WorldWideScience

Sample records for balmer lines

  1. Balmer line shifts in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W; Del Olmo, A; Zamfir, S

    2015-01-01

    We offer a broad review of Balmer line phenomenology in type 1 active galactic nuclei, briefly sum- marising luminosity and radio loudness effects, and discussing interpretation in terms of nebular physics along the 4D eigenvector 1 sequence of quasars. We stress that relatively rare, peculiar Balmer line profiles (i.e., with large shifts with respect to the rest frame or double and multiple peaked) that start attracted attentions since the 1970s are still passable of multiple dynamical interpretation. More mainstream objects are still not fully understood as well, since competing dynamical models and geometries are possible. Further progress may come from inter-line comparison across the 4D Eigenvector 1 sequence.

  2. Indicators of star formation : 4000 angstrom break and Balmer lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poggianti, BM; Barbaro, G

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of the 4000 Angstrom break index and of the equivalent width of the main Balmer lines is investigated a) for a single star as a function of effective temperature, gravity and metallicity and b) for a single stellar population as a function of age and metallicity. Consequences for the i

  3. The Peculiar Balmer Line Profiles of OQ 208

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Calvani, M; Pérez, E; Moles, M; Penston, M V

    1993-01-01

    We present spectrophotometric observations of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy OQ 208 (Mrk 668, 1404+286) obtained between 1985 and 1991. We show that the Balmer line fluxes and profile shapes undergo remarkable changes. The ratio of intensities between the broad and narrow components of Hbeta increased monotonically from 15 in 1985 to 40 in 1991. The peak of the broad components of Hbeta and Halpha were known to be strongly displaced to the red. We have discovered a correlation between the amplitude of the broad peak displacement and the luminosity of Hbeta, in the sense that the displacement is larger when the line luminosity is higher. We suggest that the observations are not compatible with either a binary Broad Line Region model or one involving ballistic acceleration of the line emitting gas. Radiative acceleration of a system of outflowing clouds readily explains the correlation between line shift and luminosity as well as the peculiar line profiles. Furthermore, it seems that most or all of the Balmer emis...

  4. A possible solution to the Lyman/Balmer line problem in hot DA white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Preval, S P; Badnell, N R; Holberg, J B; Hubeny, I

    2014-01-01

    Arguably, the best method for determining the effective temperature ($T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) and surface gravity (log $g$) of a DA white dwarf is by fitting the Hydrogen Lyman and Balmer absorption features. However, as has been shown for white dwarfs with $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$>50,000K, the calculated value from the Lyman and Balmer lines are discrepant, which worsens with increasing temperature. Many different solutions have been suggested, ranging from the input physics used to calculate the models, to interstellar reddening. We will focus on the former, and consider three variables. The first is the atomic data used, namely the number of transitions included in line blanketing treatments and the photoionization cross sections. The second is the stark broadening treatment used to synthesise the Lyman and Balmer line profiles, namely the calculations performed by Lemke (1997) and Tremblay & Bergeron (2009). Finally, the third is the atmospheric content. The model grids are calculated with a pure H composition, ...

  5. Are broad optical balmer lines from central accretion disk in PG 1613+658?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report positive correlations between broad line width and broad line flux for the broad balmer lines of the long-term observed AGN PG 1613+658. Rather than the expected negative correlations under the widely accepted virialization assumption for AGN BLRs, the positive correlations indicate much different BLR structures of PG 1613+658 from the commonly considered BLR structures which are dominated by the equilibrium between radiation pressure and gas pressure. Therefore, accretion disk origin is preferred for the observed broad single-peaked optical balmer lines of PG 1613+658, because of the mainly gravity dominated disk-like BLRs with radial structures having few effects from radiation pressure.

  6. Variation in the pre-transit Balmer line signal around the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b

    CERN Document Server

    Cauley, P Wilson; Jensen, Adam G; Barman, Travis

    2016-01-01

    As followup to our recent detection of a pre-transit signal around HD 189733 b, we obtained full pre-transit phase coverage of a single planetary transit. The pre-transit signal is again detected in the Balmer lines but with variable strength and timing, suggesting that the bow shock geometry reported in our previous work does not describe the signal from the latest transit. We also demonstrate the use of the Ca II H and K residual core flux as a proxy for the stellar activity level throughout the transit. A moderate trend is found between the pre-transit absorption signal in the 2013 data and the Ca II H flux. This suggests that some of the 2013 pre-transit hydrogen absorption can be attributed to varying stellar activity levels. A very weak correlation is found between the Ca II H core flux and the Balmer line absorption in the 2015 transit, hinting at a smaller contribution from stellar activity compared to the 2013 transit. We simulate how varying stellar activity levels can produce changes in the Balmer ...

  7. Variation in the Pre-transit Balmer Line Signal Around the Hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Redfield, Seth; Jensen, Adam G.; Barman, Travis

    2016-07-01

    As followup to our recent detection of a pre-transit signal around HD 189733 b, we obtained full pre-transit phase coverage of a single planetary transit. The pre-transit signal is again detected in the Balmer lines but with variable strength and timing, suggesting that the bow shock geometry reported in our previous work does not describe the signal from the latest transit. We also demonstrate the use of the Ca ii H and K residual core flux as a proxy for the stellar activity level throughout the transit. A moderate trend is found between the pre-transit absorption signal in the 2013 data and the Ca ii H flux. This suggests that some of the 2013 pre-transit hydrogen absorption can be attributed to varying stellar activity levels. A very weak correlation is found between the Ca ii H core flux and the Balmer line absorption in the 2015 transit, hinting at a smaller contribution from stellar activity compared to the 2013 transit. We simulate how varying stellar activity levels can produce changes in the Balmer line transmission spectra. These simulations show that the strength of the 2013 and 2015 pre-transit signals can be reproduced by stellar variability. If the pre-transit signature is attributed to circumplanetary material, its evolution in time can be described by accretion clumps spiraling toward the star, although this interpretation has serious limitations. Further high-cadence monitoring at Hα is necessary to distinguish between true absorption by transiting material and short-term variations in the stellar activity level.

  8. Modelling of passive spectroscopy in the ITER divertor: the first hydrogen Balmer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first lines of the hydrogen Balmer series are investigated in ITER divertor conditions using a line shape code and a plasma edge transport code. It is shown that most of the emissivity originates from a localized, cold and dense region close to the divertor target plates, where the plasma is in the recombining regime. We simulate the signal obtained by pointing a spectrometer at this zone. The physical processes which contribute to the spectral line formation are examined, with a special emphasis on the Stark effect, photon absorption and stimulated emission. It is shown that, even though the Stark effect is significant, local information on the Doppler atomic temperature can be obtained from a fitting analysis of the Dα spectral line shape.

  9. Modelling of passive spectroscopy in the ITER divertor: the first hydrogen Balmer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, J.; Kotov, V.; Reiter, D.

    2010-07-01

    The first lines of the hydrogen Balmer series are investigated in ITER divertor conditions using a line shape code and a plasma edge transport code. It is shown that most of the emissivity originates from a localized, cold and dense region close to the divertor target plates, where the plasma is in the recombining regime. We simulate the signal obtained by pointing a spectrometer at this zone. The physical processes which contribute to the spectral line formation are examined, with a special emphasis on the Stark effect, photon absorption and stimulated emission. It is shown that, even though the Stark effect is significant, local information on the Doppler atomic temperature can be obtained from a fitting analysis of the Dα spectral line shape.

  10. The analysis of the hydrogen broad Balmer line ratios: possible implications to the physical properties of the BLR of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, D; La Mura, G; Ciroi, S; Rafanelli, P

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ratios of the broad hydrogen Balmer emission lines (from H\\alpha to H\\epsilon) in the context of estimating the physical conditions in the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The Balmer emission lines are obtained in three ways: i) using photoionization models obtained by a spectral synthesis code CLOUDY; ii) calculated using the recombination theory for hydrogenic ions; iii) measured from the sample of observed spectra taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We investigate the Balmer line ratios in the frame of the so called Boltzmann-plot (BP), analyzing physical conditions of the emitting plasma for which we could use the BP method. The BP considers the ratio of Balmer lines normalized to the atomic data of the corresponding line transition, and is in that way different from the Balmer decrement. We found that for a certain range of thermodynamic parameters, there are objects that follow the BP. These AGN may have a BLR consisting of mostly high density plasma.

  11. Variations of the high-level Balmer line spectrum of the helium-strong star Sigma Orionis E

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Myron A

    2007-01-01

    Using the high-level Balmer lines and continuum, we trace the density structure of two magnetospheric disk segments of the prototypical Bp star sigma Ori E (B2p) as these segments occult portions of the star during the rotational cycle. High-resolution spectra of the Balmer lines >H9 and Balmer edge were obtained on seven nights in January-February 2007 at an average sampling of 0.01 cycles. We measured equivalent width variations due to the star occultations by two disk segments 0.4 cycles apart and constructed differential spectra of the migrations of the corresponding absorptions across the Balmer line profiles. We first estimated the rotational and magnetic obliquity angles. We then simulated the observed Balmer jump variation using the model atmosphere codes synspec/circus and evaluated the disk geometry and gas thermodynamics. We find that the two occultations are caused by two disk segments. The first of these transits quickly, indicating that the segment resides in a range of distances, perhaps 2.5-6R...

  12. Optimization of C5+ Balmer- line intensity at 182 Å from laser-produced carbon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Chowdhury; R A Joshi; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2007-01-01

    Parametric dependence of the intensity of 182 Å Balmer- line (C5+; = 3 → 2), relevant to xuv soft X-ray lasing schemes, from laser-produced carbon plasma is studied in circular spot focusing geometry using a flat field grating spectrograph. The maximum spectral intensity for this line in space integrated mode occurred at a laser intensity of 1.2 × 1013 W cm-2. At this laser intensity, the space resolved measurements show that the spectral intensity of this line peaks at ∼ 1.5 mm from the target surface indicating the maximum population of C5+ ions ( = 3), at this distance. From a comparison of spatial intensity variation of this line with that of C5+ Ly- ( = 2 → 1) line, it is inferred that = 3 state of C5+ ions is predominantly populated through three-body recombination pumping of C6+ ions of the expanding plasma consistent with quantitative estimates on recombination rates of different processes.

  13. Black Hole Mass Estimates Based on CIV are Consistent with Those Based on the Balmer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, R J; Kochanek, C S; Peterson, B M; Kozlowski, S; Ageorges, N; Buschkamp, P; Falco, E; Feiz, C; Gemperlein, H; Germeroth, A; Grier, C J; Hofmann, R; Juette, M; Khan, R; Kilic, M; Knierim, V; Laun, W; Lederer, R; Lehmitz, M; Lenzen, R; Mall, U; Mandel, H; Martini, P; Mueller, P; Naranjo, V; Pasquali, A; Polsterer, K; Pogge, R W; Quirrenbach, A; Seifert, W; Shappee, B; Storz, C; Van Saders, J; Weiser, P; Zhang, D

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of high-redshift lensed quasars from the CASTLES project with observed-frame ultraviolet or optical and near-infrared spectra, we have searched for possible biases between supermassive black hole (BH) mass estimates based on the CIV, Halpha and Hbeta broad emission lines. Our sample is based upon that of Greene, Peng & Ludwig, expanded with new near-IR spectroscopic observations, consistently analyzed high S/N optical spectra, and consistent continuum luminosity estimates at 5100A. We find that BH mass estimates based on the FWHM of CIV show a systematic offset with respect to those obtained from the line dispersion, sigma_l, of the same emission line, but not with those obtained from the FWHM of Halpha and Hbeta. The magnitude of the offset depends on the treatment of the HeII and FeII emission blended with CIV, but there is little scatter for any fixed measurement prescription. While we otherwise find no systematic offsets between CIV and Balmer line mass estimates, we do find that the re...

  14. VLT-UVES observations of the Balmer line variations of eta Carinae during the 2003 spectroscopic event

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, Kerstin; Stahl, Otmar; Bomans, Dominik J.; Davidson, Kris; Gull, Theodore R.; Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2004-01-01

    We present high spectral resolution echelle observations of the Balmer line variations during the 2003.5 ``spectroscopic event'' of eta Carinae. Spectra have been recorded of both eta Carinae and the Homunculus at the FOS4 position in its SE lobe. This spot shows a reflected stellar spectrum which is less contaminated by nebular emission lines than ground-based observations of the central object itself. Our observations show that the spectroscopic event is much less pronounced at this positio...

  15. Discovery of an activity cycle in the solar analog HD 45184. Exploring Balmer and metallic lines as activity proxy candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M.; González, J. F.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Buccino, A.; Saffe, C.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Most stellar activity cycles similar to that found in the Sun have been detected by using the chromospheric Ca ii H&K lines as stellar activity proxies. However, it is unclear whether such activity cycles can be identified using other optical lines. Aims: We aim to detect activity cycles in solar-analog stars and determine whether they can be identified through other optical lines, such as Fe II and Balmer lines. We study the solar-analog star HD 45184 using HARPS spectra. The temporal coverage and high quality of the spectra allow us to detect both long- and short-term activity variations. Methods: We analysed the activity signatures of HD 45184 by using 291 HARPS spectra obtained between 2003 and 2014. To search for line-core flux variations, we focused on Ca ii H&K and Balmer Hα and Hβ lines, which are typically used as optical chromospheric activity indicators. We calculated the HARPS-S index from Ca ii H&K lines and converted it into the Mount Wilson scale. In addition, we also considered the equivalent widths of Balmer lines as activity indicators. Moreover, we analysed the possible variability of Fe ii and other metallic lines in the optical spectra. The spectral variations were analysed for periodicity using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Results: We report for the first time a long-term 5.14-yr activity cycle in the solar-analog star HD 45184 derived from Mount Wilson S index. This makes HD 45184 one of most similar stars to the Sun with a known activity cycle. The variation is also evident in the first lines of the Balmer series, which do not always show a correlation with activity in solar-type stars. Notably, unlike the solar case, we also found that the equivalent widths of the high photospheric Fe ii lines (4924 Å, 5018 Å and 5169 Å) are modulated (±2 mÅ) by the chromospheric cycle of the star. These metallic lines show variations above 4σ in the rms spectrum, while some Ba ii and Ti ii lines present variations at 3σ level, which

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Balmer lines in Sirius B

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, M A; Holberg, J B; Burleigh, M R; Hubeny, I; Köster, D; Bond, Howard E.

    2005-01-01

    Sirius B is the nearest and brightest of all white dwarfs, but it is very difficult to observe at visible wavelengths due to the overwhelming scattered light contribution from Sirius A. However, from space we can take advantage of the superb spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope to resolve the A and B components. Since the closest approach in 1993, the separation between the two stars has become increasingly favourable and we have recently been able to obtain a spectrum of the complete Balmer line series for Sirius B using HST?s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The quality of the STIS spectra greatly exceed that of previous ground-based spectra, and can be used to provide an important determination of the stellar temperature (Teff = 25193K) and gravity (log g = 8.556). In addition we have obtained a new, more accurate, gravitational red-shift of 80.42 +/- 4.83 km s-1 for Sirius B. Combining these results with the photometric data and the Hipparcos parallax we obtain new determinations o...

  17. Hydrogen Balmer beta: The separation between line peaks for plasma electron density diagnostics and self-absorption test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a diagnostic technique for the measurement of plasma electron number density, Ne, based on the wavelength separation between peaks, ΔλPS, of hydrogen Balmer beta line, Hβ. In favor of the proposed diagnostic technique we demonstrate high sensitivity of ΔλPS on Ne and low sensitivity on plasma elementary processes and plasma parameters that may distort the line profile. These properties of ΔλPS enable reliable Ne plasma diagnostics in the presence of considerable self-absorption. On the basis of available theoretical data tables for the Hβ line profiles, simple Ne=f(ΔλPS) formulas are proposed. Their validity is experimentally confirmed in a low initial pressure pulsed discharge for the Ne range of (0.2–7)⁎1023 m−3. The agreement of the proposed formulas with another diagnostic technique is well within 10%. In addition, the difference in Ne values obtained from peak separation and from the Hβ line width is successfully used as a self-absorption test for line profile. - Highlights: • Separation between peaks of Hβ line proposed for electron density diagnostics. • Derived formulas for peak separations versus electron density. • Formulas tested in high electron density low pressure pulsed arc. • Applications of formulas in optically thick plasmas proven. • Method for hydrogen Balmer beta line self-absorption testing proposed

  18. Broad Balmer Absorption Line Variability: Evidence of Gas Transverse Motion in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiheng; Zhou, Hongyan; Shu, Xinwen; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Pan, Xiang; Sun, Luming; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    We report on the discovery of broad Balmer absorption lines variability in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6, based on the optical and near-infrared spectra taken from the SDSS-I, SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and TripleSpec observations over a timescale of 5.8 years in the QSO's rest-frame. The blueshifted absorption profile of Hβ shows a variation of more than 5σ at a high velocity portion (\\gt 3000 {km} {{{s}}}-1) of the trough. We perform a detailed analysis for the physical conditions of the absorber using Balmer lines as well as metastable He i and optical Fe ii absorptions (λ4233 from b4P5/2 level and λ5169 from a6S5/2) at the same velocity. These Fe ii lines are identified in the QSO spectra for the first time. According to the photoionization simulations, we estimate a gas density of n({{H}})≈ {10}9.1 {{cm}}-3 and a column density of {N}{col}({{H}})≈ {10}23 {{cm}}-2 for the BOSS data, but the model fails to predict the variations of ionic column densities between the SDSS and BOSS observations if changes in ionizing flux are assumed. We thus propose transverse motion of the absorbing gas being the cause of the observed broad Balmer absorption line variability. In fact, we find that the changes in covering factors of the absorber can well-reproduce all of the observed variations. The absorber is estimated ∼0.94 pc away from the central engine, which is where the outflow likely experiences deceleration due to the collision with the surrounding medium. This scheme is consistent with the argument that LoBAL QSOs may represent the transition from obscured star-forming galaxies to classic QSOs.

  19. Broad Balmer Absorption Line Variability: Evidence of Gas Transverse Motion in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Pan, Xiang; Sun, Luming; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of broad Balmer absorption lines variability in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6, based on the optical and near-infrared spectra taken from the SDSS-I, SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and TripleSpec observations over a timescale of 5.8 years in the QSO's rest-frame. The blueshifted absorption profile of H$\\beta$ shows a variation of more than 5$\\sigma$ at a high velocity portion ($>3000\\ \\mathrm{km\\ s}^{-1}$) of the trough. We perform a detailed analysis for the physical conditions of the absorber using Balmer lines as well as metastable He I and optical Fe II absorptions ($\\lambda 4233$ from b$^4$P$_{5/2}$ level and $\\lambda 5169$ from a$^6$S$_{5/2}$) at the same velocity. These Fe II lines are identified in the QSO spectra for the first time. According to the photoionization simulations, we estimate a gas density of $n(\\mathrm{H})\\approx 10^{9.1}\\ \\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ and a column density of $N_{\\mathrm{col}}(\\mathrm{H})\\approx 10^{23}\\ \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ for ...

  20. Star formation in NGC 4449: MAMA-detector UV imagery and Fabry-Perot Balmer-line imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert S.; Home, Allen T.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Cheng, K.P.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Balmer-line imagery, we investigate the star formation history of 22 large OB complexes in the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The FUV luminosity of NGC 4449 is comparable to those of late-type spirals and is greater than that of the LMC by approximately 2.4 mag, indicating substantial star formation in the last 10(exp 8) yr. FUV data were taken using a sounding-rocket telescope with a Multianode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector, and Balmer-line data were taken using the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager. The resulting imagery shows bright, roughly coincident FUV and H alpha sources throughout the extent of the visible galaxy. We model these sources using cluster-evolution codes. Although all sources are a few Myr old, clear age differences are found. In particular, several of the most recently active star formation regions are located together in the galaxy's northern periphery, which is apparently coincident with a large H I reservoir. The brightest and most massive OB complexes are found along the northeast-southwest surface brightness ridgeline (the 'bar'). Over the entire galaxy, star formation rates are consistent on timescales of 10(exp 6), 10(exp 8), and 10(exp 9) yr. A history of recent star formation is suggested with two main episodes, one predominantly in the bar ending approximately 5 Myr ago, and an ongoing one associated with an observed H I cloud.

  1. Aperture corrections for disk galaxy properties derived from the CALIFA survey. Balmer emission lines in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias-Páramo, J; Galbany, L; Sánchez, S F; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Mast, D; García-Benito, R; Husemann, B; Aguerri, J A L; Alves, J; Bekeraité, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; de Amorim, A L; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Ellis, S; Falcón-Barroso, J; Flores, H; Florido, E; Gallazzi, A; Gomes, J M; Delgado, R M González; Haines, T; Hernández-Fernández, J D; Kehrig, C; López-Sánchez, A R; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Mollá, M; Monreal-Ibero, A; Mourão, A; Papaderos, P; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Spekkens, K; Stanishev, V; van de Ven, G; Walcher, C J; Wisotzki, L; Zibetti, S; Ziegler, B

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of the aperture size on derived galaxy properties for which we have spatially-resolved optical spectra. We focus on some indicators of star formation activity and dust attenuation for spiral galaxies that have been widely used in previous work on galaxy evolution. We have used 104 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey for which 2D spectroscopy with complete spatial coverage is available. From the 3D cubes we have derived growth curves of the most conspicuous Balmer emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta) for circular apertures of different radii centered at the galaxy's nucleus after removing the underlying stellar continuum. We find that the Halpha flux (f(Halpha)) growth curve follows a well defined sequence with aperture radius showing low dispersion around the median value. From this analysis, we derive aperture corrections for galaxies in different magnitude and redshift intervals. Once stellar absorption is properly accounted for, the f(Halpha)/f(Hbeta) ratio growth curve shows...

  2. Discovery of superstrong, fading, iron line emission and double-peaked Balmer lines of the galaxy SDSSJ0952+2143 - the light echo of a huge flare

    CERN Document Server

    Komossa, S; Wang, T; Ajello, M; Ge, J; Greiner, J; Lü, H; Salvato, M; Saxton, R; Shan, H; Xu, D; Yuan, W

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of superstrong, fading, high-ionization iron line emission in the galaxy SDSSJ095209.56+214313.3 (SDSSJ0952+2143 hereafter), which must have been caused by an X-ray outburst of large amplitude. SDSSJ0952+2143 is unique in its strong multiwavelength variability; such a broadband emission-line and continuum response has not been observed before. The strong iron line emission is accompanied by unusual Balmer line emission with a broad base, narrow core and double-peaked narrow horns, and strong HeII emission. These lines, while strong in the SDSS spectrum taken in 2005, have faded away significantly in new spectra taken in December 2007. Comparison of SDSS, 2MASS, GALEX and follow-up GROND photometry reveals variability in the NUV, optical and NIR band. Taken together, these unusual observations can be explained by a giant outburst in the EUV--X-ray band, detected even in the optical and NIR. The intense and variable iron, Helium and Balmer lines represent the ``light echo'' of the flare,...

  3. Evaluation of hydrogen atom density in the plasma core region based on the Balmerline profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, M.; Sawada, K.; Fujii, K.; Hasuo, M.; Morita, S.

    2011-02-01

    The Balmerline profile is measured with high wavelength resolution for a discharge in the Large Helical Device. The line profile is regarded as a superposition of continuously varying Doppler broadened components and is expressed as the Laplace transform. Numerical Laplace inversion of the measured line profile gives the distribution function of line emissivity in terms of atom temperature. The temperature dependence of the line emissivity is interpreted as spatial dependence so that the ionization rate and atom density of neutral hydrogen are determined. The temperature range of the detected atoms extends beyond 2 keV which corresponds to a penetration depth of about 1 m in the plasma, or the location at ρ ~ 0.3, where ρ is the normalized minor radius. The atom density of approximately 1013 m-3 is derived in the plasma core region which is more than four orders smaller than that at the plasma boundary. Calculation of neutral transport with a Monte-Carlo simulation code gives satisfactory consistency with the experimental results.

  4. Evaluation of hydrogen atom density in the plasma core region based on the Balmerline profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Balmerline profile is measured with high wavelength resolution for a discharge in the Large Helical Device. The line profile is regarded as a superposition of continuously varying Doppler broadened components and is expressed as the Laplace transform. Numerical Laplace inversion of the measured line profile gives the distribution function of line emissivity in terms of atom temperature. The temperature dependence of the line emissivity is interpreted as spatial dependence so that the ionization rate and atom density of neutral hydrogen are determined. The temperature range of the detected atoms extends beyond 2 keV which corresponds to a penetration depth of about 1 m in the plasma, or the location at ρ ∼ 0.3, where ρ is the normalized minor radius. The atom density of approximately 1013 m-3 is derived in the plasma core region which is more than four orders smaller than that at the plasma boundary. Calculation of neutral transport with a Monte-Carlo simulation code gives satisfactory consistency with the experimental results.

  5. Discovery of an activity cycle in the solar-analog HD 45184. Exploring Balmer and metallic lines as activity proxy candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, M; Arancibia, M Jaque; Buccino, A; Saffe, C

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) Most stellar activity cycles similar to that found in the Sun have been detected by using the chromospheric Ca II H&K lines as stellar activity proxies. However, it is unclear if such activity cycles could be identified using other optical lines. Aims. To detect activity cycles in solar-analog stars and determine if these can be identified through other optical lines, such as Fe II and Balmer lines. We study the solar-analog star HD 45184. Methods. We analyse the activity signatures of HD 45184 by using 291 HARPS spectra obtained between 2003 and 2014. In order to search for line-core fluxes variations, we focus on Ca II H&K and Balmer H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ lines, which are usually used as optical chromospheric activity indicators. We calculate the HARPS-S index from Ca II H&K lines and convert it to the Mount-Wilson scale. In addition, we also consider as activity indicators the equivalent widths of Balmer lines. Moreover, we analyse the possible variability of Fe II and other metallic l...

  6. VLT-UVES observations of the Balmer line variations of eta Carinae during the 2003 spectroscopic event

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, K; Bomans, D J; Davidson, K; Gull, T R; Humphreys, R M; Weis, Kerstin; Stahl, Otmar; Bomans, Dominik J.; Davidson, Kris; Gull, Theodore R.; Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2004-01-01

    We present high spectral resolution echelle observations of the Balmer line variations during the 2003.5 ``spectroscopic event'' of eta Carinae. Spectra have been recorded of both eta Carinae and the Homunculus at the FOS4 position in its SE lobe. This spot shows a reflected stellar spectrum which is less contaminated by nebular emission lines than ground-based observations of the central object itself. Our observations show that the spectroscopic event is much less pronounced at this position than when seen directly on eta Car using HST/STIS. Assuming that the reflected spectrum is indeed latitude dependent this indicates that the spectral changes during the event seen pole-on (FOS4) are different from those closer to the equator (directly on the star). In contrast to the spectrum of the star, the scattered spectrum of FOS4 always shows pronounced P Cygni absorption with little variation across the ``spectroscopic event''. After that event an additional high-velocity absorption component appears. The emissio...

  7. Solar prominences with Na and Mg emissions and centrally reversed Balmer line

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmacher, G; 10.1051/0004-6361:20041550

    2012-01-01

    We study spectral lines in exceptionally bright solar limb prominences with pronounced sodium and magnesium emission. We find that most prominences with significant NaD2 and Mgb2 emission show centrally reversed profiles of H-alpha and occasionally even of H-beta, which are are well reproduced by semi-infinite models. The maximum H-alpha source function corresponds to an excitation temperature of 3950 K, for pronounced central reversions 4000 K; the related optical thickness exceeds 10.0. The narrow widths of the NaD2 and Mgb2 profiles yield a non-thermal broadening of 5 km/s.

  8. On the determination of plasma electron number density from Stark broadened hydrogen Balmer series lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, L., E-mail: loren.pard@gmail.com [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gaudiuso, R.; De Giacomo, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Diaz Pace, D.M. [Instituto de Física ‘Arroyo Seco’, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Paraje Arroyo Seco, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Anabitarte Garcia, F. [Photonic Engineering Group, Universidad de Cantabria, Edificio I+D+iTelecomunicación, Dpto. TEISA, 39005 Santander (Spain); Holanda Cavalcanti, G. de [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal Fluminense, UFF, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, Gragoatá, 24310 240 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Parigger, C. [University of Tennessee Space Institute, 411 B. H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In this work, different theories for the determination of the electron density in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizing the emission lines belonging to the hydrogen Balmer series have been investigated. The plasmas were generated by a Nd:Yag laser (1064 nm) pulsed irradiation of pure hydrogen gas at a pressure of 2 · 10{sup 4} Pa. H{sub α}, Η{sub β}, Η{sub γ}, Η{sub δ}, and H{sub ε} Balmer lines were recorded at different delay times after the laser pulse. The plasma electron density was evaluated through the measurement of the Stark broadenings and the experimental results were compared with the predictions of three theories (the Standard Theory as developed by Kepple and Griem, the Advanced Generalized Theory by Oks et al., and the method discussed by Gigosos et al.) that are commonly employed for plasma diagnostics and that describe LIBS plasmas at different levels of approximations. A simple formula for pure hydrogen plasma in thermal equilibrium was also proposed to infer plasma electron density using the H{sub α} line. The results obtained showed that at high hydrogen concentration, the H{sub α} line is affected by considerable self-absorption. In this case, it is preferable to use the H{sub β} line for a reliable calculation of the electron density. - Highlights: • We evaluated the electron density in LIPs utilizing the hydrogen Balmer series. • Plasmas were generated by a Nd:Yag laser (1064 nm) on pure hydrogen gas. • We show that at high hydrogen concentration, H{sub b}eta line is preferable than H{sub a}lpha. • We propose a formula to derive the plasma electron density using the H{sub a}lpha line.

  9. Measuring the electron density in plasmas from the difference of Lorentzian part of the widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubero, C. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); García, M.C., E-mail: fa1gamam@uco.es [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Dimitrijevic, M.S. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    We present an alternative optical emission spectroscopy method to measure the plasma electron density from the difference of widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}), especially convenient for non-thermal plasmas since with this method, there is no need to know either the gas temperature or the van der Waals contribution to the Lorentzian part of the line. In this paper it has been assumed that the part of full width at half maximum due to Stark broadening can be determined with the approximation of Lorentzian line shape. The method has been applied to the determination of the electron density in an argon microwave-induced plasma maintained at atmospheric pressure, and comparison with the results obtained using other diagnostic methods has been done. - Highlights: • An alternative method to measure the electron density in plasmas from two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}) is presented. • The method is very convenient for plasmas with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and above, at low gas temperatures. • It has been applied to the determination of the electron density of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. • Results from it are in good agreement with previous ones obtained using other diagnostic methods.

  10. Comment on “Hydrogen Balmer beta: The separation between line peaks for plasma electron density diagnostics and self-absorption test”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we present a brief comment regarding the recently published paper by Ivković et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2015;154:1–8. Reference is made to previous experimental results to indicate that self absorption must have occurred; however, when carefully considering error propagation, both widths and peak-separation predict electron densities within the error margins. Yet the diagnosis method and the presented details on the use of the hydrogen beta peak separation are viewed as a welcomed contribution in studies of laser-induced plasma. - Highlights: • Balmer series Hβ line for determination of electron density. • Compare FWHM with peak-separation method. • Apply to laser induced plasma characterization. • Comment on self-absorption

  11. Constraining Sub-Parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Quasars with Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy. II. The Population with Kinematically Offset Broad Balmer Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Bian, Fuyan; Loeb, Abraham; Tremaine, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (~sub-pc) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with offset broad H-beta lines from the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad H-beta lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerati...

  12. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: xinliu@astro.ucla.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup –1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (∼sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broad Hβ lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad Hβ lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup –1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broad Hβ lines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ∼10-200 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ∼10 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either Hα or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the

  13. Precision Measurement of the Energies and Line Shapes of Antiprotonic Lyman and Balmer Transitions From Hydrogen and Helium Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS207 \\\\ \\\\ For the study of the antiproton-proton and antiproton-nuclear spin-spin and spin-orbital interaction at threshold a high resolution measurement is proposed of the line shapes and energy shifts of antiprotonic K$\\alpha$ and L$\\alpha$ transitions of hydrogen and helium isotopes. The intense LEAR beam, stopped in the cyclotron trap at low gas pressure, provides a unique~X-ray~source with sufficient brightness. Charge coupled devices with their excellent background rejection and energy resolution allow a precise determination of the strong shifts and widths of the 1s hyperfine states of protonium, in addition the detection of the $\\bar{p}$D K$\\alpha$ transition should be possible. A focussing crystal spectrometer with a resolution $\\Delta$E/E of about l0$ ^- ^{4} $, which is superior in the accuracy of the energy determination by two orders of magnitude as compared to the present detection methods, will be used to measure the energies of the L$\\alpha$ transitions. This permits a first direct measure...

  14. The Redshifted Hydrogen Balmer and Metastable He 1 Absorption Line System in Mini-FeLoBAL Quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3: A Parsec-scale Accretion Inflow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi-Heng; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan

    2016-10-01

    The accretion of the interstellar medium onto central super-massive black holes is widely accepted as the source of the gigantic energy released by the active galactic nuclei. However, few pieces of observational evidence have been confirmed directly demonstrating the existence of the inflows. The absorption line system in the spectra of quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3 presents an interesting example in which the rarely detected hydrogen Balmer and metastable He i absorption lines are found redshifted to the quasar's rest frame along with the low-ionization metal absorption lines Mg ii, Fe ii, etc. The repeated SDSS spectroscopic observations suggest a transverse velocity smaller than the radial velocity. The motion of the absorbing medium is thus dominated by infall. The He i* lines present a powerful probe to the strength of ionizing flux, while the Balmer lines imply a dense environment. With the help of photoionization simulations, we find that the absorbing medium is exposed to the radiation with ionization parameter U ≈ 10-1.8, and the density is n({{H}})≈ {10}9 {{cm}}-3. Thus the absorbing medium is located ˜4 pc away from the central engine. According to the similarity in the distance and physical conditions between the absorbing medium and the torus, we strongly propose the absorption line system as a candidate for the accretion inflow, which originates in the inner surface of the torus.

  15. The Redshifted Hydrogen Balmer and Metastable He I Absorption Line System in Mini-FeLoBAL Quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3: A Parsec Scale Accretion Inflow?

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xi-Heng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The accretion of interstellar medium onto the central super massive black holes is widely accepted as the source of the gigantic energy released by the active galactic nuclei. But few pieces of observational evidence have been confirmed directly demonstrating the existence of the inflows. The absorption line system in the spectra of quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3 presents an interesting example, in which the rarely detected hydrogen Balmer and metastable He I absorption lines are found redshifted to the quasar's rest frame along with the low-ionization metal absorption lines Mg II, Fe II, etc. The repeated SDSS spectroscopic observations suggest a transverse velocity smaller than the radial velocity. The motion of the absorbing medium is thus dominated by infall. The He I* lines present a powerful probe to the strength of ionizing flux, while the Balmer lines imply a dense environment. With the help of photoionization simulations, we find the absorbing medium is exposed to the radiation with ionization param...

  16. On the role of atomic metastability in the production of Balmer line radiation from ‘cold’ atomic hydrogen, deuterium and hydrogenic ion impurities in fusion edge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, J. D.

