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine how internal diversity of oak-hornbeam forest modifies the course and effects of infestation of small-flowered balsam (Impatiens parviflora with rust Puccinia komarovii. The study investigated the effect of the disease on the demography of the population, and the habit and biomass allocation of the infested specimens, as well as the initiation of non-specific defense mechanisms. It was shown that: 1 the percentage of infected specimens was independent of the undergrowth-coverage rate and of the I. parviflora density; 2 infected populations differ from healthy ones in the seasonal dynamics of abundance changes; 3 high mortality is observed as early as May and the first part of June, i.e. it pertains to specimens, which did not begin reproduction; 4 the presence of infection and its intensity stimulate the growth of the stem and the hypocotyl; 5 fresh weight of infected specimens is by almost 30% lower in comparison to the weight of uninfected plants; the weight of badly infected plants decreases by 20% in comparison to the less severely infected balsam plants; the weight of generative organs drops most significantly, even by over 50%; 6 biomass allocation does not fluctuate considerably; 7 reproduction effort expressed by the ratio of the weight of fruits (or only seeds to the total biomass shows a distinct downward trend; 8 the environmental factor does not affect the force of defense mechanisms, the strength of biochemical response of diseased plants depends on the degree of their infestation.

  8. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

  9. Short-term Response of Breeding Barred Owls to Forestry in a Boreal Mixedwood Forest Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben T. Olsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Forestry and other activities are increasing in the boreal mixedwood of Alberta, with a concomitant decrease in older forest. The Barred Owl (Strix varia is an old-growth indicator species in some jurisdictions in North America. Hence, we radio-tagged Barred Owls in boreal mixedwood in Alberta to determine whether harvesting influenced habitat selection. We used three spatial scales: nest sites, i.e., nest tree and adjacent area of 11.7 m radius around nests, nesting territory of 1000 m radius around nests, and home range locations within 2000 m radius of the home range center. Barred Owls nested primarily in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera snags > 34 cm dbh and nest trees were surrounded by large, > 34 cm dbh, balsam poplar trees and snags. Nesting territories contained a variety of habitats including young < 80-yr-old, deciduous-dominated stands, old deciduous and coniferous-dominated stands, treed bogs, and recent clear-cuts. However, when compared to available habitat in the study area, they were more likely to contain old conifer-dominated stands and recent cutblocks. We assumed this is because all of the recent harvest occurred in old stands, habitat preferred by the owls. When compared with random sites, locations used for foraging and roosting at the home range scale were more likely to be in young deciduous-dominated stands, old conifer-dominated stands and cutblocks > 30 yr old, and less likely to occur in old deciduous-dominated stands and recent cutblocks. Hence, although recent clearcuts occurred in territories, birds avoided these microhabitats during foraging. To meet the breeding requirements of Barred Owls in managed forests, 10–20 ha patches of old deciduous and mixedwood forest containing large Populus snags or trees should be maintained. In our study area, nest trees had a minimum dbh of 34 cm. Although cut areas were incorporated into home ranges, the amount logged was low, i.e., 7%, in our area. Hence more research is

  10. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirjana, Marlene, E-mail: marlenenirjana@gmail.com; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi [School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  11. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  12. Comparison of site index and biomass production on four soil drainage classes from the Chesuncook Catena for spruce-fir stands in northwestern Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Biomass production was compared to site index ratings for fully stocked natural 10 to 80 year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.)-spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss, P. rubens Sarg., P. marianna (Mill) B.S.P.) stands that occurred on four soils of the Chesuncook Catena: Elliottsville (well drained), Chesuncook (moderately well), Telos (somewhat poorly), and Monarda (poorly). Regression equations were developed to predict the total dry weight and component weights of individual trees, and were applied to standing trees to predict total stand biomass. Total biomass production was not significantly different among all soil groups until about age 60 years, after which the biomass production on the better drained Chesuncook and Elliottsville soils surpasses that of the poorer drained Telos and Monarda soils. Biomass production was not significantly different between stands on these latter two soils over the measured lifetimes of the stands. Within each soil grouping, biomass production remained constant over the range of site index for the Telos-Monarda soil grouping. However, biomass production decreased the increasing site index for the Chesuncook-Elliottsville soil grouping. No consistent relationship was found between site index and total biomass. Total biomass of merchantable trees increased with improved soil drainage.

  13. Chemistry and acidity of cloud water at Mount Washington, NH. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud water and mixed wet deposition samples were collected at the summit of Mount Washington during the summer months of 1987, 1988 and 1989. Cloud water deposition measurements were also conducted in a balsam fir krummholz community on the west slope of Mt. Washington from July to September, 1988. Acidity, major ion chemistry and organic acid analyses were conducted on cloud water and precipitation samples collected at the summit. Cloud water pH levels as low as 2.7 were recorded. It was found that vegetation at this high elevation site may be exposed to very acidic cloud water (pH2.7-3.5) deposition for continuous periods as long as 14 hours. The acidity and ionic content of cloud water samples was typically observed to be substantially greater than that of attendant rain. The pH of cloud water samples varied from 2.7-6.4. The high pH, low acidity samples were typically collected under conditions where orographic clouds formed close to the summit as air swept up the mountain and cooled, resulting in condensation and cloud formation. The SO4/NO3 ratio of cloud water changes drastically over short time periods

  14. Forest decline in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Research and observations: 1983-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insect and desease survey initiated in 1985 on 100 permanent plots has yielded little significant pathology or insect infestation. With the exception the balsam wooly adelgid, few signs or symptoms of disease or insect attack were noted on either Fraser fir or red spruce populations. Cultures from destructively-sampled root systems yielded few significant pathogens that could be attributed to decline symptoms. Measurements of throughfall in 1986 yielded estimates of total wet deposition for NO-3 and SO4-2 of 25 and 75 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Cloud and rain water was dominated by H+, NH+4, NO-3, and SO4-2 ions. Interaction with the forest canopy resulted in an enrichment of throughfall with base cations (K+, Ca+2, and MG+2) and a loss of H+ and NH+4. Mean-volume-weighted pH for throughfall was 3.9. The effects of simulated acidic cloud water on the epicuticular waxes of red spruce needles were studied during the summer of 1987. The cuticle proper of both 1986 and 1987 needles did not appear to be damaged by the treatments. The wax crystals which consititute the stomatal wax plugs, however, exhibited substantial degradation by simulated treatments at or below pH 3.5. (orig./VT)

  15. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested...... with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes...... and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix...

  16. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  17. OCCURRENCE OF THE LUNG FLUKE, PARAGONIMUS HETEROTREMUS IN MANIPUR, INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives.To determine the natural crustacean host,the Paragonimus species,and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals.Methods. The laboratory animals such as puppies,albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs,Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35~328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages.Results. A total of 11 worms,5 mature,5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae,worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus.Conclusion. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  18. Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. MacIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce in Alberta (Canada with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter. Fixed effects models (without plot as subject including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter. Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models.

  19. The life cycle of Bucephalus margaritae Ozaki & Ishibashi, 1934 (Digenea, Bucephalidae from the coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.5596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaber Pereira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The orange disease is considered the main parasitosis in Perna perna mussel. It is caused by a complex life cycle bucephalid, involving three hosts, among them mollusks and fishes. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of orange disease in mussel culture, the parasite life cycle was investigated. Experimental studies and monthly samples in the study area allowed the identification and characterization of the Bucephalus margaritae life cycle. Larvae and adults of B. margaritae were fixed in 5% formaldehyde, stained with Gomori’s trichrome, clarified in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. The cercariae are found in the first intermediate host P. perna inside the sporocysts, which have the form of orange and ramified filaments. The metacercariae encysts in the gills and gill cavity of the second intermediate host, the blenniid Hypleurochilus fissicornis. The definitive host Menticirrhus americanus is infected ingesting blenniids parasitized with metacercariae. The high parasitological indexes of B. margaritae suggests that M. americanus and H. fissicornis act as the main definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, in the trematode life cycle. The blenniid H. fissicornis is a new intermediate host to the species.

  20. LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the lower epidermis whereas Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides showed the presence of mucilage gland in the upper epidermis. Epidermal cell of Chromolaena odorata are very large with undulating cell walls. The species studied had various adaptive anatomical features. The stomatal frequency of Azadirachta indica was very high. With the exception of Chromolaena odorata the stomatal frequencies of the species were relatively high. The stomatal dimensions showed that most of the species maintained constant stomatal length during the study period except Griffonia simplicifolia that increased the stomatal width during the afternoon. Unlike Morinda lucida, Griffonia simplicifolia and Chromolaena odorata, that showed reduction in the breadth of stomata, the other species maintained constant stomatal width.

  1. Simultaneous determination of preservatives in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Takino, Masahiko; Yamashita, Satoru; Daishima, Shigeki; Heiden, Arnd C; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven preservatives - sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters - in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks has been developed using the stir-bar sorptive extraction technique then thermal desorption GC-MS analysis. The extraction conditions - pH, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and extraction time - were examined. d5-Benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid sec-butyl ester were added as surrogate internal standards to compensate for the effect of sample matrix and coexisting analytes on the sorptive extraction. The linearity of the method was good over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 microg mL(-1) for sorbic acid, 10-1000 microg mL(-1) for benzoic acid, and 0.1-100 microg mL(-1) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9984. The limit of detection ranged from 0.015 to 3.3 microg mL(-1). The recoveries (95-105%) and precision (RSD: 0.86-6.0%) of the method were examined by analyzing a sparkling soft drink, white wine, red wine, balsamic vinegar, soy sauce, and quasi-drug drink samples fortified at the 5 to 50 microg mL(-1) level.

