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Sample records for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous

  1. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of bleeding stomal varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam: A case report

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    Kim, Ji Chang; Yang, Po Sang; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Gun [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A small varix is an uncommon complication with a high mortality rate occurring secondary to portal hypertension in patients with a stoma. We describe a case of recurrent stomal varix bleeding successfully managed by balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam.

  2. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of bleeding stomal varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small varix is an uncommon complication with a high mortality rate occurring secondary to portal hypertension in patients with a stoma. We describe a case of recurrent stomal varix bleeding successfully managed by balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam.

  3. The Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yokoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO is a highly effective therapy for gastric varices with liver cirrhosis. We have investigated the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC after BRTO. We enrolled 71 patients with viral hepatitis in which HCC had not appeared with liver imaging findings at the time of BRTO. The overall survival rate after BRTO was 86.8%, 76.1%, and 50.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years. The occurrence rate of HCC after BRTO was 20.9%, 41.1%, and 60.7% at 1, 3, and 5 years, especially showing a higher occurrence of HCC at one year. Meanwhile, the occurrence rate of HCC after treatment which excluded BRTO for esophagogastric varices in patients was 6.3%, 19.2%, and 42.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years. The log-rank test revealed that the occurrence rate of HCC after treatment was significantly higher in the BRTO group compared with that in the non-BRTO group (P=0.0447. The recurrence rate of HCC after BRTO was 35.8% and 80.0% at 1 and 3 years. The present study demonstrated a high incidence of HCC after BRTO in liver cirrhosis patients with viral hepatitis infection. We have suggested the potential for BRTO to accelerate hepatocarcinogenesis.

  4. Bleeding Duodenal Varices Successfully Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO) Assisted by CT During Arterial Portography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60-year-old woman with massive hemorrhage from duodenal varices was transferred to our hospital for the purpose of transcatheter intervention. Although digital subtraction arterial portography could not depict the entire pathway of collateral circulation, the efferent route of the duodenal varices was clearly demonstrated on subsequent CT during arterial portography. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the varices was performed via the efferent vein and achieved complete thrombosis of the varices

  5. Thrombocytopenia in Patients with Gastric Varices and the Effect of Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration on the Platelet Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W E Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gastric varices primarily occur in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and splenomegaly and thus are probably associated with thrombocytopenia. However, the prevalence and severity of thrombocytopenia are unknown in this clinical setting. Moreover, one-third of patients after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO have aggravated splenomegaly, which potentially may cause worsening thrombocytopenia. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and degree of thrombocytopenia in patients with gastric varices associated with gastrorenal shunts undergoing BRTO, to determine the prognostic factors of survival after BRTO (platelet count included, and to assess the effect of BRTO on platelet count over a 1-year period. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent BRTO (March 2008-August 2011. Pre- and post-BRTO platelet counts were noted. Potential predictors of bleeding and survival (age, gender, liver disease etiology, platelet count, model for end stage liver disease [MELD]-score, presence of ascites or hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed (multivariate analysis. A total of 91% (n = 32/35 of patients had thrombocytopenia (90% of patients in patients undergoing BRTO. However, BRTO (with occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt has little effect on the platelet count. Long-term outcomes of BRTO for bleeding gastric varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate in the USA are impressive with a 4-year variceal rebleed rate and transplant-free survival rate of 9% and 76%, respectively. Platelet count is not a predictor of higher rebleeding or patient survival after BRTO.

  6. A case of liver cirrhosis with bleeding from stomal varices successfully treated using balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masashi; Imai, Yukinori; Nakazawa, Manabu; Chikayama, Taku; Ando, Satsuki; Sugawara, Kayoko; Nakayama, Nobuaki; Mochida, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    A 66-year-old male patient with liver cirrhosis because of alcohol intake underwent a Hartmann's procedure for rectal cancer. Four months later, bleeding from the sigmoid stoma occurred and persisted for 2 months. A colonoscopic examination revealed bleeding from stomal varices. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated the inferior mesenteric vein and left superficial epigastric vein as the feeding and drainage vessels, respectively. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) through the left epigastric vein was performed using a microballoon catheter inserted from the right femoral vein according to the Seldinger method. A CT examination performed 2 days after the B-RTO procedure revealed that the blood flow had disappeared, with thrombosis formation in both the stomal varices and the feeding vein. No recurrent bleeding from the stoma occurred. B-RTO using a microballoon catheter is useful as a therapeutic procedure for stomal varices to prevent bleeding, since the procedure can be performed with minimal invasion using the Seldinger method. PMID:27048279

  7. Development of Thrombus in a Systemic Vein after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices

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    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Okuda, Kotaro; Hashiba, Mitsuoki [Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

  8. Comparison of Coil Embolization and Sclerotherapy of Collateral Veins during Balloon Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration: Its Long Term Effect for Gastric Varix Treatment

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    An, Eun Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Seee Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    We compared the long term effect gastric varix treatment between coil embolization and sclerotherapy of collateral veins during balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO). Between February 2004 and November 2008 48 patients with gastric varix bleeding successfully treated with BRTO 23 underwent embolization of collateral veins during BRTO were enrolled in this study. In patients, collateral veins were embolized with the use of microcoil (group 1). Agent (5% ethanolamine oleate + lipiodol) was used in the remaining 7 patients (Group 2). Recurrence and rebleeding of gastric varix were evaluated by endoscopy or CT. Gastric varix recurred in 4 patients (17.4%) and rebleeding occurred in 2 (8.7%). Recurrence (57.1%, p 0.001) and rebleeding (28.6%, p = 0.029) of gastric occurred in group 2. CT finding within 6 months in partial or complete thrombosis without lipiodol uptake in gastric varix, gastric varix recurred on follow up CT. Coil embolization of collateral veins during BRTO may promote complete obliteration of gastric varix, provide lower recurrence and rebleeding rates of gastric sclerosing agent on long term follow-up.

  9. Management of Gastric Varices in the Pediatric Population with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) Utilizing Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis with or without Partial Splenic Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is unknown whether spontaneous gastrorenal shunts actually develop in the pediatric population. The minimum age documented in studies from Asia is 32 (range 32–44) years. This study describes three pediatric patients undergoing balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for bleeding gastric varices with two of the three patients undergoing combined partial splenic embolization. The first BRTO is a selective-BRTO via a surgical splenorenal shunt (15 years old) and the other two patients underwent conventional-BRTO via a spontaneous gastrorenal shunt (8 and 14 years old). The recurrent significant bleeding that they exhibited before the combined endovascular therapy did not recur for an average of 7.1 (range 1.4–14) months. In the second patient, quantitative digitally subtracted angiography was utilized to evaluate the inline portal venous flow before and after BRTO

  10. Management of Gastric Varices in the Pediatric Population with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) Utilizing Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis with or without Partial Splenic Artery Embolization

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    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wspikes@yahoo.com; Anderson, Curtis L., E-mail: dranderson@southfloridavascular.com [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States); Patel, Rahul S., E-mail: patelr516@gmail.com [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Schwaner, Sandra, E-mail: sls5c@virginia.edu [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States); Caldwell, Stephen, E-mail: shc5c@virginia.edu [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology (United States); Pelletier, Shawn, E-mail: sjp7t@virginia.edu; Angle, John, E-mail: jfa2h@virginia.edu; Matsumoto, Alan H., E-mail: ahm4d@virginia.edu [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States); Fischman, Aaron M., E-mail: aaron.fischman@mountsinai.org [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-02-15

    It is unknown whether spontaneous gastrorenal shunts actually develop in the pediatric population. The minimum age documented in studies from Asia is 32 (range 32–44) years. This study describes three pediatric patients undergoing balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for bleeding gastric varices with two of the three patients undergoing combined partial splenic embolization. The first BRTO is a selective-BRTO via a surgical splenorenal shunt (15 years old) and the other two patients underwent conventional-BRTO via a spontaneous gastrorenal shunt (8 and 14 years old). The recurrent significant bleeding that they exhibited before the combined endovascular therapy did not recur for an average of 7.1 (range 1.4–14) months. In the second patient, quantitative digitally subtracted angiography was utilized to evaluate the inline portal venous flow before and after BRTO.

  11. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices by Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration by the Delivery of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Osamu; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Koichi; Inoue, Seijiro; TAKAMORI, HIROSHI; Baba, Hideo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding from mesenteric varices associated with portal hypertension is occasionally life-threatening. A 53-year-old man who had undergone esophageal transection for esophageal varices and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric varices presented with melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. He was treated by injecting N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via an abdominal wall vein to obtain retrograde transvenous obliteration.

  12. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization

  13. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

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    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  14. Three benefits of microcatheters for retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Sonomura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of the microcatheter techniques in balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO of gastric varices. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with gastric varices underwent BRTOs using microcatheters. A balloon catheter was inserted into gastrorenal or gastrocaval shunts. A microcatheter was navigated close to the varices, and sclerosant was injected into the varices through the microcatheter during balloon occlusion. The next morning, thrombosis of the varices was evaluated by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT. In patients with incomplete thrombosis of the varices, a second BRTO was performed the following day. Patients were followed up with CE-CT and endoscopy. RESULTS: In all 56 patients, sclerosant was selectively injected through the microcatheter close to the varices. In 9 patients, microcoil embolization of collateral veins was performed using a microcatheter. In 12 patients with incomplete thrombosis of the varices, additional injection of sclerosant was performed through the microcatheter that remained inserted overnight. Complete thrombosis of the varices was achieved in 51 of 56 patients, and the remaining 5 patients showed incomplete thrombosis of the varices. No recurrence of the varices was found in the successful 51 patients after a median follow up time of 10.5 mo. We experienced one case of liver necrosis, and the other complications were transient. CONCLUSION: The microcatheter techniques are very effective methods for achieving a higher success rate of BRTO procedures.

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy Secondary to Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 70-year-old woman with hepatic encephalopathy due to an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that was successfully occluded by percutaneous transcatheter embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and microcoils

  16. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Bronchial Carcinoid Diagnosed by Balloon-Occluded Pulmonary Arterial Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsukura, Masaya; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Asakura, Keisuke; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kurihara, Isao; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Asamura, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old man with Cushing syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumor. A small nodule was located in close association with the lateral segmental branch of the pulmonary artery in the left upper lobe. Blood samples were obtained from various branches of the pulmonary artery by balloon-occluded retrograde sampling for the measurement of location-specific serum ACTH levels. After confirmation that the pulmonary nodule was responsible for the increased ACTH secretion, lobectomy was performed. This report demonstrates the usefulness of balloon-occluded retrograde pulmonary arterial sampling for the preoperative diagnosis of an ACTH-producing tumor whose diagnosis is difficult to confirm. PMID:27106427

  17. Visualization of gastric varices using angiographic C-arm CT during retrograde transvenous sclerotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During retrograde transvenous sclerotherapy for gastric varices, sufficient opacification of the target varices on venography is essential for successful treatment. However, venography sometimes cannot identify target varices due to overlapping adjacent collateral vessels or leakage of contrast medium to other outflow veins. We report how C-arm CT images acquired using a flat-panel detector angiography system helped to identify target varices and predict the distribution of a sclerosant, which resulted in safer sclerotherapy and increased operator confidence

  18. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration of portosystemic shunts for refractory hepatic encephalopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonathan K; Cho, Sung-Ki; Kee, Stephen; Lee, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    While balloon-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has been used for two decades in Asia for the management of gastric variceal bleeding, it is still an emerging therapy elsewhere. Given the shunt closure brought about by the procedure, BRTO has also been used for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy with promising results. Modified versions of BRTO have been developed, including plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO), where a vascular plug is deployed within a portosystemic shunt. To our knowledge, we present the first North American case of PARTO in the setting of a large splenorenal shunt for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy. PMID:24744943

  19. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

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    Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Müller-Wille, René, E-mail: Rene.Mueller-Wille@ukr.de; Teusch, Veronika I., E-mail: Veronika.Teusch@gmx.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: Oliver.Dudeck@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Cahill, Anne M., E-mail: Cahill@email.chop.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Alomari, Ahmad I., E-mail: Ahmad.Alomari@childrens.harvard.edu [Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Uller, Wibke, E-mail: Wibke.Uller@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate.

  20. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate

  1. Balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices in two-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis

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    Borhei, Peyman; Kim, Seung Kwon; Zukerman, Darryl A [Interventional Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This report describes two non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis who underwent successful balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices with a satisfactory response and no complications. One patient was a 35-year-old female with a history of Crohn's disease, status post-total abdominal colectomy, and portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other patient was a 51-year-old female with necrotizing pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, and gastric varices. The BRTO procedure was a useful treatment for gastric varices in non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis in the presence of a gastrorenal shunt.

  2. Initial Experience with Balloon-Occluded Trans-catheter Arterial Chemoembolization (B-TACE) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThis study was performed to evaluate the accumulation of lipiodol emulsion (LE) and adverse events during our initial experience of balloon-occluded trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (B-TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with conventional TACE (C-TACE).MethodsB-TACE group (50 cases) was compared with C-TACE group (50 cases). The ratio of the LE concentration in the tumor to that in the surrounding embolized liver parenchyma (LE ratio) was calculated after each treatment. Adverse events were evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects (CTCAE) version 4.0.ResultsThe LE ratio at the level of subsegmental showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (t test: P < 0.05). Only elevation of alanine aminotransferase was more frequent in the B-TACE group, showing a statistically significant difference (Mann–Whitney test: P < 0.05). While B-TACE caused severe adverse events (liver abscess and infarction) in patients with bile duct dilatation, there was no statistically significant difference in incidence between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the significant risk factor for liver abscess/infarction was bile duct dilatation (P < 0.05).ConclusionThe LE ratio at the level of subsegmental showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (t test: P < 0.05). B-TACE caused severe adverse events (liver abscess and infarction) in patients with bile duct dilatation

  3. Initial Experience with Balloon-Occluded Trans-catheter Arterial Chemoembolization (B-TACE) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Mitsunari, E-mail: mitunari@med-shimane.u.ac.jp; Yoshizako, Takeshi, E-mail: yosizako@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Tomonori, E-mail: t-naka@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Megumi, E-mail: megumi@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rika, E-mail: yoshidar@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Kitagaki, Hajime, E-mail: kitagaki@med.shimane-u.ac.jp [Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeThis study was performed to evaluate the accumulation of lipiodol emulsion (LE) and adverse events during our initial experience of balloon-occluded trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (B-TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with conventional TACE (C-TACE).MethodsB-TACE group (50 cases) was compared with C-TACE group (50 cases). The ratio of the LE concentration in the tumor to that in the surrounding embolized liver parenchyma (LE ratio) was calculated after each treatment. Adverse events were evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects (CTCAE) version 4.0.ResultsThe LE ratio at the level of subsegmental showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (t test: P < 0.05). Only elevation of alanine aminotransferase was more frequent in the B-TACE group, showing a statistically significant difference (Mann–Whitney test: P < 0.05). While B-TACE caused severe adverse events (liver abscess and infarction) in patients with bile duct dilatation, there was no statistically significant difference in incidence between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the significant risk factor for liver abscess/infarction was bile duct dilatation (P < 0.05).ConclusionThe LE ratio at the level of subsegmental showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (t test: P < 0.05). B-TACE caused severe adverse events (liver abscess and infarction) in patients with bile duct dilatation.

  4. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P;

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  5. Permanent transvenous pacemaker implantation in forty dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permanent transvenous cardiac pacemakers were implanted in 40 dogs. Electrocardiographic diagnoses included persistent atrial standstill (3 dogs), sick sinus syndrome (8 dogs), and high-grade second-degree or third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (29 dogs). Thirteen dogs were alive and well 4 to 42 months after pacemaker implantation (mean, 16.9 months). The mean and median survival times of the 26 dogs that died or were euthanatized during the study were 17.9 months and 13 months, respectively. Most of these dogs succumbed to problems unrelated to the arrhythmia and pacemaker implant. One dog was lost to follow-up. Complications associated with permanent transvenous pacemaker implantation included lead dislodgement, infection, hematoma formation, skeletal muscle stimulation, ventricular arrhythmia, migration of the pulse generator, and skin erosion. Lead dislodgement was the most common complication, occurring in 7 of 9 dogs paced using untined electrode leads and in 6 of 30 dogs paced using tined leads. Lead dislodgement did not occur in the only dog paced using an actively fixed endocardial lead. It was concluded that permanent transvenous cardiac pacing is a feasible, less traumatic alternative to epimyocardial pacing in dogs, but that successful use of this technique requires careful implantation technique and anticipation of the potential complications

  6. Transvenous closure of large aortopulmonary collateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag W Barwad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortopulmonary collaterals (APCs are occluded either preoperatively or at the time of cardiac surgery in patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PAVSD. If left untreated, APCs are an important cause of deterioration in the early postoperative period. We present here an unusual case with a large residual APC causing refractory low-output state in the early postoperative period. Usual arterial approach failed due to extensive angulation with ostial narrowing. The large residual APC was successfully closed with an Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO device delivered through the transvenous route.

  7. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  8. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, F. E-mail: fkhosa@hotmail.com; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O' Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A

    2003-06-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated.

  9. Transvenous embolization in patients with dural arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Song, Sang Gook; Jang, Nam Gyu; Heo, Suk Hee; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Medicine School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of transvenous embolization in patients with dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). From October 2002 to July 2004, eight patients with angiographically confirmed DAVF underwent transvenous embolization of the affected dural sinuses. Concomitant transarterial embolization was performed in four patients. Patients included five men and three women aged 45-78 years (mean age, 55.4 years). The patient's medical records and angiographic features were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had follow-up periods ranging from 5 to 24 months (mean, 16.5 months). The locations of DAVF were transverse-sigmoid sinus in six patients and cavernous sinus in two patients. According to Cognard's classification, four of the DAVFs were Type I, two were type IIa, and two were Type IIb. Embolic materials used for the transvenous embolization were platinum detachable coils and fibered microcoils. After the transvenous embolization, there was complete obliteration of the DAVF in seven patients and significant flow reduction in one patient. All cases were clinically successful. There were no transient or permanent complications as a result of the endovascular procedures in any of the patients. One patient who had symptom recurrence 2 months after the initial treatment was successfully treated with repeated transvenous embolization. The remaining seven patients had no symptom recurrence during the follow-up period. Transvenous embolization is an defective and safe method in the treatment of patients with DAVF.

  10. Transvenous embolization in patients with dural arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of transvenous embolization in patients with dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). From October 2002 to July 2004, eight patients with angiographically confirmed DAVF underwent transvenous embolization of the affected dural sinuses. Concomitant transarterial embolization was performed in four patients. Patients included five men and three women aged 45-78 years (mean age, 55.4 years). The patient's medical records and angiographic features were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had follow-up periods ranging from 5 to 24 months (mean, 16.5 months). The locations of DAVF were transverse-sigmoid sinus in six patients and cavernous sinus in two patients. According to Cognard's classification, four of the DAVFs were Type I, two were type IIa, and two were Type IIb. Embolic materials used for the transvenous embolization were platinum detachable coils and fibered microcoils. After the transvenous embolization, there was complete obliteration of the DAVF in seven patients and significant flow reduction in one patient. All cases were clinically successful. There were no transient or permanent complications as a result of the endovascular procedures in any of the patients. One patient who had symptom recurrence 2 months after the initial treatment was successfully treated with repeated transvenous embolization. The remaining seven patients had no symptom recurrence during the follow-up period. Transvenous embolization is an defective and safe method in the treatment of patients with DAVF

  11. Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - brush - urinary tract; Retrograde ureteral brush biopsy cytology; Cytology - ureteral retrograde brush biopsy ... to be biopsied is rubbed with the brush. Biopsy forceps may be used instead to collect a ...

  12. Retrograde peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Jumshad B; Shivakumar, B; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to) retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation. PMID:20922082

  13. Transvenous heartworm extraction in a ferret with caval syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Christina; Saunders, Ashley B; Heatley, J J; Gregory, Christopher R; Wilcox, Angela L; Russell, Karen E

    2010-01-01

    A 10-month-old ferret was diagnosed with heartworm disease and caval syndrome. Associated clinical signs included weakness and a green-colored urine, identified as biliverdinuria. Despite the animal's small size, removal of three heartworms via transvenous heartworm extraction was successfully performed. Although at least one female worm remained in the right ventricle, the majority of clinical signs related to the presence of the heartworms resolved. The ferret was subsequently managed medically with corticosteroids and monthly heartworm prevention. This case documents the presence of biliverdinuria associated with caval syndrome and successful transvenous heartworm extraction in a ferret. PMID:20045834

  14. Dissociation between Anterograde and Retrograde Conduction during Transvenous Cryoablation of Parahissian Accessory Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Paparella, G.; Chierchia, G.B.; Sarkozy, A.; Asmundis, C. de; Muller-Burri, S.A.; Yazaki, Y.; Capulzini, L.; Brugada, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ablation of parahissian accessory pathways (APs) is a challenging procedure because of the high risk to provoke "iatrogenic" atrioventricular (AV) nodal block. The feasibility and safety of cryoablation (CA) have been already demonstrated both in patients with AV nodal reentry tachycardia and in tho

  15. Emerging Trends in Retrograde Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Yashasvi; Maity, Nivedita; Shivamurthy, M C

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde signaling is defined as the signaling events leading from the plastids to the nucleus in plants and across the chemical synapse, from the postsynaptic neuron to the presynaptic neuron in animals. The discovery of various retrograde messengers has opened many avenues and clouds of thoughts as to the role of retrograde signaling. They have been implicated particularly in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. But the basic assumptions about retrograde signaling have not been studied upon for many years. This review focuses on established facts and hypothesis put forward in retrograde signaling. PMID:26081150

  16. Percutaneous Extraction of Transvenous Permanent Pacemaker/Defibrillator Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Paraskevaidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Widespread use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices has inevitably increased the need for lead revision/replacement. We report our experience in percutaneous extraction of transvenous permanent pacemaker/defibrillator leads. Methods. Thirty-six patients admitted to our centre from September 2005 through October 2012 for percutaneous lead extraction were included. Lead removal was attempted using Spectranetics traction-type system (Spectranetics Corp., Colorado, CO, USA and VascoExtor countertraction-type system (Vascomed GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany. Results. Lead extraction was attempted in 59 leads from 36 patients (27 men, mean ± SD age 61±5 years, with permanent pacemaker (n=25, defibrillator (n=8, or cardiac resynchronisation therapy (n=3 with a mean ± SD implant duration of 50±23 months. The indications for lead removal included pocket infection (n=23, endocarditis (n=2, and ventricular (n=10 and atrial lead dysfunction (n=1. Traction device was used for 33 leads and countertraction device for 26 leads. Mean ± SD fluoroscopy time was 4±2 minutes/lead for leads implanted 48 months (n=21, P=0.03. Complete procedural success rate was 91.7% and clinical procedural success rate was 100%, while lead procedural success rate was 95%. Conclusions. In conclusion, percutaneous extraction of transvenous permanent pacemaker/defibrillator leads using dedicated removal tools is both feasible and safe.