    2012-03-01

    Published arguments, which assign an important role to atomic metastability in the production of ‘narrow’ Zeeman component radiation from the boundary region of fusion plasmas, are examined critically in relation to l-redistribution by proton and electron collisions, and mixing of unperturbed atomic states by the ion microfield and microfield gradient. It is concluded that these important processes indeed severely constrain the contribution from ‘metastable’ states to the generation of the hydrogen Balmer spectra, for electron concentrations above 1012 cm-3, as pointed out before by the present author (Hey et al 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3555). The analysis of collision-induced l-redistribution represents an extension of that used previously (Hey et al 1996 Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36 583), applicable up to higher electron densities. For comparison purposes, we also consider the question of metastability of ionized helium in a low-temperature plasma, and that of some common hydrogenic impurities (C5+ and Ne9+) in a hydrogen (deuterium) fusion plasma. While for low nuclear charge Z the metastability of 2s1/2 levels is quenched by the plasma environment, it is much reduced in high-Z ions owing to the rapid increase with Z of the two-photon electric dipole (2E1) and magnetic dipole (M1) spontaneous transition rates to the ground state, whereas the role of the plasma in these cases is less important. The main new principle elaborated in this work is the sensitivity of atomic line strengths, and hence collision strengths, to perturbation by the plasma environment for transitions between fine-structure sublevels of the same principal quantum number. As the plasma microfield strength grows, ‘allowed’ transitions diminish in strength, while ‘forbidden’ transitions grow. However, owing to violation of the parity selection rule, there is an overall loss of collision strength available to transitions, resulting from the appearance of significant

  17. Balmer and Rydberg Equations for Hydrogen Spectra Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2011-01-01

    Balmer equation for the atomic spectral lines was generalized by Rydberg. Here it is shown that 1) while Bohr's theory explains the Rydberg constant in terms of the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, quantizing the angular momentum does not explain the Rydberg equation, 2) on reformulating Rydberg's equation, the principal quantum numbers are found to correspond to integral numbers of de Broglie waves and 3) the ground state energy of hydrogen is electromagnetic like that of photons an...

  18. Collisionless shock in a partially ionized medium. II. Balmer emission

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Blasi, P; Amato, E

    2012-01-01

    Strong shocks propagating into a partially ionized medium are often associated with optical Balmer lines. This emission is due to impact excitation of neutral hydrogen by hot protons and electrons in the shocked gas. The structure of such Balmer-dominated shocks has been computed in a previous paper (Blasi et al. 2012), where the distribution function of neutral particles was derived from the appropriate Boltzmann equation including coupling with ions and electrons through charge exchange and ionization. This calculation showed how the presence of neutrals can significantly modify the shock structure through the formation of a "neutral-induced" precursor ahead of the shock. Here we follow up on our previous work and investigate the properties of the resulting Balmer emission, with the aim of using the observed radiation as a diagnostic tool for shock parameters. Our main focus is on Supernova Remnant shocks, and we find that, for typical parameters, the H{\\alpha} emission typically has a three-component spect...

  19. Balmer and Rydberg Equations for Hydrogen Spectra Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2011-01-01

    Balmer equation for the atomic spectral lines was generalized by Rydberg. Here it is shown that 1) while Bohr's theory explains the Rydberg constant in terms of the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, quantizing the angular momentum does not explain the Rydberg equation, 2) on reformulating Rydberg's equation, the principal quantum numbers are found to correspond to integral numbers of de Broglie waves and 3) the ground state energy of hydrogen is electromagnetic like that of photons and the frequency of the emitted or absorbed light is the difference in the frequencies of the electromagnetic energy levels.

  20. HYDROGEN BALMER CONTINUUM IN SOLAR FLARES DETECTED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, P. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fričova 298, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Kleint, L., E-mail: pheinzel@asu.cas.cz [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2014-10-20

    We present a novel observation of the white light flare (WLF) continuum, which was significantly enhanced during the X1 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in its near-UV channel show that at the peak of the continuum enhancement, the contrast at the quasi-continuum window above 2813 Å reached 100%-200% and can be even larger closer to Mg II lines. This is fully consistent with the hydrogen recombination Balmer-continuum emission, which follows an impulsive thermal and non-thermal ionization caused by the precipitation of electron beams through the chromosphere. However, a less probable photospheric continuum enhancement cannot be excluded. The light curves of the Balmer continuum have an impulsive character with a gradual fading, similar to those detected recently in the optical region on the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. This observation represents a first Balmer-continuum detection from space far beyond the Balmer limit (3646 Å), eliminating seeing effects known to complicate the WLF detection. Moreover, we use a spectral window so far unexplored for flare studies, which provides the potential to study the Balmer continuum, as well as many metallic lines appearing in emission during flares. Combined with future ground-based observations of the continuum near the Balmer limit, we will be able to disentangle various scenarios of the WLF origin. IRIS observations also provide a critical quantitative measure of the energy radiated in the Balmer continuum, which constrains various models of the energy transport and deposit during flares.

  1. HYDROGEN BALMER CONTINUUM IN SOLAR FLARES DETECTED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH (IRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel observation of the white light flare (WLF) continuum, which was significantly enhanced during the X1 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in its near-UV channel show that at the peak of the continuum enhancement, the contrast at the quasi-continuum window above 2813 Å reached 100%-200% and can be even larger closer to Mg II lines. This is fully consistent with the hydrogen recombination Balmer-continuum emission, which follows an impulsive thermal and non-thermal ionization caused by the precipitation of electron beams through the chromosphere. However, a less probable photospheric continuum enhancement cannot be excluded. The light curves of the Balmer continuum have an impulsive character with a gradual fading, similar to those detected recently in the optical region on the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. This observation represents a first Balmer-continuum detection from space far beyond the Balmer limit (3646 Å), eliminating seeing effects known to complicate the WLF detection. Moreover, we use a spectral window so far unexplored for flare studies, which provides the potential to study the Balmer continuum, as well as many metallic lines appearing in emission during flares. Combined with future ground-based observations of the continuum near the Balmer limit, we will be able to disentangle various scenarios of the WLF origin. IRIS observations also provide a critical quantitative measure of the energy radiated in the Balmer continuum, which constrains various models of the energy transport and deposit during flares

  2. Resolution of the discrepancy between Balmer alpha emission rates, the solar Lyman beta flux, and models of geocoronal hydrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, A.-C.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New satellite Balmer alpha measurements and solar Lyman beta flux and line profile measurements, together with new measurements of the zodiacal light intensity used in correcting both ground and satellite Balmer alpha measurements for the effects of the Fraunhofer line in the zodiacal light, have been used in a reevaluation of the long-standing discrepancy between ground-based Balmer alpha emission rates and other geocoronal hydrogen parameters. The solar Lyman beta line center flux is found to be (4.1 plus or minus 1.3) billion photons per sq cm per sec per angstrom at S(10.7) equals 110 and, together with a current hydrogen model which has 92,000 atoms per cu cm at 650 km for T(inf) equals 950 K, gives good agreement between calculated Balmer alpha emission rates and the ground-based and satellite measurements.

  3. COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED MEDIUM. II. BALMER EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Blasi, P.; Amato, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    Strong shocks propagating into a partially ionized medium are often associated with optical Balmer lines. This emission is due to impact excitation of neutral hydrogen by hot protons and electrons in the shocked gas. The structure of such Balmer-dominated shocks has been computed in a previous paper, where the distribution function of neutral particles was derived from the appropriate Boltzmann equation including coupling with ions and electrons through charge exchange and ionization. This calculation showed how the presence of neutrals can significantly modify the shock structure through the formation of a neutral-induced precursor ahead of the shock. Here we follow up on our previous work and investigate the properties of the resulting Balmer emission, with the aim of using the observed radiation as a diagnostic tool for shock parameters. Our main focus is on supernova remnant shocks, and we find that, for typical parameters, the H{alpha} emission typically has a three-component spectral profile, where (1) a narrow component originates from upstream cold hydrogen atoms, (2) a broad component comes from hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with shocked protons downstream of the shock, and (3) an intermediate component is due to hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with warm protons in the neutral-induced precursor. The relative importance of these three components depends on the shock velocity, on the original degree of ionization, and on the electron-ion temperature equilibration level. The intermediate component, which is the main signature of the presence of a neutral-induced precursor, becomes negligible for shock velocities {approx}< 1500 km s{sup -1}. The width of the intermediate line reflects the temperature in the precursor, while the width of the narrow one is left unaltered by the precursor. In addition, we show that the profiles of both the intermediate and broad components generally depart from a thermal distribution, as a

  4. Balmer-Dominated Shocks: A Concise Review

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A concise and critical review of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) is presented, summarizing the state of theory and observations, including models with/without shock precursors and their synergy with atomic physics. Observations of BDSs in supernova remnants are reviewed on an object-by-object basis. The relevance of BDSs towards understanding the acceleration of cosmic rays in shocks is emphasized. Probable and possible detections of BDSs in astrophysical objects other than supernova remnants, including pulsar wind nebulae and high-redshift galaxies, are described. The case for the continued future of studying BDSs in astrophysics is made, including their relevance towards understanding electron-ion temperature equilibration in collisionless shocks.

  5. Hydrogen Balmer Continuum in Solar Flares Detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzel, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel observation of the white-light flare (WLF) continuum, which was significantly enhanced during the X1 flare on March 29, 2014 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in its NUV channel show that at the peak of the continuum enhancement, the contrast at the quasi-continuum window above 2813 \\AA\\ reached 100 - 200 % and can be even larger closer to the Mg II lines. This is fully consistent with the hydrogen recombination Balmer continuum emission, which follows an impulsive thermal and non-thermal ionization caused by the precipitation of electron beams through the chromosphere. However, a less probable photospheric continuum enhancement cannot be excluded. The light curves of the Balmer continuum have an impulsive character with a gradual fading, similar to those detected recently in the optical region on Hinode/SOT. This observation represents a first Balmer-continuum detection from space far beyond the Balmer limit (3646 \\AA), eliminating seeing eff...

  6. Modelado del continuo de Balmer en estrellas Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzado, A.; Bibbó, I.; Ringuelet, A.

    The second Balmer jump is a distinctive spectral feature very often observed in Be stars. This jump, which is usually attributed to a surrounding extended envelope, may be in emission or in absorption. So, an excess or defect of radiation relative to theoretical atmospheric models describing early-type spectra is originated in the Balmer continuum region. The aim of the present work is to account for the different aspects shown by the Balmer continuum in Be stars. In order to do that, models have been built by adopting different density and temperature distributions and by taking into account every physical process that may take place in extended envelopes of Be stars.

  7. Balmer and He I absorption in the nuclear spectrum of NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchings, J B; Krämer, S B; Gabel, J R; Kaiser, M E; Weistrop, D; Gull, T R

    2002-01-01

    Spectra taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) allow accurate location and extraction of the nuclear spectrum of NGC 4151, with minimal contamination by extended line emission and circumnuclear starlight. Spectra since 1997 show that the P Cygni Balmer and He I absorption seen previously in low nuclear states, is present in higher states, with outflow velocity that changes with the nuclear flux. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of some of the absorbers seen in the UV resonance lines, and outflows from the central source and surrounding torus.

  8. Compton wavelength, Bohr radius, Balmer's formula and g-factors

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, R

    2004-01-01

    The Balmer formula for the spectrum of atomic hydrogen is shown to be analogous to that in Compton effect and is written in terms of the difference between the absorbed and emitted wavelengths. The g-factors come into play when the atom is subjected to disturbances (like changes in the magnetic and electric fields), and the electron and proton get displaced from their fixed positions giving rise to Zeeman effect, Stark effect, etc.

  9. An Integral View of Balmer-dominated Shocks in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolić, Sladjana; Heng, Kevin; Kupko, Daniel; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Aguerri, J Alfonso L; Serra, Joan Font; Beckman, John

    2013-01-01

    We present integral-field spectroscopic observations with the VIMOS-IFU at the VLT of fast (2000-3000 km/s) Balmer-dominated shocks surrounding the northwestern rim of the remnant of supernova 1006. The high spatial and spectral resolution of the instrument enable us to show that the physical characteristics of the shocks exhibit a strong spatial variation over few atomic scale lengths across 133 sky locations. Our results point to the presence of a population of non-thermal protons (10-100 keV) which might well be the seed particles for generating high-energy cosmic rays. We also present observations of Tycho's supernova remnant taken with the narrow-band tunable filter imager OSIRIS at the GTC and the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHaFaS at the WHT to resolve respectively the broad and narrow H\\alpha\\ lines across a large part of the remnant.

  10. Segunda discontinuidad de Balmer y procesos físicos en envolturas extendidas de estrellas Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbo, I.; Cruzado, A.; Ringuelet, A.

    We study a group of Be stars in which the second Balmer jump is observed. Our aim is to correlate the second Balmer jump with other spectral features. Spectroscopic observations were performed with the 2.15 m telescope at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito, CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina). In December 2001 and August 2002 high resolution echelle spectra were obtained with a REOSC echelle spectrograph. We find that, when a second Balmer jump in emission is observed, an emission in λ = 4233,17 Å of FeII multiplet 27 is also, generally seen. Besides, the electron temperature of the region of the envelope where the second jump is formed is estimated assuming that radiative recombinations cause the flux emission in the Balmer continuum. The temperature values obtained in this way are found correlated with the measure of the second Balmer jump.

  11. Inferring divertor plasma properties from hydrogen Balmer and Paschen series spectroscopy in JET-ILW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanowski, B. A.; Meigs, A. G.; Sharples, R. M.; Stamp, M.; Guillemaut, C.; Contributors, JET

    2015-11-01

    A parametrised spectral line profile model is formulated to investigate the diagnostic scope for recovering plasma parameters from hydrogenic Balmer and Paschen series spectroscopy in the context of JET-ILW divertor plasmas. The separate treatment of Zeeman and Stark contributions in the line model is tested against the PPP-B code which accounts for their combined influence on the spectral line shape. The proposed simplified model does not fully reproduce the Stark-Zeeman features for the α and β transitions, but good agreement is observed in the line width and wing profiles, especially for n  >  5. The line model has been applied to infer radial density profiles in the JET-ILW divertor with generally good agreement between the D 5\\to 2 , 5\\to 3 , 6\\to 2 , 7\\to 2 and 9\\to 2 lines for high recycling and detached conditions. In an L-mode detached plasma pulse the Langmuir probe measurements typically underestimated the density by a factor 2-3 and overestimated the electron temperature by a factor of 5-10 compared to spectroscopically derived values. The line model is further used to generate synthetic high-resolution spectra for low-n transitions to assess the potential for parameter recovery using a multi-parametric fitting technique. In cases with 4 parameter fits with a single Maxwellian neutral temperature component the D 4\\to 3 line yields the best results with parameter estimates within 10% of the input values. For cases with 9 parameter fits inclusive of a multi-component neutral velocity distribution function the quality of the fits is degraded. Simultaneous fitting of the D 3\\to 2 and 4\\to 3 profiles improves the fit quality significantly, highlighting the importance of complementary spectroscopic measurements for divertor plasma emission studies.

  12. Data-model comparison search analysis of coincident PBO Balmer α, EURD Lyman β geocoronal measurements from March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Gómez, J. F.; Morales, C.

    2004-05-01

    Recent Lyman series and Balmer series airglow measurements provide a fresh opportunity to investigate the density distribution and variability of atomic hydrogen in the upper atmosphere. Dedicated nightside Balmer α Fabry-Perot spectrometer measurements at the Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO), University of Wisconsin-Madison, have been acquired since late 1999 taking advantage of several technological advances. Extreme ultraviolet spectral radiance measurements by the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta extremo para la Radiación Difusa (EURD) instrument on the Spanish MINISAT-1 satellite from October 1997 to December 2001 provide extensive sets of geocoronal Lyman β, Lyman γ and He 584 Å emission intensities. In this paper, coincident EURD Lyman β and PBO Balmer α radiance measurements from the early March 2000 new moon period are presented. In addition to serving as examples of the data sets now available, the data volume poses an analysis challenge not faced in prior geocoronal studies. A data-model comparison search procedure employing resonance radiation transport results for extensive sets of parametric density distribution models is being developed for use in analyses of multiple large data sets; this is described, and example results for the PBO and EURD March 2000 data sets are presented. The tightness of the constraints obtained for the solar line-center Lyman β irradiance and the atomic hydrogen column abundance is somewhat surprising, given the crudeness of the parameter binning in the search procedure and the fact that a small number of recognized corrections remain to be made to each data set.

  13. Star formation activity in Balmer break galaxies at $z$ < 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tello, J Díaz; Padilla, N; Akiyama, M; Fujishiro, N; Yoshikawa, T; Hanami, H

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present a spectroscopic study of the properties of 64 Balmer break galaxies that show signs of star formation. The studied sample of star-forming galaxies spans a redshift range from 0.094 to 1.475 with stellar masses in the range 10$^{8}-$10$^{12}$ $M_{\\odot}$. The sample also includes eight broad emission line galaxies with redshifts between 1.5 $line luminosities and investigated the dependence of the SFR and specific SFR (SSFR) on the stellar mass and color. Furthermore, we investigated the evolution of these relations with the redshift. Results. We found that the SFR correlates with the stellar mass, our data is consistent with previous results from other authors in that there is a break in the correlation, which reveals the presence of massive galaxies with lower SFR values (i.e., decreasing star formation). We also note an anticorrelation for the SSFR with the stellar mass. Again in this case, our data is also consis...

  14. Analysis of Balmer Profiles of early type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Molla, M; Alvarez, M A; González-Delgado, R M; Molla, Mercedes; Diaz, Angeles I.; Alvarez, Mar Alvarez; Delgado, Rosa Gonzalez

    2000-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of recent star formation regions isdominated by the more massive and early stars (O and B types). These stars showlarge and very significant absorption features, the most prominent being therecombination lines of H, HeI and HeII. In particular, the shape of theirprofiles are very dependent on the luminosity of the star. We have explored thepotential use of high resolution profiles to discriminate between differentluminosity classes and spectral types, by using profiles of the He and Balmerlines. We have calculated growth curves for each of the lines and theirdependence on gravity and effective temperature. We show some of thesetheoretical growth curves and our preliminary conclusions are analyzed anddiscussed.

  15. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Williams, Brian J; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Patnaude, Daniel J; Reynolds, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler's supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of 5.1 [+0.8, -0.7] kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km/s and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm^-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations amon...

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Balmer lines in Sirius B

    OpenAIRE

    Barstow, M. A.; Bond, Howard E.; Holberg, J. B.; Burleigh, M. R.; Hubeny, I.; Koester, D.

    2005-01-01

    Sirius B is the nearest and brightest of all white dwarfs, but it is very difficult to observe at visible wavelengths due to the overwhelming scattered light contribution from Sirius A. However, from space we can take advantage of the superb spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope to resolve the A and B components. Since the closest approach in 1993, the separation between the two stars has become increasingly favourable and we have recently been able to obtain a spectrum of the comp...

  17. Deuterium Balmer/Stark spectroscopy and impurity profiles: first results from mirror-link divertor spectroscopy system on the JET ITER-like wall

    CERN Document Server

    Meigs, A G; Clever, M; Huber, A; Marsen, S; Nicholas, C; Stamp, M; Zastrow, K-D; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    For the ITER-like wall, the JET mirror link divertor spectroscopy system was redesigned to fully cover the tungsten horizontal strike plate with faster time resolution and improved near-UV performance. Since the ITER-like wall project involves a change in JET from a carbon dominated machine to a beryllium and tungsten dominated machine with residual carbon, the aim of the system is to provide the recycling flux, equivalent, to the impinging deuterium ion flux, the impurity fluxes (C, Be, O) and tungsten sputtering fluxes and hence give information on the tungsten divertor source. In order to do this self-consistently, the system also needs to provide plasma characterization through the deuterium Balmer spectra measurements of electron density and temperature during high density. L-Mode results at the density limit from Stark broadening/line ratio analysis will be presented and compared to Langmuir probe profiles and 2D-tomography of low-n Balmer emission [1]. Comparison with other diagnostics will be vital fo...

  18. The MOSDEF Survey: Measurements of Balmer Decrements and the Dust Attenuation Curve at Redshifts z~1.4-2.6

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Naveen A; Shapley, Alice E; Freeman, William R; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L; Mobasher, Bahram; Price, Sedona H; Sanders, Ryan L; Shivaei, Irene

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the dust attenuation curve of z~2 galaxies using early observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Our sample consists of 224 star-forming galaxies with nebular spectroscopic redshifts in the range z= 1.36-2.59 and high S/N measurements of, or upper limits on, the H-alpha and H-beta emission lines obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. We construct composite SEDs of galaxies in bins of specific SFR and Balmer optical depth in order to directly constrain the dust attenuation curve from the UV through near-IR for typical star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Our results imply an attenuation curve that is very similar to the SMC extinction curve at wavelengths redward of 2500 Angstroms. At shorter wavelengths, the shape of the curve is identical to that of the Calzetti relation, but with a lower normalization (R_V). Hence, the new attenuation curve results in SFRs that are ~20% lower, and log stellar masses that are 0.16 dex lower, than those obtained with the Calzetti attenu...

  19. The evolution of Balmer jump selected galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, P Troncoso; Padilla, N; Lacerna, I; Garcia, S; Orsi, A; Arancibia, A Muñoz; Moustakas, J; Cristóbal-Hornillos, J; Moles, M; Fernández-Soto, A; Martínez, V J; Cerviño, M; Alfaro, E J; Ascaso, B; Arnalte-Mur, P; Nieves-Seoane, L; Benítez, N

    2016-01-01

    We present a new color-selection technique, based on the Bruzual & Charlot models convolved with the bands of the ALHAMBRA survey, and the redshifted position of the Balmer jump to select star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.5. These galaxies are dubbed Balmer jump Galaxies BJGs. We apply the iSEDfit Bayesian approach to fit each detailed SED and determine star-formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age and absolute magnitudes. The mass of the haloes where these samples reside are found via a clustering analysis. Five volume-limited BJG sub-samples with different mean redshifts are found to reside in haloes of median masses $\\sim 10^{12.5 \\pm 0.2} M_\\odot$ slightly increasing toward z=0.5. This increment is similar to numerical simulations results which suggests that we are tracing the evolution of an evolving population of haloes as they grow to reach a mass of $\\sim 10^{12.7 \\pm 0.1} M_\\odot$ at z=0.5. The likely progenitors of our samples at z$\\sim$3 are Lyman Break Galaxies, whic...

  20. Spatially-resolved dust maps from Balmer decrements in galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Erica June; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Brammer, Gabriel B; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Whitaker, Katherine E; Skelton, Rosalind E

    2015-01-01

    We derive average radial gradients in the dust attenuation towards HII regions in 609 galaxies at z~1.4, using measurements of the Balmer decrement out to r~3kpc. The Balmer decrements are derived from spatially resolved maps of Halpha and Hbeta emission from the 3D-HST survey. We find that with increasing stellar mass (M) both the normalization and strength of the gradient in dust attenuation increases. Galaxies with a mean mass of = 9.2Msun have little dust attenuation at all radii, whereas galaxies with = 10.2Msun have dust attenuation toward Halpha A(Halpha)~2mag in their central regions. We parameterize this as A(Halpha) = b + c log(r), with b = 0.9 + 1.0 log(M10), c = -1.9 - 2.2 log(M10), r in kpc, and M10 the stellar mass in units of 10^10Msun. This expression can be used to correct spatially resolved measurements of Halpha to radial distributions of star formation. When applied to our data, we find that the star formation rates in the central r<1kpc of galaxies in the highest mass bin are ~ 6 Msun...

  1. Translational spectroscopy of electron impact dissociation of HF by Doppler profile measurements of Balmer-α emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Doppler profiles of the Balmer-α emission by electron impact on HF have been investigated through varying the electron impact energy by using an etalon-grating monochromator with a high resolving power. The spectral profiles of the Balmer-α emission consist of three components, which indicates that there are three kinds of precursors leading to Hsup(*)(3) contributing to the Balmer-α emission. The average kinetic energy of Hsup(*)(3) is obtained for each component. From discussions on the precursors of Hsup(*)(3) and their dissociation processes, the observed profiles have been ascribed to the dissociation of Rydberg states (approx. equal to18 eV), doubly excited states (approx. equal to23 eV) and inner shell excited states (approx. equal to40 eV). (orig.)

  2. A Guided-Inquiry Lab for the Analysis of the Balmer Series of the Hydrogen Atomic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2011-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab was developed to analyze the Balmer series of the hydrogen atomic spectrum. The emission spectrum of hydrogen was recorded with a homemade benchtop spectrophotometer. By drawing graphs and a trial-and-error approach, students discover the linear relationship presented in the Rydberg formula and connect it with the Bohr model…

  3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, STAR FORMATION, AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN BALMER BREAK GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Tello, J.; Donzelli, C. [IATE, Observatorio Astronomico de Cordoba, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Padilla, N. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Fujishiro, N.; Yoshikawa, T. [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University (Japan); Hanami, H. [Physics Section, Iwate University (Japan); Hatsukade, B., E-mail: jdiazt@oac.uncor.edu [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic study with the derivation of the physical properties of 37 Balmer break galaxies, which have the necessary lines to locate them in star-forming-active galactic nuclei (AGNs) diagnostic diagrams. These galaxies span a redshift range from 0.045 to 0.93 and are somewhat less massive than similar samples of previous works. The studied sample has multiwavelength photometric data coverage from the ultraviolet to mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer bands. We investigate the connection between star formation and AGN activity via optical, mass-excitation (MEx), and MIR diagnostic diagrams. Through optical diagrams, 31 (84%) star-forming galaxies, two (5%) composite galaxies, and three (8%) AGNs were classified, whereas from the MEx diagram only one galaxy was classified as AGN. A total of 19 galaxies have photometry available in all the IRAC/Spitzer bands. Of these, three AGN candidates were not classified as AGN in the optical diagrams, suggesting they are dusty/obscured AGNs, or that nuclear star formation has diluted their contributions. By fitting the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies, we derived the stellar masses, dust reddening E(B - V), ages, and UV star formation rates (SFRs). Furthermore, the relationship between SFR surface density ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) and stellar mass surface density per time unit ({Sigma}{sub M{sub */{tau}}}) as a function of redshift was investigated using the [O II] {lambda}3727, 3729, H{alpha} {lambda}6563 luminosities, which revealed that both quantities are larger for higher redshift galaxies. We also studied the SFR and specific SFR (SSFR) versus stellar mass and color relations, with the more massive galaxies having higher SFR values but lower SSFR values than less massive galaxies. These results are consistent with previous ones showing that, at a given mass, high-redshift galaxies have on average larger SFR and SSFR values than low-redshift galaxies. Finally, bluer galaxies have larger SSFR values than redder

  4. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  5. Measurement of Balmer and Lyman X-rays in antiprotonic hydrogen isotopes at pressures below 300 hPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, R.; Bluem, P.; Gotta, D.; Heitlinger, K.; Rohmann, D.; Schneider, M.; Egger, J.; Simons, L.M.; Elsener, K.

    1989-09-01

    X-rays of Balmer and Lyman transitions in antiprotonic hydrogen and of Balmer transitions in antiprotonic deuterium were observed at pressures below 300 hPa using Si(Li) semiconductor detectors. The measurement was performed at the LEAR-facility at a beam momentum of 202 MeV/c. In order to stop antiprotons in a low pressure gaseous target with high efficiency, a novel technique, the cyclotron trap has been used. Absolute yields were determined and compared with cascade calculations. A distinct difference in the cascade of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium is found. The parameters of strong interaction in antiprotonic hydrogen are determined to be /epsilon//sub 1s/=-(620+-100) eV, /Gamma//sub 1s/=(1130+-170) eV and /Gamma//sub 2p/=(32+-10) meV. (orig.).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Balmer break galaxies at zstar formation (Diaz Tello+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Tello, J.; Donzelli, C.; Padilla, N.; Akiyama, M.; Fujishiro, N.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hanami, H.

    2016-05-01

    The galaxies presented in this article come from a sample constructed to study star formation activity of massive galaxies in the redshift range z=0.1-3.0 (Diaz Tello et al., 2013ApJ...771....7D; hereafter D13). The chosen field, the SXDF (RA=02:18:00, DE=-05:00:00; Furusawa et al., 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1) has the advantage that deep photometric data is available in the bands u, B, R, i, z (Subaru), J, H, K (UKIRT), and in all MIR Spitzer bands. The parent sample was selected using the λ3646 Balmer and λ4000 break features as tracers of redshift, as described by Daddi et al. (2004ApJ...617..746D), utilizing the BzK color-color diagram to select star-forming galaxies in a particular redshift range. Furthermore, we used two color-color diagrams to select star-forming galaxies in a lower redshift range than the BzK diagram; these diagrams were presented in Hanami et al. (2012PASJ...64...70H; uVi and uRJ diagrams). (1 data file).

  7. Dust extinction from Balmer decrements of star-forming galaxies at 0.75

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez, A; Henry, A L; Scarlata, C; Bedregal, A G; Malkan, M; Atek, H; Ross, N R; Colbert, J W; Teplitz, H I; Rafelski, M; McCarthy, P; Bunker, A; Hathi, N P; Dressler, A; Martin, C L; Masters, D

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Halpha and Hbeta emission lines of 129 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75Balmer decrement, as a function of Halpha luminosity down to LHa ~ 3 x 10^{41} erg s^{-1}, galaxy stellar mass down to M_{*} ~ 4 x 10^{8} Msun, and rest-frame Halpha equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are five times fainter in Halpha luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z ~ 1.5. We provide empirical relations to correct for the effect of dust extinction in star-forming galaxies as a function of Halpha luminosity and stellar mass. A clear evolution is observed where galaxies of the same Halpha luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas ...

  8. To test dual supermassive black hole model for broad line AGN with double-peaked narrow [OIII] lines

    CERN Document Server

    XueGuang, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we proposed an interesting method to test the dual supermassive black hole model for AGN with double-peaked narrow \\oiii lines (double-peaked narrow emitters), through their broad optical Balmer line properties. Under the dual supermassive black hole model for double-peaked narrow emitters, we could expect statistically smaller virial black hole masses estimated by observed broad Balmer line properties than true black hole masses (total masses of central two black holes). Then, we compare the virial black hole masses between a sample of 37 double-peaked narrow emitters with broad Balmer lines and samples of SDSS selected normal broad line AGN with single-peaked \\oiii lines. However, we can find clearly statistically larger calculated virial black hole masses for the 37 broad line AGN with double-peaked \\oiii lines than for samples of normal broad line AGN. Therefore, we give our conclusion that the dual supermassive black hole model is probably not statistically preferred to the double-pea...

  9. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Morchenko, Egor; Livshits, Moisey

    2015-01-01

    The emission spectrum has been calculated of a homogeneous pure hydrogen layer, which parameters are typical for a flare on a red dwarf. The ionization and excitation states were determined by the solution of steady-state equations taking into account the continuum and all discrete hydrogen levels. We consider the following elementary processes: electron-impact transitions, spontaneous and induced radiative transitions, and ionization by the bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself. The Biberman--Holstein approximation was used to calculate the scattering of line radiation. Asymptotic formulae for the escape probability are obtained for a symmetric line profile taking into account the Stark and Doppler effects. The approximation for the core of the H$-\\alpha$ line by a gaussian curve has been substantiated. The spectral intensity of the continuous spectrum, the intensity of the lines of the Balmer series and the magnitude of the Balmer jump have been calculated. The conditions have been ...

  10. Characterisation of neutral hydrogen beam by means of active balmer-a-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, C

    1999-01-01

    Neutral particle beams are used in thermal nuclear experiments for plasma heating and current drive, and as a diagnostic tool for active spectroscopy. Within the frame of this thesis eight viewing lines for H{sub {alpha}}-spectroscopy have been installed at the end of the injector to observe the fully established neutral beam. The viewing lines are all parallel to the horizontal plane and include small angles with the beam axis, in order to make use of the Doppler effect which separates the signals from the three energy components from each other and from the H{sub {alpha}}-emission of the thermal particles. A multi-Gaussian fit code has been applied to give the amplitudes, positions and widths of the Gauss shaped signals. From this data, the beam composition and, including the physics processes in the acceleration and neutralisation sections, the ion species fractions in the source have been calculated. Furthermore, the vertical density profile and an estimation of the absolute particle density distribution based on an absolute calibration resulted. From the line positions the exact acceleration voltage has been obtained. The line widths allow an estimate of the horizontal divergence. During this work, two ion sources, the 'Pagoda' and the 'Sourcette', have been investigated to obtain the ion species ratio and beam profile. The comparison of the spectroscopic with the calorimetric results gives a useful insight into the beam steering geometry. (author)

  11. Accretion Disk Line Emission in AGN a Devil's Advocacy

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W; Dultzin-Hacyan, D

    1998-01-01

    We review the evidence for AGN optical and X-ray broad line emission from an accretion disk. We argue that there is little, if any, statistical evidence to support this assertion. The inconsistency is strongest for the rare class of Balmer profiles that show double peaks. The line profiles predicted by a simple illuminated disk model are often incompatible with the observations. We suggest that the Fe Kalpha line in Seyfert 1 galaxies, where a broad line is most often and most strongly detected, is actually a composite of two lines both with Gaussian profiles; one narrow/unshifted and the other broad/redshifted.

  12. H$\\alpha$ Imaging spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated shocks in Tycho's supernova remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Knežević, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Font, Joan; Raymond, John C; Ghavamian, Parviz; Beckman, John

    2016-01-01

    We present Fabry-P\\'erot interferometric observations of the narrow H$\\alpha$ component in the shock front of the historical supernova remnant Tycho (SN 1572). Using GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy H$\\alpha$ Fabry-P\\'erot Spectrometer) on the William Herschel Telescope, we observed a great portion of the shock front in the northeastern (NE) region of the remnant. The angular resolution of $\\sim$1$^{\\prime\\prime}$ and spectral resolving power of R$\\sim$21 000 together with the large field-of-view (3.4$^{\\prime}$ $\\times$ 3.4$^{\\prime}$) of the instrument allow us to measure the narrow H$\\alpha$-line width in 73 bins across individual parts of the shock simultaneously and thereby study the indicators of several shock precursors in a large variety of shock front conditions. Compared to previous studies, the detailed spatial resolution of the filament also allows us to mitigate possible artificial broadening of the line from unresolved differential motion and projection. Covering one quarter of the remnant's shell, we conf...

  13. Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlino, Giovanni [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respectively. When the shock accelerate efficiently non-thermal particles, the shock structure changes producing anomalous Balmer lines and it is possible to use their line shape and their spatial profile to check the efficiency of SNR shocks in accelerating cosmic rays. Here we illustrate the kinetic theory of shock acceleration in presence of neutrals with some applications to young SNRs. We show that in three cases (RCW 86, SNR 0509-67.5 and Tycho) anomalous Balmer lines can be explained assuming that a fraction of ∼ 10% of the total shock kinetic energy is converted into not thermal particles, while in one single case, the northwestern part of SN 1006, there is no evidence of efficient acceleration.

  14. Measurements of neutral density profiles using a deuterium Balmer-alpha diagnostic in the C-2 FRC plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) device, low neutral density outside the FRC separatrix is required to minimize the charge exchange loss of fast particles. Titanium gettering is used in C-2 to reduce the wall recycling and keep the neutral density low in plasma edge. The measurements of neutral density radial profile are desirable to understand the plasma recycling and the effects of titanium gettering. These measurements are also needed to study the interaction of neutral beams with FRC plasma and confinement of fast ions. Diagnostic based on absolute deuterium Balmer-alpha (D-alpha) radiation measurements is developed and deployed on C-2 device to measure the radial profile of neutral density. Simultaneous measurements of electron density and temperature are done using CO2 interferometer, Thomson scattering, and triple probes diagnostics along with absolute D-alpha radiation. Abel inversion was performed to get the time dependent radial profile of the local D-alpha emission density. Neutral density profiles are obtained under different machine conditions of titanium deposition.

  15. Modeling of Stark–Zeeman Lines in Magnetized Hydrogen Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Rosato; H. Bufferand; H. Capes; M. Koubiti; L. Godbert-Mouret; Y. Marandet; R. Stamm

    2015-12-01

    The action of electric and magnetic fields on atomic species results in a perturbation of the energy level structure, which alters the shape of spectral lines. In this work, we present the Zeeman–Stark line shape simulation method and perform new calculations of hydrogen Lyman and Balmer lines, in the framework of magnetic fusion research. The role of the Zeeman effect, fine structure and the plasma's non-homogeneity along the line-of-sight are investigated. Under specific conditions, our results are applicable to DA white dwarf atmospheres.