  2. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

  3. Some results of the afforestation of closed oil shale opencasts with exotic conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and survival of exotic coniferous tree species on closed oil shale opencasts during the last decade was studied, and their suitability for afforestation of plained opencast areas was estimated. The study was carried out in 2001 - 2003 on experimental plantations on exhausted and recultivated oil shale opencast mines of Narva, Sirgala and Viivikonna. In seventeen experimental plantations a sample plot was established. As for pines, only the growth of shore pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud.) was satisfactory. The observed spruce species are unsuitable for afforesting these mines as the substrate is too poor in nutrients, and trees are damaged by frosts in open areas. The afforestation by spruces may be more successful if the seedlings are planted under the shelter of higher deciduous trees. The tests showed the European, Russian, Siberian and Kurile larch to be most suitable for afforestation of leveled oil shale opencast sites. These species have grown better than other larch species and even better than native tree species. The diameter growth of balsam fir was more or less equal to that of the native tree species, but its height growth was less due to poor nutrient supply in the substrate. (author)

  4. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  5. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureysens, I; De Temmerman, L; Hastir, T; Van Gysel, M; Ceulemans, R

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha(-1) of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha(-1) for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha(-1) for Zn over two years.

  6. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  7. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry. PMID:25801172

  8. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

  9. Acoustic pressure wound therapy in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Raenell

    2008-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are localized skin injuries secondary to unrelieved pressure or friction. Patients with immobility issues are at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. In 2004, stricter federal regulations for prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in institutional settings--eg, long-term care facilities--were introduced. Effective, low-cost treatments for pressure ulcers are needed; acoustic pressure wound therapy (APWT), a noncontact, low-frequency, therapeutic ultrasound system, is one option. A retrospective case series of six long-term care patients (two men and one woman, age range 61 to 92 years), each with one Stage II pressure ulcer, is presented. Acoustic pressure wound therapy was provided as an adjunct to standard treatment that included balsam of Peru/castor oil/trypsin ointment, hydrogel, hydrocolloid dressings, silver dressings, and offloading. Outcomes (days to healing) were determined through changes in wound dimensions. Study participants each received APWT for 3 to 4 minutes three to four times weekly. In four of the six wounds, the average number of days to healing was 22. One of the two remaining patients discontinued treatment at 95% healed; treatment for the sixth patient was ongoing due to hospitalization that delayed APWT. In a long-term care setting, APWT added to standard of care may accelerate healing of Stage II pressure ulcers. PMID:19037138

  10. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  11. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species.

  12. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber

    2016-06-01

    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections. PMID:27413297

  13. Specimen Preservation and Slide Preparation for Newly Hatched Larvae Nymph of Scale Insects%蚧虫初孵若虫采集、保存和玻片标本制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰军; 王自力; 陈晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    蚧虫初孵若虫用FAA固定液固定有利于玻片制作和长期保存.在虫体软化、脱水、染色和清洗过程中,使用自制转移虫袋,使得虫体转移更为简易,并可以进行批量处理.用丁香油替代二甲苯、Euparal替代中性树脂或加拿大树胶,使制作过程更具有安全性.%Methods of fixation and slide preparation for newly hatched larvae nymph of scale insects are introduced. FAA fixation is favorable to long-term preservation and slide preparation for newly hatched larvae nymph of scale insets. Self-made bags were used to transfer the insects during maceration, dehydration, coloration, and cleaning, which made larvae transferring easier and mass production possible. The process of slide preparation would be more safety by replacing Canada balsam or neutral resins by euparal and xylene by clove oil, respectively.

  14. Screening of ARI from Medicinal and Edible Plant%药食同源植物醛糖还原酶抑制剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立成; 张鹏; 徐佳; 刘雨婷; 金萍; 王琪菲; 修志明; 张越; 王丽萍

    2016-01-01

    According to the mechanism of disease of diabetic complication,we selected 50 kinds of medicinal and edible plants,and screened containing effective natural ingredients of aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI).By measuring the IC50 value as a reference,we compared the samples known to inhibit the activity of ARI efficiency in plants.The results show that the ARI activity of lemon,balsam pear,plum and pomegranate are strong.Their IC5 0 values are 0.74,0.64,0.2 5 ,0.02 7 mg/mL.%选取50余种药食同源植物,根据糖尿病并发症的病发机理,筛选含有有效醛糖还原酶抑制剂(ARI)的天然成分,利用测定的 IC50值作为参考,比对各已知有抑制活性的样本植物的醛糖还原酶(AR)抑制效率.结果表明:柠檬、苦瓜、李子和石榴的 ARI 活性较强,其 IC50值分别为0.74,0.64,0.25,0.027 mg/mL.

  15. Theoretical note: the C/T ratio in artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, José E

    2005-05-31

    This paper describes computer simulations of the effect of the C/T ratio on acquisition rate in artificial neural networks. The networks consisted of neural processing elements that functioned according to a neurocomputational model whose learning rule is consistent with information on dopaminergic mechanisms of reinforcement. In Simulation 1, three comparisons were made: constant C and variable T, variable C and constant T, and a constant C/T with variable C and T. In the last two comparisons, C was manipulated by changing the probability of reinforcement within the intertrial interval (ITI), in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS). Acquisition rate tended to increase with C/T, and the invariant ratio had no effect. In Simulation 2, C was manipulated by changing the ITI, with continuous reinforcement in the presence of the CS and no reinforcements in its absence. Results were comparable to those obtained in Simulation 1. Simulation 3 further explored the effect of the invariant ratio, but with larger absolute values of C and T, which slowed acquisition significantly. The results parallel some experimental findings and theoretical implications of the Gibbon-Balsam model, showing that they can emerge from the moment-to-moment dynamics of a neural-network model. In contrast to that model, however, Simulation 3 suggests that the effect of invariant C/T ratios may be bounded. PMID:15845311

  16. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  17. [Chewing-lice species (Phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. Birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the Veterinary Faculty or Animal Keeping House of Konya Municipal. Firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. Then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. One long-eared owl, one Eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzards and five rock pigeons were found to be infested with lice, the others were not. The lice were mounted on slides into Canada balsam after being cleared in KOH 10 % and were identified to species under the light microscope. The lice were identified as Strigiphilus barbatus collected from the long-eared owl, as Kurodaia fulvofasciata collected from the Eurasian buzzard, as Crasspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Colpocephalum nanum collected from long-legged buzzards and as Columbicola columbae collected from rock pigeons. This is the first time that Kurodaia fulvofasciata from the Eurasian buzzard and Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl has been recorded in Turkey.

  18. Chemical and functional characterization of Italian propolis obtained by different harvesting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papotti, Giulia; Bertelli, Davide; Bortolotti, Laura; Plessi, Maria

    2012-03-21

    The composition and antioxidant activity of Italian poplar propolis obtained using three harvesting methods and extracted with different solvents were evaluated. Waxes, balsams, and resins contents were determined. Flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols, and total phenolics were also analyzed. To characterize the phenolic composition, the presence of 15 compounds was verified through HPLC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and reducing power assays. The ability of propolis to inhibit lipid oxidation was monitored by analyzing hydroperoxide and TBARS formation in lipids incorporated into an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. Acetone shows the highest extraction capacity. Wedge propolis has the highest concentration of active phenolic compounds (TP = 359.1 ± 16.3 GAEs/g; TFF = 5.83 ± 0.42%; TFD = 7.34 ± 1.8%) and seems to be the most promising for obtaining high-value propolis more suitable to prepare high-quality dietary supplements (TBARS = 0.012 ± 0.009 mmol std/g; RP = 0.77 ± 0.07 TEs/g). PMID:22360702

  19. Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. Site inspection, dermatological examination and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with 4 perfume oils and 30 ingredients of them. The results showed 6 bottlers were found suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, 2 from irritant contact dermatitis, 12 workers showed different strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were 2 perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde(9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). Nobody was tested positive to balsam of Peru. Job changes for office workers, packers or printers to other rooms, where they had no longer contact with fragrances, led to a settling. To conclude, automation and replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and using gloves may minimize the risk.

  20. Use of propolis extract as a natural antioxidant for plant oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of propolis were tested in natural olive oil stored at 60ºC. The concentration of extracts in olive oil varied from 0.02 to 0.08%. Extracts at 0.06 and 0.08% concentrations had better antioxidant activity as compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 0.01% levels. The greatest antioxidant activities were exhibited by propolis balsam extract at 0.08% levels. lt can be said that the antioxidant activity of propolis increases with concentration. This product is considered as a new source of natural antioxidants.Se ha ensayado las actividades antioxidantes de extractos metanólicos de propóleos en aceite de oliva almacenado a 60ºC. La concentración de extractos en aceite de oliva varió desde 0,02 a 0,08%. Los extractos con concentraciones del 0,06 y 0,08% tuvieron una mayor actividad antioxidante comparando con el hidroxianisol butilado (BHA y el hidroxitolueno butilado (BHT a concentraciones del 0,01%. Las mayores actividades antioxidantes se encontraron en extractos de bálsamo de propóleos a niveles del 0,08%. Puede decirse que la actividad antioxidante de propóleos aumenta con la concentración, constituyendo una nueva fuente de antioxidantes naturales.

  1. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber

    2016-06-01

    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections.