  17. Percutaneous transvenous embolisation through the occluded sinus for transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistulas with sinus occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, I.; Iwai, T.; Shimaguchi, H.; Suzuki, T.; Tomizawa, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Geriatrics Research Inst. and Hospital, Maebashi (Japan); Negishi, M.; Sasaki, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Gunma Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    We report six cases of transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistulae (TS DAVF) treated with percutaneous transvenous embolisation through the occluded sinus. All patients had sinus occlusive lesions: an isolated sinus in five cases and a distal occlusion of the affected sinus in one. Leptomeningeal retrograde venous drainage via the vein of Labbe or the sylvian vein was observed in all patients with an isolated sinus. In five patients a microcatheter was easily passed through the occluded sinus. In four of them, a complete angiographic cure was achieved by packing the sinus with coils. However, in one, sinus packing was ineffective and surgical excision of the affected sinus was necessary. The microcatheter could not be passed through the occluded sinus in one case, and direct packing of the isolated sinus was later required. In all cases, complete cure was achieved without complications. This safe, not very invasive and highly effective treatment for TS DAVF with sinus occlusion is thus worth trying when the occluded segment is relatively short. (orig.)

  18. Percutaneous transvenous embolisation through the occluded sinus for transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistulas with sinus occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report six cases of transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistulae (TS DAVF) treated with percutaneous transvenous embolisation through the occluded sinus. All patients had sinus occlusive lesions: an isolated sinus in five cases and a distal occlusion of the affected sinus in one. Leptomeningeal retrograde venous drainage via the vein of Labbe or the sylvian vein was observed in all patients with an isolated sinus. In five patients a microcatheter was easily passed through the occluded sinus. In four of them, a complete angiographic cure was achieved by packing the sinus with coils. However, in one, sinus packing was ineffective and surgical excision of the affected sinus was necessary. The microcatheter could not be passed through the occluded sinus in one case, and direct packing of the isolated sinus was later required. In all cases, complete cure was achieved without complications. This safe, not very invasive and highly effective treatment for TS DAVF with sinus occlusion is thus worth trying when the occluded segment is relatively short. (orig.)

  19. Temporary transvenous pacemaker placement in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Richard A; Chan, Theodore C; Moonblatt, Steven; Vilke, Gary M; Ufberg, Jacob W

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Department placement of a temporary transvenous cardiac pacemaker offers potential life-saving benefits, as the device can definitively control heart rate, ensure effective myocardial contractility, and provide adequate cardiac output in select circumstances. The procedure begins with establishment of central venous access, usually by a right internal jugular or left subclavian vein approach, although the femoral vein is an acceptable alternative, especially in patients who are more likely to bleed should vascular access become complicated. The indications for the procedure, as well as the equipment needed, are reviewed. Both blind and ECG-guided techniques of insertion are described. Methods of verification of pacemaker placement and function are discussed, as are the early complications of the procedure. PMID:17239740

  20. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-10-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  1. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images

  2. Interventional radiology in the management of portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From being a mere (though important) diagnostic tool, radiology has evolved to become an integral part of therapy in portal hypertension today. Various procedures are currently available, the choice depending on the etiology and location of disease, the pathoanatomy, and the symptomatology. The main aim of any procedure is to reduce the portal pressure by either direct or indirect methods. This can be achieved with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), recanalization of the hepatic vein outflow, recanalization of the portal vein and its tributaries, recanalization of dysfunctional portosystemic shunts, partial splenic embolization, and embolization of arterioportal shunts. When any of these procedures cannot be performed due to anatomical or physiological reasons, the symptoms can often be controlled effectively with embolization of varices or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of varices (BRTO). This article briefly describes the procedures, their results, and their current status in the treatment of portal hypertension

  3. Transvenous embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the laterocavernous sinus through the pterygoid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel access for transvenous embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the laterocavernous sinus through the external jugular vein and the pterygoid plexus. The anatomy of the laterocavernous sinus is reviewed, and its clinical implications discussed in light of the case of a patient whose management was modified after identifying this anatomical variation. (orig.)

  4. Transvenous embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the laterocavernous sinus through the pterygoid plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Oka, Mayumi; Gailloud, Philippe; Murphy, Kieran [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fasel, Jean H.D. [Geneva University, Anatomy Section, Department of Cellular Physiology and Metabolism, Geneva (Switzerland); Clatterbuck, Richard [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurological Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-08-15

    We present a novel access for transvenous embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the laterocavernous sinus through the external jugular vein and the pterygoid plexus. The anatomy of the laterocavernous sinus is reviewed, and its clinical implications discussed in light of the case of a patient whose management was modified after identifying this anatomical variation. (orig.)

  5. Retrograde signaling: Organelles go networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario

    2016-08-01

    The term retrograde signaling refers to the fact that chloroplasts and mitochondria utilize specific signaling molecules to convey information on their developmental and physiological states to the nucleus and modulate the expression of nuclear genes accordingly. Signals emanating from plastids have been associated with two main networks: 'Biogenic control' is active during early stages of chloroplast development, while 'operational' control functions in response to environmental fluctuations. Early work focused on the former and its major players, the GUN proteins. However, our view of retrograde signaling has since been extended and revised. Elements of several 'operational' signaling circuits have come to light, including metabolites, signaling cascades in the cytosol and transcription factors. Here, we review recent advances in the identification and characterization of retrograde signaling components. We place particular emphasis on the strategies employed to define signaling components, spanning the entire spectrum of genetic screens, metabolite profiling and bioinformatics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26997501

  6. Our First Experience on Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Karabulut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease remains a significant healt problem especially in devaloping countries. In rheumatic heart disease, mitral valve is affected in nearly all cases; mitral stenosis is the most common lesion. Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC is an important tool in the treatment of rheumatic mitral stenosis. In this study, our first PTMC case is presented, and the PTMC indications and the comparison of patients underwent PTMC with those patients underwent surgical intervention is discussed with the literature.

  7. Defect in Lung Perfusion and Ventilation Scanning of Patients with Permanent Transvenous Implantable Pacemaker

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuura, Yuichiro; Tamura, Mutsuo; Yamashina, Hideki; Higo, Masanori; Fujii, Takanori; Shimamoto, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirofumi

    1984-01-01

    Lung perfusion and ventilation scanning with 99mTc-MAA and 81mKr-Gass were studied in 138 patients with permanent transvenous implantable pacemaker. There were observed segmental or subsegmental defects in lung perfusion and ventilation scanning which were considered to be probably lung embolism of 47 cases. The incidence of lung embolism was high during the first postoperative 6 months, and it also increased progressively with aging. The patient with ischemic heart disease or va...

  8. Dural arteriovenous fistula at marginal sinus: angiographic findings and treatment with transvenous coil embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic findings of dural arteriovenous fistulas(dAVFs) at the site of a marginal sinus and to assess the efficacy of transvenous embolizations. Six patients in whom an angiographically confirmed dural arteriovenous fistula was present at the site of a marginal sinus were involved in this study. Arterial feeders and the venous drainage of dAVFs were evaluated, and we describe the location of other combined dAVFs. Transvenous, with or without arterial, embolization was performed in all patients, and the angiographic findings and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries were the main arterial feeders, and dAVFs were also supplied from the meningohypophyseal trunk, posterior auricular artery, middle meningeal arteries, and the accessory meningeal, internal maxillary, and meningeal branch of the vertebral artery. In five of six cases, the supply originated not only from the ipsilateral arterial system, but also from the contralateral system. Posterior venous drainage occurred via the internal jugular vein and the paravertebral venous plexus, and superiorly, via the and cavernous sinus. Au six patients underwent transvenous coil embolization. Except in one case, in which drainage involved the paravertebral venous plexus, the venous route of embolization was the internal jugular vein. In four of six patients, angiography revealed complete occlusion of the fistula, and the clinical symptoms showed complete resolution. In the other two cases there was minimal residual flow, but the clinical symptoms showed improvement. In both, a further fistula was seen at a site other than the marginal sinus. In all patients, the angiographic findings were evaluated and subsequent endovascular treatment was successful. Transvenous embolization involving dAVFs at the site of a marginal sinus were effective; clinical outcomes depended on successful endovascular treatment and the extent of dAVFs

  9. One-Year Follow-Up of Patients Undergoing Transvenous Extraction of Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kempa

    Full Text Available The number of pacemaker and ICD implantations has increased substantially in the recent years. Therefore, complications are also observed in a greater number. In many cases, transvenous extraction of the previously implanted device (pacemaker or ICD is the only solution. One may find in the literature information about the efficacy and safety of that procedure, but data concerning the results of long-term follow up are still limited.The aim of the study was to assess the one-year mortality in the cohort of patients undergoing transvenous lead extraction procedures in our centre.Records of the patients undergoing transvenous lead removal in the Department of Cardiology and Electrotherapy of the Medical University of Gdańsk were analyzed. We collected detailed information about 192 patients that had undergone the procedure from January 2003 until June 2012. Data were collected from medical and surgical records. We analyzed concomitant diseases, indications, and possible complications. Long-term follow-up data were gathered in the follow-up ambulatory records and over-the-phone interviews with patients or families. In several cases, we consulted the database of the Polish National Health Fund.During the early post-operative period 5 patients died, although none of those deaths was associated with the procedure itself. No other major complications were observed. During one-year follow-up other 5 patients died, which gave the overall one-year survival rate of 92.7%. Heart failure, renal failure and an infective indication showed significant association with increased mortality.Results of transvenous lead extraction, a relatively safe procedure, should be assessed over time extending beyond the sole perioperative period. Some complications may be delayed in their nature, and may be observed only during the long-term follow up.

  10. Transvenous embolization of indirect carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic/facial vein - Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect carotid-cavernous fistula or dural arterio-venous fistula of cavernous sinus is relatively rare pathologic finding. Different classifications of carotid-cavernous fistulae are proposed. Now days more and more they are treated by endovascular approach. A case of authors' practice of transvenous embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic vein in 52 year old female is presented with review of the literature. A week later ocular symptoms of the patient regressed. Control angiography at the third month follow up does not visualize fistula. The transvenous approach in management of carotid cavernous fistulae is safe and effective in cases direct arterial approach is absent or technically impossible. Key words: Indirect Carotid-Cavernous Fistula. Embolization. Transvenous Approach

  11. Erfahrung mit der Extraktion von transvenösen Kardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD Sonden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörnberger V

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die ICD-Therapie ist ein bewährtes Verfahren zur Behandlung lebensbedrohlicher ventrikulärer Herzrhythmusstörungen. Defekte der komplex aufgebauten transvenösen Sondensysteme sind beschrieben. Meist ist eine komplette Entfernung defekter Sonden sinnvoll. Wir berichten über unsere Erfahrung mit der Entfernung von 13 transvenösen Elektrodensystemen. In 7 Fällen handelt es sich um eine Endotak C 0072 Sonde (CPI/Guidant und in 6 Fällen um eine Medtronic Transvene 6936 Elektrode. Das Sondenalter zum Zeitpunkt der Extraktion lag zwischen 1,5 und 77,6 Monaten (Mittelwert 36,3 ± 18. Als Extraktionshilfen wurden das VascoExtor Stylet S (Vascomed in 6 Fällen und das Byrd Locking-Stylet 0.017 (0.018 inches (Cook in 4 Fällen verwendet. Alle Extraktionen erfolgten unter transösophagealem Echokardiographie-Monitoring (TEE und Herz-Lungenmaschinen-Bereitschaft (HLM. Ohne Dilatations-Sheath war eine Extraktion nur innerhalb der ersten 3 Monate nach Implantation möglich (n = 3. Ein besonderes Problem stellt der im Vergleich zum Sondenkörper größere Durchmesser der Schockwendel dar, da die Sonde im Verlauf von einem Bindegewebsmantel fest umschlossen und mit der Venenwand verwachsen ist. Mit dem Byrd Dilatator-Schleusenset 10,0 Fr, 11,5 Fr und 13,0 Fr war in allen Fällen eine Lösung von der Venenwand möglich. Eine Extraktion einer Sonde (Medtronic Transvene war nach auswärtigen Vorversuchen mit Zerstörung der inneren Wendel nicht mehr möglich. In einem weiteren Fall konnten zwar die venösen Wandadhäsionen gelöst werden, die distale Schockwendel war jedoch in voller Länge mit dem Endokard verwachsen und konnte nur in einer offenen Herzoperation entfernt werden. In keinem Fall kam es zu einem bedeutsamen Perikarderguß. Kein Patient verstarb in Folge der Sondenextraktion. Zusammenfassend ist die Extraktion von ICD Sonden auch lange nach Implantation möglich. Trotz unserer relativ guten Erfahrung mit der Extraktion von ICD Sonden sollte

  12. Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch

    OpenAIRE

    Shujun Wang; Caili Li; Xiu Zhang; Les Copeland; Shuo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Starch retrogradation is a term used to define the process in which gelatinized starch undergoes a disorder-to-order transition. A thorough understanding of starch retrogradation behavior plays an important role in maintaining the quality of starchy foods during storage. By means of DSC, we have demonstrated for the first time that at low water contents, the enthalpy change of retrograded starch is higher than that of native starch. In terms of FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results, we showed ...

  13. Percutaneous transvenous packing of cavernous sinus with Onyx for cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Xianli [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing 100050 (China); Jiang Chuhan [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing 100050 (China)], E-mail: lvxianli000@163.com; Li Youxiang; Wu Zhongxue [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the technique and results of the transvenous approach for occlusion of cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with Onyx. Methods: Eleven patients presenting with clinically symptomatic DAVFs, were treated between August 2005 and February 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital. We were able to navigate small hydrophilic catheters and microguidwires through the facial vein or inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) into the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. After reaching the fistula site the cavernous sinus was packed with Onyx or combining with detachable platinum coils. Results: We were able to reach the fistula site and to achieve a good packing of Onyx or combining with coils within the arteriovenous shunting zone in 10 patients. The final angiogram showed complete occlusion of the arteriovenous fistula. Two (18.2%) patients developed a bradycardia during DMSO injection. No complications related to the approach were observed. Conclusions: Transvenous occlusion of cavernous DAVFs is a feasible approach, even via facial vein or via IPS. Onyx may be another option for cavernous packing other than detachable platinum coils.

  14. Percutaneous transvenous packing of cavernous sinus with Onyx for cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the technique and results of the transvenous approach for occlusion of cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with Onyx. Methods: Eleven patients presenting with clinically symptomatic DAVFs, were treated between August 2005 and February 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital. We were able to navigate small hydrophilic catheters and microguidwires through the facial vein or inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) into the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. After reaching the fistula site the cavernous sinus was packed with Onyx or combining with detachable platinum coils. Results: We were able to reach the fistula site and to achieve a good packing of Onyx or combining with coils within the arteriovenous shunting zone in 10 patients. The final angiogram showed complete occlusion of the arteriovenous fistula. Two (18.2%) patients developed a bradycardia during DMSO injection. No complications related to the approach were observed. Conclusions: Transvenous occlusion of cavernous DAVFs is a feasible approach, even via facial vein or via IPS. Onyx may be another option for cavernous packing other than detachable platinum coils.

  15. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  16. Retrograde replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooley, D A

    1995-01-01

    A technique is described for replacement of the entire thoracic aorta. In this "pull-through" technique, which utilizes hypothermic circulatory arrest, the graft is implanted in a retrograde fashion, thus providing protection for the spinal cord and brain and avoiding injury to the vagus and phrenic nerves.

  17. 20. Immediate EIN-hospital results of percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy in patients with mitral restenosis after closed mitral commissurotomy

    OpenAIRE

    D.M.T. Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic mitral stenosis is a very common problem in our population having an incidence of 54 percent among rheumatic heart disease with a female preponderance of 2:1. Percutaneous transvenous initral conimissurotomy (PTMC) using an Inoue balloon catheter is of established efficacy and safety and is an alternative to surgical valvotomy in selected patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Nine hundred and ninety (990) patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis who underwent PTMC were evaluated c...

  18. Management of cardiac device infections: A retrospective survey of a non-surgical approach combining antibiotic therapy with transvenous removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, C; Bongiorni, M G; Gemignani, G; Soldati, E; Leonildi, A; Arena, G; Doria, R; Giannola, G; La Pira, F; Tagliaferri, E; Caravelli, P; Dell'Anna, R; Menichetti, F

    2006-04-01

    Pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have become life-saving therapeutic tools for patients with cardiac arrhythmia. Complications include thrombosis, embolism and infections at a highly variable rate. Surgical removal of the infected device has been perceived as the only way to guarantee a successful outcome and to reduce the high risk of mortality. Recently, a transvenous extraction method has been developed to remove infected intracardiac leads without sternotomy. This survey was designed to evaluate the outcome of an approach combining antibiotic therapy with non-surgical transvenous complete removal for the management of cardiac device infections (CDIs). We reviewed case-histories of 121 patients (105 with PM and 16 with ICD infections). The aim of our retrospective survey was to ascertain that a non-invasive transvenous complete removal of the infected devices is safe and effective when associated with appropriate antibiotic therapy starting 10 days before the procedure and extending to at least three weeks after. The infected devices were successfully removed in all patients with a non-surgical transvenous technique. The infections were most frequently caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (70%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%), and Gram-negative rods (12%). Polymicrobial infections were documented in 19 patients and represent 16% of all device-related infections. The removal of the devices was done during antibiotic therapy, administered for a median of 26 days (range 23 to 45 days). Neither fatalities nor relapse of infections were recorded in the patient population during the one-year follow-up visits. According to our experience, CDIs can be treated with antibiotic therapy and non-surgical removal of the entire infected device, thus allowing a successful reimplantation. This procedure prevents recurrent infections and operative mortality. PMID:16736884

  19. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  20. Reconstructive treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse and sigmoid sinus: transvenous angioplasty and stent deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebig, T.; Henkes, H.; Brew, S.; Miloslavski, E.; Kuehne, D. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Kirsch, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Greifswald (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Various techniques for the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) of the transverse and sigmoid sinus have recently evolved. Transvenous coil occlusion of the involved segment and transarterial embolization of the feeding arteries with liquid agents are the commonest treatments utilized. However, with respect to venous hypertension as the probable pathogenic cause of this disorder, a nonocclusive or remodeling technique might be preferable. We will present a series involving four patients, treated with transvenous angioplasty and stent deployment as a definitive treatment of dAVFs of the transverse and sigmoid sinus. This method was used as a primary treatment or as an adjunct to previous noncurative transarterial n-butyl cyanoacrylate and particle embolization. In three of the four cases, complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved with confirmation of occlusion seen on follow-up angiographical studies. In one case a negligible and nonsymptomatic remnant of the fistula fed by the tentorial artery was left untreated. From our experience, we conclude that transvenous stent deployment is an alternative to traditional concepts. Additionally, the pathological theory of dAVFs in this region located in venous pouches of the sinus wall is supported by the fact that they can be occluded by mechanical compression during angioplasty and subsequently maintained by a stent. (orig.)

  1. Effect of vinpocetine on retrograde axoplasmic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyihar-Csillik, Elizabeth; Vecsei, Laszlo; Mihaly, Andras; Fenyo, Robert; Farkas, Ibolya; Krisztin-Peva, Beata; Csillik, Bertalan

    2007-01-01

    Vinpocetine, a derivate of vincamine, is widely used in the clinical pharmacotherapy of cerebral circulatory diseases. Herewith we report on a novel effect of vinpocetine: inhibition of retrograde axoplasmic transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nerve. Blockade of retrograde transport of NGF results in transganglionic degenerative atrophy (TDA) in the segmentally related ipsilateral superficial spinal dorsal horn, which is characterized by depletion of the marker enzymes fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and thiamine monophosphatase (TMP). At the same time, pain-related neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), are depleted from lamina I-III from the segmentally related, ipsitateral Rolando substance of the spinal cord. On the basis of these experiments it is suggested that vinpocetine may result in a locally restricted decrease of nociception, that might be useful in clinical treatment of intractable pain. Pilot self-experiments support this assumption. PMID:17319607

  2. Deep sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopacreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Chainaki, Irene G; Manolaraki, Maria M; Paspatis, Gregorios A.