  16. Stellar model atmospheres with magnetic line blanketing

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Shulyak, D

    2004-01-01

    Model atmospheres of A and B stars are computed taking into account magnetic line blanketing. These calculations are based on the new stellar model atmosphere code LLModels which implements direct treatment of the opacities due to the bound-bound transitions and ensures an accurate and detailed description of the line absorption. The anomalous Zeeman effect was calculated for the field strengths between 1 and 40 kG and a field vector perpendicular to the line of sight. The model structure, high-resolution energy distribution, photometric colors, metallic line spectra and the hydrogen Balmer line profiles are computed for magnetic stars with different metallicities and are discussed with respect to those of non-magnetic reference models. The magnetically enhanced line blanketing changes the atmospheric structure and leads to a redistribution of energy in the stellar spectrum. The most noticeable feature in the optical region is the appearance of the 5200 A depression. However, this effect is prominent only in ...

  17. Coupling and ionization effects on hydrogen spectral line shapes in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, A.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shuvaev, D.; Talin, B.

    2007-06-01

    A study of hydrogen lines emitted in dense and low temperature plasmas is presented. Coupling and ionization effects in a transition from impact to quasi-static broadening for electrons are analyzed with the help of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). Electron broadening of Balmer series lines is studied for different densities and temperatures spanning a wide domain from impact to quasi-static limit. It is shown that electronic broadening makes a transition from impact to quasi-static limit depending on plasma conditions and principal quantum number. Even for the Balmer alpha line, at a density equals 1018 cm-3 and a temperature equals 1 eV, this transition occurs both in the wings and the core of the line.

  18. Dust Sensitivity of Absorption-Line Indices

    CERN Document Server

    MacArthur, L A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of dust extinction on integrated absorption-line indices that are widely used to derive constraints on the ages and metallicities of composite stellar systems. Typically, absorption-line studies have been performed on globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, which are mostly dust-free systems. However, many recent studies of integrated stellar populations have focused on spiral galaxies which may contain significant amounts of dust. It is almost universally assumed that the effects of dust extinction on absorption-line measurements are entirely negligible given the narrow baseline of the spectral features, but no rigorous study has yet been performed to verify this conjecture. In this analysis, we explore the sensitivity of the standard set of Lick absorption-line indices, the higher-order Balmer line indices, the 4000 A break, the near-IR calcium triplet indices, and the Rose indices to dust absorption according to population synthesis models that incorporate a multi-component mod...

  19. Two-Component Structure of the Hbeta Broad-Line Region in Quasars. I. Evidence from Spectral Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Ferland, Gary J; Baldwin, Jack A; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500--5500 \\AA. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, \\emph{the fractional-contribution spectrum}, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstr...

  20. Emission Line Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in WINGS clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Bettoni, D; Poggianti, B M; Moretti, A; Fasano, G; Fritz, J; Cava, A; Varela, J; Omizzolo, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of the emission line galaxies members of 46 low redshift (0.04 < z < 0.07) clusters observed by WINGS (WIde-field Nearby Galaxy cluster Survey, Fasano et al. 2006). Emission line galaxies were identified following criteria that are meant to minimize biases against non-star forming galaxies and classified employing diagnostic diagrams. We have examined the emission line properties and frequencies of star forming galaxies, transition objects and active galactic nuclei (AGNs: LINERs and Seyferts), unclassified galaxies with emission lines, and quiescent galaxies with no detectable line emission. A deficit of emission line galaxies in the cluster environment is indicated by both a lower frequency with respect to control samples, and by a systematically lower Balmer emission line equivalent width and luminosity (up to one order of magnitude in equivalent width with respect to control samples for transition objects) that implies a lower amount of ionised gas per unit mass and a lower s...

  1. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  2. The emission-line pulse pattern in the intermediate polar RX J0558

    OpenAIRE

    Harlaftis, E. T.; Horne, K.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the intermediate polar RX J0558+53 with the 4.2m WHT and find in the pulsed emission lines, a ``corkscrew'' pattern, which indicates a two-pole white dwarf accretion. The ``corkscrew'' pattern consists of two emission-line pulses, separated by half the white dwarf spin period, and moving from red to blue velocities. The detected emission-line pulsations have an amplitude of 1.1--2.7 per cent in the He II and Balmer emission lines on the 545-s spin period of the white dwarf which c...

  3. Formation of optical lines in black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, K; Johnston, H; Hunstead, R W; Wu, Kinwah; Soria, Roberto; Johnston, Helen; Hunstead, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The HI Balmer emission lines of black-hole binaries show double-peaked profiles during the high-soft state and the quiescent state. In the high-soft state the profiles are asymmetric with a stronger red peak, but the profiles are symmetric in the quiescent state. We suggest that in the high-soft state the emission lines originate from the temperature-inversion layer caused by irradiative heating of an optically thick accretion disk. Irradiative heating also causes the formation of a disk wind, which mildly absorbs the blue peak of the lines. The double-peaked lines seen in the quiescent state arise from an optically thin disk. In the absence of a disk wind, the lines are unabsorbed and so the symmetry of the line profiles is preserved.

  4. Shock-induced polarized hydrogen emission lines in omicron Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabas, N.; Lèbre, A.; Gillet, D.

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen emission lines in Mira variable stars are a well-known phenomenon whose origin has been established as related to the propagation of radiative hypersonic shock waves throughout the stellar atmosphere. A polarimetric observation by McLean and Coyne [1] made on omicron Ceti (the prototype of Mira variable stars) has revealed the existence of linear polarization signatures associated with Balmer emission lines. However, the polarizing mechanism has never been properly explained so far. The study presented here is the first of its kind since it displays the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of omicron Ceti in the Balmer lines. The survey was made with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter (Telescope Bernard Lyot, France) in full Stokes mode. We did not just confirm the appearance of this polarization but we also and above all showed the temporal variation of the linear polarization in the lines. We conclude that the polarizing mechanism is definitely intrinsic to the shock wave propagation throughout the stellar atmosphere of Mira and give some leads about the nature of this mechanism.

  5. Line shape modeling in warm and dense hydrogen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mossé, C.; Talin, B.; Gigosos, M. A.; González, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    A study of hydrogen lines emitted in warm ( T˜1eV) and dense ( N≥1018cm -3) plasmas is presented. Under such plasma conditions, the electronic and the ionic contributions to the line width are comparable, and the general question related to a transition from impact to quasi-static broadening arises not only for the far wings but also for the core of spectral lines. The transition from impact to quasi-static broadening for electrons is analyzed by means of Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). In parallel, direct integration of the semi-classical evolution equation is performed using electron electric fields calculated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations that permit one to correctly describe the emitter environment. New cross comparisons between benchmark MD simulations and FFM are carried out for electron broadening of the Balmer series lines, and, especially, for the Hα line, for which a few experiments in the warm and dense plasma regimes are available.

  6. Discovery of polarized line emission in SN1006

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, W B; Carswell, R F; Long, K S; Cracraft, M

    2015-01-01

    Laming (1990) predicted that the narrow Balmer line core of the ~3000 km/s shock in the SN 1006 remnant would be significantly polarized due to electron and proton impact polarization. Here, based on deep spectrally resolved polarimetry obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO)'s Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the discovery of polarized line emission of polarization degree approx 1.3 percent with position angle orthogonal to the SNR filament. Correcting for an unpolarized broad line component, the implied narrow line polarization is approx 2.0 percent, close to the predictions of Laming (1990). The predicted polarization is primarily sensitive to shock velocity and post-shock temperature equilibration. By measuring polarization for the SN1006 remnant, we validate and enable a new diagnostic that has important applications in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, such as shocks, intense radiation fields, high energy particle streams and conductive interfaces.

  7. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZED LINE EMISSION IN SN 1006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Long, K. S.; Cracraft, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carswell, R. F., E-mail: sparks@stsci.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-10

    Laming predicted that the narrow Balmer line core of the ∼3000 km s{sup −1} shock in the SN 1006 remnant would be significantly polarized due to electron and proton impact polarization. Here, based on deep spectrally resolved polarimetry obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO)’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the discovery of polarized line emission with a polarization degree of 1.3% and position angle orthogonal to the SNR filament. Correcting for an unpolarized broad line component, the implied narrow line polarization is ≈2.0%, close to the predictions of Laming. The predicted polarization is primarily sensitive to shock velocity and post-shock temperature equilibration. By measuring polarization for the SN 1006 remnant, we validate and enable a new diagnostic that has important applications in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, such as shocks, intense radiation fields, high energy particle streams, and conductive interfaces.

  8. Measurement of the Antiprotonic Lyman- and Balmer X-rays of $\\overline{p}H$ and $\\overline{p}D$ Atoms at Very Low Target Pressures

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to measure the energies and intensities of the n @A 1 (Lyman) and n @A 2 (Balmer) tansitions with high accuracy in both @*H and @*D, from which the strong interaction effects of the 1s- and 2p-level can be extracted. These observables may be related to the antiproton-proton and antiproton-neutron scattering length. \\\\ \\\\ Since in these targets collisional Stark effect occurs, we will stop the antiprotons in extreme thin gaseous targets (pressure as low as 10 Torr), where no Stark effect occurs and the 2-1 transition is favoured. In order to use antiprotons with high efficiency despite of the low target density, we will trap antiprotons of a momentum of 100 MeV/c in a magnetic field of cyclotron characteristics. The antiprotons are decelerated by their energy loss in the target gas. The focusing properties of the magnetic field serve to compensate the multiple scattering and we will end up with a concentrated stopping distribution at the centre. Due to the long orbiting time, back...

  9. Polarization of Lyman-α and Balmer-α emission in proton-hydrogen collisions: a study using first-order Born-Faddeev-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, R.; Bolorizadeh, M. A.; Shojaei Akbarabadi, F.; Brunger, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    A three-body Born-Faddeev model is devised to calculate the total cross sections of Balmer-α and Lyman-α emissions, for the excitation of hydrogen atoms by proton impact in the energy range of 100 keV-7 MeV. In addition, the polarization alignment factor A20 is calculated and compared against available experimental data to further test the theory. Specifically, here we use the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace formalism to study the excitation of atomic hydrogen from its ground state to the excited states of n = 2 and 3 and magnetic sublevels l = 0, 1 and 2, wherever applicable. The first-order electronic, A(1)e, and the first-order nuclear, A(1)n, amplitudes are considered in order to calculate the excitation transition matrix (TPT), while a near-the-shell condition is assumed throughout. In addition, our results were used to calculate the first-order form factors. The present results are compared, where possible, with those of other theoretical and experimental works that are currently available in the literature.

  10. Hints of Correlations Between Broad-Line and Radio Variations for AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H T; Feng, H C; Li, S K

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the issue of correlation between broad-line and radio variations under a spherical broad-line region (BLR), and attempt to locate the position of radio (and gamma-ray) emitting region in jet of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Considering the radial profiles of the radius and number density of clouds in the spherical BLR, we have deduced new formulae connecting the radio emitting position $R_{\\rm{jet}}$ to the time lags $\\tau_{\\rm{ob}}$ between broad-line and radio variations, and the BLR inner and outer radii. The new formulae are applied to broad-line radio-loud Fermi-LAT AGNs, 3C 273 and 3C 120. For 3C 273, a common feature of negative time lags is found in the cross-correlation functions between light curves of radio emission and the Balmer lines, and as well Ly$\\alpha$ $\\lambda 1216$ and C IV $\\lambda 1549$ lines. $R_{\\rm{jet}}=$ 1.0--2.6 parsec (pc) are obtained from the time lags of the Balmer lines. For 3C 120, positive lags of about 0.3 yr are found between the 15 GHz...

  11. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E.; Dux, R.; Dunne, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line Dα. The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  12. Reaching Higher Densities for Laboratory White Dwarf Photospheres to Measure Spectroscopic Line Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Falcon, Ross E; Gomez, T A; Schaeuble, M; Nagayama, T; Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E; Rochau, G A

    2016-01-01

    As part of our laboratory investigation of the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf atmosphere models, we extend the electron-density ($n_{\\rm e}$) range measured by our experiments to higher densities (up to $n_{e}\\sim80\\times10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$). Whereas inferred parameters using the hydrogen-$\\beta$ spectral line agree among different line-shape models for $n_{\\rm e}\\lesssim30\\times10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, we now see divergence between models. These are densities beyond the range previously benchmarked in the laboratory, meaning theoretical profiles in this regime have not been fully validated. Experimentally exploring these higher densities enables us to test and constrain different line-profile models, as the differences in their relative H-Balmer line shapes are more pronounced at such conditions. These experiments also aid in our study of occupation probabilities because we can measure these from relative line strengths.

  13. The Structure of the Broad Line Region in AGN: I. Reconstructed Velocity-Delay Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, C J; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M C; Pogge, R W; Denney, K D; De Rosa, G; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C S; Zu, Y; Shappee, B; Siverd, R; Beatty, T G; Sergeev, S G; Kaspi, S; Salvo, C Araya; Bird, J C; Bord, D J; Borman, G A; Che, X; Chen, C; Cohen, S A; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Efimov, Yu S; Free, N; Ginsburg, I; Henderson, C B; King, A L; Mogren, K; Molina, M; Mosquera, A M; Nazarov, S V; Okhmat, D N; Pejcha, O; Rafter, S; Shields, J C; Skowron, J; Szczygiel, D M; Valluri, M; van Saders, J L

    2012-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum-entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C120, and PG2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H\\beta\\ emission line, but see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the HeII 4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the HeII emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. The maps for 3C120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and ...

  14. "Direct" Gas-phase Metallicities, Stellar Properties, and Local Environments of Emission-line Galaxies at Redshift below 0.90

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Chun; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band imaging and optical spectroscopy from Keck and MMT, we identify a sample of 20 emission-line galaxies at z=0.065-0.90 where the weak auroral emission line, [O III]4363, is detected at >3\\sigma. These detections allow us to determine the gas-phase metal abundances using the "direct" method. After correcting for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements, we find that 10 of these low-mass galaxies are extremely metal-poor with 12+log(O/H) 1 galaxies.

  15. TWO-COMPONENT STRUCTURE OF THE Hβ BROAD-LINE REGION IN QUASARS. I. EVIDENCE FROM SPECTRAL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500-5500 Å. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, the fractional-contribution spectrum, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate-velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the validity of our method to recognize cross talk in SPCA and firmly rule out a single-component model for broad Hβ. We also present the results of SPCA for four other samples that contain quasars in bins of larger Fe II velocity shift; similar eigenspectra are obtained. We propose that the Hβ-emitting region has two kinematically distinct components: one with very large velocities whose strength correlates with the continuum shape and another with more modest, intermediate velocities that is closely coupled to the gas that gives rise to Fe II emission.

  16. Two-component Structure of the Hβ Broad-line Region in Quasars. I. Evidence from Spectral Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chen; Wang, Jian-Min; Ho, Luis C.; Ferland, Gary J.; Baldwin, Jack A.; Wang, Ye

    2012-12-01

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500-5500 Å. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, the fractional-contribution spectrum, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate-velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the validity of our method to recognize cross talk in SPCA and firmly rule out a single-component model for broad Hβ. We also present the results of SPCA for four other samples that contain quasars in bins of larger Fe II velocity shift; similar eigenspectra are obtained. We propose that the Hβ-emitting region has two kinematically distinct components: one with very large velocities whose strength correlates with the continuum shape and another with more modest, intermediate velocities that is closely coupled to the gas that gives rise to Fe II emission.

  17. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  18. Universal FFM Hydrogen Spectral Line Shapes Applied to Ions and Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossé, C.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Talin, B.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2008-10-01

    We present a method for the calculation of hydrogen spectral line shapes based on two combined approaches: Universal Model and FFM procedure. We start with the analytical functions for the intensities of the Stark components of radiative transitions between highly excited atomic states with large values of principal quantum numbers n,n'γ1, with Δn = n-n'≪n for the specific cases of Hn-α line (Δn = 1) and Hn-β line (Δn = 2). The FFM line shape is obtained by averaging on the electric field of the Hooper's field distribution for ion and electron perturber dynamics and by mixing the Stark components with a jumping frequency rate ve (vi) where v = N1/3u (N is electron density and u is the ion or electron thermal velocity). Finally, the total line shape is given by convolution of ion and electron line shapes. Hydrogen line shape calculations for Balmer Hα and Hβ lines are compared to experimental results in low density plasma (Ne˜1016-1017cm-3) and low electron temperature in order of 10 000K. This method relying on analytic expressions permits fast calculation of Hn-α and Hn-β lines of hydrogen and could be used in the study of the Stark broadening of radio recombination lines for high principal quantum number.

  19. Shock-Induced Polarized Hydrogen Emission Lines in the Mira Star omicron Ceti

    CERN Document Server

    Fabas, Nicolas; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In the spectra of pulsating stars, especially Mira stars, the detection of intense hydrogen emission lines has been explained by a radiative shock wave, periodically propagating throughout the atmosphere. Previous observation of the Mira star omicron Ceti around a bright maximum of light led to the detection of a strong linear polarization associated to Balmer emissions, although the origin of this phenomenon is not fully explained yet. With the help of spectropolarimetry, we propose to investigate the nature of shock waves propagating throughout the stellar atmosphere and present, for omicron Ceti (the prototype of Mira stars), a full observational study of hydrogen emission lines formed in the radiative region of such a shock. Using the instrument NARVAL, we performed a spectropolarimetric monitoring of omicron Ceti during three consecutive pulsation cycles. All Stokes parameters were systematically collected, with a particular emphasis on the maxima of luminosity, i.e. when a radiative shock wave is suppos...

  20. Integrated Spectroscopy of the Herschel Reference Survey. The spectral line properties of a volume-limited, K-band selected sample of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Gavazzi, G; Buat, V

    2012-01-01

    We present long-slit integrated spectroscopy of 238 late-type galaxies belonging to the Herschel Reference Survey, a volume limited sample representative of the nearby universe. This sample has a unique legacy value since ideally defined for any statistical study of the multifrequency properties of galaxies spanning a large range in morphological type and luminosity. The spectroscopic observations cover the spectral range 3600-6900 A at a resolution R ~ 1000 and are thus suitable for separating the underlying absorption from the emission of the Hbeta line as well as the two [NII] lines from the Halpha emission. We measure the fluxes and the equivalent widths of the strongest emission lines ([OII], Hbeta, [OIII], [NII], Halpha, and [SII]). The data are used to study the distribution of the equivalent width of all the emission lines, of the Balmer decrement C(Hbeta) and of the observed underlying Balmer absorption under Hbeta in this sample. Combining these new spectroscopic data with those available at other f...

  1. Broad Balmer Wings in BA Hyper/Supergiants Distorted by Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Five Examples in the 30 Doradus Region from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, NR; Sana, Hugues; Evans, CJ; Taylor, WD; Sabbi, E.; Barbá, RH; Morell, NL; Maíz Apellániz, J; Sota, A.; Dufton, PL

    2015-01-01

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistake...

  2. The ASCA X-Ray Spectrum Of The Broad-Line Radio Galaxy Pictor A A Simple Power Law With No Fe K-$\\alpha$ Line

    CERN Document Server

    Eracleous, M; Eracleous, Michael; Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    We present the X-ray spectrum of the broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A as observed by ASCA in 1996. The main objective of the observation was to detect and study the profiles of the Fe~K$\\alpha$ lines. The motivation was the fact that the Balmer lines of this object show well-separated displaced peaks, suggesting an origin in an accretion disk. The 0.5-10 keV X-ray spectrum is described very well by a model consisting of a power law of photon index 1.77 modified by interstellar photoelectric absorption. We find evidence for neither a soft nor a hard (Compton reflection) excess. More importantly, we do not detect an Fe K-alpha line, in marked contrast with the spectra of typical Seyfert galaxies and other broad-line radio galaxies observed by ASCA. The 99%-confidence upper limit on the equivalent width of an unresolved line at a rest energy of 6.4 keV is 100 eV, while for a broad line (FWHM of approximately 60,000 km/s) the corresponding upper limit is 135 eV. We discuss several possible explanations for the we...

  3. More Evidence for the Intermediate Broad Line Region of the Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2013-01-01

    In the manuscript, the properties of the proposed intermediate BLR are checked for the mapped AGN PG 0052+251. With the considerations of the apparent effects of the broad He {\\sc ii} line on the observed broad H$\\beta$ profile, the line parameters (especially the line width and the line flux) of the observed broad H$\\alpha$ and the broad H$\\beta$ are carefully determined. Based on the measured line parameters, the model with two broad components applied for each observed broad balmer line is preferred, and then confirmed by the calculated much different time lags for the inner/intermediate broad components and the corresponding virial BH masses ratio determined by the properties of the inner and the intermediate broad components. Then, the correlation between the broad line width and the broad line flux is checked for the two broad components: one clearly strong negative correlation for the inner broad component, but one positive correlation for the intermediate broad component. The different correlations fo...

  4. Broad Balmer Wings in BA Hyper/Supergiants Distorted by Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Five Examples in the 30 Doradus Region from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, Nolan R; Evans, Christopher J; Taylor, William D; Sabbi, Elena; Barbá, Rodolfo H; Morrell, Nidia I; Apellániz, Jesús Maíz; Sota, Alfredo; Dufton, Philip L; McEvoy, Catherine M; Clark, J Simon; Markova, Nevena; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Extremely broad emission wings at H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ have been found in VFTS data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of H$\\beta$ and the shortward wing of H$\\alpha$. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables. No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminou...

  5. Broad Balmer Wings in BA Hyper/Supergiants Distorted by Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Five Examples in the 30 Doradus Region from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Evans, Christopher J.; Taylor, William D.; Sabbi, Elena; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús; Sota, Alfredo; Dufton, Philip L.; McEvoy, Catherine M.; Clark, J. Simon; Markova, Nevena; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  6. High Line

    OpenAIRE

    Jagielska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This project examines The High Line in New York City and what is due to its success. The park, which runs through the meatpacking district in Manhattan, is on an old rail line that was abandoned from the 1980s. Two private locals, Joshua and Hammond, founded the non-profit organization “Friends of The High Line” and established the rail line into a public park. The aesthetics of the park is the wildness of the nature and the modern architecture in the middle of Manhattan mixed with a sustaina...

  7. Blurring lines

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Heidi C; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Borry, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Companies that offer direct-to-consumer genetic testing and conduct research are blurring the line between customers and research subjects. Should these companies adhere to the same ethical regulations as academic researchers?

  8. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  9. Relation between Starlight and Nebular Emission Lines of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Lin Lu; Hong-Yan Zhou; Ting-Gui Wang; Zhen-Quan Zhuang; Xiao-Bo Dong; Jun-Xian Wang; Cheng Li

    2005-01-01

    We present an exercise that intends to establish a relationship between the strength of nebular emission lines and optical stellar features in the spectrum of a galaxy. After accurately subtracting the stellar continuum and the underlying stellar absorption, we made reliable measurements of the emission lines of all the galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2). More than 4000 star-forming galaxies with high S/N ratio of both the stellar spectrum and the emission lines are selected. These galaxy spectra are fitted with the 10 PCs of Yip et al., after all the emission line regions have been filtered out. We find that the flux of hydrogen Balmer emission lines, Hα and Hβ can be well recovered from the PCs, while the metal lines are not well reproduced. The fluxes of Hα and Hβ measured from the PC-reconstructed spectra and from the observed spectra agree well with an rms scatter of only ~ 0.1 dex. This result suggests that, with moderate spectral resolution and S/N ratio, the optical stellar spectrum of a galaxy can serve as an indicator of star formation rate.

  10. Spatially-resolved HST Grism Spectroscopy of a Lensed Emission Line Galaxy at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, Brenda L; Bowen, David V; Meurer, Gerhardt; Sharon, Keren; Straughn, Amber; Coe, Dan; Broadhurst, Tom; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of gravitational lensing amplification by Abell 1689 (z=0.187) to undertake the first space-based census of emission line galaxies (ELGs) in the field of a massive lensing cluster. Forty-three ELGs are identified to a flux of i_775=27.3 via slitless grism spectroscopy. One ELG (at z=0.7895) is very bright owing to lensing magnification by a factor of ~4.5. Several Balmer emission lines detected from ground-based follow-up spectroscopy signal the onset of a major starburst for this low-mass galaxy (M_* = 2 x 10^9 solar masses) with a high specific star formation rate (~20 /Gyr). From the blue emission lines we measure a gas-phase oxygen abundance consistent with solar (12+log(O/H)=8.8 +/- 0.2). We break the continuous line-emitting region of this giant arc into seven ~1kpc bins (intrinsic size) and measure a variety of metallicity dependent line ratios. A weak trend of increasing metal fraction is seen toward the dynamical center of the galaxy. Interestingly, the metal line ratios in a region...

  11. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization Hα line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of Hα favors a flattened, virialized, low-ionization region whereas the symmetric microlensing effect measured in CIV can be reproduced by an emission line formed in a polar wind, without the need of fine-tuned caustic configurations. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposals 076.B-0197 and 076.B-0607 (PI: Courbin).

  12. Coronal-Line Forest AGN: the best view of the inner edge of the AGN torus?

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Marvin; Tadhunter, Clive

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Coronal-Line Forest Active Galactic Nuclei (CLiF AGN), AGN which have a rich spectrum of forbidden high-ionization lines (FHILs, e.g. [FeVII], [FeX] and [NeV]), as well as relatively strong narrow ($\\sim$300 km s$^{-1}$) H$\\alpha$ emission when compared to the other Balmer transition lines. We find that the kinematics of the CLiF emitting region are similar to those of the forbidden low-ionization emission-line (FLIL) region. We compare emission line strengths of both FHILs and FLILs to CLOUDY photoionization results and find that the CLiF emitting region has higher densities (10$^{4.5}$ $<$ n$_H$ $<$ 10$^{7.5}$ cm$^{-3}$) when compared to the FLIL emitting region (10$^{3.0}$ $<$ n$_H$ $<$ 10$^{4.5}$ cm$^{-3}$). We use the photoionization results to calculate the CLiF regions radial distances (0.04 $<$ R$_{CLiF}$ $<$ 32.5 pc) and find that they are comparable to the dust grain sublimation distances (0.10 $<$ R$_{SUB}$ $<$ 4.3 pc). As a result we suggest that the inner toru...

  13. The emission-line pulse pattern in the intermediate polar RX J0558

    CERN Document Server

    Harlaftis, E T

    1999-01-01

    We observed the intermediate polar RX J0558+53 with the 4.2m WHT and find in the pulsed emission lines, a ``corkscrew'' pattern, which indicates a two-pole white dwarf accretion. The ``corkscrew'' pattern consists of two emission-line pulses, separated by half the white dwarf spin period, and moving from red to blue velocities. The detected emission-line pulsations have an amplitude of 1.1--2.7 per cent in the He II and Balmer emission lines on the 545-s spin period of the white dwarf which compare to 3.5-4.8 per cent for the continuum double-peak pulsations. We image the emission-line pulse pattern and is shown to lag the continuum pulse by 0.12 spin cycles. We interpret the pattern by invoking an accretion curtain from the disrupted, inner disc to the two poles of the magnetic white dwarf. The semi-amplitude of the He II pulse of 408+-35 km/s can be used to constrain the size of the magnetosphere, R ~ 4.1 x 10^4 km, and the magnetic moment of the white dwarf (~2.4 10^32 G cm^3). Power spectra show dominant ...

  14. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  15. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  16. On the accuracy of Black Hole Mass estimation from Broad Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Restrepo, Julian; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Capellupo, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In this talk we compare single-epoch (SE) black hole mass (MBH) estimates based on low ionization (Hα, Hβ, and MgII) and high ionization (CIV) broad emission lines. We also examine the implications of different continuum modeling approaches in line width and MBH measurements. For this purpose we use a sample of 39 unobscured AGNs at z=1.55 selected to cover a large range in MBH (2.0dex) and L/Ledd (2.5dex) and observed by X-shooter. We find that using a local power-law continuum instead of a physically-motivated thin disk continuum leads to only slight underestimation of the FWHM of the lines and the associated MBH(FWHM). However, the line dispersion σ and associated MBH(σ) are strongly affected by the continuum placement providing less reliable mass estimates. We find that low ionization lines provides reliable virial MBH estimation. However, the CIV line is not reliable in the majority of the cases, indicating that the gas emitting this line may not be virialized. We find that Hα, Hβ show similar line widths and that FWHM(MgII) is about 30% narrower than FWHM(Hβ) . We test and confirm several recent suggestions to improve the accuracy in CIV-based mass estimates, relying on other UV emission lines. However, we find that such improvements do not help in reducing the scatter between CIV-based and Balmer-line-based mass estimates. This work has been recently accepted for publication in MNRAS.

  17. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique; Anguita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization H$\\alpha$ line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of H$\\alpha$ favors a flattened, viri...

  18. The potential of hydrogen lines for the spectropolarimetry of the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Jean-Claude; Chane-Yook, Martine

    2016-07-01

    Neutral Hydrogen lines have been detected in the hot and ionized solar corona as early as 1970 (Gabriel et al. 1971) and since then with the Spartan and UVCS/SoHO space experiments. Moreover, because of the sensitivity of the Lyman lines to the Hanle effect (Bommier and Sahal-Brechot 1982, Trujillo Bueno et al. 2005), polarization measurements in these lines could lead to the diagnostic of weak magnetic fields in the corona (Derouich et al. 2010), a challenge which has led to various space mission proposals such as LYOT/SMESE or MASC. Our investigation concerns the computation of the emission in 10 selected lines of Hydrogen (Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen) taking into account the proper computation of the NonLTE H ionization and atomic levels populations. We present the results for three different coronal models (streamer, quiet Sun and coronal hole) in terms of profiles and absolute intensities at altitudes varying from 1.05 to 1.9 solar radius. These spectrophotometric results could help for the determination of the space and ground-based polarimetric instrumentation best suited for the measurement of the coronal magnetic field.

  19. Response of optical hydrogen lines to beam heating: I. Electron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kasparova, J; Heinzel, P; Karlicky, M; Moravec, Z

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of non-thermal electrons in the formation regions of Halpha, Hbeta, and Hgamma lines in order to unfold their influence on the formation of these lines. We concentrate on pulse-beam heating varying on a subsecond timescale. Furthermore, we theoretically explore possibility that a new diagnostic tool exists indicating the presence of non-thermal electrons in the flaring chromosphere based on observations of optical hydrogen lines. To model the evolution of the flaring atmosphere and the time-dependent hydrogen excitation and ionisation, we used a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic code combined with a test-particle code that simulates the propagation, scattering, and thermalisation of a power-law electron beam in order to obtain the flare heating and the non-thermal collisional rates due to the interaction of the beam with the hydrogen atoms. All calculated models have shown a time-correlated response of the modelled Balmer line intensities on a subsecond timescale, with a subsecond timelag beh...

  20. The X-Ray through Optical Fluxes and Line Strengths of Tidal Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We study the emission from tidal disruption events (TDEs) produced as radiation from black hole accretion propagates through an extended, optically thick envelope formed from stellar debris. We analytically describe key physics controlling spectrum formation, and present detailed radiative transfer calculations that model the spectral energy distribution and optical line strengths of TDEs near peak brightness. The steady-state transfer is coupled to a solver for the excitation and ionization states of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen (as a representative metal), without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how an extended envelope can reprocess a fraction of soft X-rays and produce the observed optical fluxes of the order of 1043 erg s‑1, with an optical/UV continuum that is not described by a single blackbody. Variations in the mass or size of the envelope may help explain how the optical flux changes over time with roughly constant color. For high enough accretion luminosities, X-rays can escape to be observed simultaneously with the optical flux. Due to optical depth effects, hydrogen Balmer line emission is often strongly suppressed relative to helium line emission (with He ii-to-H line ratios of at least 5:1 in some cases) even in the disruption of a solar-composition star. We discuss the implications of our results to understanding the type of stars destroyed in TDEs and the physical processes responsible for producing the observed flares.

  1. Active galactic nuclei at z ˜ 1.5 - II. Black hole mass estimation by means of broad emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    This is the second in a series of papers aiming to test how the mass (MBH), accretion rate (Ṁ) and spin (a*) of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) determine the observed properties of type I active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our project utilizes a sample of 39 unobscured AGN at z ≃ 1.55 observed by Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter, selected to map a large range in MBH and L/LEdd and covers the most prominent UV-optical (broad) emission lines, including Hα, Hβ, Mg II λ2798 and C IV λ1549. This paper focuses on single-epoch, `virial' MBH determinations from broad emission lines and examines the implications of different continuum modelling approaches in line width measurements. We find that using a local power-law continuum instead of a physically motivated thin disc continuum leads to only slight underestimation of the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the lines and the associated MBH(FWHM). However, the line dispersion σline and associated MBH(σline) are strongly affected by the continuum placement and provides less reliable mass estimates than FWHM-based methods. Our analysis shows that Hα, Hβ and Mg II can be safely used for virial MBH estimation. The C IV line, on the other hand, is not reliable in the majority of the cases; this may indicate that the gas emitting this line is not virialized. While Hα and Hβ show very similar line widths, the mean FWHM(Mg II) is about 30 per cent narrower than FWHM(Hβ). We confirm several recent suggestions to improve the accuracy in C IV-based mass estimates, relying on other UV emission lines. Such improvements do not reduce the scatter between C IV-based and Balmer-line-based mass estimates.

  2. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  3. Magnetic Diagnostics of the Chromosphere with the Mg II h-k Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Alemán, Tanausú del Pino; Sainz, Rafael Manso

    2016-01-01

    We developed a numerical code for polarized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel geometry that implements a recent formulation of partially coherent scattering by polarized multi-term atoms in arbitrary magnetic field regimes. This code allows the realistic modeling of the scattering polarization of important chromospheric lines, such as the Mg II h-k doublet, the Ca II H-K doublet and IR triplet, and lines of the H I Lyman and Balmer series. We present explicit results of the Mg II h-k doublet in a weakly magnetized atmosphere (20-100 G). These confirm the importance of partial redistribution effects in the formation of these lines, as pointed out by previous work in the non-magnetic case. We show that the presence of a magnetic field can produce measurable modifications of the broadband linear polarization even for relatively small field strengths (~10 G), while the circular polarization remains well represented by the classical magnetograph formula. Both these results open an important new window for the...

  4. Broad-line region kinematics and black hole mass in Markarian 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, V. T.; Sergeev, S. G.; Klimanov, S. A.; Pronik, V. I.; Efimov, Yu. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of optical spectral and photometric observations of the nucleus of Markarian 6 made with the 2.6-m Shajn telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. The continuum and emission Balmer-line intensities varied by more than a factor of two during 1992-2008. The lag between the continuum and Hβ emission-line flux variations is 21.1 ± 1.9 days. For the Hα line the lag is about 27 days, but its uncertainty is much larger. We use Monte Carlo simulations of random time series to check the effect of our data sampling on the lag uncertainties and we compare our simulation results with those obtained by the random subset selection (RSS) method of Peterson et al. The lags in the high-velocity wings are shorter than those in the line core in accordance with virial motion. However, the lag is slightly larger in the blue wing than in the red wing. This is a signature of infall gas motion. Probably the broad-line region kinematic in the Mrk 6 nucleus is a combination of Keplerian and infall motions. The velocity-delay dependence is similar for individual observational seasons. Measurements of the Hβ line width in combination with the reverberation lag permit us to determine the black hole mass, MBH = (1.8 ± 0.2) × 108 M⊙. This result is consistent with active galactic nucleus scaling relationships between the broad-line region radius and the optical continuum luminosity (RBLR ∝ L0.5) as well as with the black hole mass-luminosity relationship (MBH-L) under an Eddington luminosity ratio for Mrk 6 of Lbol/LEdd ˜ 0.01.