  2. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  3. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided. PMID:27500712

  4. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  5. A large herbivore triggers alternative successional trajectories in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Bert; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

    2013-12-01

    Alternative successional trajectories (AST) may result in multiple climax states within an ecosystem when disturbances affect colonization history. In the boreal forest, ungulates have been proposed to drive AST because, under herbivore pressure, preferred species may go extinct and apparent competition may benefit browsing-resistant species. Over a 15-year period following logging, we tested whether deer herbivory altered plant species composition and whether the competitive advantage of resistant species was maintained following herbivore removal. We compared exclosures built immediately after logging with delayed exclosures built eight years later on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada. Although the palatable tree Betula papyrifera (paper birch) and some palatable herbs recovered in delayed exclosures, we observed legacies in both tree and herb cover. Woody regeneration in delayed exclosures was dominated by Picea glauca (white spruce), and Poaceae (grasses) were abundant in the field layer. Given that only early-successional species recovered, whereas late-successional broadleaf species and Abies balsamea (balsam fir) remained rare, succession may follow an AST after a limited browsing period during early succession. PMID:24597230

  6. Fun in the Kitchen

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    You may be familiar with Microcosm's "Fun with Physics" hands-on activities programme, which is the delight of young and old alike. In order to demonstrate the different states of matter, the "Fun with Physics"1 guides use liquid nitrogen to freeze various substances. Yoghurts, for example, are instantaneously turned into mouth-watering ice-creams! But, did you know that a distinguished chef also uses this technique? Ettore Bocchia, chef at the Grand Hotel Villa Serbelloni in Italy, uses liquid nitrogen at -196°C to freeze the dishes he prepares. Mix some yoghurts, add a soupçon of balsamic vinegar, pour in some liquid nitrogen at -196°C and the result is some delicious ice-cream. This was the recipe that Ettore Bocchia (in the centre of the picture on the left), the distinguished Italian chef, presented at the Gourmet Festival. He gave a demonstration of his skills at the St. Moritz Gourmet Festival, during the week beginning 2 February, in which the best chefs from around the world took part. CERN, whic...

  7. Fuelwood production in Prince Edward Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent Prince Edward Island Fuelwood Survey occurred in 1990-91. Consumption of fuelwood rose again to 49% of Prince Edward Island's 43,170 households. Total residential fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 242,000 m3. The fuelwood industry makes an important contribution to the economy of Prince Edward Island. In the 1990-91 heating season, fuelwood valued at USD 9 million displaced approximately 43 million litres of domestic heating oil valued at USD 16.4 million. In addition, it is estimated that 70 cents of every dollar spent on fuelwood remains in the province and contributes spin-off benefits, whereas 90 cents of every dollar spent on heating oil is lost to the economy of Prince Edward Island. The percentage of people cutting their own fuelwood decreased from 52 in 1984-85 to only 23.4 in 1990-91. The governments of Canada and Prince Edward Island have implemented a series of Forest Resource Development Agreements (FRDAs) starting in 1983. The current 1988-1993 FRDA provides USD 24 million for research and incentives for reforestation and management of Prince Edward Island woodlots. It is expected that 3,800 Prince Edward Island woodlot owners will be participating in a woodlot management program by 1993. Silviculture treatments of hardwood stands include thinning, stand conversion (removal of lowgrade softwoods such as balsam fir in mainly hardwood stands), and shelterwood (strip) cutting, particularly in marginal stands. (9 refs.)

  8. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and fractions of Vernonia polyanthes Less (assa-peixe flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. WALTRICH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vernonia polyanthes, known as “assa-peixe”, is a plant native to Brazil, and the decoction or infusion of its flowers, roots and leaves are used in folk medicine, being considered sources of diuretic, balsamic, anti-rheumatic substances, and are used in cases of bronchitis and persistent cough. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extract/fractions obtained by methanol maceration and infusion of V. polyanthes flower, also including qualitative identification of flower compounds, through phytochemical evaluation, using colorimetric tests. Identification tests for the presence of anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were performed. Microbiological evaluation was made through agar diffusion assay, using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonasaeruginosa as test organisms. From the performed colorimetric tests it was possible to verify the presence of tannins and flavonoids in both extracts. Alkaloids were also observed in the macerated extract. The ethyl acetate fraction from the agar diffusion assay, from both extracts, presented microbial activity over Staphylococcus aureus. It was possible to qualitatively identify the floral compounds, and to show the differences between extraction methods, being methanol considered the best solvent to the extraction.

  9. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha-1 of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha-1 for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha-1 for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils

  10. 苦瓜种子蛋白的双水相提取及抑菌性研究%Extraction of Seed Protein from Momordica charantia by Aqueous Two-phase System and Its Antibacterial Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于群; 朱新产

    2012-01-01

    Through screening and optimizing some influential factors, such as the mass fraction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) / ammonium sulfate aqueous two - phase, partition coefficient and recovery rate, the best conditions for the extraction of seed protein from balsam pear (Momordica charantia) were obtained. The result revealed that: when the mass fraction of ammonium sulfate and PEG was 26% and 22% respectively, the partition coefficient was the lowest (0.089), the recovery rate was the highest (96% ), and the purified seed protein with molecular weight 35.6 kD and 12.3 kD was acquired from Momordica charantia by aqueous two - phase system. The antibacterial tests indicated that Momordica charantia seed protein had various antibacterial effects to bacterium and fungus, and the antibacterial effect of the purified protein was better than that of the crude protein.%筛选优化了聚乙二醇(PEG)/硫酸铵双水相的质量分数、分配系数、回收率等影响因素,得到了苦瓜种子蛋白的最佳萃取条件:在26%硫酸铵、22%聚乙二醇条件下,分配系数最小,达0.089,回收率为96%,得到分子量为35.6 kD和12.3kD的苦瓜纯化蛋白.抑菌试验表明,苦瓜种子蛋白对细茵、真菌均有不同程度的抑制作用,且纯化蛋白的抑菌性大于粗提蛋白.

  11. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD, who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1% female and 109 (35.9% male who applied to our clinic between the period of January 2003 and December 2008 and who were tested with patch test with the consideration of ACD. Patch test results were assessed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application.Results: Lesions of ACD were found to be most frequent on the hands (65.5%. A total of 95 (31.3% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (14.8% followed by cobalt chloride (9.2%, potassium dichromate (6.6%, balsam of Peru (3.6%, fragrance mix (3.3%, mercaptobenzothiazole (3% and colophonium (2.3%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to lanolin, mercapto mix, epoxy resin, paraben mix and quaternium-15 were relatively low, while no positive reaction was obtained to formaldehyde in any case. In 51.6% of patients with positive reaction, the responsible allergen was detected by testing with the European Standard Series.Conclusion: Although this study shows that sensitization rate to metals and fragrance are still high in our region, as well as in our country, and are more frequent in females than in males, future prospective multicenter studies with large number of patients would point out the adequacy of the European Standard Series in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 198-202

  12. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis: Three years retrospective results in Tekirdağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Erfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in individuals who were sensitized with same allergens before. The causative allergens may change in time as well as vary among geographical and population based differences. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 169 patients-107 (63.3% male, 62 (36.7% female, who patch tested between 2011- 2014 with allergic contact dermatitis diagnosis and test results were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of all patients who had the most frequent occupation as service sector/house wife (26.6% were 41.06 years and the mean disease duration of all patients was 19.5 months. The most frequent localization of disease was hands (n: 105,%73 and %50.3 of patients had positivity with at least one allergen. The most frequent seven allergens with positivity were nickel sulfate (n: 50, %29.6, cobalt chloride (n: 23, %13.6, potassium dichromate (n: 22, %13, sesquiterpene lactone mix (n: 18, %10.7, thiuram (n: 10, %5.9, clioquinol mix (n: 10, %5.9 and 4-tert-butilfenol formaldehyde resin (n: 10, %5.9, respectively. On the other hand in all patients there were no positivity with N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, epoxy resin, balsam of peru, formaldehyde, quaternium-15, primin, tixocortol-21-pivalate, fragrance mix-2. Conclusion: In comparison of this study which first reports patch test results of patients in Tekirdağ-a city in Trakya region and other studies that report patch test results of different regions of our country; the mean age of patients of present study were older and there were similar results for occupations and localization of disease in between eastern region and present study. We believe that further studies are needed to specify allergen characteristics of Trakya region using multicenter studies, which include other cities as well.

  13. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Andrew; Annal, Malar; Tang, Andrew; Picard, Gabriel; Harnois, Frédéric; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Saleem, Ammar; Hewitt, L Mark; Milestone, Craig B; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-01-15

    Pulp and paper wood feedstocks have been previously implicated as a source of chemicals with the ability to interact with or disrupt key neuroendocrine endpoints important in the control of reproduction. We tested nine Canadian conifers commonly used in pulp and paper production as well as 16 phytochemicals that have been observed in various pulp and paper mill effluent streams for their ability to interact in vitro with the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), and bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-BZD). These neuroendocrine endpoints are also important targets for treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, epilepsy, or depression. MAO and GAD were inhibited by various conifer extracts of different polarities, including major feedstocks such as balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. MAO was selectively stimulated or inhibited by many of the tested phytochemicals, with inhibition observed by a group of phenylpropenes (e.g. isoeugenol and vanillin). Selective GAD inhibition was also observed, with all of the resin acids tested being inhibitory. GABA(A)-BZD ligand displacement was also observed. We compiled a table identifying which of these phytochemicals have been described in each of the species tested here. Given the diversity of conifer species and plant chemicals with these specific neuroactivities, it is reasonable to propose that MAO and GAD inhibition reported in effluents is phytochemical in origin. We propose disruption of these neuroendocrine endpoints as a possible mechanism of reproductive inhibition, and also identify an avenue for potential research and sourcing of conifer-derived neuroactive natural products. PMID:24041600

  14. Gravimorphism in current-year shoots of Abies balsamea: involvement of compensatory growth, indole-3-acetic acid transport and compression wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C H A; Lavigne, M B