    2011-01-01

    Sedation and analgesia comprise an important element of unpleasant and often prolonged endoscopic retrograde cholangiopacreatography (ERCP), contributing, however, to better patient tolerance and compliance and to the reduction of injuries during the procedure due to inappropriate co-operation. Although most of the studies used a moderate level of sedation, the literature has revealed the superiority of deep sedation and general anesthesia in performing ERCP. The anesthesiologist’s presence i...

  3. Experimental study on the mechanism of intrapulmonary kinetics of 123I-IMP in balloon occluded bronchus of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the mechanism of intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP), we performed lung scanning with 123I-IMP in 13 rabbits in which a unilateral bronchus was occluded by a balloon catheter. In 9 rabbits, on the delayed distribution images, an abnormal accumulation of 123I-IMP was detected in the hypoperfusion area of the peripheral lung field of the occluded bronchus, which was detected on lung perfusion images with 99mTc-MAA. Comparison of early (a summation image during 20 seconds immediately after injection) and delayed (a summation image from 70 to 90 minutes after injection) distribution images confirmed that during this period, 123I-IMP accumulated in the area of reduced distribution of 123I-IMP. Moreover, at the site of abnormal accumulation, washout of 123I-IMP from the lung was delayed compared with that in the normal lung field. We find this experimental study is similar to the results in 63 clinical cases, which we have reported previously, and confirm that pulmonary arterial perfusion, especially hypoperfusion, influences the intrapulmonary kinetics of 123I-IMP. (author)

  4. Cognitive improvement following transvenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfei Li; Chun Yang; Rongmei Qu; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation for the repair of traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. The present study observed neurological functional changes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury following ADMSC transplantation via the tail vein.Cell transplants were observed in injured cerebral cortex, and expression of brain-derived nerve growth factor was significantly increased in the injured hippocampus following transplantation. Results demonstrated that transvenous ADMSC transplants migrated to the injured cerebral cortex and significantly improved cognitive function.

  5. Retrograde nailing of a femoral supracondyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan; Tai, Ching-Lung

    2012-04-01

    Because standard femoral supracondylar nails have certain disadvantages, they are often replaced by traditional femoral or tibial locked nails. The purpose of this study was to make a biomechanical comparison between both types of traditional locked nails to determine which technique was more suitable for treating unstable femoral supracondylar fractures. Fourteen left Sawbones femurs (Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon, Washington) were osteotomized in the femoral supracondylar area. One centimeter of the medial cortex in the proximal fragment was obliquely removed to simulate an unstable fracture without shortening. Seven specimens were treated with traditional retrograde dynamic femoral locked nails, and the other 7 with traditional retrograde dynamic tibial locked nails. All specimens were tested with a servohydraulic materials testing machine to compare their relative stability. Static compression, dynamic cyclic compression, and static compression to failure were tested. An extensometer was used to measure the displacement of fragments. Displacement between the fragments increased following the increment in loads in both nails. The load-displacement curve was nearly linear up to 1000 N for both nails. The femoral nail had a greater stiffness compared with the tibial nail at 100 and 200 N (P=.02 and P=.04, respectively) in static compression and at 700 to 1000 N (P=.01 in each case) in dynamic cyclic compression, as well as larger loads in static compression to failure (8663 vs 7547 N, respectively; P<.001). Clinically, a traditional femoral locked nail may be more suitable to replace a standard femoral supracondylar nail in a retrograde fashion to treat an unstable femoral supracondylar fracture. PMID:22495848

  6. Mitochondrial emitted electromagnetic signals mediate retrograde signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagkos, Georgios; Koufopoulos, Kostas; Piperi, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence shows that mitochondria regulate nuclear transcriptional activity both in normal and cell stress conditions, known as retrograde signaling. Under normal mitochondrial function, retrograde signaling is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, normal cell phenotype and metabolic profile. In contrast, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to abnormal (oncogenic) cell phenotype and altered bio-energetic profile (nucleus reprogramming). Despite intense research efforts, a concrete mechanism through which mitochondria determine the group of genes expressed by the nucleus is still missing. The present paper proposes a novel hypothesis regarding retrograde signaling. More specifically, it reveals the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the accompanied strong electromagnetic field (EF) as key regulatory factors of nuclear activity. Mitochondrial emitted EFs extend in long distance and affect the function of nuclear membrane receptors. Depending on their frequencies, EFs can directly activate or deactivate different groups of nuclear receptors and so determine nuclear gene expression. One of the key features of the above hypothesis is that nuclear membrane receptors, besides their own endogenous or chemical ligands (hormones, lipids, etc.), can also be activated by electromagnetic signals. Moreover, normal MMP values (about -140 mV) are associated with the production of high ATP quantities and small levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while the hyperpolarization observed in all cancer cell types leads to a dramatic fall in ATP production and an analogous increase in ROS. The diminished ATP and increased ROS production negatively affect the function of all cellular systems including nucleus. Restoration of mitochondrial function, which is characterized by the fluctuation of MMP and EF values within a certain (normal) range, is proposed as a necessary condition for normal nuclear function and cancer therapy. PMID:26474928

  7. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: 40 years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 40 years the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains as important diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the diseases of the biliary tract and pancreas. A brief historical review of its development and elementary aspects of its utility in the illnesses treated by ERCP is made. Basic technical aspects related with their different levels of complexity, their effectiveness, their complications and risk factors related with these complications were analyzed. Demonstrate the competition of the ERCP in front of other alternatives of the technological development will depend in great measure of the ability of the gastroenterologists in developing this technique and demonstrate their results

  8. A phantom gallbladder on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Various complications have been related to laparoscopic cholecystectomy but most occur shortly after the procedure. In this report, we present a case with very late complications in which an abscess developed within the gallbladder fossa 6 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The abscess resolved after treatment with CT-guided extrahepatic aspiration. However, 4 years later, an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed for choledocholithiasis demonstrated a "gallbladder" which communicated with the common bile duct via a patent cystic duct. This unique case indicates that a cystic duct stump may communicate with the gallbladder fossa many years following cholecystectomy.

  9. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeCranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsForty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND.ResultsOf the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days–6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3–25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days–1 month and the remaining case significantly improved.ConclusionBoth the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx

  10. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian, E-mail: yang-xj@163.net [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeCranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsForty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND.ResultsOf the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days–6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3–25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days–1 month and the remaining case significantly improved.ConclusionBoth the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx.

  11. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Berkan; Sancak, Eyup Burak; Resorlu, Mustafa; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Adam, Gurhan; Akbas, Alpaslan; Ozdemir, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    Urinary tract stone disease is seen at a level of 1%-2% in childhood (stone disease, particularly in adolescence. A carbohydrate- and salt-heavy diet and a more sedentary lifestyle are implicated in this increase. Although stone disease is rare in childhood, its presence is frequently associated with metabolic or anatomical disorders or infectious conditions, for which reason there is a high possibility of post-therapeutic recurrence. Factors such as a high possibility of recurrence and increasing incidence further enhance the importance of minimally invasive therapeutic options in children, with their expectations of a long life. In children in whom active stone removal is decided on, the way to achieve the highest level of success with the least morbidity is to select the most appropriate treatment modality. Thanks to today's advanced technology, renal stones that were once treated only by surgery can now be treated with minimally invasive techniques, from invasion of the urinary system in an antegrade (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) or retrograde (retrograde intrarenal surgery) manner or shock wave lithotripsy to laparoscopic stone surgery. This compilation study examined studies involving the RIRS procedure, the latest minimally invasive technique, in children and compared the results of those studies with those from other techniques. PMID:25374812

  12. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S.; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  13. Disrupting circadian rhythms in rats induces retrograde amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Mátyás; Ree, J.M. van; Niesink, Raymond J.M.; Wied, D. de

    1985-01-01

    Disrupting circadian organization in rats by phase-shifting the illumination cycle or by exposure to a reversed day/night cycle or to continuous light, resulted in retrograde amnesia for passive avoidance behavior. This retrograde amnesia induced by phase-shifting lasted at least 2 days, and gradual

  14. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde am

  15. Retrograde Epidural Catheter Relieves Intractable Sacral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchir; Shodhan, Shivam; Hosny, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Pain caused by tumor infiltration of the sacral area remains a major clinical challenge. Patients with poor pain control despite comprehensive medical management may be treated with neuraxial techniques such as continuous epidural or spinal anesthetic. We report a case in which a patient with metastatic breast cancer experienced inadequate pain relief after multiple intravenous pain management regimens as well as intrathecal (IT) drug delivery. The concentration of local anesthetics delivered via the IT catheter was limited due to the patient's baseline motor weakness which would be exacerbated with higher concentrations of local anesthetics. Thus, a decision was made to insert an epidural catheter via a retrograde technique to provide the patient with a "band of anesthesia" which would provide profound sensory blockade without concomitant motor weakness. Pain refractory to other modalities of pain control was successfully treated with the epidural technique. PMID:27162431

  16. Our experiences on retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Kemal Hatipoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate outcomes of the cases who had undergone retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS in our clinics. Methods: Outcomes of 100 cases who had undergone RIRS because of renal stones between February 2012, and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Study population consisted of 35 female and 65 male patients with a mean age of 36.81(1-76 years. RIRS was performed with the indication of rest double J (D-J stent (n=1, and renal stone (n=99. Mean stone size was 15.26 (5-27 mm. Preoperatively, 61 cases (61% had preexisting D-J stents, while 39 (39% cases were stentless. Access sheaths were used in 86 (86% cases, while in 14 (14% cases the procedure was applied without using an access sheath. Mean operative, and fluoroscopy times were 52.72 (10-120 minus, and 57.32 (10-180 seconds, respectively. Postoperatively D-J stents were implanted in 88 (88% cases, and 12 (12% cases were stent-free. Mean hospital time was 1.3 (1-7 days. After one month postoperatively, stone-free rate was achieved in 87 (87% patients. Clinically insignificant residual stone fragments (CIRF 6 (6%, and residual stones 7 (7% were also detected. The latter group consisted of cases with horseshoe kidney (n=1, pelvic kidney (n=1, and kyphoscoliosis (n=1. Also in two case procedure was terminated prematurely, because of blurring of the vision secondary to bleeding. Apart from these patients, any preoperative complication did not develop. During follow-up period, urinary tract infection developed in 3 patients with resultant renal parenchymal damage in one patient. In one patient, D-J stent migrated into ureter. Conclusion: Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe technique in the management of renal stones.

  17. PRODUCTION OF NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS ON RETROGRADE ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ngo, H. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Granvik, M. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Larson, S., E-mail: sarahg@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (United States)

    2012-04-20

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that {approx}0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for {approx}0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  18. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were used as material for laboratory production of maltodextrins of medium dextrose equivalents (DE in the range from 8.27 to 12.75. Starches were analysed for amylose content, while the ratio of non-branched/long-chain-branched to short-chain-branched fractions of maltodextrins was calculated from gel permeation chromatography data. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% starch pastes and 2% maltodextrin solutions was evaluated according to turbidimetric method of Jacobson. Results. The greatest starch in turbidance of starch gels was observed within initial of the test. days. Initial retrogradation degree of cereal starches was higher than that of tuber and root starches. The waxy corn starch was the least prone to retrogradate. The increase in turbidance of maltodextrin solutions were minimal. Waxy corn maltodextrin was not susceptible to retrogradation. Among other samples, the lowest susceptibility to retrogradation after 14 days was found for rice maltodextrin, while the highest for wheat and triticale maltodextrin. Conclusions. On the basis of this study, the retrogradation dependence on the kind of starches and the maltodextrins was established and the author stated that all the maltodextrins have a much less ability to retrogradation than the native starches.

  19. The formation of retrograde planetary orbits by close stellar encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford E. B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the growing number of observations of the RossiterMcLaughlin effect in transiting planets, which seem to suggest that ~30% of transiting planets are in highly inclined or retrograde orbits. We consider the dense cluster environment in which stars are born and investigate whether perturbations from passing stars can drive planetary systems into retrograde configurations. We find that fly-bys can result in significantly more inclination excitation than might naively be expected from impulse approximations, leading to several percent of stellar systems possessing planets in retrograde orbits.

  20. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) successfully applied in one patient in same sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Farman, Muhammad Tariq; Saghir, Tahir; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years old male with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), presented with dyspnoea New York Heart Association (NHYA) class III to IV. Coronary angiogram revealed severe occlusive coronary artery disease in left anterior coronary artery (LAD). Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Left Anterior Descurery (LAD) were done in same sitting. Both procedures were successful and ended without complication. After, half an hour while shifting to coronary care unit (CCU) patient developed cardiac tamponade, which was managed successfully. Patient was followed up for three month, he is doing well and recent echocardiogram showed mild mitral stenosis with normal left ventricular function. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the combined appliance on interventional techniques in selected patients as an alternative to cardiac surgery. PMID:22368914

  1. Radiological analysis of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in fiberoptic duodenscopy permit direct observation of interior of the duodenum and cannulation of the ampulla of Vater, and to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Authors analyzed the 30 cases of E.R.C.P. done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between Feb. and Aug. 1977, which were compared with the final diagnosis. The results are as follows: 1. Out of 30 cases, successful visualization of the duct of concern was achieved in 23 cases. 2. Out of 10 cases of suspected pancreatic disease, pancreatic duct was visualized in 7 cases, and 5 cases revealed pathognomonic findings. All 5 cases were diagnosed as pancreatic cancer and their findings were encasement, local dilatation, poor filling and obstruction of pancreatic duct accompanying C.B.D. obstruction or stenosis, so called double doubt sign. 3. Out of 19 cases of suspected biliary tract disease, biliary tract was visualized in 16 cases and 14 cases revealed suggestive abnormal findings. In biliary stones, filling defect with proximal dilatation and obstruction were noted. 4. Post-E.R.C.P. complications were vague abdominal pain, asymptomatic hyperamyasemia, elevated amylase clearance ratio and symptoms due to premedication or post- E.R.C.P. antibiotics therapy. Elevated serum amylase concentration or clearance ratio were within normal range and it dose not seem to have clinical significance.

  2. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  3. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska; Teresa Fortuna

    2010-01-01

    Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were use...

  4. Endovascular treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by transvenous embolisation through the superior ophthalmic vein via cannulation of a frontal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, C.; Bracco, S.; Cerase, A.; Gennari, P. [Unit of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Viale Mario Bracci 16, 53100, Siena (Italy); Lore, F. [Institute of Endocrinology, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , University of Siena, Viale Mario Bracci 16, 53100, Siena (Italy); Polito, E. [Institute of Ophthalmology, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , University of Siena, Viale Mario Bracci 16, 53100, Siena (Italy); Casasco, A.E. [Department of Endovascular and Percutaneous Therapy, Clinica Nuestra Senora del Rosario, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    We describe a new approach for transvenous embolisation of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), i.e., via percutaneous cannulation of a frontal vein. Modern neurointerventional angiographic materials make it possible to reach the SOV in this way without puncturing it in the orbit or a surgical exposure. Orbital phlebography should still be in the repertoire of interventional neuroradiology units in large centres. (orig.)

  5. Endovascular treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by transvenous embolisation through the superior ophthalmic vein via cannulation of a frontal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new approach for transvenous embolisation of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), i.e., via percutaneous cannulation of a frontal vein. Modern neurointerventional angiographic materials make it possible to reach the SOV in this way without puncturing it in the orbit or a surgical exposure. Orbital phlebography should still be in the repertoire of interventional neuroradiology units in large centres. (orig.)

  6. Pancreatits after endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayman M Abdel Aziz; Glen A Lehman

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common complication after endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP); the reported incidence of this complication varies from less than 1% to 40%, but a rate of 4%-8% is reported in most prospective studies involving nonselected patients. Differences in criteria for defining pancreatitis, methods of data collection, and patient populations (i.e. number of high-risk patients included in the published series) are factors that are likely to affect the varying rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis. The severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) can range from a minor inconvenience with one or two days of added hospitalization with full recovery to a devastating illness with pancreatic necrosis, multiorgan failure, permanent disability, and even death. Although, most episodes of PEP are mild (about 90%), a small percentage of patients (about 10%) develop moderate or severe pancreatitis. In the past, PEP was often viewed as an unpredictable and unavoidable complication, with no realistic strategy for its avoidance. New data have aided in stratification of patients into PEP risk categories and new measures have been introduced to decrease the risk of PEP. As most ERCPs are performed on an outpatient basis, the majority of patients will not develop PEP and can be discharged. Alternatively, early detection of those patients who will go on to develop PEP can guide decisions regarding hospital admission and aggressive management. In the last decade, great efforts have been addressed toward prevention of this complication. Points of emphasis have included technical measures, pharmacological prophylaxis, and patient selection. This review provides a comprehensive, evidence-based assessment of published data on PEP and current suggestions for its avoidance.

  7. High-Pressure Transvenous Perfusion of the Upper Extremity in Human Muscular Dystrophy: A Safety Study with 0.9% Saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zheng; Kocis, Keith; Valley, Robert; Howard, James F; Chopra, Manisha; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Muenzer, Joseph; Powers, William

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated safety and feasibility of high-pressure transvenous limb perfusion in an upper extremity of adult patients with muscular dystrophy, after completing a similar study in a lower extremity. A dose escalation study of single-limb perfusion with 0.9% saline was carried out in nine adults with muscular dystrophies under intravenous analgesia. Our study demonstrates that it is feasible and definitely safe to perform high-pressure transvenous perfusion with 0.9% saline up to 35% of limb volume in the upper extremities of young adults with muscular dystrophy. Perfusion at 40% limb volume is associated with short-lived physiological changes in peripheral nerves without clinical correlates in one subject. This study provides the basis for a phase 1/2 clinical trial using pressurized transvenous delivery into upper limbs of nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, our results are applicable to other conditions such as limb girdle muscular dystrophy as a method for delivering regional macromolecular therapeutics in high dose to skeletal muscles of the upper extremity. PMID:25953425

  8. Relationship between seasonal weather changes, risk of dehydration, and incidence of severe bradyarrhythmias requiring urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing in an elderly population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Pietro; Accogli, Michele; Zaccaria, Maria; Vergari, Alessandra; De Luca De Masi, Gabriele; Negro, Luca; De Blasi, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    There is little information on any seasonal variations or meteorological factors associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias requiring cardiac pacing. The aim of this single-center study was to investigate the seasonal distribution of the incidence of severe, life-threatening bradyarrhythmias requiring urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing in an elderly population. Consecutive patients who underwent urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing between 2007 and 2012 were enrolled. The baseline characteristics of the patients and some meteorological parameters, including the calculation the daily heat index (HI), were recorded. During the study period, 79 consecutive patients (mean age 82 ± 8 years, 41 % male) underwent urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing, mainly for third-degree atrioventricular block (79 %). The incidence of bradyarrhythmias was significantly higher in summer than in the other seasons ( P 90 °F for >3 h per day for at least 10 days ( P renal function impairment and hyperkalemia (all P < 0.05). This study showed an increased incidence of severe bradyarrhythmias in an elderly population during the hottest months of the year. In these months, in subjects characterized by increased susceptibility to dehydration, the risk of developing bradyarrhythmias was increased significantly.

  9. Stable retrograde orbits around the triple system 2001 SN263

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, R A N; Prado, A F B A

    2015-01-01

    The NEA 2001 SN263 is the target of the ASTER MISSION - First Brazilian Deep Space Mission. Araujo et al. (2012), characterized the stable regions around the components of the triple system for the planar and prograde cases. Knowing that the retrograde orbits are expected to be more stable, here we present a complementary study. We now considered particles orbiting the components of the system, in the internal and external regions, with relative inclinations between $90^{\\circ}< I \\leqslant180^{\\circ}$, i.e., particles with retrograde orbits. Our goal is to characterize the stable regions of the system for retrograde orbits, and then detach a preferred region to place the space probe. For a space mission, the most interesting regions would be those that are unstable for the prograde cases, but stable for the retrograde cases. Such configuration provide a stable region to place the mission probe with a relative retrograde orbit, and, at the same time, guarantees a region free of debris since they are expect...

  10. Large retrograde Centaurs: visitors from the Oort cloud?

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Among all the asteroid dynamical groups, Centaurs have the highest fraction of objects moving in retrograde orbits. The distribution in absolute magnitude, H, of known retrograde Centaurs with semi-major axes in the range 6-34 AU exhibits a remarkable trend: 10% have H 12 mag. The largest objects, namely (342842) 2008 YB3, 2011 MM4 and 2013 LU28, move in almost polar, very eccentric paths; their nodal points are currently located near perihelion and aphelion. In the group of retrograde Centaurs, they are obvious outliers both in terms of dynamics and size. Here, we show that these objects are also trapped in retrograde resonances that make them unstable. Asteroid 2013 LU28, the largest, is a candidate transient co-orbital to Uranus and it may be a recent visitor from the trans-Neptunian region. Asteroids 342842 and 2011 MM4 are temporarily submitted to various high-order retrograde resonances with the Jovian planets but 342842 may be ejected towards the trans-Neptunian region within the next few hundred kyr....

  11. Transvenous DSA: ECG-controlled cardial effects and venous complications after pre-atrial injection of nonionic contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlart, I.P.; Sigel, H.

    1986-09-01

    Transvenous DSA is a diagnostic technique for ambulatory examination that is well tolerated by patients, although it is commonly known that bolus injection of contrast medium for examination of the cardiovascular system may affect the cardiovascular hemodynamic process. The prospective study described was intended to reveal in 100 patients the effects on ECG data, as well as clinical symptoms of non-tolerance of contrast medium (nonionic, with high iodine content, Iopamidol 370), applied by central pre-atrial injection. In addition, catheterization-induced complications in the venous system of the arm were studied in 130 patients. Change of heart rate was the most frequent effect observed (increase in 49% of patients pretreated with Buscopan, decrease in 36% of non-pretreated patients). The second next effects were supraventricular and ventricular ES (20%), minor prolongations of PQ and QRS intervals (14%), and ST lowering (3%), without clinical symptons. In one case, an attack of Angina pectoris was observed, another patient developed a cutane allergy. After catheterization of brachial vein, thromboses were observed in 3% of patients, as well as local inflammations in 6%, short attacks of fever in 2.3%. The complications were observed for the most part in cases where re-sterilised catheters had been used.