  5. REVERBERATION MAPPING OF A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE IN A NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of a reverberation mapping (RM) campaign on the low black hole mass narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy SDSS J113913.91+335551.1 (hereafter SL01). Using the Hβ measurements, we find a time lag τ= 12.5+0.5-11 days and a broad-line velocity width of 1450 km s–1 which implies a black hole mass of 3.8+0.6-2.8×106 M☉. To further bolster our time lag results, we employ a secondary method based on the multivariate correlation function as described in Chelouche and Zucker, in which case we obtain consistent lags for the Balmer lines, yet without the need to spectrally deconvolve line from continuum emission processes. Given SL01's luminosity (Lbol ≈ 7 × 1043 erg s–1), we estimate an Eddington ratio (Lbol/LEdd) of ∼0.18. This fairly low-mass determination and rather high Lbol/LEdd is consistent with the current paradigm that the nuclei of NLS1 galaxies host small black holes (as low as 106 M☉) with high accretion rates. SL01 is one of only a few NLS1s to date with robust RM results

  6. REVERBERATION MAPPING OF A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE IN A NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Kaspi, Shai; Sabach, Efrat; Karl, David; Behar, Ehud [Physics Department, The Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Chelouche, Doron, E-mail: rafter@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: shai@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il [Physics Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa (Israel)

    2013-08-10

    We present results of a reverberation mapping (RM) campaign on the low black hole mass narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy SDSS J113913.91+335551.1 (hereafter SL01). Using the H{beta} measurements, we find a time lag {tau}= 12.5{sup +0.5}{sub -11} days and a broad-line velocity width of 1450 km s{sup -1} which implies a black hole mass of 3.8{sup +0.6}{sub -2.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. To further bolster our time lag results, we employ a secondary method based on the multivariate correlation function as described in Chelouche and Zucker, in which case we obtain consistent lags for the Balmer lines, yet without the need to spectrally deconvolve line from continuum emission processes. Given SL01's luminosity (L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), we estimate an Eddington ratio (L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd}) of {approx}0.18. This fairly low-mass determination and rather high L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} is consistent with the current paradigm that the nuclei of NLS1 galaxies host small black holes (as low as 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) with high accretion rates. SL01 is one of only a few NLS1s to date with robust RM results.

  7. A spectroscopic analysis of a sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cracco, V; Berton, M; Di Mille, F; Foschini, L; La Mura, G; Rafanelli, P

    2016-01-01

    We revisited the spectroscopic characteristics of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by analysing a homogeneous sample of 296 NLS1s at redshift between 0.028 and 0.345, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7) public archive. We confirm that NLS1s are mostly characterized by Balmer lines with Lorentzian profiles, lower black hole masses and higher Eddington ratios than classic broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1s), but they also appear to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contiguous with BLS1s and sharing with them common properties. Strong Fe II emission does not seem to be a distinctive property of NLS1s, as low values of Fe II/H$\\beta$ are equally observed in these AGNs. Our data indicate that Fe II and Ca II kinematics are consistent with the one of H$\\beta$. On the contrary, O I $\\lambda$8446 seems to be systematically narrower and it is likely emitted by gas of the broad-line region more distant from the ionizing source and showing different physical properties. Finally, almost all NLS1s of our ...

  8. Revisiting correlations between broad-line and jet emission variations for AGNs: 3C 120 and 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Feng, H. C.; Li, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    We restudy the issue of cross-correlations between broad-line and jet emission variations, and aim to locate the position of a radio (and gamma-ray) emitting region in a jet of active galactic nuclei. Considering the radial profiles of the radius and number density of clouds in a spherical broad-line region (BLR), we derive new formulae connecting the jet-emitting position Rjet to the time lag τob between broad-line and jet emission variations, and the BLR radius. Also, formulae are derived for a disc-like BLR and a spherical shell BLR. The model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection method is used to estimate τob. For 3C 120, positive lags of about 0.3 yr are found between the 15 GHz emission and the Hβ, Hγ and He II λ4686 lines, including broad-line data in a newly published paper, indicating that the line variations lead the 15 GHz ones. Each of the broad-line light curves corresponds to a radio outburst. Rjet = 1.1-1.5 parsec (pc) is obtained for 3C 120. For 3C 273, a common feature of negative time lags is found in the cross-correlation functions between light curves of radio emission and the Balmer lines, as well as Lyα λ1216 and C IV λ1549 lines. Rjet = 1.0-2.6 pc is obtained for 3C 273. The estimated Rjet is comparable for 3C 120 and 3C 273, and the gamma-ray-emitting positions will be within ˜1-3 pc from the central engines. Comparisons show that the cloud number density and radius radial distributions and the BLR structures have only negligible effects on Rjet.

  9. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts ...

  10. Shocked POststarbust Galaxy Survey I: Candidate Poststarbust Galaxies with Emission Line Ratios Consistent with Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, Katherine; Rich, Jeffrey A; Appleton, Philip N; Kewley, Lisa J; Lacy, Mark; Lanz, Lauranne; Medling, Anne M; Nyland, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] There are many mechanisms by which galaxies can transform from blue, star-forming spirals to red, quiescent early-type galaxies, but our current census of them does not form a complete picture. Recent studies of nearby case studies seem to have identified a population of galaxies that quench "quietly." Traditional poststarburst searches seem to catch galaxies only after they have quenched and transformed, and thus miss any objects with additional ionization mechanisms exciting the remaining gas. The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) aims to identify galaxies in an earlier phase of transformation, in which the nebular lines are excited via shocks instead of through star formation processes. Utilizing the OSSY measurements on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, we applied Balmer absorption and shock boundary criteria to identify 1,067 SPOG candidates (SPOGs*) within z = 0.2. SPOGs* represent 0.7% of emission line galaxies (and 0.2% of OSSY). SPOGs* colors suggest that they ...

  11. The Last Line Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Karpov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only a few statements or lines. In this paper, we expose the “last line effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or statements. We

  12. An interpretation of hydrogen and helium line spectra of the loop prominence observed on November 3, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H sub(I), He sub(I), and He sub(II) emission lines of the loop prominence observed on November 3, 1973 in the rapidly developing phase are analyzed. The difference in widths of these lines suggests they do not originate in the same volume. The estimated T sub(e) (8000-9000 K) and n sub(e) (-- 2 x 1012cm-3) in the loop from the Balmer lines do not change appreciably with time everywhere in the loop during our observation (00 sup(h)40 sup(m)-01 sup(h)10 sup(m)UT). The degree of ionization of hydrogen is estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0. The ionizing mechanisms may be attributed to the UV radiation (lambda<=912A) from the underlying flare region. Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is approximately established in the excited levels of He sub(I), but the singlet levels are somewhat overpopulated. The UV radiation field (lambda<=504A) from the surrounding coronal condensation is estimated from microwave and X-ray flux measurements of S sub(OLRAD)9. The ionization of He sub(I) (ionization degree 0.1-0.2) is mainly controlled by UV radiation from the coronal condensation. An adequate thread structure model of the loop prominence is suggested. (auth.)

  13. Extinction and nebular line properties of a Herschel-selected lensed dusty starburst AT z=1.027

    CERN Document Server

    Timmons, Nicholas; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Casey, Caitlin; Calanog, Jae; Ma, Brian; Messias, Hugo; Baes, Maarten; Bussmann, R Shane; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve; Fu, Hai; Ivison, R J; Michałowski, Michał J; Oteo, I; Riechers, Dominik A; Wardlow, Julie

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy observations of the Herschel-selected gravitationally-lensed starburst galaxy HATLASJ1429-0028. The lensing system consists of an edge-on foreground disk galaxy at $z=0.218$ with a nearly complete Einstein ring of the infrared luminous galaxy at $z=1.027$. The WFC3 spectroscopy with G102 and G141 grisms, covering the wavelength range of 0.8 to 1.7 $\\mu$m, resulted in detections of H$\\alpha$+[NII], H$\\beta$, [SII], and [OIII] for the background galaxy from which we measure line fluxes and ratios. The Balmer line ratio H$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ of 7.5 $\\pm$ 4.4, when corrected for [NII], results in an extinction for the starburst galaxy of E(B-V)=0.8 $\\pm$ 0.5. The H$\\alpha$ based star-formation rate, when corrected for extinction, is 100 $\\pm$ 80 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, lower than the instantaneous star-formation rate of 390 $\\pm$ 90 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ from the total IR luminosity. We also compare the nebular line ratios of HATLASJ1429-0028...

  14. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: DISSECTING THE STAR FORMATION RATE VERSUS STELLAR MASS RELATION USING Hα AND Hβ EMISSION LINES AT z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Freeman, William R.; Groot, Laura de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Azadi, Mojegan [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We present results on the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation (i.e., the “main sequence”) among star-forming galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 2.61 using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 galaxies with Hα and Hβ spectroscopy, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous SFRs over a large range in M{sub *} (∼10{sup 9.5}–10{sup 11.5} M{sub ⊙}). We find a correlation between log(SFR(Hα)) and log(M{sub *}) with a slope of 0.65 ± 0.08 (0.58 ± 0.10) at 1.4 < z < 2.6 (2.1 < z < 2.6). We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as using the color excess of the stellar continuum to correct the nebular lines, sample selection biases against red star-forming galaxies, and not accounting for Balmer absorption, can yield steeper slopes of the log(SFR)–log(M{sub *}) relation. Our sample is immune from these biases as it is rest-frame optically selected, Hα and Hβ are corrected for Balmer absorption, and the Hα luminosity is dust corrected using the nebular color excess computed from the Balmer decrement. The scatter of the log(SFR(Hα))–log(M{sub *}) relation, after accounting for the measurement uncertainties, is 0.31 dex at 2.1 < z < 2.6, which is 0.05 dex larger than the scatter in log(SFR(UV))–log(M{sub *}). Based on comparisons to a simulated SFR–M{sub *} relation with some intrinsic scatter, we argue that in the absence of direct measurements of galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the attenuation/extinction curves and the initial mass function, one cannot use the difference in the scatter of the SFR(Hα)– and SFR(UV)–M{sub *} relations to constrain the stochasticity of star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  15. The spectroscopic evolution of the recurrent nova T Pyxidis during its 2011 outburst I. The optically thick phase and the origin of moving lines in novae

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; Ederoclite, A; Uthas, H

    2011-01-01

    The nova T Pyx was observed with high resolution spectroscopy (R ~ 65000) spectroscopy, beginning 1 day after discovery of the outburst and continuing through the last visibility of the star at the end of May 2011. The interstellar absorption lines of Na I, Ca II, CH, CH$^+$, and archival H I 21 cm emission line observations have been used to determine a kinematic distance. Interstellar diffuse absorption features have been used to determine the extinction independent of previous assumptions. Sample Fe-peak line profiles show the optical depth and radial velocity evolution of the discrete components. We propose a distance to T Pyx $\\geq$4.5kpc, with a strict lower limit of 3.5 kpc (the previously accepted distance). We derive an extinction, E(B-V)$\\approx0.5\\pm$0.1, that is higher than previous estimates. The first observation, Apr. 15, displayed He I, He II, C III, and N III emission lines and a maximum velocity on P Cyg profiles of the Balmer and He I lines of $\\approx$2500 km s$^{-1}$ characteristic of the...

  16. Peripheral intravenous line (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peripheral intravenous line is a small, short plastic catheter that is placed through the skin into a vein, ... or foot, but occasionally in the head. A peripheral intravenous line is used to give fluids and ...

  17. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  18. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    humidity. Contrary to the usual assumptions it was found that wax-resin linings on linen canvas responded to high relative humidity (RH) with higher contraction forces than was the case before lining. The contraction was evident at RH levels as low as 65%. Because the adhesive fills the voids in the linen...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...... canvas (both the original and the lining canvas), the contraction due to fiber swelling was immediate. There is some evidence that the same observation applies for liquid Beva in linen canvas. The results showed further, that glue-paste lining on a linen canvas offered significant support to a painting...

  19. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  20. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  1. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  2. GRB hosts through cosmic time - VLT/X-shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 GRB-selected galaxies at 0.1 < z < 3.6

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Hartoog, O E; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Perley, D A; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Tanvir, N R; Vergani, S D; Wiersema, K; Afonso, P M J; Bolmer, J; Cano, Z; Covino, S; D'Elia, V; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Filgas, R; Friis, M; Graham, J F; Greiner, J; Goldoni, P; Gomboc, A; Hammer, F; Japelj, J; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Klose, S; Levan, A J; Leloudas, G; Milvang-Jensen, B; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Palazzi, E; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Savaglio, S; Selsing, J; Tagliaferri, G; Vreeswijk, P M; Watson, D J; Xu, D

    2015-01-01

    We present data and initial results from VLT/X-shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 GRB-selected galaxies at 0.1Balmer and/or forbidden lines of oxygen, nitrogen and neon, we measure systemic redshifts, star-formation rates, visual attenuations (A_V), oxygen abundances and emission-line widths (sigma). We find a strong change of the typical physical properties of GRB hosts with redshift. The median SFR, for example, increases from ~0.6 M_sun/yr at z~0.6 up to ~15 M_sun/yr at z~2. A higher ratio of [OIII]/[OII] at higher redshifts leads to an increasing distance of GRB-selected galaxies to the locus of local galaxies in the BPT diagram. Oxygen abundances of the galaxies are distributed between 12+log(O/H)=7.9 and 12+log(O/H)=9.0 with a median of 12+log(O/H)~8.5. The fraction of GRB-selected galaxies with super-solar metallic...

  3. Galactic nebular lines in the fiber spectra of background QSOs: Reaching a hundred QSO-galaxy pairs with spectroscopic and photometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Straka, Lorrie; Srianand, Raghunathan; Nutalaya, Songkiat; Kulkarni, Varsha P; Khare, Pushpa; Bowen, David; Bishof, Michael; York, Donald G

    2014-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic measurements of 53 QSO-galaxy pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, where nebular emission lines from a 0Balmer emission lines allows us to determine the emission line metallicities for our sample, which are on average super-solar in value. Star formation rates for our sample are in the range 0.01-12 M_sol yr^-1. We utilize photometric redshift fitting techniques to estimate the M_stellar values of our galaxies (log M_stellar = 7.34 - 11.54), and extrapolate this relationship to those galaxies with no imaging detections. Where available, we measure the absorption features present in the QSO spectrum due to the foreground galaxy and the relationships be...

  4. Spatially Resolved WFC3/Grism Spectral Line Imaging of Gravitational Lensed Herschel-selected Luminous Dusty Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2013-10-01

    We propose WFC3 G102 and G141 grism spectral imaging of two gravitationally lensed dusty, starburst galaxies found with the 600 square degree Herschel-ATLAS survey. One galaxy is the brightest {both in far-IR at 250 micron and in near-IR in J/K-band}, while the second is the largest {11 arcsec on the sky} of the lensed sub-mm galaxies in a sample of 200 imaged with WFC3/F110W. The two galaxies are at redshifts that are optimal for grism observations with HST/WFC3. The lensing flux magnification and spatial enhancement makes them very unique for the study proposed hereand will increase the number of lensed galaxies imaged in spectral lines with WFC3 grisms to three from existing single serendipitous lens studied in HST-3D survey. With WFC3 grism spectra taken in a specific orientation to minimize foreground and lensing galaxy confusion we can map each of these galaxies in a variety of spatially-resolved spectral lines in the rest-frame optical, including impostant Balmer lines for studies on the interstellar medium. The grism spectra will allow us to determine the gas-phase metallicities of these two galaxies and to study the extinction of optically-thin regions compared to direct sub-mm emission seen in interferometric continuum images of optically thick dust in starbursting knots and clumps. With spatial resolution provided by gravitational lensing combined with HST/WFC3 resolution, we will be able to study the dependence of line ratios in high density/SFR regions to low dense diffuse environments.

  5. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  6. Illustrating the Euler Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubillo, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Euler's discovery about the centroid of a triangle trisecting the line segment joining its circumference to its orthocenter is discussed. An activity that will help students review fundamental concepts is included. (MNS)

  7. Veterans Crisis Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  8. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  9. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography...

  10. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  11. Product Line Design

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Simon P.; Celik, Levent

    2014-01-01

    We characterize the product line choice and pricing of a monopolist as the upper envelope of net marginal revenue curves to the individual product demand functions. The equilibrium product varieties to include in a product line are those yielding the highest upper envelope. In a central case (corresponding to a generalized vertical differentiation framework), the equilibrium range of varieties is exactly the same as the first-best socially optimal range. These upper envelope and first-best op...

  12. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey XX. The nature of the X-ray bright emission line star VFTS 399

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J S; Broos, P S; Townsley, L K; Taylor, W D; Walborn, N R; Bird, A J; Sana, H; de Mink, S E; Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Schneider, F R N; Soszyński, I

    2015-01-01

    The stellar population of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains a subset of apparently single, rapidly rotating O-type stars. The physical processes leading to the formation of this cohort are currently uncertain. One member of this group, the late O-type star VFTS 399, is found to be unexpectedly X-ray bright for its bolometric luminosity - in this study we aim to determine its physical nature and the cause of this behaviour. We find VFTS 399 to be an aperiodic photometric variable with an apparent near-IR excess. Its optical spectrum demonstrates complex emission profiles in the lower Balmer series and select HeI lines - taken together these suggest an OeBe classification. The highly variable X-ray luminosity is too great to be produced by a single star, while the hard, non-thermal nature suggests the presence of an accreting relativistic companion. Finally, the detection of periodic modulation of the X-ray lightcurve is most naturally explained under the assumption that ...

  13. Embedded star formation in the extended narrow line region of Centaurus A: extreme mixing observed by MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Santoro, F; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A; Tadhunter, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the complex ionization structure in a small (~250 pc) extended narrow line region (ENLR) cloud near Centaurus A using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. This cloud is located in the so-called outer filament of ionized gas (about 15 kpc from the nucleus) where jet-induced star formation has been suggested to occur by different studies. We find that, despite the small size, a mixture of ionization mechanisms is operating, resulting in considerable complexity in the spatial ionization structure. The area includes two H II regions where star formation is occurring and another location where star formation must have ceased very recently. Interestingly, the extreme Balmer decrement of one of the star forming regions (H_alpha/H_beta~6) indicates that it is still heavily embedded in its natal cocoon of gas and dust. At all three locations a continuum counterpart is found with spectra matching those of O/B stars local to Centaurus A. The H II regions are embedded in a larger gas comp...

  14. Hydrogen Spectral Line Shape Formation in the SOL of Fusion Reactor Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery S. Lisitsa

    2014-05-01

    for description of neutral atoms penetration into plasma is suggested. The method is based on the ballistic motion of neutrals along the line-of-sight (LoS in the forward–back approximation. As a result, two-dimensional distribution functions, dependent on the LoS coordinate and the velocity projection on the LoS, and responsible for the Doppler broadening of the line shape, are calculated. A comparison of the method with Monte Carlo calculations allows the evaluation of the accuracy of the ballistic model. The Balmer spectral line shapes are calculated for specific LoS typical for ITER diagnostics.

  15. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  16. On the black hole mass of the gamma-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, H; Balokovic, M; Kynoch, D; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Boisson, C; Done, C; Schimoia, J; Stern, D

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies have been identified by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope as a rare class of gamma-ray emitting active galactic nuclei (AGN). The lowest-redshift candidate among them is the source 1H 0323+342. Here we present quasi-simultaneous Gemini near-infrared and Keck optical spectroscopy for it, from which we derive a black hole mass based on both the broad Balmer and Paschen emission lines. We supplement these observations with a NuSTAR X-ray spectrum taken about two years earlier, from which we constrain the black hole mass based on the short timescale spectral variability. Our multiwavelength observations suggest a black hole mass of ~2x10^7 solar masses, which agrees well with previous estimates. We build the spectral energy distribution and show that it is dominated by the thermal and reprocessed emission from the accretion disc rather than the non-thermal jet component. A detailed spectral fitting with the energy-conserving accretion disc model of Done et al. constrains the Eddin...

  17. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible...... reduction into an assertion, that we can retain the heterogeneity of material though the process of abstraction. We are comfortable with this relationship, we understand it; it is such a compelling process that when we draw, we become absorbed by the simplicity of the event....

  18. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Wei; Li Yan

    2014-09-01

    The particles energy distribution is derived directly from the () line shape, which is measured by two sets of OMA. The dissociative excitation of molecular is dominating when the local electron temperature is > 10 eV. The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is discussed in SOL, the power loss from molecular dissociation is 6 × 104 kW at SOL.

  19. Building with a Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  20. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication w...... self-evident cultural patterns that impede the gender balance in academia....

  1. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig;

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  2. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  3. Redrawing the Poverty Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new threshold means more than 100 million impoverished people will be eligible for government assistance as China continues to battle poverty The Chinese Government has decided to set the nation’s poverty line at an annual per-capita net income

  4. Mixed lubricated line contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, Irinel Cosmin

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is ess

  5. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  6. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  7. Formation depths of Fraunhofer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtovenko, E A

    2015-01-01

    We have summed up our investigations performed in 1970--1993. The main task of this paper is clearly to show processes of formation of spectral lines as well as their distinction by validity and by location. For 503 photospheric lines of various chemical elements in the wavelength range 300--1000 nm we list in Table the average formation depths of the line depression and the line emission for the line centre and on the half-width of the line, the average formation depths of the continuum emission as well as the effective widths of the layer of the line depression formation. Dependence of average depths of line depression formation on excitation potential, equivalent widths, and central line depth are demonstrated by iron lines.

  8. by Lifting Line Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Dumitrescu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The vortex model of propellers is modified and applied to the high-speed horizontal axis turbines. The turbine blades are replaced by lifting lines and trailing vortices which shed along the blade span. The model is not a free wake model, but it is still a nonlinear one which should be solved iteratively. In addition to the regular case where the trailing vortices are constrained to distribute along a helical surface, another version, where each trailing vortex sheding from the blade grows as a free helical vortex line, is also included. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are, shown to compare favorably with existing numerical data from more involved free wake methods, but require less computational effort. Thereby, the present method may be a very useful tool for calculating the aerodynamic loads on horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.

  9. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  10. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  11. Line managers as marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications. PMID:10277616

  12. Lines in hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Beaudou, Laurent; Chen, Xiaomin; Chiniforooshan, Ehsan; Chudnovsky, Maria; Chvatal, Vasek; Fraiman, Nicolas; Zwols, Yori

    2011-01-01

    One of the De Bruijn - Erdos theorems deals with finite hypergraphs where every two vertices belong to precisely one hyperedge. It asserts that, except in the perverse case where a single hyperedge equals the whole vertex set, the number of hyperedges is at least the number of vertices and the two numbers are equal if and only if the hypergraph belongs to one of simply described families, near-pencils and finite projective planes. Chen and Chvatal proposed to define the line uv in a 3-uniform hypergraph as the set of vertices that consists of u, v, and all w such that {u,v,w} is a hyperedge. With this definition, the De Bruijn - Erdos theorem is easily seen to be equivalent to the following statement: If no four vertices in a 3-uniform hypergraph carry two or three hyperedges, then, except in the perverse case where one of the lines equals the whole vertex set, the number of lines is at least the number of vertices and the two numbers are equal if and only if the hypergraph belongs to one of two simply descri...

  13. Line drawing interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The computer interpretation of line drawings is a classic problem in AI and has inspired the development of some fundamental AI tools. This novel approach to drawing interpretation combines new constraints with recent advances in soft constraint programming, Based on the author's considerable research experience, this book contains state-of-the-art reviews of work in drawing interpretation and discrete optimisation and is not just restricted to drawings of polyhedral objects, but also covers complex curved objects. The book will become a standard reference in the field with its coverage of man

  14. Worldlines as Wilson Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Daniel; /SLAC /Stanford U., Dept. Phys.

    2008-04-29

    Gravitational theories do not admit gauge invariant local operators. We study the limits under which there exists a quasi-local description for a class of non-local gravitational observables where a sum over worldlines plays the role of the Wilson line for gauge theory observables. We study non-local corrections to the local description and circumstances where these corrections become large. We find that these operators are quasi-local in at space and AdS, but fail to be quasi-local in de Sitter space.

  15. Supersymmetric Open Wilson Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Edward B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study Open Wilson Lines (OWL's) in the context of two Supersymmetric Yang Mills theories. First we consider four dimensional N=2 Supersymmetric Yang Mills Theory with hypermultiplets transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, and find supersymmetric OWL's only in the superconformal versions of these theories. We then consider four dimensional N=4 SYM coupled to a three dimensional defect hypermultiplet. Here there is a semi-circular supersymmetric OWL, which is related to the ray by a conformal transformation. We perform a perturbative calculation of the operators in both theories, and discuss using localization to compute them non-perturbatively.

  16. Diccionarios on line

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya Anegón, Félix; Muñoz, J. M.; Hipola, Pedro

    1986-01-01

    Son conocidas las prestaciones de los diccionarios "on line " en tanto que herramientas para el análisis a automatico de documentación textual, l a elaboración de productos de indización, para la traducción asistida por ordenador (TAO) y para la preparación de léxicos especializados. Como útiles del análisis automático, los diccionarios pueden constituir, en primer lugar, instrumentos para automatizar los procesos de reducción de las diferentes formas lingüísticas flexion...

  17. Detection of Broad H$\\alpha$ Emission Lines in the Late-time Spectra of a Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Lin; Ofek, E; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P; Leloudas, G; de Cia, A; Masci, F; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, P R; Yaron, O

    2015-01-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This eje...

  18. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  19. PHIL photoinjector test line

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, M; Auguste, D; Babigeon, J L; Blot, F; Brossard, J; Bruni, C; Cavalier, S; Cayla, J N; Chaumat, V; Collin, J; Dehamme, M; Demarest, M; Dugal, J P; Elkhaldi, M; Falleau, I; Gonnin, A; Jore, M; Jules, E; Leluan, B; Lepercq, P; Letellier, F; Mandag, E; Marrucho, J C; Mercier, B; Mistretta, E; Prevost, C; Roux, R; Soskov, V; Toutain, A; Variola, A; Vitez, O; Monard, H

    2012-01-01

    LAL is now equiped with its own platform for photoinjectors tests and Research and Developement, named PHIL (PHotoInjectors at LAL). This facility has two main purposes: push the limits of the photoinjectors performances working on both the design and the associated technology and provide a low energy (MeV) short pulses (ps) electron beam for the interested users. Another very important goal of this machine will be to provide an opportunity to form accelerator physics students, working in a high technology environment. To achieve this goal a test line was realised equipped with an RF source, magnets and beam diagnostics. In this article we will desrcibe the PHIL beamline and its characteristics together with the description of the first two photoinjector realised in LAL and tested: the ALPHAX and the PHIN RF Guns.

  20. PHIL photoinjector test line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAL is now equiped with its own platform for photoinjectors tests and Research and Developement, named PHIL (PHotoInjectors at LAL). This facility has two main purposes: push the limits of the photoinjectors performances working on both the design and the associated technology and provide a low energy (MeV) short pulses (ps) electron beam for the interested users. Another very important goal of this machine will be to provide an opportunity to form accelerator physics students, working in a high technology environment. To achieve this goal a test line was realised equipped with an RF source, magnets and beam diagnostics. In this article we will describe the PHIL beamline and its characteristics together with the description of the first two photoinjector realised in LAL and tested: the ALPHAX and the PHIN RF Guns.

  1. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...... of a political community. This chapter contends that this shift of focus--from a 'what' question to a 'who' question of justice (Nancy Fraser)--is a recurrent feature in modern disaster fiction, not just in Kleist's short story but also, for instance, in zombie movies. First, the chapter explores the act...... to understanding the question of justice in much disaster fiction. Third and last, the chapter discusses the relationship between the reader's aesthetic experience of Kleist's story, and the political act of judgement represented in the story: in other words, the relationship between the ‘how’ question of literary...

  2. Illumination by Tangent Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Let f be a differentiable function on the real line, and let P\\inG_{f}^{C}= all points not on the graph of f. We say that the illumination index of P, denoted by I_{f}(P), is k if there are k distinct tangents to the graph of f which pass through P. In section 2 we prove results about the illumination index of f with f" (x)\\geq 0 on \\Re. In particular, suppose that y=L_1(x) and y=L_2(x) are distinct oblique asymptotes of f and let P=(s,t)\\in G_{f}^{C}. If max(L_1(s),L_2(s))

  3. Understanding Slag Freeze Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2014-09-01

    Slag freeze linings, the formation of protective deposit layers on the inner walls of furnaces and reactors, are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to ensure that furnace integrity is maintained in these aggressive, high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat transfer considerations. These thermal models have assumed that the interface between the stationary frozen layer and the agitated molten bath at steady-state deposit thickness consists of the primary phase, which stays in contact with the bulk liquid at the liquidus temperature. Recent experimental studies, however, have clearly demonstrated that the temperature of the deposit/liquid bath interface can be lower than the liquidus temperature of the bulk liquid. A conceptual framework has been proposed to explain the observations and the factors influencing the microstructure and the temperature of the interface at steady-state conditions. The observations are consistent with a dynamic steady state that is a balance between (I) the rate of nucleation and growth of solids on detached crystals in a subliquidus layer as this fluid material moves toward the stagnant deposit interface and (II) the dissolution of these detached crystals as they are transported away from the interface by turbulent eddies. It is argued that the assumption that the interface temperature is the liquidus of the bulk material represents only a limiting condition, and that the interface temperature can be between T liquidus and T solidus depending on the process conditions and bath chemistry. These findings have implications for the modeling approach and boundary conditions required to accurately describe these systems. They also indicate the opportunity to integrate considerations of heat and mass flows with the selection of melt chemistries in the design of future high temperature industrial reactors.

  4. Railroad Lines, Line feature class representing individual Railroad rail lines, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Line feature class representing individual...

  5. Constructing the Virtual Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙连胜; 宁汝新

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the constructing technology of virtual production line, the structure model of virtual production line was presented, and the object-oriented technique was used to establish its basic classes and relevant models, including solid model, behavior model and object-oriented Petri net based control model, and based on this, the constructing of virtual production line was realized. The application proved that the virtual production line had many good characteristics, such as visualization, interaction, multi-layer and reusability, and it's an efficient tool of analyzing and modeling for layout planning and rapidly reconfiguring of production line.

  6. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (DMID) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  8. The broad emission-line region: the confluence of the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, M. R.; Korista, K. T.; Ruff, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the observational characteristics of a class of broad emission line region (BLR) geometries that connect the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty toroidal obscuring region (TOR). We suggest that the BLR consists of photoionized gas of densities which allow for efficient cooling by ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission lines and of incident continuum fluxes which discourage the formation of grains, and that such gas occupies the range of distance and scale height between the continuum-emitting accretion disc and the dusty TOR. As a first approximation, we assume a population of clouds illuminated by ionizing photons from the central source, with the scale height of the illuminated clouds growing with increasing radial distance, forming an effective surface of a 'bowl'. Observer lines of sight which peer into the bowl lead to a Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) spectrum. We assume that the gas dynamics are dominated by gravity, and we include in this model the effects of transverse Doppler shift (TDS), gravitational redshift (GR) and scale-height-dependent macroturbulence. Our simple model reproduces many of the commonly observed phenomena associated with the central regions of AGN, including (i) the shorter than expected continuum-dust delays (geometry), (ii) the absence of response in the core of the optical recombination lines on short time-scales (geometry/photoionization), (iii) an enhanced redwing response on short time-scales (GR and TDS), (iv) the observed differences between the delays for high- and low-ionization lines (photoionization), (v) identifying one of the possible primary contributors to the observed line widths for near face-on systems even for purely transverse motion (GR and TDS), (vi) a mechanism responsible for producing Lorentzian profiles (especially in the Balmer and Mg II emission lines) in low-inclination systems (turbulence), (vii) the absence of significant continuum-emission-line delays between the

  9. EC Transmission Line Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH and CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. (Ref. 2) Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  10. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  11. Signal Transmission on Power Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of power-line networks over a large frequency span, the time-domain method used in programs like EMTP (Electromagnetic Time domain Program) can not be used. A more rigorous analysis method must be employed. The correct analysis method (assuming TEM-mode propagation) for multiple...... coupled transmission line circuits like power line circuits, is based on finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the matrix ZY, where Z and Y are the impedance- and admittance matrices for the coupled lines in W/m and S/m. In this paper a flow-graph representation of the relations beween voltage......- and current-vectors is presented for a general coupled line circuit. This flow-graph can be used to find any transfer function on a multiple coupled lossy transmission line circuit. In some cases, however, it is difficult to find the eigenvalues correctly. A correct analysis can thus not be made...

  12. Embedded star formation in the extended narrow line region of Centaurus A: Extreme mixing observed by MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, F.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Tadhunter, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present a detailed study of the complex ionization structure in a small (~250 pc) extended narrow line region (ENLR) cloud near Centaurus A using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. This cloud is located in the so-called outer filament of ionized gas (about 15 kpc from the nucleus) where jet-induced star formation has been suggested to occur by different studies. We find that, despite the small size, a mixture of ionization mechanisms is operating, resulting in considerable complexity in the spatial ionization structure. The area includes two H ii regions where star formation is occurring and another location where star formation must have ceased very recently. Interestingly, the extreme Balmer decrement of one of the star forming regions (Hα/Hβobs ~ 6) indicates that it is still heavily embedded in its natal cocoon of gas and dust. At all three locations a continuum counterpart is found with spectra matching those of O/B stars local to Centaurus A. The H ii regions are embedded in a larger gas complex which is photoionized by the radiation of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), but the O/B stars affect the spatial ionization pattern in the ENLR cloud very locally. In particular, in the surroundings of the youngest star forming region, we can isolate a tight mixing sequence in the diagnostic diagram going from gas with ionization due to a pure stellar continuum to gas only photoionized by the AGN. These results emphasize the complexity and the mixture of processes occurring in star forming regions under the influence of an AGN radiation. This is relevant for our understanding of AGN-induced star formation suggested to occur in a number of objects, including this region of Centaurus A. They also illustrate that these young stars influence the gas over only a limited region.

  13. A Line Demarcating Greenwich Village

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Kevin Yang-Cheng

    1997-01-01

    The trail of the artifact is an anonymous line on a tourist map of Manhattan. It delimits the boundary, separates the inner and outer, and occupies space. This occupied space juxtaposing the edge of Greenwich Village is an invisible and a undetermined line in the city. Architecture is the result of thinking of object as act, as transformation, and as invention. The project searches, explores, and makes this line present.

  14. Waiting Lines and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Sridhar

    2001-01-01

    The paper points out certain quantitative methods largely ignored by library service providers, highlights the importance of customer participation in service delivery process, examines the concepts service quality and customer satisfaction, emphasizes the need for appropriately handling waiting lines in service organisations, presents briefly the theory of waiting lines (queuing theory), psychology of customers in waiting lines with illustrations from library situations, discusses ways and m...

  15. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively; discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice; describe quality assurance procedures for these devices, and discuss the use of portal imaging devices for dosimetry applications. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. However, the task is not nearly as straight-forward as it sounds. One problem

  16. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  17. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint... Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service...

  18. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to review the physics of imaging with high energy x-ray beams; examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine errors in patient positioning quantitatively; and discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice. Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Checks of patient positioning have generally been done with film, however, film suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as poor image display and delays due to film development. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems, which are intended to overcome the limitations of portal films. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The fundamental factors which limit image quality and the characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same

  19. What was the Assembly Line?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    2010-01-01

    The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."......The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."...

  20. Magnetic bearing optical delay line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task.

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven technol

  2. Forecasting for dynamic line rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiorri, Andrea; Nguyen, Huu-Minh; Alessandrini, Stefano;

    2015-01-01

    Rating (DLR) is a technology used to dynamically increase the ampacity of electric overhead transmission lines. It is based on the observation that the ampacity of an overhead line is determined by its ability to dissipate into the environment the heat produced by Joule effect. This in turn is dependent...

  3. Wiswesser Line Notation: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Wiswesser Line Notation, a system for representing structural formulas by a single line of common symbols (numerals, capital letters, and three punctuation marks), is gaining acceptance as an effective indexing tool. The resulting notations, denoting specific structural fragments of a molecule, can be retrieved by humans or computer. (Author/JN)

  4. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence–accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up.