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the cause of gravimorphic growth inhibition in current-year shoots of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings displaced from their normal orientation in the gravitational field. Tilting the main stem of seedlings decreased shoot elongation, cambial growth as measured by tracheid production, and leaf dry weight of the terminal shoot and the lateral shoots on the lower side of the tilted stem. Removing either the terminal shoot or all lateral shoots induced compensatory growth in the remaining shoots, but did not reduce the inhibitory effect of tilting on shoot growth. Bending the apical part of a tilted main stem to restore it to the vertical did not fully reverse the inhibition of terminal shoot growth caused by stem tilting. Stem tilting inhibited cambial activity at the base of decapitated terminal shoots treated apically with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and decreased the basipetal transport of a [1-(14)C]-IAA pulse. Stem tilting also induced compression wood formation on the lower side of the tilted stem. Compression wood formation was associated with increases in cambial activity and stem respiration. Stem tilting did not affect either the net photosynthetic rate in 1-year-old leaves or the xylem water potential in current-year lateral shoots. These results support the hypothesis that gravimorphic growth inhibition in a current-year shoot on a tilted stem involves reductions in (1) the shoot's capacity to export IAA, and hence to mobilize photoassimilates, and (2) the supply of photoassimilates available for import by the shoot, as a result of increased cambial sink activity associated with compression wood formation outside that shoot. PMID:11960755

  15. The Speed of Invasion: Rates of Spread for Thirteen Exotic Forest Insects and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Evans

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive, exotic insects and diseases have a devastating effect on North American forests. The rate of spread, or range expansion, is one of the main determinants of an invasive organism’s impact, and can play a major role in structuring management response options. To better understand how exotic organisms have spread through our forests, this study employs a consistent, rigorous analytical framework to analyze a comprehensive geospatial database for the spread of seven exotic insects and six diseases. This study includes new data for six insects and two diseases in combination with five invasive species previously analyzed using the same technique. The quantile regression analysis of over 3000 records of infestation over the preceding century show that the rate of spread of invasive forest insects and diseases ranges from 4.2 km·year−1 to 57.0 km·year−1. The slowest disease spread was white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola at 7.4 km·year−1 while the most rapid disease spread was chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica at 31.3 km·year−1. The slowest insect spread was balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (4.2 km·year−1 while the fastest was emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis at 57.0 km·year−1. Species that can fly long distances or are vectored by flying insects have spread faster than those that are passively dispersed. This analysis highlights the difficulty of estimating spread rates from studies of individual dispersal or flight distances, but the estimated spread rates in this study are generally in line with previous estimates.

  16. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  17. Genetic variation of the bud and leaf phenology of seventeen poplar clones in a short rotation coppice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, A; Laureysens, I; Ceulemans, R

    2004-01-01

    Leaf phenology of 17 poplar ( Populus spp.) clones, encompassing spring phenology, length of growth period and end-of-year phenology, was examined over several years of different rotations. The 17 poplar clones differed in their latitude of origin (45 degrees 30'N to 51 degrees N) and were studied on a short rotation experimental field plantation, situated in Boom (province of Antwerpen, Belgium; 51 degrees 05'N, 04 degrees 22'E). A similar, clear pattern of bud burst was observed during the different years of study for all clones. Clones Columbia River, Fritzi Pauley, Trichobel (Populus trichocarpa) and Balsam Spire (Populus trichocarpa x Populus balsamifera) from 45 degrees 30'N to 49 degrees N reached bud burst (expressed as day of the year or degree day sums) almost every year earlier than clones Wolterson (Populus nigra), Gaver, Gibecq and Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) (50 degrees N to 51 degrees N). This observation could not be generalised to end-of-season phenology, for which a yearly returning pattern for all clones was lacking. Late bud burst and early leaf fall of some clones (Beaupré, Boelare, IBW1, IBW2, IBW3) was brought about by increasing rust incidence during the years of observation. For these clones, the variability in leaf phenology was reflected in high coefficients of variation among years. The patterns of genetic variation in leaf phenology have implications for short rotation intensive culture forestry and management of natural populations. Moreover, the variation in phenology reported here is relevant with regard to the genetic mapping of poplar.

  18. Watershed Watch - Student-driven Research Experiences That Attract Undeclared Undergraduate Students Into STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), New Hampshire Community Technical College (NHCTC), and the College of the Albemarle (COA) has implemented a unique series of courses designed to attract undergraduate students with undeclared majors into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These courses incorporate student- driven research comparing the Merrimack River (NH/MA) and Pasquotank River watersheds (VA/NC). Entitled Watershed Watch (WW), the courses utilize pedagogical approaches based on hands-on, inquiry-based teaching and learning. In alternating years, a two-week WW summer institute is held in each watershed. Students conduct authentic research on various aspects of the watershed's geology, limnology, and landscape ecology. Then during the academic year, WW students enroll in a course where they are paired with faculty mentors, and engage in more in-depth research projects. Samples of student research include assessing calcium oxalate crystals as an indicator of plant stress in NH red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and GIS modeling/mapping coastal NC changes resulting from postulated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. After completing the first year in a five-year funding cycle, formative/summative evaluation methods have identified the following student perceptions regarding STEM disciplines: participating students found WW to be enjoyable, exciting, and meaningful; as a result of WW, 60 percent of undeclared students from the four-year institutions (UNH/ECSU) declared a STEM major or minor; and approximately 20 percent of the two-year students (NHCTC/COA) enrolled in four-year STEM programs or are employed in STEM fields.

  19. Origin and Availability of Large Cavities for Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a Species at Risk Inhabiting the Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Vaillancourt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large secondary-nesting birds such as ducks rely on appropriate cavities for breeding. The main objective of this study was to assess the availability of large cavities and the potential of a managed boreal coniferous landscape to provide nesting trees within the breeding area of the eastern population of Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a cavity-nesting species at risk in Canada. Woodpecker surveys were conducted in both conifer and mixed-wood landscapes, and cavities were sought in line transects distributed in unharvested and linear remnant stands of balsam fir (Abies balsamea and black spruce (Picea mariana as well as in cutblocks. No Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus were detected in the breeding area of Barrow’s Goldeneye, but the species was present in the nearby lowland area in which trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides is abundant. Only 10 trees (0.2% of those sampled supported cavities considered suitable for Barrow’s Goldeneye in terms of dimensions and canopy openness. Most of the suitable cavities found during this study were nonexcavated apical (chimney cavities in relatively short snags that showed advanced states of decay. A diameter-at-breast-height threshold was determined for each tree species, after which the probability of cavity occurrence was enhanced in terms of potential cavity trees for Barrow’s Goldeneye. Remnant linear forest sites had lower potential tree densities than did their unharvested equivalents. Large cavities were thus a rare component in this boreal landscape, suggesting that they may be a limiting factor for this population at risk. Current even-aged forest management that mainly relies on clear-cut practices is likely to further reduce the potential of this landscape to provide trees with suitable cavities.

  20. Magruder Park Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  1. Woody crops conference 2013; Agrarholz-Kongress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 19th and 20th February 2013 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Research funding of the BMELV in the field of the production of woody crops (Andreas Schuette); (2) ELKE - Development of extensive concepts of land use for the production of renewable raw materials as possible compensatory measures and substitute measures (Frank Wegener); (3) Knowledge transfer to the realm of practice, experiences of the DLG (Frank Setzer); (4) Results of the tests with fast growing tree species after 18 years of cultivation in Guelzow (Andreas Gurgel); (5) Latest findings on the production of woody crops in Brandenburg (D. Murach); (6) Phytosanitary situation in short-rotation coppices in Germany - Current state of knowledge and prognoses for the future (Christiane Helbig); (7) Evaluation of alternative delivery procedures in short-rotation coppices (Janine Schweier); (8) With a short-rotation coppice shredder through Germany (Wolfram Kudlich); (9) Changes of land-use of traditional crops rotation systems to short-rotation coppices consisting of poplar trees and willow trees, which sites are suitable? - Selected results from the ProLoc association (Martin Hofmann); (10) Cultivation of populus tremula for short-rotation coppices at agricultural areas (Mirko Liesebach); (11) Investigations of the resistance behaviour of newly developed black poplar clones and balsam poplar clones against the poplar leave rust Melampsora larici-populina (Christina Fey-Wagner); (12) A agri-forestry system for ligneous energy production in the organic farming - First results from cultivation experiments in Bavaria (Klaus Wiesinger); (13) Implementation of agri-forestry systems with energy wood in the rural area - the project AgroForstEnergie (Armin Vetter); (14) Impact of agroforestry land utilization on microclimate, soil fertility and quality of water (Christian Boehm).