  12. A new transvenous internal cardioverter-defibrillator: implantation technique, complications, and short-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaens, L; Vertongen, P; Provenier, F; Trouerbach, J W; Poelaert, J; Herregods, L

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-four patients with ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia underwent implantation of a new transvenous defibrillator. All patients had a device implanted without thoracotomy. High placement of a shock lead in the anonymous vein and inversion of the shock-wave polarity allowed avoidance of placement of subcutaneous patches. Implantation time decreased from 138 minutes for the first 12 patients to 82 minutes for the last 12 patients, with 4 and 11 subpectoral pockets, respectively. Three patients required a minor reintervention. No bleeding or infection occurred. One episode of pulmonary edema and one pulmonary embolism were seen in the postoperative course. No postoperative deaths were observed. During a mean follow-up period of 4.12 months, 58% of the 24 patients had symptomatic arrhythmic episodes, with shocks in 50% of the 24. Inappropriate shocks were delivered in three cases (atrial fibrillation and T-wave sensing). One episode was not terminated even with four internal shocks. One patient had ventricular fibrillation because of a sensing problem. By reprogramming of sensitivity, back-up pacing, and adjustment of drug therapy these arrhythmic complications could be prevented. Pectoral implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator is easy and can be performed by cardiologists experienced in pacemaker implantation. Careful postoperative observation, reprogramming after the first spontaneous event, and prehospital discharge induction of ventricular fibrillation will prevent arrhythmic complications. PMID:7832096

  13. Persistent knee complaints after retrograde unreamed nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa; Schraven, Pim; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde nailing is an attractive method for stabilisation of femoral shaft fractures in cases of polytrauma, ipsilateral pelvic, acetabular, tibial and femoral neck fractures, bilateral femoral fractures, obese and pregnant patients. However, retrograde nailing may result in complaints about the

  14. Fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Rangappa Pradeep; Uhde Britta; Byard Roger; Wurm Alex; Thomas Peter

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, who developed coma and hemiparesis secondary to severe cerebral artery gas embolism. Despite prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO 2 ) she developed severe cerebral edema and died within 24 h.

  15. Fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangappa Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 50-year-old woman undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, who developed coma and hemiparesis secondary to severe cerebral artery gas embolism. Despite prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO 2 she developed severe cerebral edema and died within 24 h.

  16. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  17. Retrograde pylorogastric intussusception – Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Avinadav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of gastric outlet obstruction in an infant due to retrograde intussusception of the pylorus into the stomach is presented. This anomaly is extremely rare, with almost no reports in the literature. The patient underwent formal Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty with an uneventful recovery and resumed full enteral feeding.

  18. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J; Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Brandslund, I;

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) and erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes mellitus (DM), but the prevalence of RE among DM patients is unknown. A prospective, blinded case-control study comparing men with DM with matched controls according to RE and erectile dysfunction was performed. Twenty...

  19. Rutinemaessig endoskopisk retrograd kolangiopankreatikografi kan ikke anbefales ved galdestenspankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Danish guidelines recommend that patients with presumed severe gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis (GAP) should receive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) within 72 hours. The results of a newly performed meta-analysis show that acute ERCP in patients with GAP does not reduce...

  20. Treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive through retrograde access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of retrograde access for the interventional treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment of lower extremity artery could not be reached through antegrade access. Methods: Twenty-seven cases (male 17, female 10; age range 32-89 years) were retrospectively investigated, including 18 with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans, 7 with diabetic foot and 2 with thromboangiitis obliterans. According to the Fontaine staging, 6 cases were classified as Fontaine Ⅱ, 11 were classified as Fontaine Ⅲ and 10 were classified as Fontaine Ⅳ. All cases underwent endovascular operation through antegrade access first with an attempt to cross the occlusive segment, but in vain. So retrograde access was tried via puncture of pedis dorsalis or posterior tibial artery or exposure of lateral branches of posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery or dorsal artery by open surgery,which followed by Percutaneous transluminal angiography and (or) stenting. Results: The operation through retrograde access was successful in all cases with obvious improvement of ischemic symptoms. Hematoma at the puncture site occurred in 3 patients, and paresthesia of toes occurred in 1 after dorsalis pedis arteriotomy. No severe perioperative complication occurred. The average ankle brachial index increased from 0.37 ± 0.11 preoperatively to 0.85 ± 0.12 postoperatively. Conclusions: Retrograde access could be used as an alternative strategy in lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment could not reach through antegrade access. (authors)

  1. Effects of chitin nano-whiskers on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and potato starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Na; Liu, Chengzhen; Zhang, Shuangling; Yu, Jing; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-01-01

    Starch is very prone to retrogradation after gelatinization. Inhibition of starch retrogradation has been an important factor in improving the quality of food. For the first time, we investigated the effect of nano-materials, represented by chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs), on the short- and long-term retrogradation of maize and potato starches. Rapid Visco-Analyser results showed that the addition of CNWs significantly decreased the setback values of maize and potato starches, which suggested that CNWs could retard the short-term retrogradation of starch. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed that the percentage of retrogradation of maize and potato starches significantly decreased (P<0.05), suggesting the inhibition of long-term retrogradation. The CNWs could be used as a new inhibitor of starch retrogradation to develop starch-based food with longer shelf life. PMID:27507508

  2. Learning the Languages of the Chloroplast: Retrograde Signaling and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Xun; Phua, Su Yin; Crisp, Peter; McQuinn, Ryan; Pogson, Barry J

    2016-04-29

    The chloroplast can act as an environmental sensor, communicating with the cell during biogenesis and operation to change the expression of thousands of proteins. This process, termed retrograde signaling, regulates expression in response to developmental cues and stresses that affect photosynthesis and yield. Recent advances have identified many signals and pathways-including carotenoid derivatives, isoprenes, phosphoadenosines, tetrapyrroles, and heme, together with reactive oxygen species and proteins-that build a communication network to regulate gene expression, RNA turnover, and splicing. However, retrograde signaling pathways have been viewed largely as a means of bilateral communication between organelles and nuclei, ignoring their potential to interact with hormone signaling and the cell as a whole to regulate plant form and function. Here, we discuss new findings on the processes by which organelle communication is initiated, transmitted, and perceived, not only to regulate chloroplastic processes but also to intersect with cellular signaling and alter physiological responses. PMID:26735063

  3. Ureteroscopy-Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy (UARN after Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open surgical anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL had been the standard treatment for large renal calculi prior to the development of endoscopic devices and endoscopic techniques. A previous report described the efficacy of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN and presented a case of renal calculi successfully treated with UARN during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL in a patient after ANL. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male with left renal calculi was referred for further treatment. The patient was placed under general and epidural anesthesia, in a Galdakao-modified Valdivia position. A flexible ureteroscope (URS was inserted, and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire was advanced into the flexible URS. The puncture wire then followed the route from the renal pelvis to the exit skin. Calculus fragmentation was undertaken using a pneumatic lithotripter. Conclusions. UARN for PCNL was therefore found to be a safe, effective, and appropriate treatment for a patient presenting with renal calculi after undergoing ANL.

  4. Rutinemaessig endoskopisk retrograd kolangiopankreatikografi kan ikke anbefales ved galdestenspankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Danish guidelines recommend that patients with presumed severe gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis (GAP) should receive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) within 72 hours. The results of a newly performed meta-analysis show that acute ERCP in patients with GAP does not reduce ...... the risk of complications, and ERCP is therefore not to be used routinely in GAP patients. The possible benefits of replacing ERCP with either endoscopic ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatograhy have yet to be demonstrated. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Aug-31......Danish guidelines recommend that patients with presumed severe gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis (GAP) should receive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) within 72 hours. The results of a newly performed meta-analysis show that acute ERCP in patients with GAP does not reduce...

  5. RETROGRADE INTUBATION IN A ZERO FINGER MOUTH OPENING PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The major responsibility of the anesthesiologist is to secure the airway and provide adequate ventilation to the anesthetised patient. Inability to manage difficult airway has been responsible for many of the total deaths attributable to anesthesia. A good clinical judgment is important for selecting the method for airway intervention. The retrograde intubation technique is a valuable option in places where fiber optic bronchoscope is not readily available or affordable for gaining airway access for surgery in cases with anticipated difficult airway. We report a case of right sided carcinoma of cheek with inability to open mouth posted for right sided modified radical neck dissection with myocutaneous flap insertion with anticipated difficult intubation. An awake retrograde nasal intubation with light sedation and local block was performed

  6. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a useful tool in the evaluation and management of acute pancreatitis. This review will focus on the role of ERCP in specific causes of acute pancreatitis, including microlithiasis and gallstone disease, pancreas divisum, Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, tumors of the pancreaticobiliary tract, pancreatic pseudocysts, and pancreatic duct injury. Indications for endoscopic techniques such as biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomy, stenting, stricture dilation, treatment of duct leaks, drainage of fluid collections and stone extraction will also be discussed in this review. With the advent of less invasive and safer diagnostic modalities including endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), ERCP is appropriately becoming a therapeutic rather than diagnostic tool in the management of acute pancreatitis and its complications.

  7. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has evolved from a diagnostic tool to one that is primarily used to provide therapy. This development occurred first for biliary disorders and subsequently to a lesser extent for pancreatic diseases. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography suggest a diagnosis in the majority of patients with pancreatic diseases today and can help phy...

  8. Ureteroscopy Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy for Complete Staghorn Renal Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Complete staghorn calculi are typically managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, dilating nephrostomy and inserting a nephro access sheath can be difficult to perform without hydronephrosis. We reported the procedure of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) during PCNL. UARN is effective without dilating the renal collecting system in cases of complete staghorn calculi. A 63-year old female with a left complete staghorn renal calculus was referred to our hospit...

  9. Ureteroscopy-Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy (UARN) after Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Kawahara; Hiroki Ito; Hideyuki Terao; Yoshitake Kato; Takehiko Ogawa; Hiroji Uemura; Yoshinobu Kubota; Junichi Matsuzaki

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Open surgical anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL) had been the standard treatment for large renal calculi prior to the development of endoscopic devices and endoscopic techniques. A previous report described the efficacy of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) and presented a case of renal calculi successfully treated with UARN during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a patient after ANL. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male with left renal calculi was referred...

  10. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Canlas, Karen R; Malcolm S. Branch

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a useful tool in the evaluation and management of acute pancreatitis. This review will focus on the role of ERCP in specific causes of acute pancreatitis, including microlithiasis and gallstone disease, pancreas divisum, Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, tumors of the pancreaticobiliary tract, pancreatic pseudocysts, and pancreatic duct injury. Indications for endoscopic techniques such as biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomy, stenting, s...

  11. Retrograde interlocking intramedullary nailing under arthroscopy for supracondylar femoral fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of retrograde interlocking intramedullary nailing under arthroscopy on supracondylar femoral fractures.   Methods: From June 1999 to December 2000, 17 patients with supracondylar femoral fracture were treated with arthroscopically assisted implantation of retrograde interlocking intramedullary nail and close reduction.   Results: More than 6-month follow-up study after operation in 11 patients revealed that the average healing time was 3 months. Average range of the knee motion for all the patients was more than 90 degrees. There was no implant breakage and infection.   Conclusions: This new method, combining the advantage of arthroscope and retrograde interlocking intramedullary nail, can provide a stable and reliable fixation, and meanwhile is less invasive to the soft tissue and knee, less operative time and blood loss, minimal disruption of the blood supply in fracture site. It is conducive to the fracture healing and the functional recovery of the knee joint and worthwhile to be recommended.

  12. Retrogradation behaviour of high-amylose rice starch prepared by improved extrusion cooking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Li, Ti; Liu, Yunfei; Wu, Di; Zuo, Yanna

    2014-09-01

    Native rice starch (NRS, amylose/28.9%) was gelatinized by improved extrusion cooking technology (IECT) and retrograded (RRS) after low temperature storage (4 °C). The retrogradation behaviour of RRS was changed to low retrogradation percentage and low retrogradation rate. The retrogradation resulted in a high compact morphology. The melt enthalpy change and percentage of retrogradation of RRS was 3.68 J/g and 37.7%, respectively, compared to those of NRS (9.75 J/g, 100%). The retrogradation percentage for RRS was low during storage as shown as a low retrogradation rate (0.21 d(-1)) and a high Avrami exponent (0.89). The pattern of rice starch changed from A-type to amorphous and B-type. Both the relative crystallinity of RRS (12.7%) by the X-ray diffractograms and the ratio of the band height (0.63) in the FTIR spectra were low. The analysis of retrogradation structure and short-range molecular order further confirmed the retrogradation behaviour of rice starch after IECT treatment. PMID:24731339

  13. Focal retrograde amnesia: Voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sehm, B.; Frisch, S; Thöne-Otto, A.; Horstmann, A.; Villringer, A.; Obrig, H

    2011-01-01

    Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unrema...

  14. Recruitment of actin modifiers to TrkA endosomes governs retrograde NGF signaling and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Anthony W.; Hillaire, Coryse St.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Glebova, Natalia O.; Philippidou, Polyxeni; Halegoua, Simon; Ginty, David D.

    2011-01-01

    NGF and NT3 collaborate to support development of sympathetic neurons. Although both neurotrophins activate TrkA-dependent axonal extension, NGF is unique in its ability to promote retrograde transport of TrkA endosomes and retrograde survival. Here, we report that actin depolymerization is essential for initiation of NGF/TrkA endosome trafficking and that a Rac1–cofilin signaling module associated with TrkA early endosomes supports their maturation to retrograde transport-competent endosomes...

  15. Fallbericht: Perkutane transpopliteale retrograde Rekanalisation der A. femoralis superficialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallner H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available bVorgeschichte/bbr Bei der 53 Jahre alten Patientin erfolgte bei Claudicatio- Beschwerden der rechten unteren Extremität eine auswärtige MR-Angiographie mit langstreckigem Verschluss der A. femoralis superficialis. Die Patientin wurde auch bei einer Gehstrecke von unter 100 m symptomatisch und der Knöchelarmindex betrug 0,7 auf der betroffenen Seite. An Risikofaktoren bestanden ein chronischer Nikotinabusus, eine behandelte arterielle Hypertonie und Hypercholesterinämie sowie ein pathologischer Glukosetoleranztest bei Adipositas. Nachdem angiomorphologisch kein Gefäßstumpf für eine antegrade Crossover-Rekanalisation erkennbar war, erfolgte die Durchführung einer perkutanen retrograden transpoplitealen Rekanalisation des betroffenen Gefäßes, da auch eine chirurgische Revaskularisation abgelehnt wurde. Nachdem ein arterieller Zugang (6-French-Schleuse über die rechte A. femoralis communis zur Kontrastmittelinjektion gelegt wurde, wurde die Patientin in Bauchlage gebracht und gezielt die rechte A. poplitea punktiert. Hierbei erfolgte die problemlose Drahtrekanalisation, anschließende Angioplastie und 2-fach-Stentimplantation des Gefäßes.br b Zusammenfassung/bbr Die endovaskuläre Therapie von Verschlüssen peripherer Gefäße nimmt bei verbesserter Technik und verbesserten Materialien einen immer größeren Stellenwert ein. Dargestellt ist die retrograde Rekanalisation der A. femoralis superficialis bei langstreckigem Verschluss und fehlendem Gefäßstumpf. Das Gefäß konnte erfolgreich retrograd transpopliteal eröffnet werden. Sollte bei der retrograden Rekanalisation und subintimaler Angioplastie ein Anschluss an das proximale offene Gefäßsegment nicht erzielt werden, ist der Einsatz eines Reentry- Katheters, eventuell Ultraschall-gestützt, hilfreich. Generell haben wir die Erfahrung gemacht, dass die retrograde Rekanalisation technisch deutlich einfacher ist als die antegrade Vorgehensweise.

  16. Dietary approaches following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A survey of selected endoscopists

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Lincoln EVVC; Topazian, Mark D.; Harmsen, William S.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Baron, Todd H

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To describe the dietary recommendations of experienced endoscopists for patients who have undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and the factors that influence these recommendations.

  17. Retrograde jejunoduodenogastric intussusception due to a replacement percutaneous gastrostomy tube presenting as upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube complications can be serious or life threatening.Retrograde intussusception is a very rare complication of PEG tubes with only 9 cases reported in the literature.We describe a case of retrograde intussusception,associated with the use of a Foley catheter as a replacement gastrostomy tube, presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PEG-related retrograde intussusception successfully managed in a non-surgical manner. Retrograde intussusception likely occurred due to migration of the replacement tube with resultant securing and invagination of the proximal jejunum when the gastrostomy tube was anchored to the abdominal wall.

  18. Pancreas imaging by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone

  19. Modified Technique of Retrograde Intubation in TMJ Ankylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Kamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case report on the anaesthetic management of a case of ankylosis of temporomandibular joint for corrective surgery in a 7 year old child. Anticipated difficult airway in paediatric population has always been a perplexing problem, awake fibreoptic intubation almost impossible due to obvious difficulties with co-operation. Here we are describing a new approach to this problem, in which the patients were kept under GA with spontaneous ventilation while retrograde intubation was done quite comfortably by the conventional method.

  20. The immediate effects of retrograde pancreatography on the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) may be followed by elevated serum amylase or occasionally by pancreatitis. This is said to be due to the irritating effect of contrast media (CM) or to the cation content of CM. We investigated the effect of intraductally injected CM (ionic CM with and without sodium, non-ionic CM) on the porcine pancreas. All types of CM as well as control media (saline, 7% sodium bicarbonate solution) produced small foci of histological pancreatitis, although without any clinical signs of pancreatitis. (orig.)

  1. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Small Renal Calyx Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Sener

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lower pole kidney stones are one of the most common problems is urology practice. For this group of patients, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS are established treatments with low morbidity and high efficacy. SWL has relatively lower success rates for lower pole stones. On the other hand, RIRS has as high as 100% success rates for lower pole stones. With advances in technology and experience we believe RIRS may be the first treatment option over SWL in the following years.

  2. Percutaneous Transportal Sclerotherapy with N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Gastric Varices: Technique and Clinical Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was deigned to evaluate the technique and clinical efficacy of the use of percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for patients with gastric varices. Seven patients were treated by transportal sclerotherapy with the use of NBCA. For transportal sclerotherapy, portal vein catheterization was performed with a 6-Fr sheath by the transhepatic approach. A 5-Fr catheter was introduced into the afferent gastric vein and a microcatheter was advanced through the 5-Fr catheter into the varices. NBCA was injected through the microcatheter in the varices by use of the continuous single-column injection technique. After the procedure, postcontrast computed tomography (CT) was performed on the next day and then every six months. Gastroendoscopy was performed at one week, three months, and then every six months after the procedure. The technical success rate of the procedure was 88%. In six patients, gastric varices were successfully obliterated with 1-8 mL (mean, 5.4 mL) of a NBCA-Lipiodol mixture injected via a microcatheter. No complications related to the procedure were encountered. As seen on the follow-up endoscopy and CT imaging performed after six months, the presence of gastric varcies was not seen in any of the patients after treatment with the NBCA-Lipiodol mixture and the use of microcoils. Recurrence of gastric varices was not observed during the followup period. Worsening of esophageal varices occurred in four patients after transportal sclerotherapy. The serum albumin level increased, the ammonia level decreased and the prothrombin time increased at six months after the procedure (p < 0.05). Percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with NBCA is useful to obliterate gastric varices if it is not possible to perform balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

  3. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uto, Hirofumi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Sakaida, Isao; Shibuya, Akitaka; Seike, Masataka; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Segawa, Makoto; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Michitaka, Kojiro; Murawaki, Toshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis in 2015. Eighty-three clinical questions were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. Manual searching of the latest important literature was added until August 2015. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This digest version in English introduces selected clinical questions and statements related to the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Branched-chain amino acids relieve hypoalbuminemia and hepatic encephalopathy and improve quality of life. Nucleoside analogues and peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus related liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C related compensated liver cirrhosis, respectively, although the latter therapy may be replaced by direct-acting antivirals. For liver cirrhosis caused by primary biliary cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis, urosodeoxycholic acid and steroid are recommended, respectively. The most adequate modalities for the management of variceal bleeding are the endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices and the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration following endoscopic obturation with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices. Beta-blockers are useful for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is a useful add-on therapy in careful diuretic therapy for ascites. Albumin infusion is useful for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory disturbance and renal failure. In addition to disaccharides, the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin is useful for the management of encephalopathy. Anticoagulation therapy is proposed for

  4. Role of Phospholipase A2 in Retrograde Transport of Ricin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Sandvig

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a protein toxin classified as a bioterror agent, for which there are no known treatment options available after intoxication. It is composed of an enzymatically active A-chain connected by a disulfide bond to a cell binding B-chain. After internalization by endocytosis, ricin is transported retrogradely to the Golgi and ER, from where the ricin A-chain is translocated to the cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis and thus induces cell death. We have identified cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 as an important factor in ricin retrograde transport. Inhibition of PLA2 protects against ricin challenge, however the toxin can still be endocytosed and transported to the Golgi. Interestingly, ricin transport from the Golgi to the ER is strongly impaired in response to PLA2 inhibition. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that ricin is still colocalized with the trans-Golgi marker TGN46 in the presence of PLA2 inhibitor, but less is colocalized with the cis-Golgi marker GM130. We propose that PLA2 inhibition results in impaired ricin transport through the Golgi stack, thus preventing it from reaching the ER. Consequently, ricin cannot be translocated to the cytosol to exert its toxic action.