  5. Line ratios for O VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New theoretical rates for electron excitation of the transitions 11S-23P and 11S-23P in O VII are used to calculate the line ratios R0 (forbidden line to intercombination line) and G0 (forbidden plus intercombination lines to resonance line). Our theoretical values of R0 are slightly larger than earlier calculations but our values of G0 are significantly lower than the earlier calculations. With our results the value of G0 1.0, from the solar observations of McKenzie and Landecker, would predict an electron temperature of 2.0 x 106 K, which is in good agreement with the temperature of 1.8 x 106 K predicted by recombination-ionization equilibrium calculations. (author)

  6. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  7. SHORT-TIMESCALE MONITORING OF THE X-RAY, UV, AND BROAD DOUBLE-PEAK EMISSION LINE OF THE NUCLEUS OF NGC 1097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Campus do Vale, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupe, Dirk [Space Science Center, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Baldwin, Jack A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Nemmen, Rodrigo S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Winge, Cláudia, E-mail: silva.schimoia@ufrgs.br [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-10

    Recent studies have suggested that the short-timescale (≲ 7 days) variability of the broad (∼10,000 km s{sup –1}) double-peaked Hα profile of the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097 could be driven by a variable X-ray emission from a central radiatively inefficient accretion flow. To test this scenario, we have monitored the NGC 1097 nucleus in X-ray and UV continuum with Swift and the Hα flux and profile in the optical spectrum using SOAR and Gemini-South from 2012 August to 2013 February. During the monitoring campaign, the Hα flux remained at a very low level—three times lower than the maximum flux observed in previous campaigns and showing only limited (∼20%) variability. The X-ray variations were small, only ∼13% throughout the campaign, while the UV did not show significant variations. We concluded that the timescale of the Hα profile variation is close to the sampling interval of the optical observations, which results in only a marginal correlation between the X-ray and Hα fluxes. We have caught the active galaxy nucleus in NGC 1097 in a very low activity state, in which the ionizing source was very weak and capable of ionizing just the innermost part of the gas in the disk. Nonetheless, the data presented here still support the picture in which the gas that emits the broad double-peaked Balmer lines is illuminated/ionized by a source of high-energy photons which is located interior to the inner radius of the line-emitting part of the disk.

  8. Shocked POststarbust Galaxy Survey. I. Candidate Post-starbust Galaxies with Emission Line Ratios Consistent with Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Cales, Sabrina L.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Appleton, Philip N.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Lanz, Lauranne; Medling, Anne M.; Nyland, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    There are many mechanisms by which galaxies can transform from blue, star-forming spirals, to red, quiescent early-type galaxies, but our current census of them does not form a complete picture. Recent observations of nearby case studies have identified a population of galaxies that quench “quietly.” Traditional poststarburst searches seem to catch galaxies only after they have quenched and transformed, and thus miss any objects with additional ionization mechanisms exciting the remaining gas. The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) aims to identify transforming galaxies, in which the nebular lines are excited via shocks instead of through star formation processes. Utilizing the Oh-Sarzi-Schawinski-Yi (OSSY) measurements on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, we applied Balmer absorption and shock boundary criteria to identify 1067 SPOG candidates (SPOGs*) within z = 0.2. SPOGs* represent 0.2% of the OSSY sample galaxies that exceed the continuum signal-to-noise cut (and 0.7% of the emission line galaxy sample). SPOGs* colors suggest that they are in an earlier phase of transition than OSSY galaxies that meet an “E+A” selection. SPOGs* have a 13% 1.4 GHz detection rate from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters Survey, higher than most other subsamples, and comparable only to low-ionization nuclear emission line region hosts, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SPOGs* also have stronger Na i D absorption than predicted from the stellar population, suggestive of cool gas being driven out in galactic winds. It appears that SPOGs* represent an earlier phase in galaxy transformation than traditionally selected poststarburst galaxies, and that a large proportion of SPOGs* also have properties consistent with disruption of their interstellar media, a key component to galaxy transformation. It is likely that many of the known pathways to transformation undergo a SPOG phase. Studying this sample of

  9. In-line hydraulic dashpot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1992-10-01

    An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

  10. Digital Line Graph - Large Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLGs of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  11. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  12. Transmission line model for nanoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Nelin E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical expressions for resonant parametres and characteristics of typical barrier nanoelectronic structures have been received on the basis of the transmission line model. Characteristics illustrating the efficiency of such approach are presented in the article.

  13. Transmission line model for nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin E. A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical expressions for resonant parametres and characteristics of typical barrier nanoelectronic structures have been received on the basis of the transmission line model. Characteristics illustrating the efficiency of such approach are presented in the article.

  14. Composite Materials in Overhead Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The use of composite materials, e.g. fibreglass materials, in overhead transmission line systems is nothing new. Composite based insulators have been applied to transmission lines for over 30 years, mainly as suspension and post insulators and often as an option for special applications. Also...... towers and recently conductors based on composite materials are available at transmission levels. In this paper it is investigated which composite based solutions are available in connection with complete overhead line systems including insulators, towers and conductors. The components are reviewed...... with respect to solved and persisting known failures/problems of both mechanical and electrical nature. Major challenges related to extensive use of composite materials in an overhead line system are identified, as are possible benefits - both when using standard as well as customised composite components, e...

  15. Transmission Lines Emulating Moving Media

    CERN Document Server

    Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a "moving" transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of composite right/left handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

  16. Control Point Generated PLS - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  17. Shielding of moving line charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Youmei; He, Bingyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yu, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, M.Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-07-03

    A charged object moving in plasma can excite plasma waves that inevitably modify its Debye shielding characteristics. When the excited waves propagate sufficiently fast, the shielding can even break down. Here the properties of finite amplitude plasma waves excited by a moving line charge are investigated. It is found that when the speed of the latter is close to but less than the thermal speed of the background plasma electrons, only a localized disturbance in the form of a soliton that moves together with the line charge is excited. That is, the line charge is well shielded even though it is moving at a high speed and has generated a large local electrostatic field. However, for a pair of line charges moving together, such complete shielding behavior could not be found.

  18. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  19. COSCO Container Lines Forging Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHaiyang

    2001-01-01

    COSCO Container Lines (COSCON) now has 107 container ships with a total capacity of over 210000 TEUs, six 5250TEU Super Panama container ships being the most advanced ships in the world. Operating in over 20 global shipping lines with ships calling over 100 ports in the world,COSCON is now one of the largest international shipping companies. With over 40 subsidiaries operating on shore, COSCON has become a comprehensive enterprise with international shipping as its main business.

  20. Horizontes del periodismo on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizy Navarro Zamora

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the development of on line newspapers, their future, the promises which were fulfilled and those which were not. I study the finacial aspect of it, also the problem of concerningreception and the devices for it are considered. There are some considerations about the cyberjournalist, and about the contents, finally there are some advantages and recommendations concerning of on-line papers.

  1. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  2. Petrol Pipe Line Telemonitoring Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petrol pipe lines are subjected to different types of malfunction. The malfunction can happen due to technical faults or it may be due to a gangsters attack on the petrol pipes in order to hinder the petrol pumping operations.. The damage of the petrol pipes causes a loss of a large amount of petrol from the pipe lines. Petrol pipe damage also causes fires and pollution to the environments . Such operations causes a lot of loss in economy to the country concerned where the sabotage took place. This paper sheds the light on this challenging issue to steady and propose an intelligent electronic circuit design solutions to this problem. An electronic circuit design based on using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is proposed as a processor to control the petrol pipe lines. A real time monitoring cameras are installed to fulfill this task .The system design is programmable (i.e intelligent and hence the electronic actions established in the design can be modified easily..A personnel computer is used to capture the images from the cameras installed on the petrol pipe line. If any damage or attack is noticed a commands can be initiated to the electronic and electrical devices to stop the pumping operation and to close the petrol pipe line immediately. Many electrically controlled pipe closing valves are to be installed along the pipe line. These electronic closing valves are remotely controlled by the embedded system based on the (FPGA.

  3. Gamma-ray line transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early interpretations of the variability of the narrow 0.511 MeV annihilation line from the Galactic center (GC) were confused by the unrecognized presence of a very extended component (mid 70s-mid 80s). Transient behavior was suggested by comparisons of measurements made by instruments with comparable fields of view, and by detection of other lines which could be interpreted as broadened and Doppler-shifted versions of the line. A new generation of instruments (late 80s-early 90s) provided more compelling evidence, by improved imaging capability (identifying a known transient high-energy candidate source, 1E 1740.7-2942), and by improved sensitivity. Additional broadened, shifted, and Compton-scattered derivatives of the annihilation line were detected from this and other sources. At the same time, theoretical developments suggested exciting new physics which might arise in the accretion regimes around black holes, of which these features would be important diagnostics. In the GRO era the existence of such transient lines has been brought into question by the failure of long-term monitoring to detect them. A seemingly critical observation of the GC by three different instruments simultaneously, in which transient emission was detected only by one, provides the strongest evidence that the earlier results were in error. Recent developments in accretion disk theory have weakened the theoretical case for the lines. I draw conclusions concerning the nature of scientific inquiry and public outreach efforts in science

  4. Line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collange, Sylvain; Daumas, Marc; Defour, David

    2008-01-01

    We report here on software that performs line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on gases. Elaborate models (such as narrow band and correlated-K) are accurate and efficient for bands where various components are not simultaneously and significantly active. Line-by-line is probably the most accurate model in the infrared for blends of gases that contain high proportions of H 2O and CO 2 as this was the case for our prototype simulation. Our implementation on graphics processing units sustains a speedup close to 330 on computation-intensive tasks and 12 on memory intensive tasks compared to implementations on one core of high-end processors. This speedup is due to data parallelism, efficient memory access for specific patterns and some dedicated hardware operators only available in graphics processing units. It is obtained leaving most of processor resources available and it would scale linearly with the number of graphics processing units in parallel machines. Line-by-line simulation coupled with simulation of fluid dynamics was long believed to be economically intractable but our work shows that it could be done with some affordable additional resources compared to what is necessary to perform simulations on fluid dynamics alone. Program summaryProgram title: GPU4RE Catalogue identifier: ADZY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 62 776 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 513 247 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: x86 PC Operating system: Linux, Microsoft Windows. Compilation requires either gcc/g++ under Linux or Visual C++ 2003/2005 and Cygwin under Windows. It has been tested using gcc 4.1.2 under Ubuntu Linux 7.04 and using Visual C

  5. Cryopreservation of Xenopus transgenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Daniel R; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2004-01-01

    Xenopus laevis has been widely used for molecular, cellular, and developmental studies. With the development of the sperm-mediated transgenic method, it is now possible to study gene function during vertebrate development by using this popular model. On the other hand, like other animal species, it is labor intensive, and the maintenance of transgenic lines is expensive. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using sperm-cryopreservation as a means to preserve transgenic frog lines. We demonstrated that cryopreserved sperms are viable but not fertile under our in vitro fertilization (IVF) conditions. However, by microinjecting cryopreserved sperm nuclei, we successfully regenerated a transgenic line carrying a double promoter transgene construct, where the marker gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the gamma-crystallin gene promoter and a gene of interest, encoding a fusion protein of GFP with the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 (ST3-GFP), is driven by a heat shock-inducible promoter. We demonstrated the functional transmission of the ST3-GFP transgene by analyzing the phenotype of the F1 animals after heat-shock to induce its expression. Our method thus provides an inexpensive means to preserve transgenic frog lines and a convenient way for distribution of transgenic lines. Furthermore, the ease with which to microinject nuclei compared to the technically demanding transgenesis procedure with variable outcome should facilitate more laboratories to use transgenic Xenopus laevis for functional studies in vivo. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 67: 65-69, 2004. PMID:14648875

  6. Estimation of Line Efficiency by Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPresents a multi-stage flow lines with intermediate buffers approximated by two-stage lines using repeated aggregation. Characteristics of the aggregation method; Problems associated with the analysis and design of production lines.

  7. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing.

  8. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing. © 2011 ACM.

  9. Modeling molecular hyperfine line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Keto, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two approximate methods previously suggested for modeling hyperfine spectral line emission for molecules whose collisional transitions rates between hyperfine levels are unknown. Hyperfine structure is seen in the rotational spectra of many commonly observed molecules such as HCN, HNC, NH3, N2H+, and C17O. The intensities of these spectral lines can be modeled by numerical techniques such as Lambda-iteration that alternately solve the equations of statistical equilibrium and the equation of radiative transfer. However, these calculations require knowledge of both the radiative and collisional rates for all transitions. For most commonly observed radio frequency spectral lines, only the net collisional rates between rotational levels are known. For such cases, two approximate methods have been suggested. The first method, hyperfine statistical equilibrium (HSE), distributes the hyperfine level populations according to their statistical weight, but allows the population of the rotationa...

  10. Research on Distance Judgement Method from Point to Line to Generate a Line%Research on Distance Judgement Method from Point to Line to Generate a Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Di; WANG Jian-xin; LIJta-feng; TIAN Ye

    2011-01-01

    Regarding the problem that the traditional straight-line generating has a low accuracy, we study straightline generating with the distance of point to line. We explore generating a line to approximate the ideal line and the issue is to pick out the pixel point of approximating the ideal line. The paper plays a significant scientific role in elucidating linear optimization norm and it lays a foundation for showing a straight line. The algorithm is valuable for computer graphics.

  11. Petrol Pipe Line Telemonitoring Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-01-01

    Petrol pipe lines are subjected to different types of malfunction. The malfunction can happen due to technical faults or it may be due to a gangsters attack on the petrol pipes in order to hinder the petrol pumping operations.. The damage of the petrol pipes causes a loss of a large amount of petrol from the pipe lines. Petrol pipe damage also causes fires and pollution to the environments . Such operations causes a lot of loss in economy to the country concerned where the sabotag...

  12. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  13. Quasistellar Objects Intervening Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Charlton, Jane C.; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2000-01-01

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  14. Personal on-line payments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuttner, Kenneth N.; James J. McAndrews

    2001-01-01

    The swift growth of e-commerce and the Internet has led to the development of a new form of electronic funds transfer—the personal on-line payment—that uses web and e-mail technologies to initiate and confirm payments. This article describes this payment instrument and the trends that have given rise to it. The authors explain that personal on-line payment systems are already providing a convenient alternative to checks, money orders, and cash, and may replace credit cards for some small-scal...

  15. Software product lines : Organizational alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J

    2001-01-01

    Software product lines enjoy increasingly wide adoption in the software industry. Most authors focus on the technical and process aspects and assume an organizational model consisting of a domain engineering unit and several application engineering units. In our cooperation with several software dev

  16. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  17. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  18. A Poncelet theorem for lines

    CERN Document Server

    Vallès, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to prove a Poncelet type theorem for a line configuration on the complex projective. More precisely, we say that a polygon with 2n sides joining 2n vertices A1, A2,..., A2n is well inscribed in a configuration Ln of n lines if each line of the configuration contains exactly two points among A1, A2, ..., A2n. Then we prove : "Let Ln be a configuration of n lines and D a smooth conic in the complex projective plane. If it exists one polygon with 2n sides well inscribed in Ln and circumscribed around D then there are infinitely many such polygons. In particular a general point in Ln is a vertex of such a polygon." We propose an elementary proof based on Fr\\'egier's involution. We begin by recalling some facts about these involutions. Then we explore the following question : When does the product of involutions correspond to an involution? It leads to Pascal theorem, to its dual version proved by Brianchon, and to its generalization proved by M\\"obius.

  19. Online matching on a line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Bernard; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Given a set S c R of points on the line, we consider the task of matching a sequence (r1,r2,…) of requests in R to points in S. It has been conjectured [Online Algorithms: The State of the Art, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1442, Springer, Berlin, 1998, pp. 268–280] that there exists a 9-c

  20. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  1. Advanced optical delay line demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has designed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in future ground based and space interferometry missions. The work is performed under NIVR contract in preparation for GENIE and DARWIN. Using the ESO PRIMA DDL requirements as

  2. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  3. CIV Line-Width Anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Pogge, Richard W.; Assef, Roberto J.;

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of six high-redshift quasar spectra obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope with previous observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that failure to correctly identify absorption and other problems with accurate characterization of the CIV emission line profile in low S...

  4. Managing first-line failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cooper

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(tRTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(tRTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80% for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20% protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  5. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  7. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  8. Cohomology of line bundles: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Rahn, Thorsten; Roschy, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Massless modes of both heterotic and Type II string compactifications on compact manifolds are determined by vector bundle valued cohomology classes. Various applications of our recent algorithm for the computation of line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties are presented. For the heterotic string, the prime examples are so-called monad constructions on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In the context of Type II orientifolds, one often needs to compute cohomology for line bundles on finite group action coset spaces, necessitating us to generalize our algorithm to this case. Moreover, we exemplify that the different terms in Batyrev's formula and its generalizations can be given a one-to-one cohomological interpretation. Furthermore, we derive a combinatorial closed form expression for two Hodge numbers of a codimension two Calabi-Yau fourfold.

  9. Line Creep in Paper Peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosti J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling configuration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent finding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

  10. Transversal Lines of the Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Onghena

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.

  11. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  12. Line graphs as social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Mańka-Krasoń, Anna; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The line graphs are clustered and assortative. They share these topological features with some social networks. We argue that this similarity reveals the cliquey character of the social networks. In the model proposed here, a social network is the line graph of an initial network of families, communities, interest groups, school classes and small companies. These groups play the role of nodes, and individuals are represented by links between these nodes. The picture is supported by the data on the LiveJournal network of about 8 x 10^6 people. In particular, sharp maxima of the observed data of the degree dependence of the clustering coefficient C(k) are associated with cliques in the social network.

  13. Line graphs as social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Muchnik, L.; Mańka-Krasoń, A.; Kułakowski, K.

    2011-07-01

    It was demonstrated recently that the line graphs are clustered and assortative. These topological features are known to characterize some social networks [M.E.J. Newman, Y. Park, Why social networks are different from other types of networks, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036122]; it was argued that this similarity reveals their cliquey character. In the model proposed here, a social network is the line graph of an initial network of families, communities, interest groups, school classes and small companies. These groups play the role of nodes, and individuals are represented by links between these nodes. The picture is supported by the data on the LiveJournal network of about 8×10 6 people.

  14. Constructions from Dots and Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Marko A

    2010-01-01

    A graph is a data structure composed of dots (i.e. vertices) and lines (i.e. edges). The dots and lines of a graph can be organized into intricate arrangements. The ability for a graph to denote objects and their relationships to one another allow for a surprisingly large number of things to be modeled as a graph. From the dependencies that link software packages to the wood beams that provide the framing to a house, most anything has a corresponding graph representation. However, just because it is possible to represent something as a graph does not necessarily mean that its graph representation will be useful. If a modeler can leverage the plethora of tools and algorithms that store and process graphs, then such a mapping is worthwhile. This article explores the world of graphs in computing and exposes situations in which graphical models are beneficial.

  15. Visual SLAM using straight lines

    OpenAIRE

    Mees Martínez, Oier

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is focuses on the problem of Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) using only visual data (VSLAM). This means to concurrently estimate the position of a moving camera and to create a consistent map of the environment. Since implementing a whole VSLAM system is out of the scope of a degree thesis, the main aim is to improve an existing visual SLAM system by complementing the commonly used point features with straight line primitives. This enables more accurate...

  16. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  17. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.

    1977-11-01

    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  18. QSO Absorption Lines from QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Ménard, B; Chelouche, D; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G; Bowen, David V.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Menard, Brice; Chelouche, Doron; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a search for metal absorption lines in the spectra of background QSOs whose sightlines pass close to foreground QSOs. We detect MgII(2796,2803) absorption in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra of four z>1.5 QSOs whose lines of sight pass within 26-98 kpc of lower redshift (z~0.5-1.5) QSOs. The 100% [4/4 pairs] detection of MgII in the background QSOs is clearly at odds with the incidence of associated (z_abs ~ z_em) systems -- absorbers which exist towards only a few percent of QSOs. Although the quality of our foreground QSO spectra is not as high as the SDSS data, absorption seen towards one of the background QSOs clearly does not show up at the same strength in the spectrum of the corresponding foreground QSO. This implies that the absorbing gas is distributed inhomogeneously around the QSO, presumably as a direct consequence of the anisotropic emission from the central AGN. We discuss possible origins for the MgII lines, including: absorption by gas from the foreground QSO h...

  19. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  20. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  1. Warm ionized gas in CALIFA early-type galaxies. 2D emission-line patterns and kinematics for 32 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Breda, I.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Walcher, C. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Masegosa, J.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    traces of localized star formation in the extranuclear component of several of our sample galaxies points to a non-negligible contribution by OB stars to the global ionizing photon budget in ETGs. Additionally, our data again highlight the diversity of ETGs in their gaseous and stellar kinematics. While in one half of our sample, gas and stars show similar (yet not necessarily identical) velocity patterns that are both dominated by rotation along the major galaxy axis, our analysis also documents several cases of kinematical decoupling between gas and stars, or rotation along the minor galaxy axis. We point out that the generally very low (≲1 Å) EW(Hα) of ETGs requires a careful quantitative assessment of potential observational and analysis biases in studies of their wim. With standard emission-line fitting tools, Balmer emission lines become progressively difficult to detect below an EW(Hα) ~ 3 Å, therefore our current understanding of the presence and 2D emission patterns and kinematics of the diffuse wim ETGs may be severely incomplete. We demonstrate that at the typical emission-line detection threshold of ~2 Å in previous studies, most of the extranuclear wim emission in an ETG may evade detection, which could in turn cause ETGs to be classified as entirely gas-devoid systems. Conclusions: This study adds further observational evidence for a considerable heterogeneity among ETGs with regard to the physical properties and 2D kinematics of their extended wim component, and it clearly shows that a comprehensive understanding of these systems requires IFS studies over their entire optical extent.

  2. service line analytics in the new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability. PMID:26548137

  3. A contrario line segment detection

    CERN Document Server

    von Gioi, Rafael Grompone

    2014-01-01

    The reliable detection of low-level image structures is an old and still challenging problem in computer vision. This?book leads a detailed tour through the LSD algorithm, a line segment detector designed to be fully automatic. Based on the a contrario framework, the algorithm works efficiently without the need of any parameter tuning. The design criteria are thoroughly explained and the algorithm's good and bad results are illustrated on real and synthetic images. The issues involved, as well as the strategies used, are common to many geometrical structure detection problems and some possible

  4. The appearance of beam lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C.

    1993-05-01

    The combination of an existing graphics package with a large program like TRANSPORT has often resulted in considerable modification to the large program. Use of other graphics package has resulted in essentially having to repeat the work. This difficulty has been avoided in a modification of TRANSPORT which produce layouts of beam lines. Drawings of the reference trajectory and three-dimensional images of all magnets are made by the graphics package TOP DRAWER. Nothing specific to TOP DRAWER or any other graphics has been incorporated into TRANSPORT. If a user is with a different graphics package he or she can then begin usage of this alternate package essentially immediately.

  5. Voltage Upgrading of Overhead Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anders Tuhus

    2010-01-01

    Statnett wants to increase the transmission capacity in their 300 kV overhead lines by upgrading the operating voltage to 420 kV. To make this possible some modifications must be done. Insulator strings have to be elongated by two to four insulators and the air clearances must be checked. EN standards provide guidelines for how to calculate the air clearances adequately to provide required safety margins.It turns out that the formulas given by the standards provide greater safety margin than ...

  6. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  7. EM transmission-line metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George V. Eleftheriades

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are understood to be artificially engineered materials that exhibit unusual or difficult to obtain electromagnetic (EM properties. Such properties would include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and index of refraction. In this article, we review the fundamentals of metamaterials with emphasis on negative-refractive-index ones, which are synthesized using loaded transmission lines. A number of applications of such metamaterials are discussed, including peculiar lenses that can overcome the diffraction limit and small antennas for emerging wireless communication applications.

  8. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  9. PHENIX on-line systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.S.; Allen, M.; Alley, G.; Amirikas, R.; Arai, Y.; Awes, T.C.; Barish, K.N.; Barta, F.; Batsouli, S.; Belikov, S.; Bennett, M.J.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Boose, S.; Britton, C.; Britton, L.; Bryan, W.L.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chang, W.C.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Cianciolo, V.; Cole, B.A.; Constantin, P.; Cook, K.C.; Cunitz, H.; Desmond, E.J.; Ebisu, K.; Efremenko, Y.V.; El Chenawi, K.; Emery, M.S.; Engo, D.; Ericson, N.; Fields, D.E.; Frank, S.; Frantz, J.E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A.D.; Fried, J.; Gannon, J.; Gee, T.F.; Gentry, R.; Giannotti, P.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Haggerty, J.S.; Hahn, S.; Halliwell, J.; Hamagaki, H.; Hansen, A.G.; Hara, H.; Harder, J.; He, X.; Heistermann, F.; Hemmick, T.K.; Hibino, M.; Hill, J.C. E-mail: jhill@iastate.edu; Homma, K.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kandasamy, A.; Kang, J.H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Katou, K.; Kelley, M.A.; Kelly, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, Y.G.; Kistenev, E.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kurita, K.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lenz, M.; Lenz, W.; Li, X.H.; Lin, S.; Liu, M.X.; Markacs, S.; Matathias, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Mead, J.; Mischke, R.E.; Mishra, G.C.; Moore, A.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Musrock, M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nandi, B.K.; Newby, J.; Nystrand, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Ohnishi, H.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Oyama, K.; Paffrath, L.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petridis, A.N.; Pisani, R.P.; Plagge, T.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rankowitz, S.; Rao, R.; Rau, M.; Read, K.F.; Ryu, S.S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sato, H.D.; Seto, R.; Shiina, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Simpson, M.; Sippach, W.; Skank, H.D.; Skutnik, S.; Sleege, G.A.; Smith, G.D.; Smith, M.; Stankus, P.W.; Steinberg, P.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P.; Taketani, A.; Tamai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Thomas, W.D.; Todd, R.; Toldo, F.; Turner, G.; Ushiroda, T.; Velkovska, J.; Hecke, H.W. van; Lith, M. van; Villatte, L.; Achen, W. von; Walker, J.W.; Wang, H.Q.; White, S.N.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Witzig, C.; Wood, L.[and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX On-Line system takes signals from the Front End Modules (FEM) on each detector subsystem for the purpose of generating events for physics analysis. Processing of event data begins when the Data Collection Modules (DCM) receive data via fiber-optic links from the FEMs. The DCMs format and zero suppress the data and generate data packets. These packets go to the Event Builders (EvB) that assemble the events in final form. The Level-1 trigger (LVL1) generates a decision for each beam crossing and eliminates uninteresting events. The FEMs carry out all detector processing of the data so that it is delivered to the DCMs using a standard format. The FEMs also provide buffering for LVL1 trigger processing and DCM data collection. This is carried out using an architecture that is pipelined and deadtimeless. All of this is controlled by the Master Timing System (MTS) that distributes the RHIC clocks. A Level-2 trigger (LVL2) gives additional discrimination. A description of the components and operation of the PHENIX On-Line system is given and the solution to a number of electronic infrastructure problems are discussed.

  10. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  11. Interlab Cell Line Collection: Bioresource of Established Human and Animal Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Barbara; Aresu, Ottavia; Visconti, Paola; Manniello, Maria Assunta; Strada, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Interlab Cell Line Collection (ICLC) was established in 1994 as a core facility of the National Institute of Cancer Research. It supplies: human and animal cell lines; Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling of human cell lines; quality control service; mycoplasma detection and eradication service; safe deposit service and patent deposit service of cell lines and hybridomas. The catalogue of services is on-line, and the cell lines are distributed all over the world. 

  12. Beam line design using G4BeamLine

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Arda

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey in Ankara TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility (PAF), there is a cyclotron which produces a focused intense 30 MeV proton beam and sends this beam to four different arms, three of which uses this beam to produce pharmaceutical medicine. The remaining one is spared for R&D purposes and the idea was to use these protons coming out from the fourth arm to use space radiation tests, which cannot be done in Turkey at the moment. However, according to SCC 25100 standards which is for 30 MeV protons, the beam coming out of cyclotron is too intense and focused to use for space radiation tests. Therefore, the main aim of my project is to design a beam line which will defocus the beam and reduce the flux so that the space radiation tests can be done according to the standards of SCC 25100.

  13. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  14. FB Line Basis for Interim Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19

    The safety analysis of the FB-Line Facility indicates that the operation of FB-Line to support the current mission does not present undue risk to the facility and co-located workers, general public, or the environment.

  15. Line-drawing algorithms for parallel machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Alex T.

    1990-01-01

    The fact that conventional line-drawing algorithms, when applied directly on parallel machines, can lead to very inefficient codes is addressed. It is suggested that instead of modifying an existing algorithm for a parallel machine, a more efficient implementation can be produced by going back to the invariants in the definition. Popular line-drawing algorithms are compared with two alternatives; distance to a line (a point is on the line if sufficiently close to it) and intersection with a line (a point on the line if an intersection point). For massively parallel single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) machines (with thousands of processors and up), the alternatives provide viable line-drawing algorithms. Because of the pixel-per-processor mapping, their performance is independent of the line length and orientation.

  16. Are plasma satellites present among chromospheric lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Y.

    1983-05-01

    Published literature is examined for evidence of the presence of plasma satellites among the solar chromospheric lines. Indications are found that first-order plasma satellites sometimes appear as a pair of faint chromospheric emission lines in places where forbidden lines, mainly of metals, should be located. Evidence is seen that second-order plasma satellites are present among lines for which emission wings show asymmetry with respect to the distances from the line center and with respect to intensity. Indications are found that fourth-order plasma satellites are present as unidentified diffuse lines situated near parent lines of food strength either in emission or in absorption. All three types of satellites show electron densities on the order of a trillion/cu cm. Indications that plasma satellites may sometimes appear as faint absorption lines in the solar spectrum are discussed.

  17. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  18. Thermal Impedance of Rectangular Microwave Oven Linings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIShang-zhao; XUFu-qiu; 等

    1996-01-01

    Amodel was preseted for calcultaing the thermal impedance of the insulation and refractory linings of rectangular microwave ovens,of which the oven cavity's dimensions are relatively small,while the linings re relatively thick.

  19. A quadruple transmission line nitrogen laser

    OpenAIRE

    Persephonis, P.; Giannetas, B.; Rigopoulos, R.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical considerations on the advantages of a quadruple parallel-plate transmission line nitrogen laser comparatively to a double transmission line one are given. Experimental verihcation shows that from a double line N 2 laser to a quadruple one, an increase of the peak power and energy per pulse about 50 % and 70 % respectively exists. A common spark-gap is used. Experimental curves show the peak power increase versus pressure and repetition rate. The quadruple transmission line can be ...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work...

  1. Moving droplets: The measurement of contact lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.; Franken, M.J.Z.; Kim, H.; Westerweel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contact lines are the locations where a gas, liquid and a solid meet. From everyday experience we know that such contact lines can be mobile, for example in the case of a water droplet sliding over a glass surface. However, the continuum description of the flow towards or away from a contact line im

  2. High-speed Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. O. Sadiku,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is the idea of using existing power lines for communication purposes. Power line communications (PLC enables network communication of voice, data, and video over direct power lines. High-speed PLC involves data rates in excess of 10 Mbps. PLC has attracted a lot of attention and has become an interesting subject of research lately.

  3. Electron differaction patterns with curved Kikuchi lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, R. K.; Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2007-09-01

    Curved Kikuchi lines have been observed in electron diffraction patterns obtained for silicon by transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the curvature of Kikuchi lines is related to the shift of point reflections from their normal positions. The formation of curved Kikuchi lines stems from the local structural defects in the crystals under study.

  4. Children's Use of Number Line Estimation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Dominique; Degrande, Tine; Ebersbach, Mirjam; Verschaffel, Lieven; Luwel, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether second graders use benchmark-based strategies when solving a number line estimation (NLE) task. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions based on the availability of benchmarks provided on the number line. In the bounded condition, number lines were only bounded at both sides by 0 and 200, while the midpoint…

  5. Brownian motion on a smash line

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinas, D; Ellinas, Demosthenes; Tsohantjis, Ioannis

    2000-01-01

    Brownian motion on a smash line algebra (a smash or braided version of the algebra resulting by tensoring the real line and the generalized paragrassmann line algebras), is constructed by means of its Hopf algebraic structure. Further, statistical moments, non stationary generalizations and its diffusion limit are also studied. The ensuing diffusion equation posseses triangular matrix realizations.

  6. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  7. Beam line to S155

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The experiment S155 was designed by the Orsay (CSNM-CNRS) Collaboration to observe the properties of exotic light nuclei. It was installed in the PS neutrino tunnel. The photo shows a mass spectrometer (in the background) on line with the PS proton beam which arrives (bottom, right) from the fast extraction FE74. Roger Fergeau stands on the left. The alkaline isotopes produced in the carbon-uranium target heated at 2000°C were swiftly extracted, mass separated, and brought to a detector behind the shielding. Sodium 34 (11 protons and 23 neutrons) was observed and its half-life of only 5 ms was measured. The excited levels 2+ of Magnesium 30 and Magnesium 32 (Sodium descendants) were localised, and the magic number 20 was found to vanish. Thus, the discovery made earlier for Sodium 30 and Sodium 32, with the same apparatus, was confirmed. (See also photo 7706511.)

  8. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  9. Tunable silicon CROW delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Torregiani, Matteo; Ferrari, Carlo; Melloni, Andrea; Martinelli, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Tunable coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) are powerful and versatile devices that can be used to dynamically control the delay of optical data streams on chip. In this contribution we show that CROW delay lines fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) platform are suitable for applications in the emerging scenario of optical systems at 100 Gbit/s. Issues concerning technology, design, limits and applications of SOI CROWs are discussed. The performances of silicon CROW delay lines activated by thermal tuning are compared to those of glass CROW in terms of power consumption, thermal crosstalk and reconfiguration speed. The continuous delay of 10-ps long optical pulses by 8 bit length is demonstrated by using a silicon CROW with a bandwidth of 87 GHz and made of 12 RRs. At 100 Gbit/s this structure provides comparable figures of merit (fractional delay of 0.75 bit/RR and fractional loss of 0.7 dB per bit-delay) of state-of-the art glass CROW operating at 10 Gbit/s, yet the area of the latter being three order of magnitude larger. The compatibility of silicon CROW with the emerging 100 Gbit/s systems is demonstrated by showing error-free phase-preserving propagation of a 100 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) polarization-division-multiplexing (PolDM) differential quaternary phase shit keying (DQPSK) signal dynamically delayed by the CROW. It is also demonstrated that a silicon CROW can be used in a PolDM system to introduce a polarization selective delay in order to optimize the time interleaving of the two orthogonally polarized data streams.

  10. UV Emission line shifts of symbiotic binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedjung, M.; Mikolajewska, J.; Zajczyk, A.; Eriksson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Relative and absolute emission line shifts have been previously found for symbiotic binaries, but their cause was not clear. This work aims to better understand the emission line shifts. Positions of strong emission lines were measured on archival UV spectra of Z And, AG Dra, RW Hya, SY Mus and AX Per and relative shifts between the lines of different ions compared. Profiles of lines of RW Hya and Z And were also examined. The reality of the relative shift between resonance and intercombinati...

  11. Best Angle to Orient Two Intersecting Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W; Shull, P B

    2006-07-25

    Fiducials in the form of intersecting straight lines are used to align the target in the final target chamber of the National Ignition Facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One of the techniques used to locate these lines is the Hough transform. When two lines intersect at a 90 degree angle, it is tempting to orient the lines to horizontal and vertical directions. There are other possible angles at which the lines may be oriented. One question that arises while designing the fiducials is whether there is a preferred angle or range of angles that leads to higher accuracy. This work attempts to answer this question through detailed computer simulation.

  12. Transient Stability Analysis Using Transmission Line Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国伟; 程浩忠; 陈家荣; 王承民

    2004-01-01

    The novel quantitative assessment method using transmission line measurement was developed. A new style of stability criterion was suggested which is based on the line measurement. The stability indices for lines,cutsets and power system according to features of transient energy in the lines were given, which not only provide a reliable and accurate assessment of the transient stability of power system, but also can be used to assess the effect of lines and cutsets on the transient stability and identify the weak transmission segment. Examples were presented by simulation on the IEEE-39 buses test system.