  2. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  3. Influence of manufacturing procedure on stability of Unguentum contra perniones preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Application of various technological procedures for the manufacture of officinal preparation ointment against chilblains (Unguentum contra perniones produce essential variations in the quality and stability of the final product. Changing the sequence of admixing active substances into the ointment base indicated the presence of incompatibility between the active substances, as well as between the active substances and the ointment base components. The aim was to examine the influence of various technological manufacturing procedures on quality and stability of the preparation. Methods. Changes in the samples of ointments and aqueous solutions of active substances were analyzed microscopically. Results. Microscopic analysis of hydrosoluble active substance solutions demonstrated destruction of ichthammol, induced by an acidic medium due to the dissolution of tannin and resorcinol, which is well known from the literature. It also demonstrated the destruction of tannin and resorcinol in aqueous solution, which had not been described in the literature. Application of the prescribed procedure for the manufacturing of ointment against chilblains, conceals the incompatibility reactions due to a slow dissolution of the tannin suspended in the officinal ointment base Unguentum cera lanae. Admixture of an ready-made aqueous solution of tannin caused an instant contact between ichthammol and the acidic medium, which caused the destruction or the complete absence of the formation of emulsion droplets. The problem of incompatibility reactions between lanolin alcohols in the ointment base and ichthammol and resorcinol, as well as the reaction between Peruvian balsam and sulfur from the ichthammol sulfate ion was observed. Numerous incompatibility reactions of ointment against chilblains, components indicated that it was necessary to introduce alterations in both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the preparation. Conclusion. Excipient

  4. Lesões múltiplas de osteoma cutis na face: terapêutica minimamente invasiva em pacientes com sequela de acne - relato de casos Multiple injuries of osteoma skin in the face: therapeutical least invasive in patients with acne sequela - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Göedert Leite Duarte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma cutis é a formação óssea no interior da pele, podendo ser primária ou secundária. Única ou múltipla, de tamanhos variados e acometendo ambos os sexos, é uma lesão cutânea rara, de etiopatogenia e classificação ainda discutidas. Nosso objetivo foi relatar o diagnóstico e a terapêutica minimamente invasiva de lesões múltiplas de osteoma cutis na face em pacientes com sequelas de acne. Fizemos a retirada dos osteomas com agulhas BD 0,70 x 25 22G1, sem anestésicos tópicos ou injetáveis no local. As pequenas incisões foram deixadas expostas, com pomada cicatrizante. Obteve-se um excelente resultado estético em 15 dias.Osteoma cutis is a bone formation in the dermis can to be primary or secondary forms. Only, multiples, many forms, occurring on either sex, they are a rare cutaneous disease. The pathogenesis and classification remains unclear. Our objective was the diagnostic and small invasive surgery treatment of the osteoma cutis multiple of the face, in patients as a sequel of acne. To remove the osteoma we used needle BD 0,70x25 22G1, without anesthetic topic or inject able site. The small wounds were exposed with scarring balsam. We got an excellent esthetic result after 15 days.

  5. Mercury Pollution Characteristics in Tongren Mercury Mining Area,Guizhou Province, China%贵州省铜仁汞矿区汞污染特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏吉成; 胡平; 王建旭; 张华; 冯新斌

    2016-01-01

    铜仁汞矿位于铜仁市碧江区云场坪镇,曾是贵州省最大的汞矿之一.为了了解该矿在闭坑后矿区的汞污染特征,采集了矿区的大气、水体、矿渣、土壤和农作物样品,分析了汞的分布特征.结果表明,矿区大气汞浓度为7.29~ 139 ng·m-3、地表水汞浓度为81.6~425×103 ng·L-1、矿渣汞含量为2.79~510 mg·kg-1、土壤汞含量为3,06~2.92× 103 mg· kg-1.可见,大气、水体、矿渣和土壤中的汞含量远高于对照区或国家相关标准.共采集了10种农作物玉米(Zea mays L)、高粱(Chinese sorghum)、枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill)、梨(Pyrus spp)、茄子(Solanum melongena)、丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)、西红柿(Lycopersicon esculentum)、南瓜(Cucurbita moschata duchesne)、苦瓜(Balsam pear)和辣椒(Capsicum annuum),除了茄子和南瓜外,其余农作物可食部分的汞含量都高于国家《食品安全国家标准》.综上所述,铜仁汞矿开采和冶炼带来的汞污染已严重影响周边生态环境和食品安全,矿区汞污染不容忽视.

  6. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  7. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais F. Fagundes

    2009-12-01

    laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  8. 屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜绿化降温试验%Greening and Temperature Cooling Test for Cultivating Lianoid Vegetables on Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解盼; 龙岳林

    2014-01-01

    Roof thermal radiation is an important reason causing urban thermal environment effect, and the roof greening is an effective way to reduce the thermal radiation. This study selects the balsam pear, lentils and towel gourd as test materials and adopts box-type cultivation method on the roof with steel mesh stent to respectively observe their growth adaptability and compare their temperature cooling effect for roof. The results showed that before middle July, the growth of sponge gourd and bitter melon was vigorous, but gradually declined with increasing temperature after middle July, but lentils had strong ability to resist high temperature, so it can maintain a strong growth state until met the frost; for greening and temperature cooling effect, before middle July, there was no significant difference among three kinds of vegetable, but lentils was obviously better than sponge gourd and bitter after middle July. Cultivating lianoid vegetables on roof has significant temperature cooling effect, the higher the temperature is, the temperature cooling effect the more obvious, especially at 12:00, the temperature cooling range was the largest by 8.7℃.%屋顶热辐射是导致城市热环境效应产生的一个重要原因,屋顶绿化是减轻热辐射的一项有效措施。选用苦瓜、扁豆和丝瓜作试验材料,在屋顶上采用箱式栽培方式,搭建钢丝网作支架,分别观测其生长适应性,并比较屋面降温效果。结果表明:7月中旬前丝瓜与苦瓜生长旺盛,7月中旬后随着温度升高而逐渐衰退,而扁豆具有较强的抗高温能力,一直保持旺盛生长状态,直到遇霜枯死;绿化降温效果7月中旬之前3种蔬菜无明显差异,7月中旬以后扁豆明显优于丝瓜和苦瓜。屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜降温效果显著,气温越高降温越明显,特别是在中午12:00降温幅度最大,达到8.7℃。

  9. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  10. Métodos de coloração de Roeser (1972: modificado - e Kropp (1972 visando a substituição do azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX Staining methods of modified Roeser (1972 and Kropp (1972, aiming at substituing the astra blue by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Luque

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em folhas de Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica e Nymphaea mexicana foram testados métodos de coloração baseados em Roeser (1972 modificado e Kropp (1972, visando a substituição do corante azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA, desidratadas em série butílica terciária e incluídas em parafina. Os cortes histológicos transversais foram corados segundo diferentes baterias de coloração, modificadas quanto ao tipo de corante usado, diferenciador e série de desidratação. As lâminas permanentes foram preparadas com bálsamo-do-canadá sintético. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o método de Roeser (1972 modificado é melhor que o de Kropp (1972, nas condições deste experimento. O azul de astra pode ser substituído por azul de alcião 8GX e a desidratação pode ser em série isopropílica ou etílica, sem grande diferença entre elas. São discutidos os resultados provenientes das diferentes colorações.Staining methods based on modified Roeser (1972 as well as that of Kropp (1972 were done with leaves of Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica and Nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX. Samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. The histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. Permanent slides were prepared with synthetic Canada balsam. The results obtained indicate that the modified Roeser method (1972 is better than that of Kropp (1972 under present experimental conditions. The astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8GX and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. The results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.

  11. Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera promote soil erosion from riparian zones? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2013-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam) was introduced into Europe in the mid-19th century, whereupon its invasive tendency has facilitated its expansion throughout many mainland European countries. Its rate of expansion can be attributed to certain lifecycle traits that allow it to become rapidly established and crowd-out many native floral species. Its preferred habitat includes damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as along riparian zones. Once present, nearby watercourses then inadvertently act as conduits that facilitate the movement of seeds downstream into un-colonised parts of a catchment. Once established, individual plants form discrete and often mono-cultural stands of dense vegetation that can typically range in area from a few m-2 to > 150 m-2. Impatiens glandulifera is cold-intolerant however, and in temperate countries rapidly dies when exposed to the first frosts of the season. Once die-back occurs, it is hypothesised that a reduction in the protection afforded to the underlying soil by the vegetation canopy will promote the mobilisation of material from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera at a greater rate that areas supporting indigeneous vgetation, due to their increased exposure to erosion processes. An investigation was conducted to test this hypothesis in a contaminated sub-catchment of the Birs River in northwest Switzerland. A measurement technique consisting of erosion pins, an erosion bridge and a digital caliper was employed to quantify changes in the soil profile, as this approach represented the least invasive way of repeatedly measuring through vegetation without undue disturbance. An initial soil surface profile was established at five contaminated sites in late summer 2012 before die-back occurred, as well as at five nearby reference sites where I. glandulifera was absent. All soil surface profiles were re-measured at ca. 25-day intervals and the average net change was

  12. Própolis: atualizações sobre a química e a farmacologia Propolis: updates on chemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Lustosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Própolis é uma mistura complexa, formada por material resinoso e balsâmico. Sua composição química é complexa e variada, estando relacionada com a flora de cada região visitada pelas abelhas e com o período de coleta da resina. Inclui flavonóides, ácidos aromáticos, terpenóides e fenilpropanóides, ácidos graxos e vários outros compostos. A própolis tem sido objeto de intensos estudos farmacológicos e químicos nos últimos 30 anos. Em várias partes do mundo é indicada para melhorar a saúde e prevenir doenças. Atualmente, é disponível em várias formas farmacêuticas como cápsulas, extratos, enxaguatório bucal, na forma de pó, entre outras. Ainda são necessários estudos correlacionando a composição química com a atividade biológica, definindo cada tipo de própolis com a sua aplicação terapêutica. É uma tarefa imprescindível para um mercado cada vez maior e exigente em todo o mundo.Propolis (bee glue is a complex mixture, formed by resinous and balsamic material. Its chemical composition is variable and complex, being related with the flora of each region visited by the bees and with the period of resins collection. Flavonoids, aromatic acids, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, fatty acids, and other compounds are found in propolis. In the last 30 years, propolis has become subject of intense pharmacological and chemical studies. In different parts of the world it is indicated to improve health and prevent illnesses. Currently, it is available in some pharmaceutical forms as capsules, extracts, mouthrinses, powder form, among others. Indeed, studies correlating the chemical composition with the biological activity are necessary, defining each type of propolis with its therapeutic application. It is an essential task for a market ever bigger and demanding in the whole word.