  5. Eclogites of the Dabie Region: Retrograde Metamorphism and Fluid Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾连兴; 杜建国; 翟建平; 赵成浩; 范建国; 张文兰

    2002-01-01

    Based upon fluid effects, retrograde metamorphism of eclogites in the Dabie region can be divided into the fluid-poor, fluid-bearing and fluid-rich stages. The fluid-poor stage is marked by polymorphic inversion, recrystallization and exsolution of solid solutions, and is thought to represent eclogite-facies retrograde environments. The fluid-bearing stage is likely to have occurred at the late stage of ecologite-facies diaphthorosis and is represented by kyanite porphyroblasts, rutile, and sodic pyroxene in association with high-pressure hydrous minerals such as phengite and zoisite (clinozoisite) without significant amount of hydrous minerals such as amphibole, epidote and biotite. The fluid-rich stage might have commenced concomitantly with lower amphibolite-facies diaphthoresis and persisted all the way towards the near-surface environment. The product of this stage is characterized by plentiful hydrous and volatile-bearing phases.The dissemination-type rutile mineralizations in eclogites might have formed by preferential shearing-induced pressure solution of gangue minerals at the fluid-bearing stage. The accompanying vein rutile was precipitated from fluids of this stage after local transport and concentration, and may hence represent proximal mobilization of titanium from the eclogite. Therefore, rutile veins can be used as an exploration indicator for dissemination-type rutile deposits.

  6. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  7. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. PMID:26428142

  8. Retrograde transport of protein toxins through the Golgi apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Skotland, Tore; van Deurs, Bo; Klokk, Tove Irene

    2013-01-01

    A number of protein toxins from plants and bacteria take advantage of transport through the Golgi apparatus to gain entry into the cytosol where they exert their action. These toxins include the plant toxin ricin, the bacterial Shiga toxins, and cholera toxin. Such toxins bind to lipids or proteins...... at the cell surface, and they are endocytosed both by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. Sorting to the Golgi and retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are common to these toxins, but the exact mechanisms turn out to be toxin and cell-type dependent. In the ER......, the enzymatically active part is released and then transported into the cytosol, exploiting components of the ER-associated degradation system. In this review, we will discuss transport of different protein toxins, but we will focus on factors involved in entry and sorting of ricin and Shiga toxin...

  9. Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garofalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.

  10. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddie Jasdeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years, 52/54 (96% were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3% and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%. Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients.

  11. Portal vein cannulation: An uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Nicholas Stern; Richard Sturgess

    2011-01-01

    Portal vein cannulation is a rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). It has been reported that it usually occurs after endoscopic sphincterotomy, whereas in cases without prior sphincterotomy, the presence of portobiliary fistulas has been shown. Here, we present a case in which cannulation of the portal vein occurred despite careful wire-guided cannulation and the absence of sphincterotomy. Although fatal cases of cerebral and pulmonary air and/or bile embolism have been reported in patients with combined portal and hepatic vein trauma after ERCP and sphincterotomy, isolated portal vein cannulation, as in the current case, does not usually result in mortality or serious morbidity. However, awareness of this rare complication is important so that no further intervention is performed.

  12. Selective biliary cannulation techniques for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures and prevention of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Shuntaro; Itoi, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Numerous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) techniques have been reported to achieve selective biliary cannulation success. For standard biliary cannulation procedures, the wire-guided cannulation technique has been reported to reduce the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and increase the biliary cannulation success rate, although conflicting reports exist. The pancreatic or double-guidewire technique and several precut techniques have been reported as useful techniques in difficult biliary cannulation cases. Although ERCP is a useful endoscopic procedure, the risk of adverse events, particularly post-ERCP pancreatitis, is inevitable. Previous studies and analyses have revealed the risk factors for PEP. The efficacy of prophylactic pancreatic duct stent placement and the administration of rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for preventing PEP has also been reported. Herein, we reviewed reports in the literature regarding the current status of selective biliary cannulation techniques and PEP prevention. PMID:26782710

  13. The Yeast Retrograde Response as a Model of Intracellular Signaling of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Michal eJazwinski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction activates intracellular signaling pathways that impact yeast longevity, and the best known of these pathways is the retrograde response. More recently, similar responses have been discerned in other systems, from invertebrates to human cells. However, the identity of the signal transducers is either unknown or apparently diverse, contrasting with the well-established signaling module of the yeast retrograde response. On the other hand, it has become equally clear that several other pathways and processes interact with the retrograde response, embedding it in a network responsive to a variety of cellular states. An examination of this network supports the notion that the master regulator NFkB aggregated a variety of mitochondria-related cellular responses at some point in evolution and has become the retrograde transcription factor. This has significant consequences for how we view some of the deficits associated with aging, such as inflammation. The support for NFkB as the retrograde response transcription factor is not only based on functional analyses. It is bolstered by the fact that NFkB can regulate Myc-Max, which is activated in human cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and impacts cellular metabolism. Myc-Max is homologous to the yeast retrograde response transcription factor Rtg1-Rtg3. Further research will be needed to disentangle the pro-aging from the anti-aging effects of NFkB. Interestingly, this is also a challenge for the complete understanding of the yeast retrograde response.

  14. Effect of pullulan on the short-term and long-term retrogradation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Zipei; Tong, Qunyi; Rashed, Marwan M A

    2015-01-22

    The effect of pullulan (PUL) on the retrogradation of rice starch (RS) was investigated by means of rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), rotational rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). RVA results showed that addition of pullulan significantly decreased the breakdown and setback values, which meant that the short-term retrogradation of RS was inhibited. The dynamic time sweep of samples also proved the retarding effect of pullulan on the retrogradation of RS. DSC curves showed clearly that pullulan significantly reduced the retrogradation enthalpy of amylopectin, and the kinetics of retrogradation was analyzed using the Avrami model. XRD results showed that recrystallinity of RS was reduced from 11.565% to 8.841% with the addition of pullulan and this was in line with the DSC results. It could be concluded that the addition of pullulan apparently influenced not only the short-term retrogradation of amylose, but also the long-term retrogradation of amylopectin. PMID:25439913

  15. Identification of the main retrogradation-related properties of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xijun; Kang, Haiqi; Sun, Haibo; Liu, Lizeng; Li, Lin

    2015-02-11

    The retrogradation of rice in shelf life is the biggest barrier to the industrial production of traditional foods using rice as material. Many rice breeders have tried their best to screen low-retrogradation rice cultivars without a specific indicator. To identify the main retrogradation-related properties of rice, the starch, amylose, and amylopectin from 16 rice cultivars were extracted from rice powder and their physicochemical properties, such as visible absorbance, infrared, average molecule weight (amylopectin), chain-length distribution (amylopectin), X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, were determined. The correlation between starch retrogradation rates and those physicochemical properties was investigated. The results show that a significant positive correlation (R(2) = 0.85; r = 0.926; p 10] in amylopectin and the retrogradation rates of different rice starches. The findings in the paper offer a shortcut for rice breeders to screen cultivars with a low retrogradation rate. Because the genes related to the branching enzyme control the DP of amylopectin, they can be exploited as molecular markers to screen low-retrogradation rice cultivars. PMID:25615262

  16. RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 Promote Retrograde Transport in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglei Zhang

    Full Text Available Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6.1, together regulate retrograde transport in both neurons and non-neuronal tissue. Mutants for rab-6.1 or rab-6.2 fail to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. Loss of both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 results in an additive effect on GLR-1 retrograde recycling, indicating that these two C. elegans Rab6 isoforms have overlapping functions. MIG-14 (Wntless protein, which undergoes retrograde recycling, undergoes a similar degradation in intestinal epithelia in both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 mutants, suggesting a broader role for these proteins in retrograde transport. Surprisingly, MIG-14 is localized to separate, spatially segregated endosomal compartments in rab-6.1 mutants compared to rab-6.2 mutants. Our results indicate that RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 have partially redundant functions in overall retrograde transport, but also have their own unique cellular- and subcellular functions.

  17. The clinical and radiological observation of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Shik; Park, Byoung Lan; Chun, Hyun Woo; Kim, Byung Geun; Park, Hong Bae [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a new diagnostic method for pancreatic and biliary disease which has been made possible by the development of fiberoptic duodenoscopy. It has been thought that ERCP will serve an important role in the early detection of pancreatic cancer, but in order to detect minor lesions of the pancreas and improve the diagnostic accuracy of resectable pancreatic cancer, Endoscopic Retrograde Parenchymography of the pancreas (ERPP) was developed recently. The authors analyzed 117 cases of ERCP performed at the Kwangju Christian Hospital between January and December 1980, and compared them with the final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. One of 117 cases, successful visualization of the duct of concern was achieved in 105 cases. Of these, 25 cases were ERPP. 2. The ratio of males to females was 1.44 : 1. Most patients were in the 4th to 6th decade. 3. The commonest clinical manifestations were upper abdominal pain (77 cases), jaundice (23 cases), indigestion, vomiting and abdominal mass, in order of frequency. 4. Out of 46 cases of suspected pancreatic diseases, the pancreatic duct was visualized in 36 cases, and 24 cases revealed pathognomonic findings. These were diagnosed as 16 cases of pancreatic cancer, 4 cases of chronic pancreatitis, 2 cases of pancreatic pseudocyst and 2 cases of periampullary cancer with pancreas invasion. In pancreatic cancer findings were; encasement, local dilatation, delayed excretion, poor filling, obstruction of pancreatic duct, accompanying C.B.D. obstruction or stenosis and so called double duct sign. The chronic pancreatitis findings included; ductal dilatation (with or without) obstruction, tortuosity with dilated saccular lateral branching, stone formation and the parenchymal filling defect. 5. Out of 71 cases of suspected biliary tract disease, the biliary tract was visualized in 57 cases, and in 31 cases abnormalities were suggested; such as 20 cases of biliary stone, 1 case

  18. The clinical and radiological observation of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a new diagnostic method for pancreatic and biliary disease which has been made possible by the development of fiberoptic duodenoscopy. It has been thought that ERCP will serve an important role in the early detection of pancreatic cancer, but in order to detect minor lesions of the pancreas and improve the diagnostic accuracy of resectable pancreatic cancer, Endoscopic Retrograde Parenchymography of the pancreas (ERPP) was developed recently. The authors analyzed 117 cases of ERCP performed at the Kwangju Christian Hospital between January and December 1980, and compared them with the final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. One of 117 cases, successful visualization of the duct of concern was achieved in 105 cases. Of these, 25 cases were ERPP. 2. The ratio of males to females was 1.44 : 1. Most patients were in the 4th to 6th decade. 3. The commonest clinical manifestations were upper abdominal pain (77 cases), jaundice (23 cases), indigestion, vomiting and abdominal mass, in order of frequency. 4. Out of 46 cases of suspected pancreatic diseases, the pancreatic duct was visualized in 36 cases, and 24 cases revealed pathognomonic findings. These were diagnosed as 16 cases of pancreatic cancer, 4 cases of chronic pancreatitis, 2 cases of pancreatic pseudocyst and 2 cases of periampullary cancer with pancreas invasion. In pancreatic cancer findings were; encasement, local dilatation, delayed excretion, poor filling, obstruction of pancreatic duct, accompanying C.B.D. obstruction or stenosis and so called double duct sign. The chronic pancreatitis findings included; ductal dilatation (with or without) obstruction, tortuosity with dilated saccular lateral branching, stone formation and the parenchymal filling defect. 5. Out of 71 cases of suspected biliary tract disease, the biliary tract was visualized in 57 cases, and in 31 cases abnormalities were suggested; such as 20 cases of biliary stone, 1 case

  19. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Kun Da, E-mail: zkunda@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore); Tan, Seck Guan [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  20. NGF-stimulated retrograde transport of trkA in the mammalian nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, M D; Kaplan, D R; Price, D L; Koliatsos, V E

    1995-07-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the in vivo function of trkA as an NGF receptor in mammalian neurons. Using the rat sciatic nerve as a model system, we examined whether trkA is retrogradely transported and whether transport is influenced by physiological manipulations. Following nerve ligation, trkA protein accumulates distal to the ligation site as shown by Western blot analysis. The distally accumulating trkA species were tyrosine phosphorylated. The trkA retrograde transport and phosphorylation were enhanced by injecting an excess of NGF in the footpad and were abolished by blocking endogenous NGF with specific antibodies. These results provide evidence that, upon NGF binding, trkA is internalized and retrogradely transported in a phosphorylated state, possibly together with the neurotrophin. Furthermore, our results suggest that trkA is a primary retrograde NGF signal in mammalian neurons in vivo. PMID:7540615

  1. Kinematical evolution of tidally limited star clusters: the role of retrograde stellar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tiongco, Maria; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an external tidal field often induces significant dynamical evolutionary effects on the internal kinematics of star clusters. Previous studies investigating the restricted three-body problem with applications to star cluster dynamics have shown that unbound stars on retrograde orbits (with respect to the direction of the cluster's orbit) are more stable against escape than prograde orbits, and predicted that a star cluster might acquire retrograde rotation through preferential escape of stars on prograde orbits. In this study we present evidence of this prediction, but we also illustrate that there are additional effects that cannot be accounted for by the preferential escape of prograde orbits alone. Specifically, in the early evolution, initially underfilling models increase their fraction of retrograde stars without losing significant mass, and acquire a retrograde angular velocity. We attribute this effect to the development of preferentially eccentric/radial orbits in the outer regions of...

  2. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour. PMID:26868561

  3. Reconsidering the nature and mode of action of metabolite retrograde signals from the chloroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín Estavillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant organelles produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression in order to coordinate their biogenesis, maintain homeostasis or optimize their performance under adverse conditions. Many signals of different chemical nature have been described in the past decades, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species and adenosine derivatives. While the effects of retrograde signalling on gene expression are well understood, the initiation and transport of the signals and their mode of action have either not been resolved, or are a matter of speculation. Moreover, retrograde signalling should be consider as part of a broader cellular network, instead of as separate pathways, required to adjust to changing physiologically relevant conditions. Here we summarize current plastid retrograde signalling models in plants, with a focus on new signalling pathways, SAL1-PAP, MEcPP and β- cyclocitral, and outline missing links or future areas of research that we believe need to be addressed to have a better understanding of plant intracellular signalling networks.

  4. Retrograde cystography US. A new ultrasound technique for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the accuracy of a new US (ultrasound) investigation technique, called retrograde cystography US, in the early diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux. 5 patients, aged 3 months to 10 years, suffering from hydronephrosis and/or pyelonephritis, were examined using retrograde cystography US followed by conventional retrograde cystography. Retrograde cystography US consists in the transcatheter introduction of a contrast agent into the bladder and a subsequent color Doppler examination to show or exclude the presence of reflux. Superpubic scanning of bladder, ureters and pyelocaliceal cavity was performed after echo contrast agent introduction to assess the reflux grade. US was performed with an Esaote AU 590 asynchronous scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex probe. The total agreement of conventional and US findings seems to confirm the importance of the US method for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux

  5. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography: When should we do it?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renáta; Bor; László; Madácsy; Anna; Fábián; Attila; Szepes; Zoltán; Szepes

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP) is an accurate imaging modality in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary diseases. However, its use has been substantially reduced due to the invasiveness of procedure, the risk of complications and the widespread availability of non-invasive cross-section imaging techniques(computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound). Since the introduction of endoscopic sphincterotomy, ERP has transformed from diagnostic method to an almost exclusively therapeutic procedure. Pancreatic duct injection substantially increased the risk of post-ERP pancreatitis(1.6%-15.7%); therefore, according to international guidelines ERP is recommended only in cases where biliary intervention is required. However, the role of ERP in the management of pancreatic diseases is currently not clearly defined, but in some cases the filling of pancreatic duct may provide essential information complementing the results of non-invasive imaging techniques. The aim of this publication is to systematically summarize the literature dealing with the diagnostic yield of ERP. We would like to define the precise indications of ERP and overview a diagnostic protocol of pancreatic diseases depending on international guidelines and the opinion of Hungarian experts, because it may improve the diagnostic accuracy, minimize of burden of patients and reduce the risk of procedure related complications.

  6. Acute pulmonary embolism during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate P Painter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old female patient presented for an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP for the removal of a biliary stent and lithotripsy. During the procedure, an acute drop in the end-tidal CO 2 , followed by cardiovascular collapse prompted the initiation of the advanced cardiac life support protocol. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE demonstrated direct evidence of pulmonary embolism. The patient was promptly treated with thrombolytic therapy and subsequently discharged home on oral warfarin therapy, with no noted sequelae. Although, there have been case reports of air embolism during an ERCP presenting with cardiovascular collapse, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of acute pulmonary embolus during this procedure. While the availability of TEE in the operating suites is quite common, quick access and interpretation capabilities in remote locations may not be as common. With the expansion of anesthesia services outside of the operating rooms, it may be prudent to develop rapid response systems that incorporate resources such as TEE and trained personnel to deal with such emergent situations.

  7. Acute pulmonary embolism during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Nate P; Kumar, Priya A; Arora, Harendra

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old female patient presented for an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the removal of a biliary stent and lithotripsy. During the procedure, an acute drop in the end-tidal CO 2 , followed by cardiovascular collapse prompted the initiation of the advanced cardiac life support protocol. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated direct evidence of pulmonary embolism. The patient was promptly treated with thrombolytic therapy and subsequently discharged home on oral warfarin therapy, with no noted sequelae. Although, there have been case reports of air embolism during an ERCP presenting with cardiovascular collapse, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of acute pulmonary embolus during this procedure. While the availability of TEE in the operating suites is quite common, quick access and interpretation capabilities in remote locations may not be as common. With the expansion of anesthesia services outside of the operating rooms, it may be prudent to develop rapid response systems that incorporate resources such as TEE and trained personnel to deal with such emergent situations. PMID:24732617

  8. A rare etiology of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pneumoperitoneum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stelios F Assimakopoulos; Konstantinos C Thomopoulos; Sofia Giali; Christos Triantos; Dimitrios Siagris; Charalambos Gogos

    2008-01-01

    Major complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) include pancreatitis,hemorrhage, cholangitis, and duodenal perforation.The occurrence of free air in the peritoneal cavity postERCP is a rare event (< 1%), which is usually the result of duodenal or ductal perforation related to therapeutic ERCP with sphincterotomy. We describe for the first time a different aetiology of pneumoperitoneum, in an 84-year-old woman with pancreatic cancer and a large hepatic metastasis, after ERCP with common bile duct stent deployment. Our patient developed,pneumoperitoneum due to air leakage from rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts and Glisson's capsule in the area of a peripheral large hepatic metastasis. The potential mechanism underlying this complication might be postERCP pneumobilia and increased pressure of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts in the liver metastatic mass owing to neoplastic tissue friability. This case indicates the need for close clinical and radiological observation of patients with hepatic masses (primary or metastatic) subjected to ERCP. In such patients, avoidance of excessive air insufflation during ERCP and/or placement of a nasogastric tube for bowel decompression immediately after ERCP might be a reasonable strategy to prevent such unusual complications.

  9. Are retrograde resonances possible in multi-planet systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Gayon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Most of multi-planetary systems detected until now are characterized by hot-Jupiters close to their central star and moving on eccentric orbits. Hence, from a dynamical point of view, compact multi-planetary systems form a particular class of the general N-body problem (with N >3). Moreover, extrasolar planets are up to now found in prograde orbital motions about their host star and often in mean motion resonances (MMR). In the present paper, we investigate theoretically in a first step a new stabilizing mechanism particularly suitable for compact two-planet systems. Such a mechanism involves counter-revolving orbits forming a retrograde MMR. In a second step, we study the feasibility of planetary systems to host counter-revolving planets. In order to characterize dynamical behaviors of multi-dimensional planetary systems in the vicinity of observations, we apply our technique of global dynamics analysis based on the MEGNO indicator (Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits) that provides the fine stru...

  10. Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the 'orphan' SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells

  11. The concept of spatial frequency depending DQE and its application to a comparison of two detectors used in transvenous coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menk, R.H.; Thomlinson, W.; Gmuer, N.; Zhong, Z. [Brookhaven Nat. Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Nat. Synchrotron Light Source; Chapman, D. [CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3301 S. Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Arfelli, F. [ELETTRA, Sincrotrone, Trieste, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Dix, W.R.; Graeff, W.; Lohmann, M.; Illing, G.; Schildwaechter, L.; Reime, B. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kupper, W. [Herz Kreislauf Klinik Bevensen, Roemstedter Strasse, Bad Bevensen (Germany); Hamm, C. [Medizinische Klinik, Kardiologie, Universitaetsklinik Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Giacomini, J.C.; Gordon, H.J.; Rubenstein, E. [Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Dervan, J. [Division of Cardiology, Health Sciences Center, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8171 (United States); Besch, H.J.; Walenta, A.H. [Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen, Adolf Reichwein Strasse, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    1997-10-21

    A comparison of two different multi-channel line detectors utilized in transvenous coronary angiography was performed. An Li+ drifted silicon strip detector (SSD) was tested at the SMERF facility X17B2 at the national synchrotron light source (NSLS). An ionization chamber (IC) was tested at the W2 beamline at HASYLAB. Both detectors were operated in the charge-integrating mode. The main purpose was to measure and compare the modulation transfer function (MTF(f)), noise power spectrum (NPS(f)), detective quantum efficiency (DQE(f)) in terms of spatial frequencies and the dynamic range of both detector systems. It turned out that the IC is superior to the SSD in time resolution and dynamic range at a single gain setting and has a slight advantage in the transmission of high spatial frequencies. Although for high photon flux the DQE values of the IC exceed those of the SSD, it is the reverse for low photon flux caused by a higher noise floor of the read-out electronics. This makes the SSD superior to the IC since the incident flux is limited by the tolerable entry dose to the patients. For the comparison other criteria like price, reliability, maintenance, etc., are not taken into consideration. (orig.). 15 refs.