  13. Analysis of on-line services

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse on-line services as well as to classify them and show their main advantages and disadvantages. In the first part of the paper the author proposes a short taxonomy of on-line services. Then the typical course of on-line services realization is presented and the revenue models in on-line services selling are analysed. Next the main advantages and disadvantages of on-line services selling are shown. The last part of the paper describes the examples of Polish o...

  14. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    I present the Automated Line Fitting Algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimised by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT (Wesson et al. 2012), ...

  15. Robot Self-Location by Line Correspondences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡占义; 雷成; 徐孔达

    2001-01-01

    This paper thoroughly investigates the problem of robot self-location by line correspondences. The original contributions are three-fold: (1) Obtain the necessary and sufficient condition to determine linearly the robot's pose by two line correspondences. (2) Show that if the space lines are vertical ones, it is impossible to determine linearly the robot's pose no matter how many line correspondences we have, and the minimum number of line correspondences is 3 to determine uniquely (but non-linearly) the robot's pose. (3) Show that if the space lines are horizontal ones, the minimum number of line correspondences is 3 for linear determination and 2 for non-linear determination of the robot's pose.

  16. Potential flow inside an evaporating cylindrical line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsi, A J; Burganos, V N

    2005-10-01

    An analytical solution to the problem of potential flow inside an evaporating line is obtained. The line is shaped as a half-cylinder lying on a substrate, and evaporates with either pinned or depinned contact lines. The solution is provided through the technique of separation of variables in the velocity potential and stream function formulations. Based on the flow field calculations, it is estimated that the coffee-stain phenomenon should be expected even for uniform evaporation flux throughout the cylindrical surface, provided that the contact lines remain anchored. A simple expression for the velocity potential is also suggested, which reproduces the local velocity vector with excellent accuracy. The vertically averaged velocity is calculated also for other contact line values, revealing for any value an outward liquid flow for pinned lines as opposed to inward flow for depinned lines. PMID:16383581

  17. Deburring line automating system; Baritori line jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, H.; Oda, T. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-18

    Automation was carried out in deburring work using robots in casting and forging processes. With an aluminum cast deburring robot system, a worker sets workpieces on two conveyors alternately, and robot performs processing them sequentially, hence the waiting time for the robot is extremely short. Three kinds of tools are exchanged by an automatic tool changer depending on the condition of burr generation. The system functions also include automatic correction of grinding stones based on measurement of their wear amount, detection of cutting tool breakage, handling irregularly large burrs by means of a tool monitoring unit, and issuing an anomaly alarm upon a worker making a mistake in workpiece selection. The steel cast deburring robot system deals with burrs inside and outside a workpiece by using a process dividing system operated by two robots. The cylinder block deburring robot system works in a line processing system, identifying eight models by using a workpiece model determining machine, and the workpiece models can be changed by a positioning device eliminating the need of set-up works. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  19. Dynamic-Model Assembly Line Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaima Najam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The assembly line scheduling solution is restricted to two assembly lines that fulfill the requirement of small manufacturing industry by identifying the least cost path. Problem arises when large manufacturing industry comes under discussion where more than two assembly lines say three to fulfill the job, In this case two types of assembly line cost are involve: switching from one assembly line to another; switching from one station to the next. This study considers a solution for above mentioned scenario by least cost path identification, path cost calculation through back tracking, and a derived solution formula in order to reduce the computational complexity of scheduling at latter stages for n station. That provides the understanding for m number of assembly lines at the same time.

  20. Analysis of the solar magnesium lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, J. N.; Allen, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The observed quiet-sun profiles for a number of Mg I and II lines are compared with theoretical spectra computed for two upper-photosphere lower-chromosphere models published by Ayres and Linsky (1976). Both the Mg I and the Mg II resonance line wings, observed with the University of Hawaii Echelle Rocket Spectrographs, favor a model with a higher temperature in the upper photosphere than required to match the visible region lines 4571 and 5172. Neither model atmosphere reproduces the observed shapes in the cores of the strong lines or the limb darkening of the 4571 A intercombination line. The wings of the ultraviolet lines in plages can be reproduced either with a mean one-component atmosphere or by a two-component model with an ad hoc filling factor.

  1. Transmission of radioiodine through sampling lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental program to measure radioiodine transmission through sampling lines is described. The transmission depends upon both deposition on and resuspension from the walls of the line. The deposition and resuspension processes are themselves controlled by the length, diameter, and material of the line and the conditions under which it is operated. The operating conditions under study are sampling flow rate, temperature and relative humidity. Measurement results have been interpreted in terms of a four-compartment model of radioiodine deposition and resuspension. The model is applied to each of twenty or more segments of the line. Experimental measurements of short-term transmission fractions and the deposition velocities derived from them are presented for six lines. Data on resuspension rates for the same lines were obtained and are also discussed

  2. Transmission of Electric Energy Along Long Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of electric energy along long lines is examined and characteristics of the change of capacities at the beginning and at the end of a line are submitted: factor of capacity, efficiency of a transmission line, currents depending on length, parameters of a line and parameters of loading. Influence of losses upon the dynamics of instant values of voltages and currents in the opened and short-circuited long lines is investigated and effects of nonlinearity in such chains are revealed at a power supply from a sinusoidal source of voltage. It is shown, that the method of complex amplitudes is not always applicable for the calculation of modes in long lines.

  3. Molecular Emission Line Formation in Prestellar Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlyuchenkov, Ya; Shustov, B; Henning, T; Launhardt, R; Semenov, D

    2008-01-01

    We investigate general aspects of molecular line formation under conditions which are typical of prestellar cores. Focusing on simple linear molecules, we study formation of their rotational lines by radiative transfer simulations. We present a thermalization diagram to show the effects of collisions and radiation on the level excitation. We construct a detailed scheme (contribution chart) to illustrate the formation of emission line profiles. This chart can be used as an efficient tool to identify which parts of the cloud contribute to a specific line profile. We show how molecular line characteristics for uniform model clouds depend on hydrogen density, molecular column density, and kinetic temperature. The results are presented in a 2D plane to illustrate cooperative effects of the physical factors. We also use a core model with a non-uniform density distribution and chemical stratification to study the effects of cloud contraction and rotation on spectral line maps. We discuss the main issues that should ...

  4. Product Line Pricing in a Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lingxiu Dong; Chakravarthi Narasimhan; Kaijie Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A vertically integrated channel would prefer to coordinate the pricing of its products. In this paper, we investigate drivers of product line pricing decisions in a bilateral monopoly where a manufacturer produces and sells two substitutable or complementary products to a retailer. In a two-stage game, each firm commits credibly in the first stage to a pricing scheme within its own organization: product line pricing (PLP) or nonproduct line pricing (NPLP). In the second stage, depending on th...

  5. Visual configuration in automotive software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Botterweck, Goetz; Thiel, Steffen; Crawley, Ciar??n; Nestor, Daren; PreuBner, Andr??

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed Software Product Line engineering has emerged as a viable and important software development paradigm in the automotive industry. It allows companies to realise significant improvements in time-to-market, cost, productivity, and system quality. One major difficulty with software product line engineering is related to the fact that a product line of industrial size can easily incorporate thousands of variation points. This scale of variability can become extremely com...

  6. Human Cell Line and Tissue Sample Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Margaret M.; McLaren, Robert S.; Hebble, Kathryn D.; Ready, Kim; Storts, Douglas R.; Hooper, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotyping analysis is a proven technology for uniquely identifying virtually all human samples. STR genotyping was adopted as the preferred technology for identification of human tissue culture cell lines by the ATCC Standards Development Organization (ASN-0002: Authentication of Human Cell Lines: Standardization of STR Profiling). We developed new automation-compatible protocols/systems for generating STR profiles from human cell lines or tissue samples...

  7. New Possibility of Lines Power Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Altus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present time is characteristic with increasing requests of consumers on the quality and quantity of delivered energy. In regard to financial and time difficulty of building up new power plants and distribution lines, producers and distributors must find out more a effective capacity utilization of the actual equipment. There is the place for installing thenew systems FACTS – unit for the control and regulation of power flows in energetic lines, and also to limit the reactive flow in lines.

  8. Universal statistics of vortex lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T

    2012-03-01

    We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.

  9. Universal statistics of vortex lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T

    2012-03-01

    We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term. PMID:22587072

  10. Defining and Generating Axial Lines from Street Center Lines for better Understanding of Urban Morphologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xintao

    2010-01-01

    Axial lines are defined as the longest visibility lines for representing individual linear spaces in urban environments. The least number of axial lines that cover the free space of an urban environment constitute what is often called an axial map. This is a fundamental tool in space syntax, a theory developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues for characterizing the underlying urban morphologies. For a long time, generating axial lines with help of some graphic software has been a tedious manual process that is criticized for being time consuming, subjective, or even arbitrary. In this paper, we redefine axial lines as the least number of individual straight line segments mutually intersected along natural streets that are generated from street center lines using the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Based on this new definition, we develop an automatic solution to generating the newly defined axial lines from street center lines. We apply this solution to six typical street networks (three from North Am...

  11. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  12. Molecular Characterization of Putative Chordoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Brüderlein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Immortal tumor cell lines are an important model system for cancer research, however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines are a common problem. Seven chordoma cell lines are reported in the literature, but none has been characterized in detail. We analyzed gene expression patterns and genomic copy number variations in five putative chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, CCL3, CCL4, GB60, and CM319. We also created a new chordoma cell line, U-CH2, and provided genotypes for cell lines for identity confirmation. Our analyses revealed that CCL3, CCL4, and GB60 are not chordoma cell lines, and that CM319 is a cancer cell line possibly derived from chordoma, but lacking expression of key chordoma biomarkers. U-CH1 and U-CH2 both have gene expression profiles, copy number aberrations, and morphology consistent with chordoma tumors. These cell lines also harbor genetic changes, such as loss of p16, MTAP, or PTEN, that make them potentially useful models for studying mechanisms of chordoma pathogenesis and for evaluating targeted therapies.

  13. Glovebox line for plutonium fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design is described of a line for the analysis of plutonium and mixed (U, Pu) fuels. The design meets the requirement that the line should allow a continuous analysis of plutonium nuclear fuels using chemical methods oriented to oxidation-reduction titration techniques. This determined the nature of operations which should take place on the line. The specifications are given of the individual details as are parameters affecting the correct line operation in the analysis of plutonium fuels. (author) 7 figs., 2 refs

  14. Stability of the LHC transfer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is filled from the SPS through two 3 km transfer lines. The injected beam parameters need to be well under control for luminosity performance, machine protection and operational efficiency. Small fractions of beam loss on the transfer line collimation system create showers which can trigger the sensitive LHC beam loss monitor system nearby and cause a beam abort during filling. The stability of the transfer line trajectory through the collimators is particularly critical in this respect. This paper will report on the transfer line trajectory stability during the proton run in 2011, correlations with injection losses, correction frequency and the most likely sources for the observed oscillations.

  15. Text line Segmentation of Curved Document Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree.M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Document image analysis has been widely used in historical and heritage studies, education and digital library. Document image analytical techniques are mainly used for improving the human readability and the OCR quality of the document. During the digitization, camera captured images contain warped document due perspective and geometric distortions. The main difficulty is text line detection in the document. Many algorithms had been proposed to address the problem of printed document text line detection, but they failed to extract text lines in curved document. This paper describes a segmentation technique that detects the curled text line in camera captured document images.

  16. Overvoltage Suppression for UHV Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongli; LIU Taihua; LI Zhongqing; JING Lei; LONG Ying; FAN Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The overvoltage phenomena of ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission lines are analyzed and verified by EMTDC/PSCAD simulation. Referring to the theoretical analyses and operating experiences of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines in China and UHV transmission lines in Russia and Japan, the methods to suppress the internal overvoltage in UHV transmission lines by protection and control strategies are discussed. Through the cooperation among the recloser, shunt reactor, tripping and closing resistance, and metal oxide varistor (MOV), the overvoltage can be restrained within an acceptable level.

  17. Iron forbidden lines in tokamak discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several spectrum lines from forbidden transitions in the ground configurations of highly ionized atoms have been observed in the PLT tokamak discharges. Such lines allow localized observations, in the high-temperature regions of the plasma, of ion-temperatures, plasma motions, and spatial distributions of ions. Measured absolute intensities of the forbidden lines have been compared with simultaneous observations of the ion resonance lines and with model calculations in order to deduce the mechanism of level populaions by means of electron collisions and radiative transitions

  18. Red Sesbania Distribution - lines [ds81

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer conatains line data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  19. A Line Extraction Algorithm for Hand Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for extracting lines from hand drawings.It starts from contour pixel tracing,fits them into contour segments,and then extracts skeleton lines from the contour segments.The algorithm finds all contours in one scan of the input matrix without detecting and marking multiple pixels.In line extraction,the method Elastic Contour Segment Tracing is proposed which extracts lines by referring to the contour segments at both sides,overcoming noise and passing through blotted areas by fitting and extrapolation. Experiments on free hand mechanical drawings,sketches,letter/numerals,as well as Chinese characters are carried out and satisfactory results are achieved.

  20. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  1. The Narrow Line Region of Ark 564

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, M; Viegas, S M M; Contini, Marcella; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Viegas, Sueli

    2003-01-01

    The continuum and emission-line spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 is used to investigate, for the first time, the physical conditions and structure of its narrow line region (NLR). For this purpose, composite models, accounting for the coupled effect of photoionization and shocks, are employed. The emission-line spectrum of Ark 564, which ranges from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared, shows a rich forbidden line spectrum. Strong emphasis is given to the study of the coronal line region. The diversity of physical conditions deduced from the observations requires multi-cloud models to reproduce the observed lines and continuum. We find that a combination of high velocity (Vs = 1500 km/s) shock-dominated clouds as well as low velocity (Vs = 150 km/s) radiation-dominated clouds explains the coronal lines, while the optical low-ionization lines are mainly explained by shock-dominated clouds. The results for Ark 564 are compared with those obtained for other Seyfert galaxies previously analyze...

  2. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  3. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  4. Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-10-01

    A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.

  5. The Spatial Characteristics of a Line and Their Application to Line Simplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the spatial knowledge related to a line ,and the characteristic points of lines is detected.According to the requirements of line generalization,new algorithms for identifying characteristic line points are presented.These characteristic points are used to improve the algorithms of line generalization.An algorithm for identifying bends is shown.In this paper,improved algorithms based on those by Douglas-Peucker,Visvalingam and Whyatt are shown.In this test,the progressive process of line generalization is emphasized.

  6. HLA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadee, A A; Paterson, A; Coplan, K A; Reddy, S G

    1994-08-01

    The present study undertook to investigate the biological significance of human leucocyte antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate the role of potential modulating agents on human leucocyte antigen expression. These studies used several hepatic tumour-derived cell lines as in vitro model systems. The cell lines included PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander cell line), Hep3B, HepG2, TONG PHC, HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and Mahlavu. The cell lines K562 and Raji were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. K562, a B lymphoid-derived cell line, was shown to express negligible amounts of human leucocyte antigens, while Raji, an erythromyeloid-derived cell line, expressed both class I and class II human leucocyte antigens as well as their respective invariant chains, beta 2-microglobulin and Ii. Using an ELISA, experiments performed on these cell lines confirmed the natural expression of class I and class II antigens by the HA22T/VGH and HA59T/VGH cell lines, whereas PLC/PRF/5 displayed class II surface antigens only. The effects of modulating agents such as interferon-gamma sodium butyrate and clofazimine on human leucocyte antigen expression were investigated using the HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and TONG PHC cell lines. These agents increased class II and class II human leucocyte antigen expression on HA22T/VGH and TONG PHC cells, but had no effect on the HA59T/VGH cell line. The results suggest a potential use for these agents as modulators of human leucocyte antigen expression by human heptocellular cell lines.

  7. Near-Infrared Coronal Lines in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A; Pastoriza, M G; Prato, L; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Viegas, Sueli M.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Prato, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    We report spectroscopic observations in the wavelength region 0.8-2.4 microns aimed at detecting near-infrared coronal lines in a sample of 5 narrow-line and 1 broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. Our measurements show that [SiVI] 1.963mu, [SIX] 1.252mu and [SVIII] 0.991mu are present in most of the objects and are useful tracers of nuclear activity. Line ratios between coronal and low ionization forbidden lines are larger in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. A positive correlation between FHWM and ionization potential of the forbidden lines is observed. Some coronal lines have widths similar to that of lines emitted in the broad line region (BLR), indicating that part of their flux originates in gas close to the outer portions of the BLR. Most coronal lines are blueshifted relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy and this shift increases with the increase in line width. Assymetries towards the blue are observed in the profiles of high-ionization Fe lines, suggesting that the emitting gas is related to winds o...

  8. SS 433: Stationary lines and primary eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    2015-01-01

    Some stationary lines in the emission spectra of SS 433 are eclipsed, but most are not. Lines attributed to a circumbinary disk are not eclipsed, but double in relative intensity during primary eclipse. A C II doublet is eclipsed and Doppler shifts over two periods yield an orbital speed of 176 +/- 13 km/s.

  9. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  10. Colored neon flanks and line gap enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, C; Spillmann, L; Kunz, K

    1984-01-01

    When a colored line connects two black (or differently colored) lines across a gap, colored neon flanks are seen on either side of it. These flanks extend over gap sizes of 50 min arc foveally and are not explained by Bezold-type assimilation. They may be elicited by black lines as short as 6 min arc adjoining the colored line at each end. To maximize these flanks, the black and colored lines must appear linearly continuous. Nonaligned junctions weaken the effect and an angular tilt of more than 40 dog destroys it. In this and other respects, (local) neon flanks are similar to van Tuijl's (global) neon color spreading (1975). Both phenomena have analogs in brightness perception. We propose that neon spreading is a lateral extension of neon flanks across the empty space between them, and discuss similarities of these effects with other brightness illusions (Schumann, Prandtl, Ehrenstein). For this group of illusions the term "line gap enhancement" is introduced to imply perceptual enhancement of changes in brightness and/or color along lines. Correspondences between the psychophysical properties and structural prerequisites for line gap enhancement on one hand and neuronal response properties of end-zone inhibited (hypercomplex) cortical cells on the other are discussed.

  11. Identifying Fractions on a Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are generally introduced to students using the part--whole model. Yet the number line is another important representation which can be used to build fraction concepts (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012). Number lines are recognised as key in students' number development not only of fractions, but…

  12. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  13. Hot Gas Lines in T Tauri Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, David R; Gregory, Scott G; Ingleby, Laura; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander; Edwards, Suzan; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Yang, Hao; Valenti, Jeff A; Abgrall, Hervé; Alexander, Richard D; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Hussain, Gaitee; Roueff, Evelyne; Schindhelm, Eric R; Walter, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance lines of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, act as diagnostics of the accretion process. Here we assemble a large high-resolution dataset of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). We present data for 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC & NC). The most common (50 %) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V_BC > 4 * V_NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km/sec. The flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of t...

  14. Low-energy beam line at KVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toprek, D.; Formanoy, I.; Brandenburg, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the redesign of the low-energy beam line at KVI. Redesigned and properties of the optical elements of the transport beam line is done by using the code COSY INFINITY in the third-order of approximation. The effects of fringe fields of the optical elements are also taken into acc

  15. Li-Ning Rebounding With Shaq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATT; YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    The Yao of the West markets shoes with a Chinese company China is under Shaq Attack, and that's all right with Li-Ning. Last week, basketball giant Shaquille O'Neal hovered over a club-style hotel press conference to announce a partnership with Li-Ning Co. Ltd.,

  16. UV Emission line shifts of symbiotic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Friedjung, M; Zajczyk, A; Eriksson, M

    2010-01-01

    Relative and absolute emission line shifts have been previously found for symbiotic binaries, but their cause was not clear. This work aims to better understand the emission line shifts. Positions of strong emission lines were measured on archival UV spectra of Z And, AG Dra, RW Hya, SY Mus and AX Per and relative shifts between the lines of different ions compared. Profiles of lines of RW Hya and Z And were also examined. The reality of the relative shift between resonance and intercombination lines of several times ionised atoms was clearly shown except for AG Dra. This redshift shows a well defined variation with orbital phase for Z And and RW Hya. In addition the intercombination lines from more ionised atoms and especially OIV are redshifted with respect to those from less ionised atoms. Other effects are seen in the profiles. The resonance-intercombination line shift variation can be explained in quiescence by P Cygni shorter wavelength component absorption, due to the wind of the cool component, which ...

  17. Line geometry and electromagnetism I: basic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Delphenich, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    Some key notions of line geometry are recalled, along with their application to mechanics. It is then shown that most of the basic structures that one introduces in the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism can be interpreted directly in terms of corresponding concepts in line geometry. The results are summarized in a table.

  18. Transmission Lines in CMOS: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, E.A.M.; Kreienkamp, R.; Ellermeyer, T.; Langmann, U.

    2001-01-01

    On-chip transmission line modelling and design become increasingly important as frequencies are continuously going up. This paper explores possibilities to implement transmission lines on CMOS ICs via coupled coplanar strips. EM-field simulations with SONNET are used to estimate important transmissi

  19. Power flow studies of magnetically insulated lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designs for relativistic electron beam accelerators with power levels of 20 to 100 TW are greatly restricted by the inductance of a single diode of reasonable size. This fact leads to modular designs of very large accelerators. One concept uses several small insulators at a large radius arranged around the accelerator center. The total effective inductance is then low, but the energy must then be transported by self-magnetic insulated vacuum lines to the target volume. A triplate vacuum line configuration eases many mechanical support problems and allows more A-K gaps or feeds to be packaged around a given radius. This type of vacuum transmission line was chosen for initial experiments at Sandia. The experiments were conducted on the MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) accelerator. The water pulse forming lines are connected to a vacuum triplate line through a conventional stacked insulator. Diagnostics on the experiment consisted of: (1) input V; (2) input I; (3) I monitors at the input, middle, and output of both the center conductor and ground plane of the transmission line; (4) magnetic energy analyzer to view peak electron energy in the A-K gap; (5) calorimetry; and (6) Faraday cups to look at electron current flowing across the transmission line. The main goal of the experiment is to obtain input impedance of the transmission line as a function of voltage and to measure electron loss currents. These measurements are compared to theoretical models for the input impedance and energy losses

  20. Computer Simulation of Electric Field Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer program which plots electric field line plots. Includes program listing, sample diagrams produced on a BBC model B microcomputer (which could be produced on other microcomputers by modifying the program), and a discussion of the properties of field lines. (JN)

  1. Mechanism of formation of curved Kikuchi lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, R. K.; Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of formation of curved Kikuchi lines, observed at displacement of point reflections from their normal positions, is proposed. Curving of Kikuchi lines is explained taking into account the participation of diffracted electron beams in the formation of Kikuchi electron diffraction patterns.

  2. Nonidentified Kikuchi lines with reverse contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2009-03-01

    Electron diffraction patterns of silicon in transmission with contrast reversal from bright to dark for an unidentified Kikuchi line along its length have been obtained. The contrast reversal of an unidentified line is explained within the elementary mechanism of Kikuchi pattern formation taking into account the Kikuchi electron double diffraction.

  3. Line-mode browser development days

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    Twelve talented web developers have travelled to CERN from all over the world to recreate a piece of web history: the line-mode browser. See the line-mode browser simulator that they created here. Read more about the birth of the web here.

  4. Performance of the first ANTARES detector line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. -J.; Aublin, J.; Auer, R.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Eberl, T.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J. -L.; Giacomelli, G.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hossl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kuch, S.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Provost, H.; Lefevre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Ostasch, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the data recorded with the first Antares detector line. The line was deployed on the 14th of February 2006 and was connected to the readout 2 weeks later. Environmental data for one and a half years of running are shown. Measurements of atmospheric muons from data taken fr

  5. "And first he drew a line"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    At the end of “Night the Seventh” of Blake’s The Four Zoas, Blake’s Los, against a background of “furious war”, takes a stance and then performs an act which might seem powerless and quaint against such a backdrop: he draws a line, beginning work consisting of lines which Enitharmon, his companio...

  6. LOFAR Cassiopeia A spectral line survey

    CERN Document Server

    Oonk, J B R; Salas, P; Salgado, F; Morabito, L K; Toribio, M C; Tielens, A G G M; Rottgering, H J A

    2016-01-01

    We use the Low Frequency Array to perform a systematic high spectral resolution investigation of the low-frequency 33-78 MHz spectrum along the line of sight to Cassiopeia A. We complement this with a 304-386 MHz Westerbork Synthesis Radio telescope observation. In this first paper we focus on the carbon radio recombination lines. We detect Cn$\\alpha$ lines at -47 and -38 km s$^{-1}$ in absorption for quantum numbers n=438-584 and in emission for n=257-278 with high signal to noise. These lines are associated with cold clouds in the Perseus spiral arm component. Hn$\\alpha$ lines are detected in emission for n=257-278. In addition, we also detect Cn$\\alpha$ lines at 0 km s$^{-1}$ associated with the Orion arm. We analyze the optical depth of these transitions and their line width. Our models show that the carbon line components in the Perseus arm are best fit with an electron temperature 85 K and an electron density 0.04 cm$^{-3}$ and can be constrained to within 15\\%. The electron pressure is constrained to w...

  7. Time Line Visualization of Research Fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Steven A.; Yen, G.; Wu, Zheng; Asnake, Benyam

    2003-01-01

    Research fronts, defined as clusters of documents that tend to cite a fixed, time invariant set of base documents, are plotted as time lines for visualization and exploration. Illustrates the construction, exploration, and interpretation of time lines for identifying and visualizing temporal changes in research activity through journal articles.…

  8. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology. Addition...

  9. Liquid carbon: structure near the freezing line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Los, J.H.; Meijer, E.J.; Fasolino, A.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structure of liquid carbon near the freezing line. The results are obtained by molecular simulation using a recently developed state-of-the-art bond order potential. We find that along the melting line the liquid is predominantly threefold coordinated up to pres

  10. Sewerage Collection Lines, Sewer Lines, Published in unknown, North Georgia College and State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Collection Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Sewer Lines'. Data by this...

  11. Line-of-sight statistical methods for turbulent medium: VCS for emission and absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Pogosyan, D

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of the Velocity Coordinate Spectrum (VCS), a new technique for studying astrophysical turbulence that utilizes the line-of-sight statistics of Doppler-broadened spectral lines. We consider the retrieval of turbulence spectra from emission intensity observations of both high and low spatial resolution and find that the VCS allows one to study turbulence even when the emitting turbulent volume is not spatially resolved. This opens interesting prospects for using the technique for extragalactic research. VCS developed for spectral emission lines is applicable to absorption lines as well if the optical depth is used instead of intensity. VCS for absorption lines in point-source spectra benefit from effectively narrow beam and does not require dense sky coverage by sampling directions. Even strongly saturated absorption lines still carry the information about the small scale turbulence, albeit limited to the wings of a line. Combining different absorption lines one can develop tomography of ...

  12. Antarctic Flight Line Maps = Map-Line Indexes of Antarctica Aerial Photos: Pre 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Antarctic Fight Line Maps collection is comprised of 1:250,000 scale topographic maps over Antarctica with original hand-drawn flight lines for aerial...

  13. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric - VOLUSIA COUNTY MAJOR POWER LINES (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County Power Line data was aggregated by using parcel data and visual inspection of 2005 aerial photography to determine centerline of Power Lines Right of...

  14. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, electric transmission line, Published in unknown, Kleinschmidt.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'electric transmission line'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  15. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, IPPCalifLine, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'IPPCalifLine'. Data by this...

  16. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, IPPMonaLine, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'IPPMonaLine'. Data by this...

  17. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  18. Plugging pig reduces line maintenance, repair costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    A relatively new technique involving the use of plugging pigs to seal-off thruput on liquids lines was used by Ashland Pipe Line Co. during consecutive maintenance and repair projects on a crude trunkline in Illinois. Following completion, cost of the two operations was estimated at about two-thirds of that for similar projects using conventional line-plugging equipment. The pigs are produced by International Pipeline Equipment Co. (IPE) and are inserted into the line from the standard cleaning and batching, pig-launching equipment installed on the system. Ashland used one of the special pigs during reconditioning of a gate valve at its Patoka terminal and then pumped it downstream to seal the line at the site of a damage repair project. The service is provided by Advance Valve Installations, Inc.

  19. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe here the basic principles of statistical equilibrium and illustrate them through the two-level atom. In a second part, the fundamentals of line radiative transfer are introduced along with the various broadening mechanisms. I explain general solution methods with their drawbacks and also specific difficulties encountered in solving the line radiative transfer equation in disks (e.g. velocity gradients. I am closing with a few special cases of line emission from disks: Radiative pumping, masers and resonance scattering.

  20. The line emissions and polarization in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The correlations between broad-line emission,polarization,and core-dominance parameters are investigated for a sample of 148 blazars(BL Lacertae objects-BLs and flat spectrum radio quasars-FSRQs). An anti-correlation between the broad-line luminosity and the linear polarization is found. The broad-line and polarization relation can be explained by using a relativistic beaming model,which perhaps suggests that BL Lacs and FSRQs are a single class. We also investigated the relation between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and linear polarization,and that between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and the core-dominance parameter.

  1. Magnetic neutral lines in Jupiter's nightside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-consistent axisymmetric model of Jupiter's nigtside magnetospher is presented. The plasma velocity is assumed to be purely poloidal. Data from the Voyages missions are used as input for the solution of the equation determining the magnesti structure. We show that magnetic neutral lines, i.e. X and O lines, occur with suficiently large current discs. The X line is located betwen 37 an 45 Jovian radii, while the position of the O line is less well-determined. Beyond the X line an ordered radial motion develops. This may be indentified either with the magnetospheric wind or with the formation of plasmoids in the Jovian magnetosphere. (author). 1 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Decoding quasars: gravitationally redshifted spectral lines !

    CERN Document Server

    Kantharia, Nimisha G

    2016-01-01

    Further investigation of data on quasars, especially in the ultraviolet band, yields an amazingly coherent narrative which we present in this paper. Quasars are characterised by strong continuum emission and redshifted emission and absorption lines which includes the famous Lyman $\\alpha$ forest. We present irrefutable evidence in support of (1) the entire line spectrum arising in matter located inside the quasar system, (2) the range of redshifts shown by the lines being due to the variable contribution of the gravitational redshift in the observed line velocity, (3) existence of rotating black holes and of matter inside its ergosphere, (4) quasars located within cosmological redshifts $\\sim 3$, (5) $\\gamma$ ray bursts being explosive events in a quasar. These results are significant and a game-changer when we realise that the absorbing gas has been postulated to exist along the line-of-sight to the quasar and observations have accordingly been interpreted. In light of these definitive results which uniquely...

  3. Status of Design of PEFP Beam Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bum Sik; Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Hong, In Seok; Kim, Han Sung; Yun, Sang Pil; Lee, Hwa Ryun; Kim, Kye Ryung; Choi, Byung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) is developing a high current 100MeV proton linear accelerator. 20MeV and 100MeV proton beam lines are also under development for beam applications. 10 beam lines will be developed to support various purposes. Two kind of proton beam energy will be transported to 2 beamlines for industrial applications and 3 beamlines for various researches. The characteristic design scheme of PEFP beam lines is the application of a programmable AC magnet. Beam distribution to 3 research beam lines will be conducted sequentially to increase the operation efficiency by using it. To provide flexibility of the irradiation conditions, each beam line is designed to have specific beam parameters. The development of beamline components, including magnets, is conducted in parallel. The details will be reported.

  4. Status of Design of PEFP Beam Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) is developing a high current 100MeV proton linear accelerator. 20MeV and 100MeV proton beam lines are also under development for beam applications. 10 beam lines will be developed to support various purposes. Two kind of proton beam energy will be transported to 2 beamlines for industrial applications and 3 beamlines for various researches. The characteristic design scheme of PEFP beam lines is the application of a programmable AC magnet. Beam distribution to 3 research beam lines will be conducted sequentially to increase the operation efficiency by using it. To provide flexibility of the irradiation conditions, each beam line is designed to have specific beam parameters. The development of beamline components, including magnets, is conducted in parallel. The details will be reported

  5. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  6. Power Line Communication Based Home Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp N. Gujar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of Power line (A.C mains based security system i.e. developing the hardware for a microcontroller module that is to be interfaced to sensors which will detect breaches in security and developing a power line communication modem for sending/receiving data from the microcontroller modules over the power line. As soon as any one of the sensors in an establishment is triggered, the microcontroller will send data to the power line communication modem over UART. The modem will then convert the incoming data into a packet, modulate it using ASK and transmit it over the power line through the coupling circuit. The modem at the security cabin will demodulate this packet and send it to the microcontroller over UART. The microcontroller then activates the alarm and displays the location and nature of the breach on the display

  7. On line contribution functions and examining spectral line formation in 3D model stellar atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Amarsi, Anish Mayur

    2015-01-01

    Line contribution functions are useful diagnostics for studying spectral line formation in stellar atmospheres. I derive an expression for the contribution function to the abso- lute flux depression that emerges from three-dimensional box-in-a-star model stellar atmospheres. I illustrate the result by comparing the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectral line formation of the high-excitation permitted OI777nm lines with the non-LTE case.

  8. Defining and generating axial lines from street center lines for better understanding of urban morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Xintao, Liu; Bin, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Axial lines are defined as the longest visibility lines for representing individual linear spaces in urban environments. The least number of axial lines that cover the free space of an urban environment or the space between buildings constitute what is often called an axial map. This is a fundamental tool in space syntax, a theory developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues for characterizing the underlying urban morphologies. For a long time, generating axial lines with help of some graphic...

  9. Power line communications theory and applications for narrowband and broadband communications over power lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Hendrik C; Newbury, John; Swart, Theo G

    2010-01-01

    Power Line Communications (PLC) is a promising emerging technology, which has attracted much attention due to the wide availability of power distribution lines. This book provides a thorough introduction to the use of power lines for communication purposes, ranging from channel characterization, communications on the physical layer and electromagnetic interference, through to protocols, networks, standards and up to systems and implementations. With contributions from many of the most prominent international PLC experts from academia and industry, Power Line Communications brings togeth

  10. The intrinsic line width of the Fe Ka line of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiren

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent lines are unique features of the reflection spectrum of the cold torus when irradiated by the central AGN. Their intrinsic line widths can be used to probe the line-emitting region. The line widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order Chandra High Energy Grating (HEG) spectra are $3-5$ times larger than those measured with the Si \\Ka line for Circinus, Mrk 3, and NGC 1068. Because the observed Si \\Ka and Fe \\Ka lines are not necessarily coming from the same physical region, it is uncertain whether the line widths of the Fe \\Ka line are over-estimated or not. We measured the intrinsic line widths of the Fe \\Ka line of several nearby bright AGN using the second and third order Chandra HEG spectra, whose spectral resolutions are better than the first order data. We found the measured widths are all smaller than those from the first order data. The results clearly show that the widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order HEG data are over-estimated. It indicates that the ...

  11. On systematic errors in spectral line parameters retrieved with the Voigt line profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2012-08-01

    Systematic errors inherent in the Voigt line profile are analyzed. Molecular spectrum processing with the Voigt profile is shown to underestimate line intensities by 1-4%, with the errors in line positions being 0.0005 cm-1 and the decrease in pressure broadening coefficients varying from 5% to 55%.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT FEEDING TO PARALLEL-PLATE TRANSMISSION LINES FROM COAXIAL LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunming; Wang Jianguo; Meng Fenxia; Zhang Maoyu; Ge Debiao

    2001-01-01

    The transient feeding to parallel-plate transmission lines from coaxial line is optimized by using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method and a simple FDTD feed model. Observing the reflected voltages, this letter presents the optimal feeding position and ratio of width to height for a given input impedance of the coaxial line.