  13. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  14. 利用原状土柱系统研究设施栽培下硝态氮淋失状况%Study on Nitrate -N Leaching Loss in Facility Cultivation by Undisturbed Soil Core Lysimeter System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长盛; 陈庆峰; 刘静; 王丽红; 李剑

    2012-01-01

    选取山东省典型设施栽培区——寿光大棚蔬菜为研究对象,采用原状土柱系统研究了农户常规栽培措施下硝态氮的淋失状况.研究发现,黄瓜和苦瓜生育期内硝态氮的淋失浓度范围为40.7 ~74.7 mg/L,试验期间硝态氮淋失浓度平均为53.4 mg/L,所有样品中的硝态氮含量均超过国家规定的饮用水标准和地下水源硝态氮控制标准;冬季硝态氮淋失浓度高于其它季节.硝态氮淋失量为276.24 kg/hm2,除第一次移栽灌溉外,硝态氮淋失量最高出现在2011年3月份.%Selecting the typical vegetable varieties cultivated in the greenhouse in Shouguang of Shandong province as the studied object, the author analyzed the nitrate - N leaching loss in the conventional cultivation by undisturbed soil core lysimeter system. The study found that the leaching loss concentration of nitrate - N in the growing period of cucumber and balsam pear ranged from 40. 7 to 74.7 mg/L, with the average value of 53.4 mg/L. The nitrate -N content in all samples exceeded the national standard for drinking water and the nitrate - N control standard for the groundwater source. The leaching loss concentration of nitrate - N in winter was higher than that in other seasons. The nitrate - N leaching loss amount was 276. 24 kg/hm2, in addition to the first transplanting irrigation, the highest amount of nitrate - N leaching loss appeared in March, 2011.

  15. Development of pollen grain in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To clarify events occurring during pollen grain formation in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, floral buds were collected at different stages of development. After bracket, petal and sepal removal the anthers were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 10 mum and after differential dying with safranin O and fast green, mounted in Canada balsam and observed under optical microscope. Formation of the male gamete followed the normal pattern for angiosperms. Observation covered final sporogenic mass phase up to pollen grain formation; microsporangium tissue modifications were also observed. Microsporogenesis was characterized by sporogenic tissue differentiation in microsporic mother cells, followed by meiosis and resulting in tetrads. Microgametogenesis began with callose microspore release, subsequent mitosis, in addition to radial and tangential tapetum wall degradation, parietal layer compression nearer to the tapetum and endothecium widening, terminating in mature pollen grain formation.Visando elucidar os processos que ocorrem durante a formação dos grãos de pólen em maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, foram coletados botões em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. As anteras foram desidratadas, embebidas em parafina, cortadas a 10 mm e, após a coloração diferencial com safranina e verde rápido, montadas em bálsamo do Canadá e observadas sob microscópio óptico. A formação do gameta masculino seguiu padrão normal para angiospermas. A observação foi iniciada na fase final de massa esporogênica indo até a formação do grão de pólen, tendo sido também observadas as modificações ocorridas nos tecidos do microsporângio. A microsporogênese foi caracterizada pela diferenciação do tecido esporogênico em células-mãe de micrósporos, passando por meiose e resultando em tétrades. A microgametogênese iniciou-se com a liberação dos micrósporos da calose, os

  16. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  17. Application of monascus in liquor production%红曲霉在白酒行业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁国兴; 刘秀河

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the application and prospects of monascus in liquor brewing, this paper introduces some applications of monascus, including the application of its esterifying power in liquor production and in liquor's fermentation wastewater - - yellow serofluid, and the application of secondary fermentation metabolite in liquor industry. Monascus possesses a good esterifying power and a saccharification fermenting power, and it can produce a variety of secondary metabolites beneficial to human body in the fermentation processing. The addition of monascus in the liquor production can increase the alcohol yield and the content of ethyl acetate, and produce more nutrition and health value. Besides, monascus can he used to change the yellow serofluid into balsam liquid in the solid fermentation of liquor production. In the end, the application prospects of monascus in liquor industries are also put forward.%为了研究红曲霉在酒类酿造中的应用方向及前景,介绍了红曲霉的酯化能力在白酒生产中的应用、在白酒发酵废液--黄浆水中的应用和次级发酵代谢产物在白酒行业的应用,说明红曲霉具有较强的酯化力和发酵糖份的能力,同时还产生多种对人体有益的次级代谢产物,用于白酒的发酵生产,可以提高出酒率及乙酸乙酯的含量,增加酒的营养保健价值,还可处理白酒固态发酵产生的废弃物黄浆水产生“酯香液”作为白酒风味物质。同时展望了红曲霉在白酒行业的应用前景。

  18. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  19. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  20. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae. The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth., rue (Ruta graveolens L., lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R.Br., jimson weed (Datura stramonium L., baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L., mint (Mentha piperita L., wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L., and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.. The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g-1 a.i.. The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar plantas com atividade inseticida, para isolar, identificar e avaliar a bioatividade de compostos inseticidas presentes nessas plantas, contra as seguintes pragas de produtos armazenados da ordem Coleoptera: Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae e Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae. As espécies de plantas usadas foram: anis (Ocimum selloi Benth, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., cordão-de-frade (Leonotis nepetifolia L., datura (Datura stramonium L., erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea L., hortelã (Mentha piperita L., mel

  1. A single method to stain Malassezia furfur and Corynebacterium minutissimum in scales Um método simples para corar Malassezia furfur e Corynebacterium minutissimum nas escamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antar Padilha-Gonçalves

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available A single and practical method to slain Malassezia furfur and Corynebacterium minutissimum in lesions' scales is described. The scales are collected by pressing small pieces of scotch tape (about 4 cm lenght and 2 cm width onto the lesions and following withdrawl the furfuraceous scales will remain on the glue side. These pieces are then immersed for some minutes in lactophenol-cotton blue stain. Following absorption of the stain the scales are washed in current water to remove the excess of blue stain, dried with filter paper, dehydrated via passage in two bottles containing absolute alcohol and then placed in xylene in a centrifugation tube. The xylene dissolves the scotch tape glue and the scales fall free in the tube. After centrifugation and decantation the scales concentrated on the bottom of the tube are collected with a platinum-loop, placed in Canada balsam on a microscopy slide and closed with a cover slip. The preparations are then ready to be submitted to microscopic examination. Other stains may also be used instead of lactophenol-cotton blue. This method is simple, easily performed, and offers good conditions to study these fungi as well as being useful for the diagnosis of the diseases that they cause.É descrito um método simples e prático para corar Malassezia furfur e Corynebacterium minutissimum nas escamas das lesões. O material é colhido com o auxílio de fita durex que será usada na maior parte das etapas do método para ajudar a fácil execução do processo de coloração. Para colher as escamas, pequenos pedaços de fita durex com cerca de 4 cm de comprimento por 2 cm de largura são colocados e pressionados sobre as lesões, e quando retirados trazem aderidas as escamas furfuráceas na face com goma. Esses pedaços de fita durex são imersos por alguns minutos no corante lactofenol-azul cotton e logo que as escamas estiverem coradas em azul são lavadas em água corrente para remover o excesso de corante azul, secos

  2. Pre- and Post-Harvest Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from an Upland Boreal Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Forest in Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Kayla

    fluxes of CO2 increased as the stand aged but its contribution to the ecosystem flux decreased with age. The primary environmental control on the aspen dominated ecosystem was photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The second control was soil moisture, which limited Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) on two occasions: July 2007 (mature aspen) and August 2009 (1 and 2 year old stands). In order to account for spatial variability of productivity between species, flux footprint analyses were paired with leaf level conductance measurements. Results indicated that aspen and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) were the main contributors to the ecosystem flux. Results also indicated that conductivity varied by species, slope aspect, and location on the slope. Ecosystem level fluxes were separated by wind direction and analyzed for different responses to PAR which revealed that low-lying areas were more reactive to low level PAR than upland areas.

  3. 超高效液相色谱-串联质谱测定多种食品中抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的残留量%Simultaneous determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in several food samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉健; 黄惠玲; 禤开智; 蔡伟凯; 汪春光

    2011-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was established for the simultaneous determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in several matrixes, such as balsam pear, pawpaw, pineapple, tea-drink. The effect of extraction condition, mobile phase,and tandem mass spectrometric parameters were investigated. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% glacial acetic acid. And PSA was used for cleaning-up. Then the analysis was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by employing the external standard method. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0 ~ 18 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) for the five pesticides were 0. 005 mg/kg. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of the five pesticides could meet the demand for the detection of residues when the spiked levels were 0. 005 mg/kg, 0. 010 mg/kg and 0. 020 mg/kg. The method was fast, convenient and accurate. And it could be used as a reliable means for simultaneous quantitative determination of imazalil, pyrimethanil, carbofuran, triazophos and carbendazim in food-matrixes.%建立了超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定苦瓜、木瓜、菠萝、绿茶饮料等4种食品基体中抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的方法,对提取条件、净化条件、流动相、质谱条件进行了研究.待测样品直接用含1%冰乙酸的乙腈提取,乙二胺-N-丙基硅烷(PSA)吸附剂除杂,采用电喷雾离子源(ESI)、多反应监测正离子模式扫描,外标法定量.抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵在1~18ng/mL范围内浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,方法的检出限为0.005mg/kg.添加水平为0.005、0.010、0.020mg/kg时抑霉唑、嘧霉胺、克百威、三唑磷、多菌灵的平均回收率和相对标准偏差范围符合农药残留检测要求.本方法可用于多种食品基体中抑

  4. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekacz, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  5. Tecnology of development phytogenetic protector's andcreation of raw-material base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full tex: Recently in order to protect organisms from the of radiation effect radio protectors have been applied principally concerning to sulfur compounds, aminothioles and indolilalkins. Although the achievements obtained in the direction of synthetic medicines discovery, they can not completely replace the medicinal preparation of natural origin. That is why the study of natural biological active substances with radio protector property are of special importance.One of the goals of the project is the detection of plant species rich with anti mutagen and radio protector, the study of their cultivation technology, and the produce of natural raw material with high quality in planting condition. Flora of Azerbaijan is considered one of the richest countries for its species' richness. There are plant varieties for producing radio protector substances (essence-oil, lipid, lipoid, phenol compounds, pigment substances, proteins, vitamins and various amino acids). We have cultivated new varieties and forms of sea buckthorn, black caraway, basil, tarragons which are richer with their radio protector substances among these plants. Our aim in producing new varieties and forms is to get new varieties which rich with protector property substances, by conducting selection in condition of the cultivation without touching the balance of natural biodiversity and to protect the species with few natural resources.In the article it is intended to prepare aerosol, consisted of essence oils and lipid mixtures, for respiratory system treatment in extreme conditions having radiation threat. The plants with essence oil are potential radio protectors.A technology will be worked out for the produce of cream, protecting surrounding tissues during radiation therapy; for producing radio protector propertied oils from these plant, fruits and seeds in order to treat radioactive burns of digestive system and skin; balsam producing for prophylactic purposes; hygienic remedies such as shampoo

  6. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  7. Strain Partitioning and Crystallographic Textures of Experimentally Deformed Olivine + Orthopyroxene Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, M.; Cooper, R. F.