  12. Coronary perforation with tamponade successfully managed by retrograde and antegrade coil embolization

    OpenAIRE

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore Davide; Azzarelli, Salvatore; Elhadj, Zied Ibn; Marzà, Francesco; Galassi, Alfredo Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, retrograde approach for chronic total occlusions has rapidly evolved, enabling a higher rate of revascularization success. Compared to septal channels, epicardial collaterals tend to be more tortuous, more difficult to negotiate, and more prone to rupture. Coronary perforation is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of coronary angioplasty, often leading to emergency cardiac surgery. We report a case of a retrograde chronic total occlusion revascularization th...

  13. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kayserili Karabey, Hülya; Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortes, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. W...

  14. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Li; Bin Zhou; Rukun Song; Min Huang

    2012-01-01

    Retrograded starch (RS3) was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA) by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium ch...

  15. Numerical Simulations of Naturally Tilted, Retrogradely Precessing, Nodal Superhumping Accretion Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generates these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt n...

  16. Retrograde solubility of formamidinium and methylammonium lead halide perovskites enabling rapid single crystal growth

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-10-20

    Here we show the retrograde solubility of various hybrid perovskites through the correct choice of solvent(s) and report their solubility curves. Retrograde solubility enables to develop inverse temperature crystallization of FAPbX3 (FA = HC(NH2)2+, X = Br−/I−). FAPbI3 crystals exhibit a 1.4 eV bandgap – considerably narrower than their polycrystalline counterparts.

  17. Effect of galactomannan hydrocolloids on gelatinization and retrogradation of tapioca and corn starch

    OpenAIRE

    Šubarić, D.; Babić, J.; Ačkar, Đurđica; Piližota, Vlasta; Kopjar, Mirela; Ljubas, I.; Ivanovska, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of galactomannan hydrocolloids (guar gum and locust bean gum) on gelatinization and retrogradation of tapioca and corn starch. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to characterize the behaviour of tapioca and corn starch with and without additives. Results showed that guar gum and locust bean gum retarded the retrogradation of tapioca and corn starch at both investigated temperatures (4 and 25 °C). Guar gum retarded ret...

  18. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Bernhard; Frisch, Stefan; Thöne-Otto, Angelika; Horstmann, Annette; Villringer, Arno; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2011-01-01

    Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM)-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20) disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits. PMID:22028902

  19. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  20. Is routine ureteral stenting really necessary after retrograde intrarenal surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Ozyuvali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the situations in which ureteral double-J stent should be used after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS. Patients and Methods: Patients with no ureteral double-J stent after RIRS constituted Group 1, and those with double- J stent after RIRS constituted Group 2. Patients’ age and gender, renal stone characteristics (location and dimension, stone-free status, VAS score 8 hours after surgery, post-procedural renal colic attacks, length of hospitalization, requirement for re-hospitalization, time to rehospitalization and secondary procedure requirements were analyzed. Results: RIRS was performed on 162 renal units. Double-J stent was used in 121 (74.6% of these after RIRS, but not in the other 41 (25.4%. At radiological monitoring at the first month postoperatively after RIRS, complete stone-free status was determined in 122 (75.3% renal units, while residual stone was present in 40 (24.6%. No significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of duration of fluoroscopy (p = 0.142, operation (p = 0.108 or hospitalization times (p = 0.798. VAS values determined routinely on the evening of surgery were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p = 0.025. Twenty-eight (17.2% presentations were made to the emergency clinic due to renal colic within 1 month after surgery. Double-J catheter was present in 24 (85.7% of these patients. Conclusions: Routine double-J stent insertion after RIRS is not essential since it increases costs, morbidity and operation time.

  1. Combination treatment of transjugular retrograde obliteration and endoscopic embolization for portosystemic encephalopathy with esophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamori, Fumio; Kuniyoshi, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Susumu; Takase, Yasuhiro

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of chronic portosystemic encephalopathy with esophageal varices has not yet been established. We were able to control a case of chronic portosystemic encephalopathy with esophageal varices using a combination treatment of transjugular retrograde obliteration and endoscopic embolization. A 57-year-old man came to our hospital in a confused, apathetic and tremulous state. The grade of encephalopathy was II. The plasma ammonia level was abnormally elevated to 119 microg/dL, and the ICGR15 was 59%. Endoscopic examination revealed nodular esophageal varices with cherry-red spots. There were no gastric varices. Ultrasonography and CT revealed liver cirrhosis with a splenorenal shunt. We first applied endoscopic embolization for the esophageal varices before transjugular retrograde obliteration. We injected 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol retrogradely into the esophageal varices and their associated blood routes under fluoroscopy and obliterated the palisade vein, the cardiac venous plexus and left gastric vein. Transjugular retrograde obliteration was performed 14 days after endoscopic embolization. Retrograde shunt venography visualized the splenorenal shunt and communicating route to the retroperitoneal vein. There was no communicating route to the azygos vein. After obliteration of the communicating route to the retroperitoneal vein with absolute ethanol, 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol was injected into the splenorenal shunt as far as the root of the posterior gastric vein. After transjugular retrograde obliteration, the encephalopathy improved to grade 0 even without the administration of lactulose and branched-chain amino acid. The plasma ammonia level and ICGR15 were reduced to 62 microg/dL and 26%. We conclude that combination treatment of transjugular retrograde obliteration and endoscopic embolization is a rational, effective and safe treatment for chronic portosystemic encephalopathy complicated with esophageal varices. PMID:15362757

  2. Uptake of Retrograde Tracers by Intact Optic Nerve Axons: A New Way to Label Retinal Ganglion Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Ti-Fei; So, Kwok-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde labelling of retinal ganglion cells with optic nerve transection often leads to degeneration of ganglion cells in prolonged experiments. Here we report that an intact optic nerve could uptake retrograde tracers applied onto the surface of the nerve, leading to high efficiency labelling of ganglion cells in the retina with long-term survival of cells. This method labelled a similar number of ganglion cells (2289±174 at 2 days) as the retrograde labeling technique from the superior c...

  3. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    accretion only explores the late evolution stages of the binary in an otherwise unperturbed retrograde disc to illustrate how eccentricity evolves with time in relation to the shape of the underlying surface density distribution.

  4. Kinematical evolution of tidally limited star clusters: the role of retrograde stellar orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiongco, Maria A.; Vesperini, Enrico; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-06-01

    The presence of an external tidal field often induces significant dynamical evolutionary effects on the internal kinematics of star clusters. Previous studies investigating the restricted three-body problem with applications to star cluster dynamics have shown that unbound stars on retrograde orbits (with respect to the direction of the cluster's orbit) are more stable against escape than prograde orbits, and predicted that a star cluster might acquire retrograde rotation through preferential escape of stars on prograde orbits. In this study we present evidence of this prediction, but we also illustrate that there are additional effects that cannot be accounted for by the preferential escape of prograde orbits alone. Specifically, in the early evolution, initially underfilling models increase their fraction of retrograde stars without losing significant mass, and acquire a retrograde angular velocity. We attribute this effect to the development of preferentially eccentric/radial orbits in the outer regions of star clusters as they are expanding into their tidal limitation. We explore the implications of the evolution of the fraction of prograde and retrograde stars for the evolution of the cluster internal rotation, and its dependence on the initial structural properties. Although all the systems studied here evolve towards an approximately solid-body internal rotation with angular velocity equal to about half of the angular velocity of the cluster orbital motion around the host galaxy, the evolutionary history of the radial profile of the cluster internal angular velocity depends on the cluster initial structure.

  5. Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Erika; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of exercise intensity on retrograde blood flow and shear rate (SR) in an inactive limb during exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer to estimate peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) while breathing normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2 = 0.21]) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.12 or 0.13) gas mixtures. Subjects then performed four exercise bouts at the same relative intensities (30 and 60% V˙O2peak) for 30 min under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were simultaneously recorded, using Doppler ultrasonography. Retrograde SR was enhanced with increasing exercise intensity under both conditions at 10 min of exercise. Thereafter, retrograde blood flow and SR in normoxia returned to pre-exercise levels, with no significant differences between the two exercise intensities. In contrast, retrograde blood flow and SR in hypoxia remained significantly elevated above baseline and was significantly greater at 60% than at 30% V˙O2peak. We conclude that differences in exercise intensity affect brachial artery retrograde blood flow and SR during prolonged exercise under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26038470

  6. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  7. The effect of partial gelatinization of corn starch on its retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zong-qiang; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yu-guang; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of partial gelatinization of starch on its retrogradation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Avrami equation was used to predict the evolution of starch retrogradation kinetics. The degree of retrogradation in starch samples partially gelatinized 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and control (S25) increased with storage time. The retrogradation enthalpies of S68 and S70 were almost four times as high as that of S64. The S25 and S64 had dominant A-type crystalline pattern while S68 and S70 showed dominant B-type crystalline pattern. The growth of remainder crystals was faster in S25 and S64, while both the nucleation and growth rates of new crystals were faster in S68 and S70. The Avrami model was found to represent the retrogradation kinetics data of these partially gelatinized starch samples quite satisfactorily (R(2)>0.95). PMID:23911478

  8. Mitochondrial retrograde regulation tuning fork in nuclear genes expressions of higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghua Yang; Mingfang Zhang; Jingquan Yu

    2008-01-01

    In plant cells, there are three organelles: the nucleus, chloroplast, and mitochondria that store genetic information. The nucleus possesses the majority of genetic information and controls most aspects of organelles gene expression, growth, and development. In return,organdies also send signals back to regulate nuclear gene expression, a process defined as retrograde regulation. The best studies of organelles to nucleus retrograde regulation exist in plant chloroplast-to-nuclear regulation and yeast mitochondria-to-nuclear regulation. In this review, we summarize the recent understanding of mitochondrial retrograde regulation in higher plant, which involves multiple potential signaling pathway in relation to cytoplasmic male-sterility, biotic stress, and abiotie stress. With respect to mitochondrial retrograde regulation signal pathways involved in cytoplasmic male-sterility, we consider that nuclear transcriptional factor genes are the targeted genes regulated by mitoehondria to determine the abnormal reproductive development, and the MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in this regulation in Brassica juncea. When plants suffer biotic and abiotie stress, plant cells will initiate cell death or other events directed toward recovering from stress. During this process, we propose that mitochondria may determine how plant cell responds to a given stress through retrograde regulation. Meanwhile, several transducer molecules have also been discussed here. In particular, thePaepe research group reported that leaf mitochondrial modulated whole cell redox homeostasis, set antioxidant capacity, and determinedstress resistance through altered signaling and diurnal regulation, which is an indication of plant mitochondria with more active function than ever.

  9. GBT Reveals Satellite of Milky Way in Retrograde Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    New observations with National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) suggest that what was once believed to be an intergalactic cloud of unknown distance and significance, is actually a previously unrecognized satellite galaxy of the Milky Way orbiting backward around the Galactic center. Path of Complex H Artist's rendition of the path of satellite galaxy Complex H (in red) in relation to the orbit of the Sun (in yellow) about the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The outer layers of Complex H are being stripped away by its interaction with the Milky Way. The hydrogen atmosphere (in blue) is shown surrounding the visible portion (in white) of the Galaxy. CREDIT: Lockman, Smiley, Saxton; NRAO/AUI Jay Lockman of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia, discovered that this object, known as "Complex H," is crashing through the outermost parts of the Milky Way from an inclined, retrograde orbit. Lockman's findings will be published in the July 1 issue of the Astrophysical Journal, Letters. "Many astronomers assumed that Complex H was probably a distant neighbor of the Milky Way with some unusual velocity that defied explanation," said Lockman. "Since its motion appeared completely unrelated to Galactic rotation, astronomers simply lumped it in with other high velocity clouds that had strange and unpredictable trajectories." High velocity clouds are essentially what their name implies, fast-moving clouds of predominately neutral atomic hydrogen. They are often found at great distances from the disk of the Milky Way, and may be left over material from the formation of our Galaxy and other galaxies in our Local Group. Over time, these objects can become incorporated into larger galaxies, just as small asteroids left over from the formation of the solar system sometimes collide with the Earth. Earlier studies of Complex H were hindered because the cloud currently is passing almost exactly behind the outer disk of

  10. On the tidal radius of satellites on prograde and retrograde orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A tidal radius is a distance from a satellite orbiting in a host potential beyond which its material is stripped by the tidal force. We derive a revised expression for the tidal radius of a rotating satellite which properly takes into account the possibility of prograde and retrograde orbits of stars. Besides the eccentricity of the satellite orbit, the tidal radius depends also on the ratio of the satellite internal angular velocity to the orbital angular velocity. We compare our formula to the results of two $N$-body simulations of dwarf galaxies orbiting a Milky Way-like host on a prograde and retrograde orbit. The tidal radius for the retrograde case is larger than for the prograde. We introduce a kinematic radius separating stars still orbiting the dwarf galaxy from those already stripped and following the potential of the host galaxy. We find that the tidal radius matches very well the kinematic radius.

  11. Effect of high-speed jet on flow behavior, retrogradation, and molecular weight of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen; Luo, Shun-Jing; BeMiller, James N; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2015-11-20

    Effects of high-speed jet (HSJ) treatment on flow behavior, retrogradation, and degradation of the molecular structure of indica rice starch were investigated. Decreasing with the number of HSJ treatment passes were the turbidity of pastes (degree of retrogradation), the enthalpy of melting of retrograded rice starch, weight-average molecular weights and weight-average root-mean square radii of gyration of the starch polysaccharides, and the amylopectin peak areas of SEC profiles. The areas of lower-molecular-weight polymers increased. The chain-length distribution was not significantly changed. Pastes of all starch samples exhibited pseudoplastic, shear-thinning behavior. HSJ treatment increased the flow behavior index and decreased the consistency coefficient and viscosity. The data suggested that degradation of amylopectin was mainly involved and that breakdown preferentially occurred in chains between clusters. PMID:26344255

  12. Retrograde vascularisation of fibula free flap in composite oro-mandibular reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Nambi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of composite oromandibular reconstruction with fibula free flap in which the vascularity to the flap was established in a retrograde direction through the distal end of the peroneal pedicle vessels. The flap was initially designed in such a way so as to anastomose with superior thyroid artery. However after initial good flow, the superior thyroid artery flow became insufficient. Therefore, an attempt was made to vascularise the flap by anastomosing the distal end of peroneal vessels with the facial artery and a tributary of the internal jugular vein so that the flap was perfused in a retrograde direction. This was successful and the retrograde flow was adequate to ensure flap survival. We believe this to be the first successful case of reverse vascular flow reported for composite oromandibular reconstruction with the fibula free flap.

  13. Transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of an intraoperative retrograde acute aortic dissection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Charles G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an intraoperative retrograde dissection of the aorta and its subsequent evaluation by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Case presentation A 78 year old woman with an ascending aortic aneurysm without dissection and coronary artery disease was brought to the operating room for aneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass through a femoral artery cannula, aortic dissection was noted and subsequently imaged by TEE. Conclusion Retrograde aortic dissection through the femoral artery is life-threatening. Intraoperative TEE can be used to diagnose this uncommon event, and should be considered after initiation of bypass.

  14. A novel fluorescent retrograde neural tracer: cholera toxin B conjugated carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Hao, Zeyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Maharjan, Suraj; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai; Lu, Laijin

    2015-09-01

    The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde tracers.The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde

  15. Hypotonic duodenography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypotonic duodenography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography were performed in 45 non-icteric patients with suggested pancreatic disease or long-standing upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The accuracy of each method in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease was compared. Hypotonic duodenography revealed pancreatitis in 48 per cent and ERP in 83 per cent of the cases. All 6 pancreatic tumours were detected at ERP and 3 at duodenography. The role of hypotonic duodenography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease is discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Y.; Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Inoue, T. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Mitsudo, K.; Koizumi, T.; Oguri, S.; Kioi, M.; Tohnai, I. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, M. [Shonankamakura General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war die Ueberpruefung der Effizienz und Toxizitaet einer Strahlenbehandlung des Gingivakarzinoms mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Insgesamt 34 Patienten (21 Maenner und 13 Frauen) mit Zahnfleischplattenzellkarzinom erhielten eine Strahlenbehandlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Die Behandlung umfasste eine taegliche externe Bestrahlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Infusion von Cisplatin und

  17. Paradoxical air embolus during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: an uncommon fatal complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Nicholas W; Montzingo, Candice R

    2015-04-01

    Air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a rare but potentially fatal complication. A 66-year-old man underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and remained stable until the end of the procedure, when he was found to have mottling on his right side and became hypoxic and unresponsive. Transesophageal echocardiography showed air within the left ventricle, consistent with systemic air embolism. Mortality resulted from significant cardiac and cerebral ischemia. The literature suggests that capnography is helpful in early diagnosis of air embolus, but it could not be used in this case because the patient's trachea was not intubated. PMID:25827860

  18. Transmitter-related retrograde labeling in the pigeon optic lobe; a high resolution autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography in a restricted area of the pigeon subtectal nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis (Ipc) 30 min after onset of a tectal [3H]glycine injection shows labeling mainly of the following elements: neuronal perikarya, initial axon segments and dendrites. Rapid labeling of such intrinsic Ipc elements and not of synaptic terminals possibly of tectal origin strongly suggests a fast retrograde migration of radioactivity within Ipc-tectal neurons. Fixation experiments indicate a soluble nature of this radioactive meterial. This type of retrograde labeling in the glycinergic Ipc-tectal pathway seems to be related to the transmitter specificity of the system. (Auth.)

  19. A Hands-on Exploration of the Retrograde Motion of Mars as Seen from the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, M. M.; Otranto, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of activities based on the use of a celestial simulator to gain insights into the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from the Earth. These activities provide a useful link between the heliocentric concepts taught in schools and those tackled in typical introductory physics courses based on classical mechanics for…

  20. The Review of Retrograde Amnesia%逆行性遗忘研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓雪

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia has great important influence on internal memory of the human, especially in cognitive neuro-science. Through literature analysis, the temporal graded retrograde amnesia is the most extensive type. The characteristics of retro-grade amnesia is different and graded, and it is also featured with the full implicit memory. It mainly stems from the brain injury such as medial temporal lobe, diencephalon, and frontal lobe. In addition, drinking, lacking of vitamin B1 and trauma can also cause the symptoms. Now the main methods of memory rehabilitation are operation therapy, implicit memory rehabilitation and error-less learning. In the future, the memory rehabilitation about retrograde amnesia will more effectively promote the progress of the treatment.%遗忘症主要分为逆行性遗忘和顺行性遗忘。逆行性遗忘指病人失去提取脑损伤前事件记忆的能力,即能学习新东西和编码新事件,但是不能回忆发生在脑损伤前的经历和事件。它具有逆行期的梯度性、差异性,语义记忆、内隐记忆正常等特点;受伤脑区多与颞叶内侧、额叶、间脑损伤相关联。

  1. Is the 'Trondsen Discriminant Function' useful in patients referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Pless, T; Mortensen, M B; Wamberg, P A

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ideally, patients should only be referred to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) if therapy is indicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the 'Trondsen Discriminant Function' (DF) could be used for selecting patients directly for ERCP. METHODS: T...

  2. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways converge to antagonistically regulate a light-induced transcriptional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Guiomar; Leivar, Pablo; Ludevid, Dolores; Tepperman, James M.; Quail, Peter H.; Monte, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde- and photosensory-receptor signalling has remained unclear. Here, we show that the phytochrome and retrograde signalling (RS) pathways converge antagonistically to regulate the expression of the nuclear-encoded transcription factor GLK1, a key regulator of a light-induced transcriptional network central to photomorphogenesis. GLK1 gene transcription is directly repressed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF)-class bHLH transcription factors in darkness, but light-activated phytochrome reverses this activity, thereby inducing expression. Conversely, we show that retrograde signals repress this induction by a mechanism independent of PIF mediation. Collectively, our data indicate that light at moderate levels acts through the plant's nuclear-localized sensory-photoreceptor system to induce appropriate photomorphogenic development, but at excessive levels, sensed through the separate plastid-localized RS system, acts to suppress such development, thus providing a mechanism for protection against photo-oxidative damage by minimizing the tissue exposure to deleterious radiation. PMID:27150909

  3. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment. PMID:26948619

  4. LOCALLY SYNTHESIZED PHOSPHATIDYCHOLINE, BUT NOT PROTEIN, UNDERGOES RAPID RETROGRADE AXONAL TRANSPORT IN THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrograde axonal transport of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the sciatic nerve has been demonstrated only after injection of lipid precursors into the cell body regions (Armstrong et al. 1985). icroinjection of [methyl-3H]choline into the sciatic nerve results in extensive incorpor...

  5. The role of the dynein light intermediate chain in retrograde IFT and flagellar function in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Jaimee; Schauer, Alexandria M; VanderWaal Mills, Kristyn; Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Perrone, Catherine A; Porter, Mary E

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT. Flagellar assembly, motility, gliding, and mating are altered in a dose-dependent manner. iTRAQ-based proteomics identifies a small subset of proteins that are significantly reduced or elevated in d1blic flagella. Transformation with D1bLIC-GFP rescues the mutant phenotypes, and D1bLIC-GFP assembles into the dynein 1b complex at wild-type levels. D1bLIC-GFP is transported with anterograde IFT particles to the flagellar tip, dissociates into smaller particles, and begins processive retrograde IFT in <2 s. These studies demonstrate the role of D1bLIC in facilitating the recycling of IFT subunits and other proteins, identify new components potentially involved in the regulation of IFT, flagellar assembly, and flagellar signaling, and provide insight into the role of D1bLIC and retrograde IFT in other organisms. PMID:27251063

  6. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  7. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  8. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultras...