  13. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  14. LINE BALANCING ANALYSIS OF TUNER PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAERYIP SIHOMBING,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing time and the number of operators have strong relationship with the productivity of production lines. In the tuner production line, three significant factors related to productivity through using of line balancing method are the number of operator, production tools/equipment, and production process. This studyperformed the line balancing method through simulation model in order to reduce the line unbalancing causes and relocate the workforce associated to idle time, eliminating the bottleneck, and at the same time maintaining/ improving the productivity. To analyze the production line, we use a develop simulation tool, called Fact-Model, to modeling the production line (with the graph of critical path network and working time and the works estimated (related to the cycle time, takt time, non-value added activities, quantity, and cost. Fact-Model is facilitated with the features that enable the user to depict the real production flows by using their owned realpictures/photos taken into their simulation model.

  15. An introduction to product line management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Management by product line has been used successfully in the manufacturing industry for decades. As the healthcare industry evolves, implementation of Product Line Management is emerging as one strategy to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability. Product Line Management is an organizational scheme and alternative management system for focusing on the programmatic scope of operations in order to achieve particular objectives. Product Line Management in a hospital setting requires deviation from linear functional management paradigms to a reorganization in thinking that focuses on end-result objectives. This management structure recognizes the need to integrate operational and clinical management in response to market-driven forces from both the standpoint of packaging products for the marketplace and appropriate management of those products to improve organizational effectiveness and profitability. However, a "test of time" is necessary to evaluate whether Product Line Management has a positive impact on clinical intervention and outcome. Although Product Line Management seems to be a method to increase profitability, its effect on the quality of client care remains unclear. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists need to be well informed about Product Line Management in the healthcare industry, and should prepare for the possibility of participating within such a framework. Finally, speech-language pathologists and audiologists need to examine and consider their particular qualifications for assuming leadership within such a structure. PMID:2001266

  16. Towards on-line Ohba's conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Kozik, Jakub; Zhu, Xuding

    2011-01-01

    Ohba conjectured that every graph $G$ with $|V(G)| \\le 2 \\chi(G)+1$ has its choice number equal its chromatic number. The on-line choice number of a graph is a variation of the choice number defined through a two person game, and is always at least as large as its choice number. Based on the result that for $k \\ge 3$, the complete multipartite graph $K_{2\\star (k-1), 3}$ is not on-line $k$-choosable, the on-line version of Ohba's conjecture is modified in [P. Huang, T. Wong and X. Zhu, Application of polynomial method to on-line colouring of graphs, European J. Combin., 2011] as follows: Every graph $G$ with $|V(G)| \\le 2 \\chi(G)$ has its on-line choice number equal its chromatic number. In this paper, we prove that for any graph $G$, there is an integer $n$ such that the join $G + K_n$ of $G$ and $K_n$ has its on-line choice number equal chromatic number. Then we show that the on-line version of Ohba conjecture is true if $G$ has independence number at most 3. We also present an alternative proof of the resu...

  17. Overhead power lines. Planning, design, construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, F.; Nefzger, P.; Nolasco, J.F.; Kaintzyk, U. [Siemens AG, Power Transmission and Distribution, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The basic elements of overhead power line technology have been known for many years. However, this technology has continuously developed, for example, to adjust design of the lines to new transmission needs, to available rights-of-way, and to accommodate environmental concerns or resources. Since many existing overhead line installations are approaching the end of their economic and technical lifetime, strategies for maintenance to extending their operational life are needed. Also, because fo the introduction of new standards and deregulation, the basis of design and verification for all aspects and steps in overhead line planning and construction has changed. The industry, therefore, requires a publication reflecting these developments and changes. Overhead Power Lines presents not only the scientific and engineering basis for the electric and mechanical design, but also comprehensively describes all aspects of most recent technology, including the selection and design of components such as conductors, insulators, fittings, supports and foundations. The chapters on line survey, construction and maintenance address updated requirements and solutions. In addition, the book carefully considers the changing economic and technical environment of the overhead power line business. This publication is intended to introduce students and beginners to the full range of relevant topics of line design and implementation and to serve as a valuable reference to engineers and technicians employed by overhead line operators, contractors and consulting companies to carry out their daily tasks. The book also supplies everyone else in the electric-energy supply industry, including design, maintenance, and construction engineers, with a ready reference. This first English-language edition is based on the 5th German-language edition and incorporates the latest international standards edited by Cigre, the International Council of Large Electric Systems, IEC and CENELEC. The authors are

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey. XX. The nature of the X-ray bright emission-line star VFTS 399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Bartlett, E. S.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Bird, A. J.; Sana, H.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Soszyński, I.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The stellar population of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains a subset of apparently single, rapidly rotating O-type stars. The physical processes leading to the formation of this cohort are currently uncertain. Aims: One member of this group, the late O-type star VFTS 399, is found to be unexpectedly X-ray bright for its bolometric luminosity - in this study we aim to determine its physical nature and the cause of this behaviour. Methods: To accomplish this we performed a time-resolved analysis of optical, infrared and X-ray observations. Results: We found VFTS 399 to be an aperiodic photometric variable with an apparent near-IR excess. Its optical spectrum demonstrates complex emission profiles in the lower Balmer series and select He i lines - taken together these suggest an OeBe classification. The highly variable X-ray luminosity is too great to be produced by a single star, while the hard, non-thermal nature suggests the presence of an accreting relativistic companion. Finally, the detection of periodic modulation of the X-ray lightcurve is most naturally explained under the assumption that the accretor is a neutron star. Conclusions: VFTS 399 appears to be the first high-mass X-ray binary identified within 30 Dor, sharing many observational characteristics with classical Be X-ray binaries. Comparison of the current properties of VFTS 399 to binary-evolution models suggests a progenitor mass ≳25 M⊙ for the putative neutron star, which may host a magnetic field comparable in strength to those of magnetars. VFTS 399 is now the second member of the cohort of rapidly rotating "single" O-type stars in 30 Dor to show evidence of binary interaction resulting in spin-up, suggesting that this may be a viable evolutionary pathway for the formation of a subset of this stellar population. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under program ID 182.D-0222.

  19. Train turn restrictions and line plan performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    In this paper we study the impact of the `turn conditions' in end stations on the performance of a line plan. If trains have to turn on their platform in an end station, the yoccupy the platform for several minutes. A more preferred option, from a timetabling point of view, would be that a train...... in a exible and large enough shunt. Starting from a given line plan, we compare two timetables, one where trains have to turn on their platform and one where trains can turn in a shunt. We evaluate the impact on the performance of the line plan by its feasibility for timetabling,the minimum overall buffer...

  20. Microwave line of sight link engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Angueira, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and operation of line of sight microwave link systems The microwave Line of Sight (LOS) transport network of any cellular operator requires at least as much planning effort as the cellular infrastructure itself. The knowledge behind this design has been kept private by most companies and has not been easy to find. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering solves this dilemma. It provides the latest revisions to ITU reports and recommendations, which are not only key to successful design but have changed dramatically in

  1. The various lines followed in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the imaginable lines can be counted in hundreds, at least ten of them have effectively contributed to the production of energy and among them the LWR line (reactors cooled and moderated with ordinary water) represent 3/4 of the installed power and an even greater proportion of orders for nuclear power stations. The problems of fissile material supply will undoubtly make it imperative to have massive recourse to fast reactors, superregenerating reactors that produce more fissile material than they consume. Thanks to their special characteristics, high temperature reactors should also play a part. These three lines have, moreover, the advantage of being to a great extent complementary

  2. Elk and plants thrive near power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, L.

    1997-11-01

    Butterflies and elk gather in clearings near power line right-of-ways and on the edges of such clearings, where the wild flowers and plants that have widely disappeared as a result of intensive farming and subsurface drainage of fields have found a good habitat. Ornamental coniferous trees, various herbs and assorted berries do well and can be harvested near power lines from woodland clearings once thought unfit for cultivation. IVS, the nationwide network company, takes part in many projects aiming both to increase productive utilization of land areas under power lines and to promote biodiversity

  3. Cascade model of power lines for PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Dziura, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor´s thesis deals with studies of power-line in terms of possibilities for using grid as a transmission medium for data transmission. Theoretical part is focused on PLC technology and the parameters of high-voltage lines. In very practical part the modeling of power-line by cascade parameters of two-port network is examined. Influence of va-rious changes in network topology are included in this thesis and also their influence on transfer function. The last part outlines the method ...

  4. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  5. Line Generalization and AutoCAD Map

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Vučetić; Miljenko Lapaine

    2001-01-01

    The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo ...

  6. RF and microwave coupled-line circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Mongia, R K; Bhartia, P; Hong, J; Gupta, K C

    2007-01-01

    This extensively revised edition of the 1999 Artech House classic, RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, offers you a thoroughly up-to-date understanding of coupled line fundamentals, explaining their applications in designing microwave and millimeter-wave components used in today's communications, microwave, and radar systems. The Second Edition includes a wealth of new material, particularly relating to applications. You find brand new discussions on a novel simple design technique for multilayer coupled circuits, high pass filters using coupled lines, software packages used for filter des

  7. Coupled Transmission Lines as Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor;

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the use of a coupled line section as an impedance transformer is presented. We show how to properly select the terminations of the coupled line structures for effective matching of real and complex loads in both narrow and wide frequency ranges. The corresponding....... Wideband matching performance with relative bandwidth beyond 100% and return loss > 20 dB is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted performance of the coupled line transformer section....

  8. Significant contribution of the Cerenkov line-like radiation to the broad emission lines of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. B.; You, J. H. [Institute of Nuclear, Particle, Astronomy and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Shanghai Key Lab for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Chen, L., E-mail: dbliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: dliu@cfa.Harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The Cerenkov line-like radiation in a dense gas (N {sub H} > 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}) is potentially important in the exploration of the optical broad emission lines of quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies. With this quasi-line emission mechanism, some long standing puzzles in the study of quasars could be resolved. In this paper, we calculate the power of the Cerenkov line-like radiation in dense gas and compare with the powers of other radiation mechanisms by a fast electron to confirm its importance. From the observed gamma-ray luminosity of 3C 279, we show that the total number of fast electrons is sufficiently high to allow effective operation of the quasi-line emission. We present a model calculation for the luminosity of the Cerenkov Lyα line of 3C 279, which is high enough to compare with observations. We therefore conclude that the broad line of quasars may be a blend of the Cerenkov emission line with the real line produced by the bound-bound transition. A new approach to the absorption of the Cerenkov line is presented with the method of escape probability, which markedly simplifies the computation in the optically thick case. The revised set of formulae for the Cerenkov line-like radiation is more convenient in applications.

  9. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  10. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  11. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  12. Virginia ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Virginia....

  13. Legendre rational approximation on the whole line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Benyu; WANG; Zhongqing

    2004-01-01

    The Legendre rational approximation is investigated. Some approximation results are established, which form the mathematical foundation of a new spectral method on the whole line. A model problem is considered. Numerical results show the efficiency of this new approach.

  14. The Of emission lines near 4650 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, A. B.; Gilroy, K. K.; Hill, G. M.

    1989-09-01

    Rectified, normalized, high S/N intensity tracings of nine Of stars were obtained from Reticon spectra in the 4550-4800-A region. The well-known relatively sharp Of emission lines are seen to stand on pedestals of broad weak emission somewhat like the broad emission lines from WR stars. It is suggested that cascades following dielectronic recombination may be an important process driving some lines of N III, C III, and C IV into the emission of Of stars, and that the sharp Of lines come from plasma that is stationary with respect to the star. The broad emission features show an extensive low-density wind from each star. The results imply that the detection of two, more or less equal, broad jumps in the rest spectra of galaxies at about 4640 and 4686 A is more indicative of Of stars than of WR stars.

  15. Experience with the Alpine Breaker Line Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habnicht, H.; Halbmayer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Alpine Breaker Line Support is new, mechanised support equipment for stabilising the caving edge during depillaring operations. A short discussion is presented of some panel geometry variations used, and of performance data achieved. 5 figs.

  16. Louisiana ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for coastal...

  17. Handbook of spectral lines in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Dischler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is a breakthrough in the understanding of the large number of spectral lines in diamond. Data on more than 2000 lines and bands are presented in 200 tables, including many unpublished results. With a novel organization scheme, the search for a specific line is greatly simplified as a benefit for researchers and students. In order to meet the interest in the understanding of the spectra, structure assignments for 80 % of the lines are given, of which 15 % only were published before. The majority of the structures for the 300 centers is explained in most cases for the first time. A key instrument in the interpretation is the analysis by donor-acceptor pair transitions. In a special chapter 95 such centers are listed and discussed, of which only two have been published before, the first one by the present author in 1994.

  18. Anomalous fluorescence line intensity in megavoltage bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nino; Litz, Marc; Merkel, George; Schumer, Joseph; Seely, John; Carroll, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    A Cauchois transmission crystal spectrometer intended for laser plasma diagnostics has measured an anomalous ratio between the fluorescence lines in megavoltage bremsstrahlung. When observed in reflection, Kα1 fluorescence is twice as strong as the Kβ line, as is usual. However, in forward-directed bremsstrahlung from a 2 MV end point linear accelerator with a tungsten converter, the Kα1 and Kβ fluorescence are approximately equal. The anomalous fluorescence line ratio, unity, reflects the large amount of fluorescence generated on the side of the converter where the electrons enter, and the differential attenuation of the fluorescence photons as they pass through the converter to opposite side. Understanding of fluorescence in megavoltage bremsstrahlung is relevant to the explanation of anomalous line ratios in spectra produced by high-energy electrons generated by intense femtosecond laser irradiation.

  19. Water Distribution Lines, Published in 2006, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not...

  20. Alabama ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Alabama. The...

  1. Sevick's transmission line transformers theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    An updated and reorganized revision of the classic book Transmission Line Transformers (2001) by Jerry Sevick, this book provides communication engineers with a clear technical presentation of both the theory and practical applications of the transmission of radio communication.

  2. Mooring Line for an Oceanographic Buoy System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A mooring line for an oceanographic buoy system includes four sections. The first section is a protected cable that is connectable to the buoy. The second section...

  3. Seismic Lines in Louisiana and Texas [gcseismicg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The lines shown are those used by the USGS in developing the framework geology and models used in assessing the oil and gas resources of the Gulf Coast Region. The...

  4. Non-Voigt Lyalpha Absorption Line Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram; Carswell; Theuns

    2000-02-01

    Recent numerical simulations have lead to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the intergalactic medium and the loss of a physical justification for Voigt profile fitting of the Lyalpha forest. Many individual lines seen in simulated spectra have significant departures from the Voigt profile, yet could be well fitted by a blend of two or more such lines. We discuss the expected effect on the line profiles due to ongoing gravitational structure formation and Hubble expansion. We develop a method to detect departures from Voigt profiles of the absorption lines in a statistical way and apply this method to simulated Lyalpha forest spectra, confirming that the profiles seen do statistically differ from Voigt profiles. PMID:10622758

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively ide

  6. Columbia River ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Columbia River. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of...

  7. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  8. On line measurement systems for calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of on-line measurement systems for calorimetric measurements for the last twenty years is traced and an attempt of their classification according to the automation level and hardware unification degree is undertaken. Main attention is given to the structure of variuos types of the above systems and the role of computers as a control and calculating device in the system. The methodic problems are considered in brief. Semiautomatic measurement systems for calorimetric measurements on the base of simple controllers, the systems with one or several mini- and microcomputers on-line with an experimental installation as well as the systems with various types of interface buses (CAMAC, IEEE 488, Multibus) are described. Tendencies in the development of the measurement systems related with application of microprocessors into computer and measuring engineering and possible prospects of the on-line measurement systems for calorimetric measurements as a specific variety of on-line systems for physical experiments are considered

  9. Maryland ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Maryland....

  10. Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Schmit, Donald; Ayres, Thomas; Peter, Hardi; Curdt, Werner; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary . The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales...

  11. Automatic line generalization using zero-crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, K.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of automating the process of line generalization has been very difficult. It has not been solved yet despite the concerted effort of many private firms as well as government agencies. There does not exist an algorithm which can automatically perform this process when there is a drastic change in scale between the original and generalized maps. In this paper, an algorithm which is successful in automatically generalizing lines from any large scale to any small scale is presented. The algorthm achieves different levels of smoothing the line while preserving the overall shape of the line. The results are compared with those obtained by manual methods. It was found that the results obtained by the algorithm are very close to those obtained by cartographers using manual methods.

  12. Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  13. Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  14. Formation of the helium EUV resonance lines

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Context: While classical models successfully reproduce intensities of many transition region lines, they predict helium EUV line intensities roughly an order of magnitude lower than the observed value. Aims: To determine the relevant formation mechanism(s) of the helium EUV resonance lines, capable of explaining the high intensities under quiet sun conditions. Methods: We synthesise and study the emergent spectra from a 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulation model. The effects of coronal illumination and non-equilibrium ionisation of hydrogen and helium are included self-consistently in the numerical simulation. Results: Radiative transfer calculations result in helium EUV line intensities that are an order of magnitude larger than the intensities calculated under the classical assumptions. The enhanced intensity of He I 584 is primarily caused by He II recombination cascades. The enhanced intensity of He II 304 and He II 256 is caused primarily by non-equilibrium helium ionisation. Conclusion: The anal...

  15. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  16. First line management in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voxted, Søren

    The paper will examines and discusses the results from a structured observational study, wherein 50 first-line managers from the public sector in Denmark in five areas of employment where observed. These observational studies are a key contribution in the ‘greenhouse for management’ project...... literature there has been established an ideal of having professional managers’ on all organizational levels, including first-line managers. This ideal is in contrast to a practice (especially in the municipal sector) where the first line managers often are included in the stipulated work norms and where......: Management in the first level - new light on the first layer of managers in the food chain. The purpose of this paper is to clarify and answer two partially overlapping questions: 1. Investigate municipal first-line managers work activities and usage of time. 2. Examine the proportion of the managers' time...

  17. Lineær Algebra via Eksempler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Hans Anton; Nielsen, Holger Andreas

    Notesæt til anvendelse i kurserne Calculus 1 og 2. Den elementære lineære algebra præsenteres gennem en række gennemregnede eksempler.......Notesæt til anvendelse i kurserne Calculus 1 og 2. Den elementære lineære algebra præsenteres gennem en række gennemregnede eksempler....

  18. Product Lines Can Jeopardize Their Trade Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Acher, Mathieu; Bécan, Guillaume; Combemale, Benoit; Baudry, Benoit; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience What do you give for free to your competitor when you exhibit a product line? This paper addresses this question through several cases in which the discovery of trade secrets of a product line is possible and can lead to severe consequences. That is, we show that an outsider can understand the variability realization and gain either confidential business information or even some economical direct advantage. For instance, an attacker can identify hidden constraints an...

  19. Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Hironaka, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.

  20. Analysis of banking activity by business line

    OpenAIRE

    E. Crété.

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of financial tensions and banking regulation reforms, discussions about the various bank business lines have come into sharper focus and, in the light of the highly diversified profi le of French banking groups, in September 2011 the CNIS (Conseil national de l’information statistique – National Council for Statistical Information) set up a working group on bank business lines in which the Banque de France participated. Published in May 2012, the group’s report sets out var...

  1. ELF magnetospheric lines observed by DEMETER

    OpenAIRE

    Parrot, M.; Němec, F; Santolík, O; Berthelier, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The influence of man-made activity on the ionosphere may be very important. The effects induced by the Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) may change the natural wave activity and/or the ionospheric plasma components. One goal of the ionospheric satellite DEMETER launched in June 2004 is to study the ionospheric perturbations which could be related to this anthropogenic activity. As the first step, the paper presents Tram Lines (TL) which have been observed on board...

  2. Lines, dots and spirals on Peruvian land

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    The most famous geoglyphs of Peru are the "Nazca Lines". Considered as one of the mysteries of the ancient world, they have been included among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in a large region between the towns of Nazca and Palpa, these lines create shapes of animals ranging in size up to 300 m. The archaeological site is under investigation with remote science technologies.

  3. Poverty Comparisons with Endogenous Absolute Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Simler, Kenneth R.; Arndt, Channing

    2006-01-01

    The objective of measuring poverty is usually to make comparisons over time or between two or more groups. Comm on statistical inference methods are used to determine whether an apparent difference in measured poverty is statistically significant. Studies of relative poverty have long recognized that when the poverty line is calculated from sample survey data, both the variance of the poverty line and the variance of the welfare metric contribute to the variance of the poverty estimate. In co...

  4. ACSEPP On-Line Electronic Payment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; ZHU Xian; HONG Fan

    2004-01-01

    With analyzing the existing on-line electronic payment protocols, this paper presents a new on-line electronic payment protocol named ACSEPP: Anonymous, Convenient and Secure Electronic Payment Protocol.Its aim is to design a practical electronic payment protocol which is both secure and convenient.Without using PKI_CA frame, it realized the anonymity of consumer and merchant, the convenient of handling, the low cost of maintenance and the security.

  5. Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Zelevinsky, T.; Boyd, M. M.; Ludlow, A. D.; Ido, T.; Ye, J.(Physics Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, United States of America); Ciurylo, R.; Naidon, P.; P.S. Julienne

    2006-01-01

    With ultracold $^{88}$Sr in a 1D magic wavelength optical lattice, we performed narrow line photoassociation spectroscopy near the $^1$S$_0 - ^3$P$_1$ intercombination transition. Nine least-bound vibrational molecular levels associated with the long-range $0_u$ and $1_u$ potential energy surfaces were measured and identified. A simple theoretical model accurately describes the level positions and treats the effects of the lattice confinement on the line shapes. The measured resonance strengt...

  6. Estimation of the Food Poverty Line

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Molano, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT To monitor changes in absolute poverty across time, it is crucial to ensure that the established poverty line is a fixed standard of living that represents the minimum standard required by an individual to fulfill his or her basic food and non-food needs. Typically, the food (component of the) poverty line is set with the cost of basic needs method, which entails determining the price of some nutritional benchmark through an artifice. In the Philippines, the official food poverty lin...

  7. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  8. Spinal Test Suites for Software Product Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Beohar, Harsh; Mousavi, MR Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in testing software product lines is efficiency. In particular, testing a product line should take less effort than testing each and every product individually. We address this issue in the context of input-output conformance testing, which is a formal theory of model-based testing. We extend the notion of conformance testing on input-output featured transition systems with the novel concept of spinal test suites. We show how this concept dispenses with retesting the common ...

  9. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  10. Straight line feature based image distortion correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haofeng; Zhao Chunxia; Lu Jianfeng; Tang Zhenmin; Yang Jingyu

    2008-01-01

    An image distortion correction method is proposed, which uses the straight line features. Many parallel lines of different direction from different images were extracted, and then were used to optimize the distortion parameters by nonlinear least square. The thought of step by step was added when the optimization method working. 3D world coordi-nation is not need to know, and the method is easy to implement. The experiment result shows its high accuracy.

  11. Grant credit lines for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission established a mechanism of credit lines to integrate more quickly the Bulgarian economy to the open international markets. Thereby it was enabled certain Bulgarian banks to provide grant loans to private companies in the industrial sector for projects of improvement of the energy efficiency of their production. The Bulgarian experience in using of two European credit lines and their role in the current economic crisis is presented in this paper. (authors)

  12. Power Line Communications for Smart Grid Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Torsten Berger; Andreas Schwager; J. Joaquín Escudero-Garzás

    2013-01-01

    Power line communication, that is, using the electricity infrastructure for data transmission, is experiencing a renaissance in the context of Smart Grid. Smart Grid objectives include the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources into the electricity supply chain, securing reliable electricity delivery, and using the existing electrical infrastructure more efficiently. This paper surveys power line communications (PLCs) in the context of Smart Grid. The specifications G3-PLC, PRIM...

  13. Line Broadening and the Solar Opacity Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D.

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of line widths constitutes theoretical and computational challenges in the calculation of opacities of hot, dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra of the Sun indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project (OP). In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line broadening. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to an increase of the Stark widths resulting from discrepancies with OP, are compared, in light of the solar opacity problem, with the required opacity variations of the present day Sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. The resulting variation profile is much larger than the discrepancy between different atomic codes, agrees qualitatively with the missing opacity profile, recovers about half of the missing opacity nearby the convection boundary, and has a little effect in the internal regions. Since it is hard to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in the Stark widths, we show that an increase of all line widths by a factor of about ˜100 recovers quantitatively the missing opacity. These results emphasize the possibility that photoexcitation processes are not modeled properly, and more specifically, highlight the need for a better theoretical characterization of the line broadening phenomena at stellar interior conditions, and of the uncertainty due to the way it is implemented by atomic codes.

  14. Line and Continuum Variability in Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Y E; Valencia-S., M; García-Marín, M; Busch, G; Zuther, J; Horrobin, M; Zhou, H

    2015-01-01

    We compared optical spectroscopic and photometric data for 18 AGN galaxies over 2 to 3 epochs, with time intervals of typically 5 to 10 years. We used the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and compared the spectra to data taken from the SDSS database and the literature. We find variations in the forbidden oxygen lines as well as in the hydrogen recombination lines of these sources. For 4 of the sources we find that, within the calibration uncertainties, the variations in continuum and line spectra of the sources are very small. We argue that it is mainly the difference in black hole mass between the samples that is responsible for the different degree of continuum variability. In addition we find that for an otherwise constant accretion rate the total line variability (dominated by the narrow line contributions) reverberates the continuum variability with a dependency $\\Delta L_{line} \\propto (\\Delta L_{cont.})^{\\frac{3}{2}}$. Since this dependency is prominently e...

  15. Grid line artifact formation: A comprehensive theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear focused grids are commonly used in general radiography and mammography to control scatter. In these applications, if lines would be visible when the grid was stationary, then the grid is moved during the x-ray exposure to blur out grid lines. Presented is a theoretical framework for estimating grid line artifact magnitude and evaluating artifact suppression techniques. The framework takes as parameters the grid pitch, septum thickness, and exposure time, and allows for a variation in grid velocity and in x-ray tube output during the exposure. Grid line artifacts are evaluated for a variety of conditions. These include a stationary grid, a grid moving at a constant velocity with no kV ripple, a grid moving at a constant velocity with large kV ripple, and a grid moving with decreasing velocity and no kV ripple. Also evaluated are grid line artifacts for a novel suppression technique in which the grid moves at a constant velocity and the x-ray exposure waveform is 'feathered', i.e., when the x-ray exposure waveform has a soft start and stop. Of practical interest is that it is possible to effectively eliminate grid line artifacts when the grid moves only a short distance with an appropriately 'feathered' exposure waveform. This capability permits one to design efficient and compact coarse strip density grid systems

  16. Line broadening and the solar opacity problem

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, M; Gazit, D

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of line widths constitutes a theoretical as well as a computational challenge in the calculation of opacities of hot dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra nearby the convection zone boundary (CZB) of the sun, indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project. In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line-broadening. Atomic spectra of several elements are analyzed and compared within the solar interior. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to changes in the Stark widths are shown to be significant and to result mainly due to K-shell lines. In light of the solar opacity problem, the results are compared with the required opacity variations of the present day sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. It is shown that an increase of the line widths res...

  17. Collisionless reconnection: magnetic field line interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field lines are quantum objects carrying one quantum Φ0 = 2πh/e of magnetic flux and have finite radius λm. Here we argue that they possess a very specific dynamical interaction. Parallel field lines reject each other. When confined to a certain area they form two-dimensional lattices of hexagonal structure. We estimate the filling factor of such an area. Anti-parallel field lines, on the other hand, attract each other. We identify the physical mechanism as being due to the action of the gauge potential field, which we determine quantum mechanically for two parallel and two anti-parallel field lines. The distortion of the quantum electrodynamic vacuum causes a cloud of virtual pairs. We calculate the virtual pair production rate from quantum electrodynamics and estimate the virtual pair cloud density, pair current and Lorentz force density acting on the field lines via the pair cloud. These properties of field line dynamics become important in collisionless reconnection, consistently explaining why and how reconnection can spontaneously set on in the field-free centre of a current sheet below the electron-inertial scale.

  18. Flow lines and export lines of Sabalo Gas Field - the engineering of a complex job; Flow lines e export lines de Sabalo - a engenharia da complexidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado Jose Morbach [GDK Engenharia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The construction of the natural gas flow lines and export lines system of the Sabalo field, in the far South of Bolivia is an unique job in the pipeline construction area. Its execution is a turning point in terms of engineering and construction technology in this industry. Among the Aguarague Cordillera (mountains), it runs across rocky canyons for more than 5 km, a 2.100 mt long narrow tunnel to overcome the mountains and steep hills along all the ROW length, with a total extension of 70 km, in line pipes ranging from 10'' and 12'' for the flow lines, 28'' for the gas export line and 8' for the condensate line. An integrated construction work plan was settled in order to face and overcome the complex construction situations found in every feet of the pipeline. Four simultaneous work sites were mobilized, 8 independent work fronts, 700 professionals and more than 150 pieces of heavy construction equipment, brought from 3 different countries. Special techniques were adopted also to handle the challenging detail engineering . All in all, the correct conjunction of a sound engineering work, planning, human resources and equipment and the managing flexibility to create alternatives and solutions at the fast pace required by a dynamic work schedule were essential to succeed, in a job with no room for mistakes. The successfully job completion open new possibilities to other challenging projects alike.(author)

  19. Modelling pulsed-power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission lines in modern pulsed-power machines such as PBFA-II operate at ten or more megavolts with multi-megampere currents. They often have series (voltage) or parallel (current) power addition. In these transmission lines the cathodes emit electrons freely. In addition, perturbations such as plasma opening switches cause additional electrons to be launched into the flow. The large magnetic field due to the transmission line current prevents these electrons from crossing the transmission line to the anode directly, but in most situations electron current flows to the anode after travelling a long distance down the transmission line. Usually these losses occur just before the load or at adder points. Reliable modelling of these lines is important both for design purposes and for use in analyzing data. This paper presents models that can be used for this purposes. The models are primarily based upon known symmetries plus measurable parameters. Comparisons to data, particularly data taken on PBFA-II, are made

  20. Supermassive black holes and spectral emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that active galactic nuclei (AGN) are hosting a supermassive black hole in their center. The supermassive black hole is actively fueled by surrounding gas through an accretion disk, which produces a broad band continuum (from X-ray to radio emission). The hard photons from the accretion disk create the photoionized plasma around the central black hole, which emits a number of broad emission lines. Therefore, one of the signatures of the strong activity in galaxies is the emission of the broad spectral lines (line widths of several 1000 km/s), which are seen only in a fraction of AGN, so called Type 1 AGN. These broad emission lines often show very complex line profiles, usually strongly variable in time. Here we will describe the basic properties of the broad emission lines and how can we use them to derive the properties of the central supermassive black hole, i.e., the mass and spin, or see signatures of supermassive binary black holes

  1. The Four Intersection-and-Difference Model for Line-Line Topological Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Min; LI Zhilin; LI Guangqiang; ZHANG Xuesong

    2007-01-01

    The description of line-line topological relations is still an unsolved issue although much effort has been done. The problem is involved in many practical applications such as spatial query, spatial analysis and cartographic generalization. To develop a sound and effective approach to describe line-line relations, it is first necessary to define the topology of an individual line, i.e., local topology. The concept of connective degree is used for the identification of topological differences in the geometric structure of a line. The general topological definition of a line is given, i.e., endpoints set and interior point set. This definition can be applied to the embedded spaces of different dimensions, whether co-dimension is equal to or larger than zero. On this basis, a generic model called the 4 intersection-and-difference is set up for the description of basic line-line topological relations, upon which a conceptual neighborhood graph is built with consideration of topological distance. It is concluded that the proposed model can represent the property of topological changes, and basic relations between line segments in IR1 and IR2.

  2. Absorption-line measurements of AGN outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dale L.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances in two nearby active galaxies, the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Markarian 1044 and the Seyfert 1 Markarian 279, are reported. Spectra from three space-based observatories HST, FUSE, and CHANDRA, are used to measure absorption lines in material outflowing from the nucleus. I make multi-wavelength comparisons to better convert the ionic column densities into elemental column densities which can then be used to determine abundances (metallicities). Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies are known to have extreme values of a number of properties compared to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as a class. In particular, emission-line studies have suggested that NLS1s are unusually metal-rich compared to broad-line AGNs of comparable luminosity. To test these suggestions I perform absorption-line studies on the NLS1 Markarian 1044, a nearby and bright AGN. I use lines of H I, C IV, N V, and O VI to properly make the photoionization correction through the software Cloudy and determine abundances of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. I find two results. The first is that Markarian 1044 has a bulk metallicity greater than five times solar. The second is that the N/C ratio in Markarian 1044 is consistent with a solar mixture. This is in direct contradiction of extrapolations from local H II regions which state N/ C should scale with bulk metallicity. This implies a different enrichment history in Markarian 1044 than in the Galactic disk. I also report discovery of three new low-redshift Lya forest lines with log N HI >= 12:77 in the spectrum of Markarian 1044. This number is consistent with the 2.6 expected Lya forest lines in the path length to Markarian 1044. I also investigate the CHANDRA X-ray spectrum of Markarian 279, a broad-line Seyfert 1. I use a new code, PHASE, to self-consistently model the entire absorption spectrum simultaneously. Using solely the X-ray spectrum I am able to determine the physical parameters of this absorber to a degree only

  3. The Unusual Absorption Line Spectrum of Quasar SDSS J2220+0109%类星体SDSS J2220+0109中特殊吸收线系统的发现与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪拓; 周宏岩; 王挺贵; 王慧元

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of Balmer broad absorption lines (BALs) in the quasar SDSS J2220+0109 and present a detailed analysis of the peculiar absorption line spectra. The absorption lines are detected in He I* multiplet at AA3189, 3889 arising from the metastable helium 23s level, and in Ha and Hβ from the excited hydrogen H I n = 2 level, which are rarely seen in quasar spectra. There are also many absorption lines arising from excited Fe II* levels 7955 cm-1, 13474 cm-1 and 13673 cm-1 in the wavelength range of 3100 ~ 3300 A. Ca II H, K absorption line doublets are also clearly presented in its SDSS spectra. All absorption lines show a similar blueshifted velocity structure of △v ≈ — 1500 ~ 0 km·s-1 relative to the quasar systematic redshift determined from the emission lines. Detailed analysis suggests that the BALs should arise from partial ionized region with a column density of Nr i ≈ 1021 cm-2 for an electron density of ne ≈ 106 cm-3; and the hydrogen n = 2 level be populated via collisional excitation witli Lya pumping. In addition to its peculiar absorption features, SDSS J2220+0109 also shows unusual Fe II emission lines very likely originated from the low density gas of ne ≈106 cm-3, which is similar to that of the absorption gas.%斯隆数字巡天光谱数据中发现,类星体SDSS J2220+0109光谱中同时出现如下极为罕见的吸收线:氢巴尔末线Hα和Hβ,亚稳态He Ⅰ*λλ3889、3189++,Ca Ⅱ H、K,以及来自Fe Ⅱ*能级的波数分别为7 955 cm-1、13 474 cm-1和13 673 cm-1的众多吸收线.上述吸收线具有相似的速度结构,线宽达1 500 km.s-1,相对于发射线表现出蓝移.研究结果表明,这些吸收线很可能来自部分电离区,密度ne≈106 cm-3,柱密度NΗ I≈1021 cm-2,Lyα共振散射对氢原子的激发起重要作用.SDSS J2220+0109斯隆r星等为16.56 mag,是探索活动星系核中特殊吸收线起源的理想实验室.将来的紫外光谱观测可以更加准确决定吸收气

  4. Genetic variability among advanced lines of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic variability for morphological and biochemical traits among six advanced lines (F10:11) of brassica was studied at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during crop season of 2012-13. These lines were developed through interspecific hybridization. Significant differences at (p=0.01) for plant height, main, pods main raceme-1, pod length, seed yield plant-1 and protein content at (p=0.05) for 100-seed weight, oil content were recorded. The advanced line, AUP-05 produced the maximum seed yield plant-1 (19.73 g), protein content (24.56%), 100-seed weight (0.64 g). Advanced line AUP-04 had the highest erucic acid (50.31%), linolenic acid (10.60%) and was late maturing (179.33). Advanced line AUP-06 produced the high oil content (48.82%). Advanced line AUP-03 produced comparatively longer main raceme (69.32 cm). Environmental variance was smaller than genotypic variance for majority of the traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 2.45 to 25.67% and 2.50 to 27.68%, respectively. Heritability was high for majority of the traits. The maximum heritability was recorded for plant height (0.61), main raceme length (0.81), pods main raceme-1 (0.74), seed yield plant-1 (0.86) and protein content (0.77). Moderate heritability was observed for oil (0.58) contents. Heritability for 100-seed weight (0.30) was the lowest. These lines may be released as new improved varieties for specific parameters. (author)

  5. Radio recombination lines from H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio recombination lines have been observed from forty-six H II regions. The Arecibo 1000-foot radio telescope was used to provide high sensitivity and high angular resolution at 1400 MHz (gain approx. 7.70K/Jy, HPBW = 3:2) and 2372 MHZ (gain approx. 6.30K/Jy, HPBW = 2'). Observations were made at 1400 MHz in the frequency switching mode, and at 2372 MHz in the total power mode. Gaussians were fit to be observed lines to derive velocities, line widths, and line temperatures. From the velocities kinematic distances were derived. For eleven sources H I absorption measurements were also made. The absorption spectra enabled the kinematic distance ambiguity to be resolved for some sources. The absorption spectra themselves were found to have extremely sharp, non-gaussian edges. One explanation for these is a model where the interstellar medium contains many H I cloudlets with T/sub s/less than or equal to 1000K and turbulent velocities less than or equal to 3 km/s. The H I absorption spectrum is then a superposition of many narrow gaussian profiles. It was also found from a comparison of H I absorption velocities with radio recombination line velocities that peculiar motions exist in the interstellar medium with velocities of up to 10 km/s. Using the measured line temperatures and continuum temperatures, estimates were desired of emission measures, electron temperatures, and electron densities, using a non-LTE analysis. Non-LTE effects were important only for the hottest and densest H II regions. The non-LTE calculations were checked through a comparison derivation of electron temperatures using hydrogen beta lines

  6. Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Rudy, R. J.; Bernstein, L. S.