    2005-12-01

    The plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks incorporates the grain matrix deformation of the individual grains (via chemical diffusion and/or dislocation propagation) acting in kinetic series with inter-grain sliding along grain- and phase-boundaries. In a polyphase aggregate where multiple types of interfaces exist, plastic deformation necessarily leads to strain partitioning and phase separation predicated on the relative effective viscosities of grain- and phase-boundaries. This segregation is sensitive both to lithology and stress, and manifests itself both in the grain-scale microstructures and in the lattice preferred orientations of the component phases. We have deformed fine-grained (~5 μm) aggregates of Balsam Gap dunite + Bamble, Norway orthopyroxene in triaxial compression and in (nominally) simple shear to investigate textural development in polyphase mantle rocks. Constant-load triaxial compression tests were conducted at P=300 MPa, T=1200°C in a Paterson-type gas medium apparatus. Simple shear tests were conducted at P=1.6 GPa and T=1200°C in a Griggs apparatus using a molten-salt cell at strain rates of 10-5s-1 to 10-4s-1. Samples were dried for 12 h (CO:CO2 buffer at 950-1000°C) prior to sintering to ensure that these experiments were conducted in an anhydrous environment. No melt was produced during these experiments. Constant-load tests, conducted over the range of strain-rates used in the constant displacement-rate shear experiments, on a 50:50 mixture of olivine and orthopyroxene, reveal a stress exponent of 1.5±0.2. Similar experiments conducted on a 35:65 mixture of olivine and orthopyroxene reveal a stress exponent of 2.0±0.2. The fine grain size of the aggregates and the small stresses (<15 MPa) used in the creep tests would seem to preclude significant contribution of dislocation motion to the rheology. Samples composed of 35 vol% orthopyroxene deformed in shear at a constant strain-rate of 10-5s-1 develop a pronounced olivine

  8. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  9. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    grains – 10-25 μm, lack of balsam on the exine surface, starch accumulation in pollen. In conclusion, the flower morphology and type of floral reward in Ranunculaceae species indicate the patterns for generalized insect visitors/pollinators (Apoidea bees, Coleoptera, Diptera in actinomorphic species, for specialization towards bumblebees or show inbetween form from entomophily to anemophily.

  10. Motherland Image Evolution in Chinese Free Verse of the 20th Century%20世纪中国新诗中"祖国"意象的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永睿; 张向东

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese free werse of the 20th century, "the motherland" (or"China")is a common image, as a result of China's destiny ups and downs in 20th century, "mother land's" image connotation in free poetry also changes. By the end of Qing Dynasty, motherland was the mountains and rivers broken as well as Chinese territory overrun and occupied by the enemy; During May Forth Movement, motherlan is"the nirvana phoenix", "youth China", "motherland like flower's"; During 1920's and 1930's China is" the nightmare hanging from cliff","a ditch despairs stagnant water"; During Sino-Japanese War, motherland is"coldly blocking China", covers entirely by" the blood and the muds"; After the liberation, great motherland is grand"Tian'an men",the bright"Five-Starred Red Flag"and the great leader; Since the new time,motherland's connotation has been richly colorful, not only"riverside worn-out old waterwheel"but also"the crimson daybreak", prosperous" scaffold"and" railway line"" the language and the quarry stone throw build" the spiritual home;In overseas Chinese eyes, motherland is"specially anchors of Chinese local accent" "the Chinatown" ,several millennium bright cultures"sad kind nurses with hardship""the Baiyu balsam pear".%"祖国"(或"中国")是二十世纪中国诗歌中常见的一个意象,由于二十世纪中国命运的坎坷多变,诗歌中"祖国"意象的内涵也与时俱变.清末诗歌中的祖国是山河破碎、神州陆沉;五四的祖国是"涅槃的凤凰"、"少年中国"、"如花的祖国";二、三十年代的中国是"噩梦挂着悬崖"的"一沟绝望的死水";抗战期间的祖国是被"寒冷封锁着的中国"、布满"血和泥"的中国;解放后的伟大祖国,是雄伟的"天安门"、鲜艳的"五星红旗"和伟大领袖;新时期以来的祖国,其内涵丰富多彩,既是"河边破旧的老水车",也是"绯红的黎明",欣欣向荣的"脚手架"和"铁道线",又是"语言和乱石投筑"的精神家园;在海外华人眼中,祖国则

  11. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  12. The influence of vinegars on exposure of dentinal tubules: a SEM evaluation Influência de vinagres na exposição dos túbulos dentinários: avaliação em MEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leal Zandim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentin hypersensitivity is a common painful condition observed in clinics. Dietary habits have been much associated with its development and persistence during and following periodontal treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of vinegars on the removal of smear layer and exposure of dentinal tubules. Extracted human teeth were submitted to manual scaling with Gracey curettes in order to remove the cementum as well as to form a smear layer. Dentin samples with 3 mm² were obtained and distributed into six experimental groups: one control and five types of vinegars (alcohol, apple, rice, white wine and balsamic. Each group included two methods of vinegar application: topical and friction. After routine preparation for SEM analysis, photomicrographs were assessed by a calibrated and blind examiner using an appropriate index system. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant influence of vinegars on smear layer removal. There was a statistically significant difference between groups treated with apple, white and rice vinegars and the control group (p A hipersensibilidade dentinária cervical é uma condição dolorosa muito comum nos consultórios. A dieta tem sido bastante associada ao seu aparecimento, assim como a sua persistência após o tratamento periodontal. o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a influência dos vinagres na remoção de "smear layer" e exposição dos túbulos dentinários. Dentes de humanos foram instrumentados com curetas Gracey para a remoção do cemento e formação de "smear layer". Foram obtidas amostras de dentina com 3 mm², divididas entre o grupo controle (água destilada e cinco grupos de vinagre: branco, maçã, arroz, vinho branco e balsâmico. Cada grupo incluiu duas formas de aplicação da substância, tópica ou por fricção. Após o preparo para observação em MEV (microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as fotomicrografias foram avaliadas por um examinador

  13. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil Características agravantes por infestación residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, en una región del Noreste de Brasil Características agravantes por infestação residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, em Olinda, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    2010. Las observaciones se realizaron en residencias sin la presencia de criaderos preferenciales, para identificar características que pueden contribuir como agravantes para el desarrollo del mosquito. Cinco características agravantes fueron analizadas: cobertura vegetal en el peridomicilio, número de habitantes por residencia, almacenamiento de agua, drenaje de cloacas, drenaje de agua. Se evaluó la presencia o ausencia de estas características y como indicadores de niveles de infestación, estimados por monitoreo de la densidad de huevos (trampas de oviposición BR-OVT y adultos (trampas luminosas de tipo CDC. RESULTADOS: El drenaje de cloacas hacia el pozo séptico/rudimentario y hacia el ambiente fue lo más frecuente en las residencias (91,8%, a pesar de que sólo la presencia de vegetación haya influenciado significativamente en el aumento de las "balsas" (p=0,02. Las BR-OVT se presentaron positivas en 95,1% de las evaluaciones, con presencia de por lo menos una balsa/mes. Se capturaron 2.366 especímenes adultos, con relación mosquito/cuarto/noche de 32,9, sin diferencia significativa en el número de mosquitos capturados en las residencias. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que las condiciones de saneamiento y de abastecimiento de agua influencien en la densidad poblacional de C. quinquefasciatus, características de la residencia que normalmente no son consideradas en las medidas de control pueden ser factores agravantes en el mantenimiento de la población de mosquito.OBJETIVO: Analisar como as condições de saneamento básico, abastecimento de água e habitações afetam a densidade de Culex quinquefasciatus. MÉTODOS: Monitorou-se a população de C. quinquefasciatus em 61 residências do município de Olinda, PE, de outubro de 2009 a outubro de 2010. As observações foram realizadas em residências sem a presença de criadouros preferenciais, para identificar características que contribuíssem como agravantes para o desenvolvimento do mosquito. Cinco

  14. Rapidly detecting total acid distribution of vinegar culture based on hyperspectral imaging technology%高光谱图像技术快速预测发酵醋醅总酸分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑶迪; 邹小波; 石吉勇; 赵杰文; 林颢