  9. Comparative evaluations of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography, angiography and scintiscanning in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) proved to be the appropriate diagnostic method in chronic pancreatitis which can be diagnosed angiographically in advanced stages only. In suspecting pancreatic carcinoma both ERCP and angiography should be performed. Scintiscanning takes the lowest place value in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

  10. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.)

  11. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and generates breast cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, M; Srinivasan, S; Ruthel, G; Kashina, AK; Carstens, RP; Mendoza, A; Khanna, C; Van Winkle, T; Avadhani, NG

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast tumors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which renders them resistant to therapies targeted to the primary cancers. The mechanistic link between mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) reduction, often seen in breast cancer patients, and EMT is unknown. We demonstrate that reducing mtDNA content in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) activates Calcineurin (Cn)-dependent mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway, which induces EMT-like reprogramming to fibroblastic morphology, loss of cell polarity, contact inhibition and acquired migratory and invasive phenotype. Notably, mtDNA reduction generates breast cancer stem cells. In addition to retrograde signaling markers, there is an induction of mesenchymal genes but loss of epithelial markers in these cells. The changes are reversed by either restoring the mtDNA content or knockdown of CnAα mRNA, indicating the causal role of retrograde signaling in EMT. Our results point to a new therapeutic strategy for metastatic breast cancers targeted to the mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway for abrogating EMT and attenuating cancer stem cells, which evade conventional therapies. We report a novel regulatory mechanism by which low mtDNA content generates EMT and cancer stem cells in hMECs. PMID:24186204

  12. Retrograd intrarenal stenkirurgi--en minimalinvasiv metode til behandling af nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Osther, Palle J S

    2009-01-01

    Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) is a safe and effective minimally invasive method for the treatment of minor (< 1.5 cm) kidney stones. This modality is the preferred treatment for minor ESWL-resistant kidney stones where resistance is due e.g. to anatomical abnormalities or stones of...

  13. Neuroanatomy of cardiac activity-regulating circuitry : A transneuronal retrograde viral labelling study in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TerHorst, GJ; Hautvast, RWM; DeJongste, MJL; Korf, J

    1996-01-01

    The anatomy of cardiac activity-regulating circuitry was studied with retrograde transneuronal viral labelling after pseudorabies virus injections into different parts of the rat heart. Transection of the spinal cord at Th1 was used to reveal selectively the parasympathetic neuronal networks. Virus-

  14. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Retrograde Motoneuronal Axonal Transport in an SBMA Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halievski, Katherine; Kemp, Michael Q.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Miller, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Defects in axonal transport are seen in motoneuronal diseases, but how that impairment comes about is not well understood. In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. The non-cell-autonomous mechanism is suggested by data from a unique “myogenic” transgenic (TG) mouse model in which an AR transgene expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle fibers triggers an androgen-dependent SBMA phenotype, including defects in retrograde transport. However, motoneurons in this TG model retain the endogenous AR gene, leaving open the possibility that impairments in transport in this model also depend on ARs in the motoneurons themselves. To test whether non-cell-autonomous mechanisms alone can perturb retrograde transport, we generated male TG mice in which the endogenous AR allele has the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) and, consequently, is nonfunctional. Males carrying the Tfm allele alone show no deficits in motor function or axonal transport, with or without testosterone treatment. However, when Tfm males carrying the myogenic transgene (Tfm/TG) are treated with testosterone, they develop impaired motor function and defects in retrograde transport, having fewer retrogradely labeled motoneurons and deficits in endosomal flux based on time-lapse video microscopy of living axons. These findings demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous disease mechanisms originating in muscle are sufficient to induce defects in retrograde transport in motoneurons. PMID:27517091

  15. Retrograde approach for the recanalization of coronary chronic total occlusion: collateral selection and collateral related complication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-ying; QIAN Ju-ying; GE Lei; FAN Bing; WANG Qi-bing; YAN Yan; ZHANG Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background The retrograde approach through collaterals has been applied in the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions during percutaneous recanalization of coronary arteries.This study was to investigate the success rate of recanalization and collateral related complications in patients when using the retrograde approach.Methods Eighty-four cases subjected to retrograde approach identified from July 2005 to July 2012 were included in this study.Patient characteristics,procedural outcomes and in-hospital clinical events were evaluated.Results Mean age of the patient was (59.6±11.2) years old and 91.7% were men.The target CTO lesions were distributed among the left anterior descending artery in 45 cases (53.5%),left circumflex artery in one case (1.2%),right coronary artery in 34 cases (40.5%),and left main in four cases (4.8%).The overall success rate of recanalization was 79.8%.The septal collateral was three times more frequently used for retrograde access than the epicardial collateral,68/84 (81%) vs.16/84 (19%).Successful wire passage through the collateral channel was achieved in 58 (72.6%)patients.The success rate of recanalization was 93.1% (54/58) in patients with and 50% (13/26) in patients without successful retrograde wire passage of the collateral channel (P <0.01).Successful retrograde wire passage through the collaterals was achieved in 49 of 68 septal collaterals (72.1%) and in 9 of 16 epicardial collaterals (56.3%) (P=NS).There was no significant difference between the septal collateral group and the epicardial group in the success rate of recanalization after retrograde wire crossing the collaterals (91.8% vs.100%,P >0.05).CART or reverse CART technique was used in 15 patients,and 14 patients (93.3%) were recanalized successfully.Collateral related perforation occurred in three (18.8%) cases with the epicardial collateral as the first choice (compared with the septal collateral group (0),P <0

  16. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks, the...... transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  17. Percutaneous reconstruction of the innominate bifurcation using the retrograde 'kissing stents' technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shun-ichi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Shuko [Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Chikushino, Fukuoka (Japan); Sugata, Sei [Bironoki Neurosurgical Hospital, Shibushi, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    Obstructions of the supraaortic vessels are an important cause of morbidity associated with a variety of symptoms. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has evolved as an effective and safe treatment modality for occlusive lesions of the supraaortic vessels. However, the endovascular management of an innominate bifurcation has not previously been reported. A 53-year-old female with a history of systematic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Angiography of the innominate artery showed a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation. The lesion was successfully treated using the retrograde kissing stent technique via a brachial approach and an exposed direct carotid approach. The retrograde kissing stent technique for the treatment of a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation was found to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery. (orig.)

  18. Percutaneous reconstruction of the innominate bifurcation using the retrograde 'kissing stents' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obstructions of the supraaortic vessels are an important cause of morbidity associated with a variety of symptoms. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has evolved as an effective and safe treatment modality for occlusive lesions of the supraaortic vessels. However, the endovascular management of an innominate bifurcation has not previously been reported. A 53-year-old female with a history of systematic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Angiography of the innominate artery showed a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation. The lesion was successfully treated using the retrograde kissing stent technique via a brachial approach and an exposed direct carotid approach. The retrograde kissing stent technique for the treatment of a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation was found to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery. (orig.)

  19. Salvage of a TRAM breast reconstruction flap using the retrograde internal mammary artery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free tissue transfer provides an optimal means for breast reconstruction in creating an aesthetically natural appearance that is durable over time. The choice of donor vessels vary from surgeon to surgeon, but the internal mammary axis is one of the most popular choices together with the thoracodorsal vessels. Aims and Results: We present the case of a salvaged free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous breast reconstruction in which end-to-end antegrade anastomosis to the internal mammary artery (IMA was not possible due to frail vessel walls, but retrograde anastomosis to the IMA and antegrade anastomosis of internal mammary vessel resulted in a perfused and viable flap. Conclusion: We suggest the use of the retrograde internal mammary arterial system for microsurgical anastomosis when the anterograde flow is not adequate, the vessel wall is friable, and when other more common options are not available.

  20. Treatment of femur supracondylar fracture with retrograde interlocking intramedullary nails in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiheng Liu; Haiying Zhang; Hongmin Zang; Junchang Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To report 32 cases of femur supracondylar fracture treated with retrograde interlocking inramedullary nails in elderly patients. Methods: According to the AO classification, all of 32 cases were classified as extra-articular type A. 32 cases were treated with interlocking intramedullary nail by closed insertion from intercondylar fossa of the knee. All cases accepted CPM exercise as early as possible after operation. Results: Following up 5 to 15 months, all fractures united within an average duration of 5.3 months (4-7 months). According to the Shelbourne scale, the excellent rate of the knee function was 86.3%. Conclusion: Retrograde interlocking intramedullary nail is useful alternative implant for the treatment of osteoporotic supracondylar fracture of femur, particularly of the type A fracture in the elderly population. Its merits include stable fixation,high rate of fracture union and few complications.

  1. [Retrograde root filling utilizing resin and a dentin bonding agent: indication and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, J; Rud, V; Munksgaard, E C

    1989-05-01

    With Gluma a methacrylate-based resin may be chemically bonded to dentin with considerable strength. Resin may therefore be used for retrograde root fillings. Whereas a retrograde amalgam filling demands a box-like preparation, retroplast (Gluma and resin) may be applied to a slightly concave root surface. It may therefore be employed in areas normally inaccessible with amalgam technique. Retroplast can thus be used on roots of all molars and to restore root perforations, root resorptions, cracks, grooves and defects of the root. In addition on lateral canals, on extremely thin roots and to cover perforating root canal posts, this technique can also be used. Dentin/root-cement transplantation may be performed for the purpose of reattachment. The article discusses the technique and its applications with examples showing that it may result in satisfactory healing. PMID:2696126

  2. Laparotomy enables retrograde dilatation and stent placement for malignant esophago-respiratory fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskender Özcan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant esophageal stenosis with complete obstruction and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF is difficult to treat with standard endoscopic techniques. Case presentation We report a patient in whom with local recurrence of esophageal carcinoma an esophagotracheal fistula occurred. Initially the patient had undergone esophageal resection with interposition of a gastric tube. Due to complete obstruction of the lumen by recurrent tumor conventional transoral stent placement failed. For retrograde dilatation a laparotomy was performed. Via a duodenal incision endoscopic access to the gastric tube was achieved. Using a guidewire the esophageal obstruction was traversed and dilated. Then it was possible to place an esophageal stent via an antegrade approach. Conclusion Open surgery enables a safe access for retrograde endoscopic therapy in patients who had undergone esophageal resection with gastric interposition.

  3. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. PMID:23993572

  4. RETROGRADE AXONAL TRANSPORT OF PHOSPHOINOSITIDES AFTER INTRANEURAL INJECTION OF [3H]MYO-INOSITOL INTO THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although autoradiography has demonstrated local incorporation of [3H]inositol into axonal phospholipids after intraneural injection (Gould, 1976; Gould et at., 1987b), retrograde axonal transport of phosphatidylinositol has only been demonstrated after injection of lipid precurso...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients suspected of pancreaticobiliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Rafaelsen, S R; Wamberg, P A; Pless, T; Durup, J; Mortensen, M B

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known whether initial endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is more cost effective than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of EUS, MRCP and ERCP was performed on 163...

  6. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia. PMID:26920167

  7. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Yingshou Xing; Yang Xia; Keith Kendrick; Xiuxiu Liu; Maosen Wang; Dan Wu; Hua Yang; Wei Jing; Daqing Guo; Dezhong Yao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive ef...

  8. Safety and Feasibility of Oral Rehydration Solution Prior to Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Takamitsu Sasaki; Daisuke Kato; Ryohei Sakamoto; Satoshi Shinya; Hironari Shiwaku; Kanefumi Yamashita; Ryo Nakashima; Yuichi Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of oral rehydration therapy before endoscopic screening with respect to vital signs and complications after the screening procedure was assessed in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods: A total of 107 patients scheduled for ERCP were assigned to either the intravenous drip injection (DIV) group during fasting (56 patients) or ORS group given oral rehydration solution (51 patients) prior to endoscopy. Vita...

  9. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Uehara; Ryouichi Ohya; Masaaki Kodama; Takeshi Shiraishi; Izumi Asahina; Kazuhiro Tominaga

    2015-01-01

    The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method). In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP) to ...

  10. Biliary and pancreatic stenting: Devices and insertion techniques in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Arena, Monica; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Consolo, Pierluigi; Opocher, Enrico; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Stents are tubular devices made of plastic or metal. Endoscopic stenting is the most common treatment for obstruction of the common bile duct or of the main pancreatic duct, but also employed for the treatment of bilio-pancreatic leakages, for preventing post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and to drain the gallbladder and pancreatic fluid collections. Recent progresses in techniques of stent insertion and metal stent design are represented by new, fully-covered l...

  11. Retrograde osteochondral grafting for osteochondral lesion of the talus: a new technique eliminating malleolar osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kilicoglu, Onder; Taser, Omer

    2004-01-01

    Osteochondral grafting is one of the most effective treatment options for osteochondral lesions of the talus. However, the necessity for a medial malleolar osteotomy is the major drawback of the technique. This report presents a case treated with retrograde osteochondral grafting that eliminated the need for a medial malleolar osteotomy. An osteochondral lesion of the medial talus was detected in a 49-year-old woman. Under arthroscopic guidance, the talus was entered from the sinus tarsi regi...

  12. The effects of retrograde reactions and of diffusion on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allaz, Julien; Engi, Martin; Berger, Alfons;

    2011-01-01

    Effects of metamorphic reactions occurring during decompression were explored to understand their influence on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas. Monometamorphic metasediments from the Lepontine Alps (Switzerland) were studied. Collected samples reached lower amphibolite facies during the Barrovian...... retrograde chlorite formation. We conclude that even very minor chloritisation of biotite is apparently a more effective parameter than temperature in resetting the Ar clock, as is the formation of plagioclase from paragonite decomposition. Multi-equilibrium thermobarometry is necessary to ensure that...

  13. Functional relationship between mTERF4 and GUN1 in retrograde signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Duorong; Liu, Zhixin; Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario

    2016-06-01

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling plays an important role in regulating the expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) in accordance with physiological demands on chloroplast biogenesis and function. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about the molecular nature of the plastid gene expression (PGE)-dependent type of retrograde signaling. PGE is a multifaceted process, and several factors, including pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, are involved in its regulation. The PPR protein GUN1 plays a central role in PGE-dependent retrograde signaling. In this study, we isolated a mutant exhibiting up-regulation of CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEIN (CAB) under normal growth conditions (named coe1 for CAB overexpression 1). The coe1 mutant has a single-base mutation in the gene for mitochondrial transcription termination factor 4 (mTERF4)/BSM/RUG2, which plays a role in regulating the processing of certain plastid transcripts. Defects in GUN1 or mTERF4 de-repressed the expression of specific plastid mRNAs in the presence of lincomycin (LIN). In wild-type plants, treatment with LIN or spectinomycin (SPE) inhibited processing of plastid transcripts. Comparative analysis revealed that in gun1 and coe1/mterf4, but not in wild-type, gun4, or gun5 plants, the processing of plastid transcripts and expression levels of Lhcb1 mRNA were affected in opposite ways when plants were grown in the presence of LIN or SPE. In addition, the coe1 mutation affected the intracellular accumulation and distribution of GUN1, as well as its plastid signaling activity. Taken together, these results suggest that GUN1 and COE1 cooperate in PGE and retrograde signaling. PMID:26685190

  14. Effect of exercise on retrograde transport in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Darryl Campbell

    2007-01-01

    The potential for exercise to improve function and delay disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been examined in some detail. Recent studies have shown that retrograde transport is diminished throughout disease progression in this mouse model. The finding that exercise plus viral delivery of IGF-1 significantly improves lifespan of the G93A transgenic mouse highlights the need to investigate the mechanisms by which exercise may alter factors associated...

  15. Penile fracture and its treatment:Is retrograde urethrograghy necessary for management of penile fracture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ahmadnia; Mehdi Younesi Rostami; Ali Kamalati; Mohammad Mehdi Imani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Penile fracture, being defined as rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum, is uncommon. Here, we analyze findings on our patients during a 10-year period and evaluate the role of retrograde urethrography. Methods: From February 2002 to April 2012, 116 patients were admitted with penile fracture at Ghaem Medical Center. Patient history and physical examination were taken at their admittance to detect probable urethral injury. Before surgery, retrograde urethrography was performed in all patients. The size and site of the tunical rupture were recorded. Then the rupture of tunica albuginea was sutured with nonabsorbable (3-0 nylon) sutures and the ties were placed on the internal surface (continuous method). All patients were followed up for 12 months. Results: Patients' mean age was (32.78±10.61) years and ranged (16-62) years. The mechanism of trauma was sexual intercourse in 103 patients (89%) and masturbation in 13 patients (11%). The most common site of injury found after exploration was right (55%) and lateral (74%) of the corpus cavernosum. The size of the tunical rupture was from 0.5 to 3.0 cm (mean 1.88±0.72). Three of the patients had Marphan's syndrome. Urethral injury was detected by retrograde urethrography in 4 patients (3%) who had macroscopic hematuria and urethrorrhagia. During 12 months follow-up, no complication was seen. Conclusion: There is no need to perform retrograde urethrography unless the patients have gross hematuria or urethrorrhagia. The key to success in treatment of penile fracture is to achieve a rapid diagnosis based on history and a physical examination, avoid unnecessary imaging tests and perform immediate surgery to reconstruct the site of injury.

  16. Retrograde Colonic Stent Implantation Assisted by Percutaneous Colostomy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Han, Hyun Young; Chun, Tong Jin [Eulji Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We present a patient with disseminated pancreatic cancer who presented with symptoms of acute obstruction of the sigmoid colon. It was not possible to pass the region of the obstruction with a guide wire under colonoscopy and fluoroscopy. Consequently retrograde implantation of stents was performed successfully with the assistance of a minimally-sized colostomy when compared with a previously described procedure in the literature.

  17. Engineering Predictions in Industrial and Power Flows Using the Retrograde Condensation Curve. Part I-Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Labinov, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial and power systems rely on engineering predictions of the flow properties of working fluids. The paper proposes a way of the utilization of the vapor quality values along the new retrograde condensation curve in the generation of the void fraction design guidelines and reliable prediction of the saturated liquid specific volumes/densities. The new procedure eliminates the involvement of semi-empirical relationships like rectilinear diameter and other similar models.

  18. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Hung, Mien-Chie, E-mail: mhung@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Center for Molecular Medicine and Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Assembly of {gamma}-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH{sub 2}-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with {gamma}-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  19. Use of the Conventional Side-viewing Duodenoscope for Successful Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Postgastrectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wen-Guang; Mei, Jia-Wei; Zhao, Ming-Ning; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Gu, Jun; Tao, Yi-Jing; Liu, Ying-Bin; Xue-feng WANG

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the conventional side-viewing duodenoscope for successful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in postgastrectomy patients. Methods: A total of 220 consecutive patients with bile duct stones or a distal common bile duct stricture who had previously undergone gastrectomy and were referred for ERCP were analyzed for the outcome of their ERCP. All ERCP procedures were performed using a conventional side-viewing ...

  20. Diaanostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in biliary rhabdomyosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan W Himes; Isaac Raijman; Hilton J Finegold; Heidi V Russell; Douglas S Fishman

    2008-01-01

    Biliary rhabdomyosarcoma (BRHS) is an uncommon childhood malignancy which has been managed surgically.We present a case of a 3-year-old boy with BRHS,in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was successfully used both diagnostically and therapeutically,thus obviating the need for surgery and its attendant risks of morbidity and mortality.We conclude that ERCP is an effective alternative to surgery for BRHS in some patients.

  1. Urethro-venous intravasation during retrograde urethrography (report of 5 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Five instances of urethro-venous intravasation during retrograde urethrography are reported. Four cases were of urethral strictures and one case was of urethral hemangioma. All patients had post procedural bleeding while one patient got allergic reactions, another showed chills and rigors. Anatomy of the drainage veins is described. Factors responsible for this complication and its clinical implications are discussed. It is suggested that urethro-venous intravasation should be considered a diagnostic sign of urethral inflammation.

  2. Nafamostat for Prophylaxis against Post-Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis Compared with Gabexate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Hyung Keun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Chung, In-Sik

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims The protease inhibitors, nafamostat and gabexate, have been used to prevent pancreatitis related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In vitro, nafamostat inhibits the pancreatic protease activities 10-100 times more potently than gabexate. We evaluated the efficacy of nafamostat for prophylaxis against post-ERCP pancreatitis in comparison with gabexate. Methods Five hundred patients (208 patients in the nafamostat-treated group and 292 in the gabexate-tre...

  3. Quantification of Retrograde Axonal Transport in the Rat Optic Nerve by Fluorogold Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    van Oterendorp, Christian; Sgouris, Stavros; Bach, Michael; Martin, Gottfried; Biermann, Julia; Jordan, Jens F.; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Disturbed axonal transport is an important pathogenic factor in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, an eye disease characterised by progressive atrophy of the optic nerve. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the optic nerve usually requires labour intensive histochemical techniques or expensive equipment for in vivo imaging. Here, we report on a robust alternative method using Fluorogold (FG) as tracer, which is spectrometrically quantified in retinal tissu...

  4. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with a short double-balloon enteroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Shimatani, Masaaki; Takaoka, Makoto; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kurishima, Akiko; Sumimoto, Kimi; Miyamoto, Sachi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) using a double-balloon enteroscope (DBE) in patients with bowel reconstruction due to a previous abdominal surgery is now widely accepted. In particular, a short DBE, which has a 2.8-mm working channel and 152-cm working length, is useful for ERCP because of its good rotational and straightening ability and the availability of various conventional ERCP accessories through the working channel. Herein we report a case of intrahepatic cholang...