    2008-09-01

    Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae David K. Lynch, Richard. J. Rudy (The Aerospace Corporation) & Lawrence S. Bernstein (Spectral Sciences, Inc.) Novae spectra in the near infrared frequently show a set of six emission lines that have not been positively identified (Williams, Longmore, & Geballe 1996, MNRAS, 279, 804; Lynch et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2013; Rudy et al. 2002 ApJ, 573, 794; Lynch et al. 2004 Astron. J. 127, 1089-1097). These lines are at 0.8926, 1.1114, 1.1901, 1.5545, 2.0996 and 2.425 µm ± 0.005 µm. Krautter et al. (1984 A&A 137, 304) suggested that three of the lines were due to rydberg (hydrogenic) transitions in an unspecified atomic species that was in the 4th or 5th ionization stage (core charge = 4 & 5). We believe that Krautter et al.'s explanation is correct based on 4 additional lines that we have identified in the visible and near infrared spectrum of V723 Cassiopeiae. The observed Rydberg lines appear to originate from high angular momentum states with negligible quantum defects. The species cannot be determined with any certainty because in rydberg states, the outer electron sees a nucleus shielded by the inner electrons and together the inner atom appears to have a charge of +1, like hydrogen. As a result, the atom looks hydrogenic and species such as CV, NV, OV, MgV, SiV, etc. have their rydberg transitions at very similar wavelengths. All the lines represent permitted transitions, most likely formed by recombination. Atoms with core charges 4, 5 & 6 are rarely seen in the astrophysical environment because an extremely hot radiation field is necessary to ionize them. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of a white dwarf can reach millions of degrees K, and thus there are enough X-ray photons available to achieve the necessary high ionization levels.

  7. Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Cindy; Baildon, Taylor; Mehta, Shail; Garcia, Edgar; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey of Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and seven dwarf galaxies in (NGC6822, IC10, WLM, Sextans A and B, Phoenix and Pegasus). Using data from the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS - see Massey et al, 2006), we used continuum-subtracted Ha emission line images to define emission regions with a faint flux limit of 10 -17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2above the background. We have obtained photometric measurements for roughly 7450 Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and five of the seven dwarf galaxies (no regions for Phoenix or Pegasus). Using these regions, with boundaries defined by Hα-emission flux limits, we also measured fluxes for the continuum-subtracted [OIII] and [SII] images and constructed a catalog of Hα fluxes, region sizes and [OIII]/ Hα and [SII]/ Hα line ratios. The HII region luminosity functions and size distributions for the spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are compared with those of the dwarf galaxies NGC 6822 and IC10. For M31 and M33, the average [SII]/ Hα and [OIII]/ Hα line ratios, plotted as a function of galactocentric radius, display a linear trend with shallow slopes consistent with other studies of metallicity gradients in these galaxies. The galaxy-wide averages of [SII]/ Hα line ratios correlate with the masses of the dwarf galaxies following the previously established dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relationship. The slope of the luminosity functions for the dwarf galaxies varies with galaxy mass. The Carleton Catalog of this Local Group Emission-line Survey will be made available on-line.

  8. Linear Polarization Measurements of Chromospheric Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Keller, C. U.

    2003-01-01

    We have used the Zurich Imaging Stokes Polarimeter (ZIMPOL I) with the McMath-Pierce 1.5 m main telescope on Kitt Peak to obtain linear polarization measurements of the off-limb chromosphere with a sensitivity better than 1 x 10(exp -5). We found that the off-disk observations require a combination of good seeing (to show the emission lines) and a clean heliostat (to avoid contamination by scattered light from the Sun's disk). When these conditions were met, we obtained the following principal results: 1. Sometimes self-reversed emission lines of neutral and singly ionized metals showed linear polarization caused by the transverse Zeeman effect or by instrumental cross talk from the longitudinal Zeeman effect in chromospheric magnetic fields. Otherwise, these lines tended to depolarize the scattered continuum radiation by amounts that ranged up to 0.2%. 2. Lines previously known to show scattering polarization just inside the limb (such as the Na I lambda5889 D2 and the He I lambda5876 D3 lines) showed even more polarization above the Sun's limb, with values approaching 0.7%. 3. The O I triplet at lambda7772, lambda7774, and lambda7775 showed a range of polarizations. The lambda7775 line, whose maximum intrinsic polarizability, P(sub max), is less than 1%, revealed mainly Zeeman contributions from chromospheric magnetic fields. However, the more sensitive lambda7772 (P(sub max) = 19%) and lambda7774 (P(sub max) = 29%) lines had relatively strong scattering polarizations of approximately 0.3% in addition to their Zeeman polarizations. At times of good seeing, the polarization spectra resolve into fine structures that seem to be chromospheric spicules.

  9. Exact trajectory in semiclassical line broadening and line shifting calculation test for H2-He Q(1) line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semiclassical model RB (Robert, D. and Bonamy, J. (Journal de Physique (Paris), 1979, 40, 923 for calculation of line width and line shift has been used in many applications. It contains an approximate 'parabolic' trajectory. Bykov, A.D. et al, Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (1992) 5, 587, have recently proposed an analytical expression for an exact treatment of the classical path. This paper analyses the consequence of introducing the exact trajectory within the RB model for the H2-He Q(1) line chosen as a simple test. Moreover, a comparison with results of exact close-coupling calculations is also given for this molecular system. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Oryza Tag Line, a phenotypic mutant database for the Genoplante rice insertion line library

    OpenAIRE

    Larmande, Pierre; Gay, Celine; Lorieux, Mathias; Perin, Christophe; Bouniol, Matthieu; Droc, Gaëtan; Sallaud, Christophe; Perez, Pascual; Barnola, Isabelle; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Martin, Jérôme; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Johnson, Alexander A. T.; Bourgis, Fabienne; Ghesquière, Alain

    2008-01-01

    International audience To organize data resulting from the phenotypic characterization of a library of 30,000 T-DNA enhancer trap (ET) insertion lines of rice (Oryza sativa L cv. Nipponbare), we developed the Oryza Tag Line (OTL) database (http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/OryzaTagLine/). OTL structure facilitates forward genetic search for specific phenotypes, putatively resulting from gene disruption, and/or for GUSA or GFP reporter gene expression patterns, reflecting ET-mediated endogenou...

  11. First on-line results from the CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) beam line at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) experiment at the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, CERN, has been constructed for high-sensitivity laser spectroscopy measurements on radioactive isotopes. The technique determines the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spin and changes in mean-square charge radii of exotic nuclei via measurement of their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts. In November 2011 the first on-line run was performed using the CRIS beam line, when the hyperfine structure of 207Fr was successfully measured. This paper will describe the technique and experimental setup of CRIS and present the results from the first on-line experiment.

  12. FFAG Beam Line for nuPIL - Neutrinos from PIon Beam Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste [Fermilab; Pasternak, Jaroslaw [Rutherford; Bross, Alan [Fermilab; Liu, Ao [Fermilab; Appleby, Robert [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Tygier, Sam [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2016-06-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facilities (LBNF) program aims to deliver a neutrino beam for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The current baseline for LBNF is a conventional magnetic horn and decay pipe system. Neutrinos from PIon beam Line (nuPIL) is a part of the optimization effort to optimize the LBNF. It consists of a pion beam line after the horn to clean the beam of high energy protons and wrong-sign pions before transporting them into a decay beam line, where instrumentation could be implemented. This paper focuses on the FFAG solution for this pion beam line. The resulting neutrino flux is also presented.

  13. Speed-dependent spectral line profile including line narrowing and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanov, Victor P.

    2016-07-01

    A line profile model was developed that accounts for all essential underlying physical mechanisms. The model is based on the quantum-mechanical collision integral kernel calculated for intermolecular interaction potentials ∝r-n with n=3…6 where r is the distance between colliding molecules. It was shown that collisions of molecules with scattering on classical small angles flatten the line profile. The relative flattening reaches 10% for n=3 and has a smaller value, ~2%, for n=6 in conditions of inhomogeneous line broadening. An algebraic expression for the line profile was obtained, which allows processing recorded spectra with preliminary estimation and constraint of some of the profile's parameters.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Multi-component Mooring Lines Incorporating Line-seabed Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kurian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a deterministic approach for the dynamic analysis of a multi-component mooring line was formulated. The floater motion responses were considered as the mooring line upper boundary conditions while the anchored point was considered as pinned. Lumped parameter approach was adopted for the mooring line modelling. The forces considered were the submerged weights of mooring/attachment, physical/added inertia, line tension, fluid/line relative drag forces and line/seabed reactive forces. The latter interactions were modelled assuming that the mooring line rested on an elastic dissipative foundation. An iterative procedure for the dynamic analysis was developed and results for various mooring lines partially lying on different soils were obtained and validated by conducting a comparative study against published results. Good agreement between numerical and published experimental results was achieved. The contribution of the soil characteristics of the seabed to the dynamic behaviour of mooring line was investigated for different types of soil and reported.

  15. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  16. An Atlas of Starburst Galaxy Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations of high ionization lines (e.g. [Ne V] and He II λ4686) from star-forming regions have prompted a need to study the production mechanisms of these high ionization lines. Our study addresses the following questions: 1. What are specific cloud parameters that influence the strength of emission lines in starburst galaxies? 2. How can these parameters be tuned in simulations to match observations? We adopt the locally optimally emitting cloud model, a model previously used to study AGN, for our study of star-forming regions. We present the results of hundreds of photoionization simulations spanning 15 orders of magnitude in hydrogen ionizing photon flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density. We vary both properties of the starbursts (SEDs, evolutionary histories, ages), as well as cloud properties (such as the abundances and metallicity), tracking nearly 100 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Finally, we compare these results to the results of other studies on star-forming regions. The results of our photoionization calculations should prove useful for the analysis of starburst galaxy emission-line data.

  17. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  18. Robust atomistic calculation of dislocation line tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewski, B. A.; Pavia, F.; Curtin, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The line tension Γ of a dislocation is an important and fundamental property ubiquitous to continuum scale models of metal plasticity. However, the precise value of Γ in a given material has proven difficult to assess, with literature values encompassing a wide range. Here results from a multiscale simulation and robust analysis of the dislocation line tension, for dislocation bow-out between pinning points, are presented for two widely-used interatomic potentials for Al. A central part of the analysis involves an effective Peierls stress applicable to curved dislocation structures that markedly differs from that of perfectly straight dislocations but is required to describe the bow-out both in loading and unloading. The line tensions for the two interatomic potentials are similar and provide robust numerical values for Al. Most importantly, the atomic results show notable differences with singular anisotropic elastic dislocation theory in that (i) the coefficient of the \\text{ln}(L) scaling with dislocation length L differs and (ii) the ratio of screw to edge line tension is smaller than predicted by anisotropic elasticity. These differences are attributed to local dislocation core interactions that remain beyond the scope of elasticity theory. The many differing literature values for Γ are attributed to various approximations and inaccuracies in previous approaches. The results here indicate that continuum line dislocation models, based on elasticity theory and various core-cut-off assumptions, may be fundamentally unable to reproduce full atomistic results, thus hampering the detailed predictive ability of such continuum models.

  19. Inspection and Monitoring Techniques for Power Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Kaoshan; CHEN Shenen

    2011-01-01

    Structural assessment is prerequisite for proper maintenance of civil infrastructure.In the begining of this paper, modern inspection and monitoring methods are briefly reviewed.Experiences in applying imagebased methods for highway bridge inspection are described shortly afterward.Studies are then extended to explore technologies for power delivery infrastructure evaluation.Typical power line components are first introduced.Structural analyses show complicated coupling phenomena in the power line system; and its vulnerability is intensified by extreme environment or human induced events.As a main interest, the state-of-art of power line inspection is summarized.Both visual observations and inspections assisted with novel techniques are presented.Real time monitoring of the power line is also investigated in this paper.Technologies that have potentials for monitoring power cables, insulators, and support structures are identified.A conceptual integrated design is proposed by the authors through combining innovative inspection with promising monitoring methods to ensure a sustainable, smart power line.

  20. Transfer line tests take centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Last weekend, proton beams came knocking on the LHC's door. Shooting from the SPS and into the two LHC transfer lines, the proton beams were dumped just short of entering the accelerator.   The upper plot shows the trajectory of the first TI2 beam, which reached the end of the transfer line in a single attempt after 18 months of technical stop. Below, a smoother beam trajectory in TI2 after some corrections. For the first time since Run 1, the SPS to LHC transfer lines (TI8 and TI2) transported proton beams just short of the LHC. "We tested the beam instrumentation, the devices that measure the beam intensity, transverse beam profile, position and losses, as well as the beam collimators along the transfer lines," says Reyes Alemany Fernandez, the engineer in charge of the LHC. "We were also able to spot possible bottle necks in the beam trajectory and to perform the first optics measurements." Once the beams arrived at the transfer line beam dumps...

  1. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  2. Speckle reduction methods for laser line gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1997-12-01

    Speckle caused by the use of laser sources is a well known phenomena. For some applications, the presence of the speckle is used as part of the method, but in others it is purely a source of noise. In the case of line based laser gages, speckle is typically of considerable concern. Certainly, using white light sources or LEDs with short coherence is one way around this problem, but such methods also loose some of the valuable properties of laser line projection such as very narrow lines, the ability to create multiple lines by diffraction, and high signal to background through the use of bandpass filters to view only the laser wavelength. There have been a number of valuable tools introduced that help reduce the problem of speckle from laser sources, without giving up all the advantages of the laser itself. This paper reviews the pros and cons of a number of these methods, and suggests a specific set of tools that are specific to laser line projection.

  3. Evolution of [O III] λ5007 Emission-line Profiles in Narrow Emission-line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Mao, Y. F.; Wei, J. Y.

    2011-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host co-evolution issue is investigated here by focusing on the evolution of the [O III] λ5007 emission-line profile. A large sample of narrow emission-line galaxies is selected from the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog to simultaneously measure both the [O III] line profile and circumnuclear stellar population in an individual spectrum. By requiring that (1) the [O III] line signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 30 and (2) the [O III] line width is larger than the instrumental resolution by a factor of two, our sample is narrowed down to 2333 Seyfert galaxies/LINERs (AGNs), 793 transition galaxies, and 190 star-forming galaxies. In addition to the commonly used profile parameters (i.e., line centroid, relative velocity shift, and velocity dispersion), two dimensionless shape parameters, skewness and kurtosis, are used to quantify the line shape deviation from a pure Gaussian function. We show that the transition galaxies are systematically associated with narrower line widths and weaker [O III] broad wings than the AGNs, which implies that the kinematics of emission-line gas are different in the two kinds of objects. By combining the measured host properties and line shape parameters, we find that the AGNs with stronger blue asymmetries tend to be associated with younger stellar populations. However, a similar trend is not identified in the transition galaxies. The failure likely results from a selection effect in which the transition galaxies are systematically associated with younger stellar populations than the AGNs. The evolutionary significance revealed here suggests that both narrow-line region kinematics and outflow feedback in AGNs co-evolve with their host galaxies.

  4. EVOLUTION OF [O III] λ5007 EMISSION-LINE PROFILES IN NARROW EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host co-evolution issue is investigated here by focusing on the evolution of the [O III] λ5007 emission-line profile. A large sample of narrow emission-line galaxies is selected from the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog to simultaneously measure both the [O III] line profile and circumnuclear stellar population in an individual spectrum. By requiring that (1) the [O III] line signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 30 and (2) the [O III] line width is larger than the instrumental resolution by a factor of two, our sample is narrowed down to 2333 Seyfert galaxies/LINERs (AGNs), 793 transition galaxies, and 190 star-forming galaxies. In addition to the commonly used profile parameters (i.e., line centroid, relative velocity shift, and velocity dispersion), two dimensionless shape parameters, skewness and kurtosis, are used to quantify the line shape deviation from a pure Gaussian function. We show that the transition galaxies are systematically associated with narrower line widths and weaker [O III] broad wings than the AGNs, which implies that the kinematics of emission-line gas are different in the two kinds of objects. By combining the measured host properties and line shape parameters, we find that the AGNs with stronger blue asymmetries tend to be associated with younger stellar populations. However, a similar trend is not identified in the transition galaxies. The failure likely results from a selection effect in which the transition galaxies are systematically associated with younger stellar populations than the AGNs. The evolutionary significance revealed here suggests that both narrow-line region kinematics and outflow feedback in AGNs co-evolve with their host galaxies.

  5. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  6. Susceptibility of cell lines to avian viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Isabela Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the five cell lines - IB-RS-2, RK-13, Vero, BHK-21, CER - to reovirus S1133 and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain was studied to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems. Cultures were compared for presence of CPE, virus titers and detection of viral RNA. CPE and viral RNA were detected in CER and BHK-21 cells after reovirus inoculation and in RK-13 cell line after IBDV inoculation and with high virus titers. Virus replication by production of low virus titers occurred in IB-RS-2 and Vero cells with reovirus and in BHK-21 cell line with IBDV.

  7. Intensity effects in ultracold photoassociation line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive ultracold atom-atom photoassociation line shapes valid for intense light fields and investigate laser power effects in sodium and rubidium photoassociation to the purely long-range 0g- symmetry state. We consider intensities up to a few hundreds W/cm2, a strongly saturating intensity for typical transitions of experimental interest. For these intensities the 0g- rotational spectrum is still well resolved; however, it is essential to couple the photoassociation resonance to both s- and d-wave ground-state channels. A low-energy d-wave shape resonance can have a profound effect on the line shape. Understanding the line shape is essential for precision spectroscopic analysis and could improve the extraction of ground-state scattering properties such as scattering lengths

  8. The CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E; Elsener, K; Sailer, A; Uythoven, J; Appleby, R B; Salt, M; Ferrari, A; Ziemann, V

    2010-01-01

    The 1.5 TeV CLIC beams, with a total power of 14 MW per beam, are disrupted at the interaction point due to the very strong beam-beam effect. As a result, some 3.5 MW reach the main dump in form of beamstrahlung photons. About 0.5 MW of e+e- pairs with a very broad energy spectrum need to be disposed of along the post-collision line. The conceptual design of this beam line will be presented. Emphasis will be on the optimization studies of the CLIC post-collision line design with respect to the energy deposition in windows, dumps and absorbers, on the design of the luminosity monitoring for a fast feedback to the beam steering and on the background conditions for the luminosity monitoring equipment.

  9. The insitu lining of cooling water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal corrosion of cooling water piping as well as other industrial piping is becoming an increasing problem to system reliability. There are various alternatives being offered as solutions to the problem including water treatment, coatings, and piping replacement. The in-place lining of these pipes is becoming increasingly popular as a cost-effective method to control corrosion. A cured-in-place plastic composite system can be installed with minimal dismantling or excavation. This paper will examine case histories of the installations of this lining system in power plants at three (3) locations in the United States and one in France. It will also summarize testing that has been performed on the lining system and tests that are currently being performed

  10. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  11. Nonlinear Behaviour of Perforated Plate with Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Nandagopan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perforated plate with lining has a construction of plate with perforation and a lining plate welded together to form a single plate. This type of plate is used as an acoustic sonar dome. Perforated plate with lining (PPL is prone to stress concentration and subsequently such structural system falls into the large strain category. Experimental investigation on PPL is carried out in the present study to determine the static deflection of the plate. Numerical method is also followed for geometric nonlinear analysis using finite element method as an iterative interactive procedure. The deflection obtained from the numerical method is 8 per cent less than that obtained from experimental method. From numerical analysis, von Mises stress and maximum principal stress is also estimated to understanda bout the failure mode characteristics of PPL.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(4, pp.248-251, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.927

  12. Nonlinear Behaviour of Perforated Plate with Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.R. Nandagopan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perforated plate with lining has a construction of plate with perforation and a lining plate welded together to form a single plate. This type of plate is used as an acoustic sonar dome. Perforated plate with lining (PPL is prone to stress concentration and subsequently such structural system falls into the large strain category. Experimental investigation on PPL is carried out in the present study to determine the static deflection of the plate. Numerical method is also followed for geometric nonlinear analysis using finite element method as an iterative interactive procedure. The deflection obtained from the numerical method is 8 per cent less than that obtained from experimental method. From numerical analysis, von Mises stress and maximum principal stress is also estimated to understand about the failure mode characteristics of PPL.

  13. Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, Kari V; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-11-15

    A parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope (PLSO) is presented using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for parallel confocal line imaging of the retina. The posterior part of the eye is illuminated using up to seven parallel lines, which were projected at 100 Hz. The DMD offers a high degree of parallelism in illuminating the retina compared to traditional scanning laser ophthalmoscope systems utilizing scanning mirrors. The system operated at the shot-noise limit with a signal-to-noise ratio of 28 for an optical power measured at the cornea of 100 μW. To demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the system, the macula and the optic nerve head of a healthy volunteer were imaged. Confocal images show good contrast and lateral resolution with a 10°×10° field of view. PMID:26565868

  14. Obstacle avoidance using a line laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Marcello; Barili, Antonio; Ceresa, Marco

    1994-02-01

    A line laser has been used to help navigation and obstacle detection for the indoor mobile robot PARIDE (Pavia autonomous robot for industrial environment). PARIDE is an A.M.R. based on a TRC platform that is being implemented using a subsumption architecture simulated through software on a 68030 board. The line is projected on the robot path and continually monitored using a CCD camera to detect line interruption or deviation. Laser, CCD camera, and frame grabber have been chosen in order to be commercially available and within the power requirements and physical dimensions of the mobile platform. The robot has to act in a human environment thus the laser must be safe (class 3A), visible (685 nm) and powerful to allow good quality images acquisition. Images are filtered, during acquisition, in order to simplify the low-level image processing.

  15. The Variable Line Width of Achernar

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Th; Baade, D; Carciofi, A C; Leister, N; Štefl, S

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Achernar over the past decades, have shown the photospheric line width, as measured by the rotational parameter $v \\sin i$, to vary in correlation with the emission activity. Here we present new observations, covering the most recent activity phase, and further archival data collected from the archives. The $v \\sin i$ variation is confirmed. On the basis of the available data it cannot be decided with certainty whether the increased line width precedes the emission activity, i.e. is a signature of the ejection mechanism, or postdates is, which would make it a signature of re-accretion of some of the disk-material. However, the observed evidence leans towards the re-accretion hypothesis. Two further stars showing the effect of variable line width in correlation with emission activity, namely 66 Oph and $\\pi$ Aqr, are presented as well.

  16. Beam line for Schools: beyond expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    Out of 292 proposals for CERN's first ever "Beam line for Schools" contest, two teams of high-school students – Odysseus' Comrades from Varvakios Pilot School in Athens, Greece and Dominicuscollege from Dominicus College in Nijmegen in the Netherlands – were selected to spend 10 days conducting their proposed experiments at the fully equipped T9 beam line on CERN's Meyrin site. Dedicated CERN staff and users from across the departments have put in a huge effort to ensure the success of the project.   Detector physicist Cenk Yidriz (centre, white helmet) explains the setup of the "Beamline for schools" experiment at the T9 beamline. It's finally beam time. After months of organisation, coding, engineering and even painting the experimental area, the T9 beam line is ready to deliver protons to experiments devised and built by high-school students. “They are here to collect data and experience the l...

  17. New Post-Collision Line Design

    CERN Document Server

    Gatignon, Lau

    2014-01-01

    The 1.5 TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) beams, with a total power of 14 MW per beam, are disrupted at the interaction point due to the very strong beam-beam effect. As a result, some 3.5 MW reach each main dump in form of beamstrahlung photons. About 0.5 MW of e+e- pairs with a very broad energy spectrum need to be disposed of along the post-collision line while separating the various beams by charge for beam diagnostics purposes. The Post-collision line has been optimised in order to reduce radiation damage to magnets, the number of magnets required and the stray fields to the incoming beam line.

  18. Galois Lines for Normal Elliptic Space Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma. Cristina Lumakin Duyaguit; Hisao Yoshihara

    2005-01-01

    Let C be a curve, and l and lO be lines in the projective three space P3.Consider a projection πl: P3... → lO with center l, where l ∩ lO = 0. Restricting πl to C,we obtain a morphism πl |C: C → lO and an extension of fields (πl|C)*: k(lO) → k(C). If this extension is Galois, then l is said to be a Galois line. We study the defining equations,automorphisms and the Galois lines for quartic curves, and give some applications to the theory ofplane quartic curves.

  19. Moving contact line on chemically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Qian, Tiezheng; Sheng, Ping

    We simulate the moving contact line in two-dimensional chemically patterned channels using a diffuse-interface model with the generalized Navier boundary condition. The motion of the fluidslip behaviour of the contact line. The extra dissipation induced by this oscillatory contact-line motion is significant and increases rapidly with the wettability contrast of the pattern. A critical value of the wettability contrast is identified above which the effect of diffusion becomes important, leading to the interesting behaviour of fluid-fluid interface breaking, with the transport of the non-wetting fluid being assisted and mediated by rapid diffusion through the wetting fluid. Near the critical value, the time-averaged extra dissipation scales as U, the displacement velocity. By decreasing the period of the pattern, we show the solid surface to be characterized by an effective contact angle whose value depends on the material characteristics and composition of the patterned surfaces.

  20. Topological Invariance under Line Graph Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen D. Parks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the line graph transformation G L(G of a graph G preserves an isomorphic copy of G as the nerve of a finite simplicial complex K which is naturally associated with the Krausz decomposition of L(G. As a consequence, the homology of K is isomorphic to that of G. This homology invariance algebraically confirms several well known graph theoretic properties of line graphs and formally establishes the Euler characteristic of G as a line graph transformation invariant.

  1. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate...... from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... works together with the overlying leachate management system, also referred to as the leachate collection and removal system (LCRS), which consists of a drainage layer that provides easy horizontal drainage of the leachate to a point of gravitational collection or pumping. Although individual liners...

  2. MOOG: LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Chris; Bean, Jacob; Ivans, Inese; Lucatello, Sara; Sobeck, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    MOOG performs a variety of LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis tasks. The typical use of MOOG is to assist in the determination of the chemical composition of a star. The basic equations of LTE stellar line analysis are followed. The coding is in various subroutines that are called from a few driver routines; these routines are written in standard FORTRAN. The standard MOOG version has been developed on unix, linux and macintosh computers. One of the chief assets of MOOG is its ability to do on-line graphics. The plotting commands are given within the FORTRAN code. MOOG uses the graphics package SM, chosen for its ease of implementation in FORTRAN codes. Plotting calls are concentrated in just a few routines, and it should be possible for users of other graphics packages to substitute other appropriate FORTRAN commands.

  3. Framework for Evolving Software Product Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OUALI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product line engineering is an approach that develops and maintains families ofproducts while taking advantage of their common aspects and predicted variabilities. Indeed, softwareproduct lines (SPL are an important means for implementing software variability which is the ability ofa system to be efficiently extended, changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context.Variability needs in software are constantly increasing because variability moves from mechanics andhardware to software and design decisions are delayed as long as economically feasible. Numerous SPLconstruction approaches are proposed. Different in nature, these approaches have nevertheless somecommon disadvantages. We have proceeded to an in-depth analysis of existing approaches for theconstruction of Software Product Line within a comparison framework in order to identify theirdrawbacks. We suggest overcoming these drawbacks by an improvement of the tool support for theseapproaches and for their interactivity with their users. We propose to study a particular software productline which is ERP as experimentation.

  4. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  5. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  6. Specification of Products and Product Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Ariel; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.4

    2010-01-01

    The study of variability in software development has become increasingly important in recent years. A common mechanism to represent the variability in a product line is by means of feature models. However, the relationship between these models and UML design models is not straightforward. UML statecharts are extended introducing variability in their main components, so that the behavior of product lines can be specified. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a rule-based approach that defines a transformation strategy from extended statecharts to concrete UML statecharts. This is accomplished via the use of feature models, in order to describe the common and variant components, in such a way that, starting from different feature configurations and applying the rule-based method, concrete state machines corresponding to different products of a line can be obtained.

  7. Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.

  8. The time-limited hot line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, M T; Wimberley, E T

    1993-05-01

    Although long-term hot lines that focus on crisis intervention will undoubtedly dominate as an organizational model, time-limited approaches will be used with increasing frequency. The primary impetus behind their proliferation is the increasing visibility of the electronic media, particularly television, in investigating and reporting pressing health, mental health, and human services problems. As the mass media increasingly produces special reports, documentaries, and docudramas directed toward social problems and issues, local health and human services agencies will become increasingly motivated to provide a forum for public response. The time-limited issue- or problem-oriented hot line is the ideal vehicle for public response as well as for extending the human services network. This type of hot line also offers social workers a unique opportunity to share important mental health information through the media. PMID:8511660

  9. Video on phone lines: technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, T. Russell

    1996-03-01

    Recent advances in communications signal processing and VLSI technology are fostering tremendous interest in transmitting high-speed digital data over ordinary telephone lines at bit rates substantially above the ISDN Basic Access rate (144 Kbit/s). Two new technologies, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines and asymmetric digital subscriber lines promise transmission over most of the embedded loop plant at 1.544 Mbit/s and beyond. Stimulated by these research promises and rapid advances on video coding techniques and the standards activity, information networks around the globe are now exploring possible business opportunities of offering quality video services (such as distant learning, telemedicine, and telecommuting etc.) through this high-speed digital transport capability in the copper loop plant. Visual communications for residential customers have become more feasible than ever both technically and economically.

  10. Anomalous spectral lines and relic quantum nonequilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, Nicolas G

    2016-01-01

    We describe general features that might be observed in the line spectra of relic cosmological particles should quantum nonequilibrium be preserved in their statistics. According to our arguments, these features would represent a significant departure from those of a conventional origin. Among other features, we find a possible spectral broadening (for incident photons) that is proportional to the energy resolution of the recording telescope (and so could be orders of magnitude larger than any intrinsic broadening). Notably, for a range of possible initial conditions we find the possibility of spectral line `narrowing' whereby a telescope could observe a spectral line which is narrower than it should conventionally be able to resolve. We briefly discuss implications for the indirect search for dark matter.

  11. Line emission from optically thick relativistic accretion tori

    OpenAIRE

    Fuerst, Steven V.; Wu, Kinwah

    2007-01-01

    We calculate line emission from relativistic accretion tori around Kerr black holes and investigate how the line profiles depend on the viewing inclination, spin of the central black hole, parameters describing the shape of the tori, and spatial distribution of line emissivity on the torus surface. We also compare the lines with those from thin accretion disks. Our calculations show that lines from tori and lines from thin disks share several common features. In particular, at low and moderat...

  12. Strength of glue line for reforestation wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the shear strength of glued laminated timber (glulam made of three wood species: Tectona grandis, Pinus oocarpa and Eucalyptus sp.. The bonds were made with lamellae with no chemical treatment, using two-component adhesive based on melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF. Glue line shear tests were made for wood in local moisture content and high humidity, as well as delamination tests. The results presented in the glue line shear strength tests in dry condition and delamination for the three species indicate better performance of Pinus oocarpa. It was concluded that this species there is potential to produce MLC utilizing the MUF adhesive.

  13. Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to Linux command line and shell scripting?completely updated and revised [it's not a guide to Linux as a whole ? just to scripting] The Linux command line allows you to type specific Linux commands directly to the system so that you can easily manipulate files and query system resources, thereby permitting you to automate commonly used functions and even schedule those programs to run automatically. This new edition is packed with new and revised content, reflecting the many changes to new Linux versions, including coverage of alternative shells to the default bash shel

  14. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect

  15. Accelerator power concepts using iolated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale and the advantages of using multiple transmission-line sections isolated by transit time and inductance in accelerating high-current (approx. = 10 kA), short-pulse (less than or equal to 100 ns) particle beams to the multimegavolt level is outlined. The main advantages of this system include reducing the number of output switches required per output pulse by nearly an order of magnitude over conventional systems and increasing the system capability for repetition-rate operation. The isolated transmission-line concept is developed and possible modes of operation outlined. In addition, a point design of a 10-kA short-pulse accelerator is presented

  16. The Linux command line a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, William E

    2012-01-01

    You've experienced the shiny, point-and-click surface of your Linux computer—now dive below and explore its depths with the power of the command line. The Linux Command Line takes you from your very first terminal keystrokes to writing full programs in Bash, the most popular Linux shell. Along the way you'll learn the timeless skills handed down by generations of gray-bearded, mouse-shunning gurus: file navigation, environment configuration, command chaining, pattern matching with regular expressions, and more.

  17. Lineær programmering med Excel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Peter

    Publikationen giver en introduktion til faget "Lineær programmering". Formulering og løsning bygger på, at modellerne opstilles og løses i et Excel-regneark. Fremgangsmåden er forklaret trin for trin, således at hæftet kan bruges som selvstudiemateriale. Indholdsfortegnelse Generelt om styring og...... planlægning Lineær programmering Excel solveren Fortolkning af udskrifter Degeneration Excel tips Opgaver med løsninger...

  18. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  19. Line geometry and electromagnetism II: wave motion

    OpenAIRE

    Delphenich, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of line geometry in the study of wave motion is first introduced in the general context by way of the tangent planes to the instantaneous wave surfaces, in which it is first observed that the possible frequency-wave number 1-forms are typically constrained by a dispersion law that is derived from a constitutive law by way of the field equations. After a general review of the basic concepts that relate to quadratic line complexes, these geometric notions are applied to the...

  20. Line geometry and electromagnetism II: wave motion

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, D H

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of line geometry in the study of wave motion is first introduced in the general context by way of the tangent planes to the instantaneous wave surfaces, in which it is first observed that the possible frequency-wave number 1-forms are typically constrained by a dispersion law that is derived from a constitutive law by way of the field equations. After a general review of the basic concepts that relate to quadratic line complexes, these geometric notions are applied to the study of electromagnetic waves, in particular.