    2014-01-01

    固态发酵是镇江香醋生产的重要环节之一,直接决定着成品醋的风味和品质。但目前固态发酵的生产控制主要依赖人工经验,难以有效保障镇江香醋的品质。该文分析了总酸(total acid content,TAC)、pH值、含水率在不同阶段的变化规律;采用高光谱图像技术结合联合区间偏最小二乘法(synergy interval partial least squares,siPLS)快速预测固态发酵基质(醋醅)的TAC、pH值和含水率,其最佳模型的相关系数R分别为0.8316、0.9455和0.8503;同时利用主成分分析和逐步多元线性回归模型(stepwise multiple linear regression,SMLR)对醋醅高光谱图像进行分析,研究了总酸在醋醅中的分布情况,以此来快速判断醋醅发酵的均匀性。研究表明,利用高光谱图像技术快速预测醋醅的理化参数及其分布的方法是可行的,结果可为镇江香醋固态发酵的工艺控制提供基础数据和技术手段。%In China and Southeast Asian countries, the solid-state fermentation (SSF) process is maintained empirically, especially in fed-batch fermentation by layers. In this study, the feasibility of determination of the total acid content (TAC), pH value and moisture content of Zhenjiang balsamic vinegar during SSF process were investigated. Hyperspectral imaging technology (HSIT) was combined with an appropriate multivariate analysis method. A synergy interval partial leastsquare (siPLS) was used to select the efficient spectral subintervals and wavelengths by k-fold cross-validation during the development of model. The performance of the final model was evaluated by use of the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and correlation coefficient (Rc) for the calibration set, and verified by use of the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (Rp) for the validation set. The changes of TAC, pH value and moisture were obtained by normal standard

  15. 不同酶和酵母对干红葡萄酒香气影响的差异分析%Effection of different yeasts and maceration enzymes on aromatic components of cabernet gernischt red wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英霞; 蒋玉梅; 李霁昕; 米兰; 马腾臻; 杭洁; 陈玉蓉; 胡妍芸

    2016-01-01

    , apple and strawberry to samples. In order to determine the characteristic flavor of Cabernet Gernischt red wine, the aroma substances were divided into nine series on the basis of aroma sensory characteristics which were fruit, balsam, solvents, flora, vegetal, phenol, fat, empyreumatic and spice , to calculate OAV values of aroma compositions of each series and made the map of aroma intensity. The results of aroma intensity analysis showed that aroma intensity of the fruit of Cabernet Gernischt red wine was the strongest, the vegetal, fat and flora followed. Aroma intensity of the fruit, vegetal, fat and flora in EX-V and D254 samples were higher than that of in EX, HC and BDX samples. Aroma intensity of grass, strawberry, green apple and banana in EX-V samples was significantly higher than EX samples. Aroma intensity of Strawberry and green apple in D254 samples was significantly higher than BDX samples, while aroma intensity of the pear, orange, pineapple is 1.8, 2.5, 1.75 times of BDX sample.%为提高甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒的香气品质,优化酿酒工艺,该文采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分析比较了添加不同浸渍酶和酵母发酵的蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒的香气构成。结果显示:蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒中初步定性香气化合物75种,主要为酯、醇、酸、萜烯和酚类物质。比较酯类、萜烯类等香气成分质量浓度和香气物质释放总量,EX-V酒样明显高于EX和HC酒样,D254酒样明显高于BDX酒样。各组酒样主要香气成分构成相似,但微量香气成分差异显著。果香是香气强度最高的香气系列,植物香、脂肪香、花香次之,其香气强度EX-V酒样高于EX和HC酒样,D254酒样高于BDX酒样。浸渍酶和酵母对甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒香气品质的影响评价显示,浸渍酶EX-V优于EX和HC,酵母D254优于BDX。研究结果可为甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄

  16. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjooneh Keshmiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Introduction The Kopeh-Dagh as an inverted basin (Allen et al. 2003 is extended from the east of the Caspian Sea to NE Iran, north Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Following the closure of palaeo-Tethys in the Middle Triassic and the opening of Neo-Tethys during the early to middle Jurassic, the Kopeh-Dagh basin formed during the early to middle Jurasic. Sedimentation took place continuously from the Jurassic through the Neogene time in the Kopeh-Dagh basin (Afshar-Harb 1979. The first geological study on these strata was done by Amiranian oil company from 1937 to 1938. Many biological and stratigraphical studies had been carried on later on this basin. Kalantari (1969, Seyed-Emami (1980, Seyed-Emami and Aryai (1981, Seyed-Emami et al. (1984, 1994, 1996, Immel et al (1997, Raisossadat and Mousavi-Harami (2000, Raisossadat (2004, 2006 and Mahanipour et al. (2011 are among those who studied the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cretaceous strata of this basin. In this paper we report on palynological and paleoecological data from two mid-Cretaceous formations (Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh in Baghak section situated in eastern part of Kopeh-Dagh basin. 2-Materials and Methods Fifteen samples from the Sarcheshmeh and thirty five samples from Sanganeh formation were processed palynologically. The preparation method of Traverse, 2007 was used. Cold hydrochloric (20% and hydrofluoric (50% acids were used to dissolve carbonates and silicates. The residue was neutralized and centrifuged in ZnCl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved at 15 um using a nylon mesh, and mounted on microscope slides using liquid Canada balsam. Three slides were made from each sample. The microscope slides were examined under a light microscope and the index dinocysts were photographed and presented in two plates. In order to study palynofacies, in each slide numbers of organic materials including phytoclasts, marine palynomorphs and non-structural organic materials were

  17. 杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响%Effect of sterilization methods on volatile flavor compounds of instant carrot slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米瑞芳; 刘俊梅; 胡小松; 吴继红

    2016-01-01

    pressure-assisted thermal sterilizated carrots compared to pasteurizated carrots in 30 d, which might be due to the thermal processing inducing terpinene oxidation. However, the content ofβ-caryophyllene decreased obviously in high hydrostatic pressure and pressure-assisted thermal sterilizated carrot slices. Pressure could induce membrane damage and bring enzymes and substrates into contact, which would not or less occur during thermal processing. And high hydrostatic pressure sterilizated carrot slices had a higher level of myrcene and terpinolene at earlier storage compared with others, which resulted in a better light balsam smell and pine fragrance kept. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilizated carrot slices had a higher content ofβ-pinene andβ-caryophyllene, and there was better pine resin and spicy aroma. The quality of high hydrostatic pressure sterilizated and pressure-assisted thermal sterilizated carrot slices was superior to pasteurizated carrot slices. The results can provide a reference for the applications of new sterilization technologies in ready-to-eat products.

  18. 甘肃省高原夏菜种植气候区划%Climate division of plateau summer vegetables in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 张玉鑫; 陈年来; 王晓巍; 康恩祥; 高世铭

    2012-01-01

    ,selecting indexes of heat,water and light for climate division of plateau summer vegetables in Gansu Province,vegetables suitable to each planting area were determined according to the biological characteristics and the demand of ecological conditions of summer vegetables.【Result】 26 counties were divided into 8 planting designs:the arid planting region of heat tolerance vegetables,the suitable vegetables being balsam pear and wax gourd and luffa;the arid planting region of thermophilic and heat tolerance vegetables,the suitable vegetables onion,tomato,pepper,summer squash,bean,melon;the arid planting region of thermophilic vegetables,the suitable vegetables cucumber,pepper,summer squash,bean;the arid planting region of semi-hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables pea,cabbage,Chinese cabbage,cauliflower;the arid planting region of thermophilic and semi-hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables onion,tomato,pepper,bean,Chinese cabbage,cabbage,lettuce and carrot;the semi-arid planting region of semi-hardy and hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables cabbage,west celery,Chinese cabbage,baby cabbage,cauliflower,garlic,spinach,coriander;the semi-humid planting region of semi-hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables cabbage,Chinese cabbage,cauliflower,welsh onion and carrot;the arid planting region of semi-hardy and hardy vegetables,the suitable vegetables cauliflower,cabbage,Chinese cabbage,lettuce,west celery,carrot and garlic.【Conclusion】 According to the biological characteristic and demand of ecological conditions of plateau summer vegetables suitable planting vegetables in each planting region were determined.

  19. Palaeoenvironmental study and sequence stratigraphy of Sanghaneh Formation in Qalehjegh section (North of Bojnord using organic matter contents of the rock unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Kopeh-Dagh basin is located northeast of Iran and in this basin the sedimentary beds began from middle Jurassic. The Sanghaneh Formation is one of the lower Cretaceous rock units in sections. One of the important fossils group are palynomorphs that described very abundant in this formation. Dinocysts diversity on this formation is more than other palynomorph groups. Palynological studies are done by keshmiry et al. (2014, davtalab et al. (2007 and etc. This formation here is laying on Sarcheshmeh Formation and is covered by Aitamir Formation. The age of this formation in the Qalehjegh section based on the dinoflagellate assemblage, is Late Aptian – Early Albian. Purpose of this research is palaeoenvironmental study base on palynofacies interprets and to separate sedimentary sequence Kopeh-Dagh sedimentary basin. Qalehjegh section is located between 57 ˚ 23 ’ 03 ” E and 37 ˚ 43 ’ 17 ” N. The formation comprises mainly calcareous shale and shale with siltstone and interlaminations of limestone and argillaceous limestone. The Sanghaneh Formation is studied base on several group of fossils in other using organic matter contents of the rock unit.     Material & Methods   For palaeoenvironmental and sequence stratigraphy purposes, 127 rock samples collected from the formation and prepared in the palynology laboratory.Standard preparation methods were used (Traverse 2007. Cold hydrochloric (30% and hydrofluoric (30% acids were used to dissolve carbonates and silicates. No oxidants or alkalis were used. The residue was neutralized and centrifuged in ZnCl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved at 20 µm using a nylon mesh, and mounted on microscope slides using liquid Canada balsam and then the slides were examined in the transmittal microscope.     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   Palaeoenvironmental interpretation: Three main groups of sedimentary organic matter (SOM can be distinguished: (1 amorphous organic