  5. Migration of massive black hole binaries in self--gravitating accretion discs: Retrograde versus prograde

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze

    2013-01-01

    We study the interplay between mass transfer, accretion and gravitational torques onto a black hole binary migrating in a self-gravitating, retrograde circumbinary disc. A direct comparison with an identical prograde disc shows that: (i) because of the absence of resonances, the cavity size is a factor a(1+e) smaller for retrograde discs; (ii) nonetheless the shrinkage of a circular binary semi--major axis, a, is identical in both cases; (iii) a circular binary in a retrograde disc remains circular while eccentric binaries grow more eccentric. For non-circular binaries, we measure the orbital decay rates and the eccentricity growth rates to be exponential as long as the binary orbits in the plane of its disc. Additionally, for these co-planar systems, we find that interaction (~ non--zero torque) stems only from the cavity edge plus a(1+e) in the disc, i.e. for dynamical purposes, the disc can be treated as a annulus of small radial extent. We find that simple 'dust' models in which the binary- disc interacti...

  6. WD60/FAP163 is a dynein intermediate chain required for retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-King, Ramila S; Gilberti, Renée M; Hom, Erik F Y; King, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    Retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for assembly of cilia. We identify a Chlamydomonas flagellar protein (flagellar-associated protein 163 [FAP163]) as being closely related to the D1bIC(FAP133) intermediate chain (IC) of the dynein that powers this movement. Biochemical analysis revealed that FAP163 is present in the flagellar matrix and is actively trafficked by IFT. Furthermore, FAP163 copurified with D1bIC(FAP133) and the LC8 dynein light chain, indicating that it is an integral component of the retrograde IFT dynein. To assess the functional role of FAP163, we generated an RNA interference knockdown of the orthologous protein (WD60) in planaria. The Smed-wd60(RNAi) animals had a severe ciliary assembly defect that dramatically compromised whole-organism motility. Most cilia were present as short stubs that had accumulated large quantities of IFT particle-like material between the doublet microtubules and the membrane. The few remaining approximately full-length cilia had a chaotic beat with a frequency reduced from 24 to ∼10 Hz. Thus WD60/FAP163 is a dynein IC that is absolutely required for retrograde IFT and ciliary assembly. PMID:23864713

  7. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method

  8. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method.

  9. On the Tidal Radius of Satellites on Prograde and Retrograde Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Łokas, Ewa L.

    2016-03-01

    A tidal radius is the distance from a satellite orbiting in a host potential beyond which its material is stripped by the tidal force. We derive a revised expression for the tidal radius of a rotating satellite that properly takes into account the possibility of prograde and retrograde orbits of stars. Besides the eccentricity of the satellite orbit, the tidal radius also depends on the ratio of the satellite internal angular velocity to the orbital angular velocity. We compare our formula to the results of two N-body simulations of dwarf galaxies orbiting a Milky-Way-like host on a prograde and retrograde orbit. The tidal radius for the retrograde case is larger than for the prograde. We introduce a kinematic radius that separates stars still orbiting the dwarf galaxy from those already stripped and following the potential of the host galaxy. We find that the tidal radius matches the kinematic radius very well. Our results provide a connection between the formalism of the tidal radius derivation and the theory of resonant stripping.

  10. Gynecologic-tract sparing extra peritoneal retrograde radical cystectomy with neobladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdeesh N. Kulkarni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We report on a series of female patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent extraperitoneal retrograde radical cystectomy sparing the female reproductive organs with neobladder creation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 female patients between the ages of 45 and 72 years who underwent gynecologic-tract sparing cystectomy (GTSC with neobladder between 1997 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Our surgical technique is also described. Radical cystectomy is accomplished by a retrograde method sparing the uterus, adnexa, vagina and distal urethra. An orthotopic neobladder was constructed using small bowel or sigmoid colon, brought extraperitoneally, and anastomosed to the distal urethra. RESULTS: Operating time ranged from 4.5 to six hours with a mean of 5.3 hours. Ten patients were able to void satisfactorily while four required self-catheterization for complete emptying of the bladder. Seven patients were continent day and night and another 7 reported varying degrees of daytime and nighttime incontinence. One patient died of metastases and another of pelvic recurrence. There were no urethral recurrences. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was high. CONCLUSIONS: Gynecologic-tract sparing cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder is a viable alternative in female patients with muscle invasive traditional cell carcinoma of the bladder, providing oncological safety with improved quality of life. Our extraperitoneal technique, which is an extension of our successful experience with retrograde extraperitoneal radical cystectomy in men, minimizes intraoperative complications and simplifies the management of post-operative morbidity with the neobladder.

  11. Retrograde resonances in compact multi-planetary systems: a feasible stabilizing mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Gayon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Multi-planet systems detected until now are in most cases characterized by hot-Jupiters close to their central star as well as high eccentricities. As a consequence, from a dynamical point of view, compact multi-planetary systems form a variety of the general N-body problem (with N >= 3), whose solutions are not necessarily known. Extrasolar planets are up to now found in prograde (i.e. direct) orbital motions about their host star and often in mean-motion resonances (MMR). In the present paper, we investigate a theoretical alternative suitable for the stability of compact multi-planetary systems. When the outer planet moves on a retrograde orbit in MMR with respect to the inner planet, we find that the so-called retrograde resonances present fine and characteristic structures particularly relevant for dynamical stability. We show that retrograde resonances and their resources open a family of stabilizing mechanisms involving specific behaviors of apsidal precessions. We also point up that for particular orbi...

  12. Risk of septic knee following retrograde intramedullary nailing of open and closed femur fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorson Jason J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One potential complication of retrograde femoral nailing in the treatment of femur fractures is the risk of septic knee. This risk theoretically increases in open fractures as a contaminated fracture site has the potential to seed the instrumentation being passed in and out of the sterile intraarticular starting point. There are few studies examining this potential complication in a relatively commonly practiced technique. Methods All patients who received a retrograde femoral nail for femur fracture between September 1996 and November 2006 at a Level 1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. This yielded 143 closed fractures, 38 open fractures and 4 closed fractures with an ipsilateral traumatic knee arthrotomy. Patient follow-up records were reviewed for documentation of septic knee via operative notes, wound culture or knee aspirate data, or the administration of antibiotics for suspected septic knee. Results No evidence of septic knee was found in the 185 fractures examined in the dataset. Utilizing the Wilson confidence interval, the rate of septic knee based on our population was no greater than 2%, with that of the open fracture group alone being 9%. Conclusions Based on these results and review of the literature, the risk of septic knee in retrograde femoral nailing of both open and closed femoral shaft fractures appears low but potentially not insignificant. Funding There was no outside source of funding from either industry or other organization for this study.

  13. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimaa, Pekka; Ojala, Risto; Markkanen, Paula; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Korhonen, Jussi [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI guidance for percutaneous retrograde drilling in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (OCDT). Four patients, one juvenile and three adults, with one OCDT lesion each and persisting ankle pain after conservative treatment, were treated with MRI-guided retrograde drilling. All lesions were stable and located in the middle or posterior medial third of the talar dome. Pain relief and the ability to return to normal activities were assessed during clinical follow-up. MRI and plain film radiographs were used for imaging follow-up. Technical success was 100 % with no complications and with no damage to the overlying cartilage. All patients experienced some clinical benefit, although only one had complete resolution of pain and one had a relapse leading to surgical treatment. Changes in the pathological imaging findings were mostly very slight during the follow-up period. MRI guidance seems accurate, safe and technically feasible for retrograde drilling of OCDT. Larger series are needed to reliably assess its clinical value. (orig.)

  14. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  15. Chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion for advanced oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion demonstrates good local control and overall survival rates due to the advantage of simultaneous infusion of anticancer agent with the synergistic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study evaluated the therapeutic results, overall survival and local control rates in patients with advanced oral cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion. A total of 688 patients with carcinoma of the head and neck were referred to our institution between January 2001 and December 2006. Among them, 175 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion. Treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial infusions (docetaxel, total 60 mg/m2, cisplatin, total 125-150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (total 50-60 Gy) for 5-6 weeks. Four weeks after the completion of all treatments, patients underwent biopsy of the primary lesion and radiological examinations. Complete response (CR) of the primary site was achieved in 160 (91.4%) of the 175 patients. Residual disease at the primary site was seen in 15 patients (8.6%), and 14 patients (8.0%) showed local recurrence during follow-up. Five-year survival and local control rates were 71.6% and 82.2%, respectively. (author)

  16. A modified technique of retrograde intubation dacryocystorhinostomy for proximal canalicular obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Trakos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Trakos, Emmanouil Mavrikakis, Kostas G Boboridis, Marselos Ralidis, George Dimitriadis, Ioannis MavrikakisOculoplastic Service, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, GreecePurpose: To describe a modification of the retrograde intubation dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR in patients with proximal canalicular obstruction.Materials and methods: Interventional case report of a 43-year-old female with a nine-month history of left epiphora following a road traffic accident involving the proximal lower canaliculus. An external DCR approach was performed. Following the creation of a lower canalicular pseudopunctum, the O’Donoghue silicone stent was introduced through the common ostium, out through the pseudopunctum of the lower canaliculus, and returned through the punctum of the normal upper canaliculus down through the common ostium into the nose.Results: The patient experienced complete resolution of symptoms and on her last follow-up, two years later, her lower canaliculus was patent to syringing.Conclusion: This modification of the retrograde intubation DCR is an effective technique which decreases the intraoperative time needed to insert the tubes and minimises further trauma to the newly created punctal area.Keywords: retrograde dacryocystorhinostomy, proximal canalicular obstruction, midcanalicular obstruction, conjuctivodacryocystorhinostomy

  17. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retrograde cell reaction after facial nerve crush in young adults rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gispen, W.H.; Ulenkate, H.J.L.M.; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    1996-01-01

    Locally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a powerful effect on retrograde axonal reaction following facial nerve crush in neonatal rats. We examined whether it also exerts a strong effect on retrograde axonal reaction in young adult rats when administered subcutaneously. The dose was 1 mg/kg body weight, three times a week, similar to that used in a previous experiment in which CNTF was reported to have an effect. We studied changes in the morphology of the motor nerve cell bodie...

  18. Endosome-mediated retrograde axonal transport of P2X3 receptor signals in primary sensory neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Qiao Chen; BinWang; Chengbiao Wu; Jin Pan; Bo Yuan; Yuan-Yuan Su; Xing-Yu Jiang; Xu Zhang; Lan Bao

    2012-01-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors adopt signaling endosomes to transmit retrograde signals.However,the mechanisms of retrograde signaling for other ligand/receptor systems are poorly understood.Here,we report that the signals of the purinergic (P)2X3 receptor,an ATP-gated ion channel are retrogradely transported in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron axons.We found that Rab5,a small GTPase,controls the early sorting of P2X3 receptors into endosomes,while Rab7 mediates the fast retrograde transport of P2X3 receptors.Intraplantar injection and axonal application into the microfluidic chamber of α,β-methylene-ATP (α,β-MeATP),a P2X selective agonist,enhanced the endocytosis and retrograde transport of P2X3 receptors.The α,β-MeATP-induced Ca2+ influx activated a pathway comprised of protein kinase C,rat sarcoma viral oncogene and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK),which associated with endocytic P2X3 receptors to form signaling endosomes.Disruption of the lipid rafts abolished the α,β-MeATP-induced ERK phosphorylation,endocytosis and retrograde transport of P2X3 receptors.Furthermore,treatment of peripheral axons with α,β-MeATP increased the activation level of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein in the cell bodies of DRG neurons and enhanced neuronal excitability.Impairment of either microtubule-based axonal transport in vivo or dynein function in vitro blocked α,β-MeATP-induced retrograde signals.These results indicate that P2X3 receptor-activated signals are transmitted via retrogradely transported endosomes in primary sensory neurons and provide a novel signaling mechanism for ligand-gated channels.

  19. Retrograde flow in the dural sinuses detected by three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Nomiyama, Keita; Takase, Yukinori; Nakazono, Takahiko; Tominaga, Yukiko; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Kudo, Sho [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Retrograde flow in the left dural sinuses is sometimes detected by three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D-TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of this phenomenon and its characteristic features on 3D-TOF MR angiograms. We retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiography images of 1,078 patients examined at our institution. All images were obtained by the 3D-TOF technique with one of two 1.5-T scanners. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images in the horizontal rotation view were displayed stereoscopically. We reviewed the source images, inferosuperior MIP images, and horizontal MIP images and identified retrograde flow in the dural sinuses. We found retrograde flow in the dural sinuses of 67 patients on the source images from 3D-TOF MR angiography; the incidence was 6.2%. In 47 of the 67 patients, retrograde flow was identified in the left inferior petrosal sinus, in 13, it was seen in the left sigmoid sinus, and in 6, it was seen in the left inferior petrosal and left sigmoid sinuses. The remaining patient had retrograde flow in the left inferior petrosal and left and right sigmoid sinuses. The mean age of the patients with retrograde flow was slightly greater than that of the patients without this phenomenon (70 years vs 63 years). Retrograde flow in the dural sinuses frequently occurs on the left side in middle-aged and elderly patients during 3D-TOF MR angiography performed with the patient in the supine position. This phenomenon should not be misdiagnosed as a dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  20. A retrograde apoptotic signal originating in NGF-deprived distal axons of rat sympathetic neurons in compartmented cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue-Ann Mok; Karen Lund; Robert B Campenot

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations of retrograde survival signaling by nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophins have supported diverse mechanisms, but all proposed mechanisms have in common the generation of survival sig-nals retrogradely transmitted to the neuronal cell bodies. We report the finding of a retrograde apoptotic signal in axons that is suppressed by local NGF signaling. NGF withdrawal from distal axons alone was sufficient to activate the pro-apoptotic transcription factor, c-jnn, in the cell bodies. Providing NGF directly to cell bodies, thereby restor-ing a source of NGF-induced survival signals, could not prevent c-jun activation caused by NGF withdrawal from the distal axons. This is evidence that c-jun is not activated due to loss of survival signals at the cell bodies. Moreover, blocking axonal transport with colchicine inhibited c-jun activation caused by NGF deprivation suggesting that a retrogradely transported pro-apoptotic signal, rather than loss of a retrogradely transported survival signal, caused c-jun activation. Additional experiments showed that activation of c-jun, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis were blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitors, rottlerin and chelerythrine, only when applied to distal axons suggesting that they block the axon-specific pro-apoptotic signal. The rottlerin-sensitive mechanism was found to regulate glyco-gen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity. The effect of siRNA knockdown, and pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 sug-gests that GSK3 is required for apoptosis caused by NGF deprivation and may function as a retrograde carrier of the axon apoptotic signal. The existence of a retrograde death signaling system in axons that is suppressed by neurotro-phins has broad implications for neurodevelopment and for discovering treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma.

  1. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Colkesen, Yucel

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalizatio...

  2. Retrograde optogenetic characterization of the pontospinal module of the locus coeruleus with a canine adenoviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hickey, Louise; Perrins, Ray; Werlen, Emilie; Patel, Amisha A; Hirschberg, Stefan; Jones, Matt W; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J; Pickering, Anthony E

    2016-06-15

    Noradrenergic neurons of the brainstem extend projections throughout the neuraxis to modulate a wide range of processes including attention, arousal, autonomic control and sensory processing. A spinal projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to regulate nociceptive processing. To characterize and selectively manipulate the pontospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats, we implemented a retrograde targeting strategy using a canine adenoviral vector to express channelrhodopsin2 (CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry). LC microinjection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry produced selective, stable, transduction of noradrenergic neurons allowing reliable opto-activation in vitro. The ChR2-transduced LC neurons were opto-identifiable in vivo and functional control was demonstrated for >6 months by evoked sleep-wake transitions. Spinal injection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry retrogradely transduced pontine noradrenergic neurons, predominantly in the LC but also in A5 and A7. A pontospinal LC (ps:LC) module was identifiable, with somata located more ventrally within the nucleus and with a discrete subset of projection targets. These ps:LC neurons had distinct electrophysiological properties with shorter action potentials and smaller afterhyperpolarizations compared to neurons located in the core of the LC. In vivo recordings of ps:LC neurons showed a lower spontaneous firing frequency than those in the core and they were all excited by noxious stimuli. Using this CAV2-based approach we have demonstrated the ability to retrogradely target, characterise and optogenetically manipulate a central noradrenergic circuit and show that the ps:LC module forms a discrete unit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26903420

  3. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojala, Risto; Kerimaa, Pekka; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco-Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Lakovaara, Martti [Oulu Deaconess Institute, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka; Lehenkari, Petri [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method for osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) treatment. Ten OCD lesions of the knee unresponsive to conservative management were treated with MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling to reduce symptoms and promote ossification of the lesion. All lesions were located in distal femoral condyles. Only stable OCD lesions were included (preprocedural MRI grade I or II). Five lesions were of juvenile type and five lesions were of adult type OCD. All the patients had severe limitation of activity due to the OCD-related pain. By using a 0.23 T open MRI scanner and spinal anesthesia, percutaneous retrograde drilling of the OCD lesions was performed (3 mm cylindrical drill, one to three channels). Optical tracking and MRI imaging were used to guide instruments during the procedure. Mean postprocedural clinical follow-up time was 3 years. Eight patients had a post-procedural follow-up MRI within 1 year. All the OCD lesions were located and drilled using the 0.23 T open MRI scanner without procedural complications. All the patients had pain relief, mean visual analog score (VAS) declined from 6 to 2. Follow-up MRI showed ossification in all lesions. Eight patients could return to normal physical activity with no or minor effect on function (Hughston score 3-4). Treatment failed in two cases where the continuation of symptoms led to arthroscopy and transchondral fixation. MR-guided retrograde OCD lesion drilling is an accurate, feasible, and effective cartilage-sparing techique in OCD management. (orig.)

  4. Impairment of retrograde neuronal transport in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy demonstrated by molecular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to utilize a molecular imaging technology based on the retrograde axonal transport mechanism (neurography, to determine if oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity affects retrograde axonal transport in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice (n = 8/group were injected with a cumulative dose of 30 mg/kg oxaliplatin (sufficient to induce neurotoxicity or dextrose control injections. Intramuscular injections of Tetanus Toxin C-fragment (TTc labeled with Alexa 790 fluorescent dye were done (15 ug/20 uL in the left calf muscles, and in vivo fluorescent imaging performed (0-60 min at baseline, and then weekly for 5 weeks, followed by 2-weekly imaging out to 9 weeks. Tissues were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: With sham treatment, TTc transport causes fluorescent signal intensity over the thoracic spine to increase from 0 to 60 minutes after injection. On average, fluorescence signal increased 722%+/-117% (Mean+/-SD from 0 to 60 minutes. Oxaliplatin treated animals had comparable transport at baseline (787%+/-140%, but transport rapidly decreased through the course of the study, falling to 363%+/-88%, 269%+/-96%, 191%+/-58%, 121%+/-39%, 75%+/-21% with each successive week and stabilizing around 57% (+/-15% at 7 weeks. Statistically significant divergence occurred at approximately 3 weeks (p≤0.05, linear mixed-effects regression model. Quantitative immuno-fluorescence histology with a constant cutoff threshold showed reduced TTc in the spinal cord at 7 weeks for treated animals versus controls (5.2 Arbitrary Units +/-0.52 vs 7.1 AU +/-1.38, p0.56, T-test. CONCLUSION: We show-for the first time to our knowledge-that neurographic in vivo molecular imaging can demonstrate imaging changes in a model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Impaired retrograde neural transport is suggested to be an important part of the pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  5. RETROGRADE INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL: AN OPTIMAL TOOL FOR THE TREATMENT OF SUPRACONDYLAR FEMORAL FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamareddy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: This prospective consecutive case series was done to evaluate indications, technical pearls and pitfalls and functional outcomes of distal femoral supracondylar fractures treated with retrograde intramedullary nailing. METHODS: The surgical outcome of 80 patients (59 males and 21 females who were treated with retrograde intramedullary nailing for. Patients were followed-up both clinically and radiologically every 6 weeks for a mean duration of 20 (12 – 24 months. The patients were assessed based on Schatzker and Lambert criteria. RESULTS: The mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident in 48 (60% patients and fall in 32 (40% patients. Sixty four (80% fractures were closed and 16 (20% fractures were compound. Average operation time was 2 hours and average blood loss was 300 ml. The mean union time was 5.6 months (5 – 7 months. Knee flexion of more than 120 degree was achieved in 60 patients, 110 degree in 16 patients and 100 degree in 2 patients. Six patients had anterior knee pain of transient nature which subsided within one year after rehabilitation, full weight bearing and self exercises. By the end of 1 year, overall outcome was excellent in 59 patients (74%, good in 12 patients (15% and fair in 8 (10% patients. CONCLUSION: Retrograde intramedullary femoral nailing is an optimal tool in the treatment of AO/ASIF type A and type C distal femur (supracondylar fractures. It provides rigid fixation in a region of femur where, wide canal, thin cortices and frequently poor bone stock make fracture fixation difficult. It also provides excellent results in selected comminuted fractures of the distal femur with a low complication rate.

  6. Diagnostic and treatment of retrograde ejaculation as a manifestation of urogenital form of autonomic diabetic polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Gennadyevich Kurbatov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retrograde ejaculation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is a complication of autonomic neuropathy that causes excretory infertility. It can be partial (reduction of ejaculate or total (absence of ejaculate and occurs in 10%–20% of men with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a new endoscopic method for retrograde ejaculation correction and antegrade ejaculation restoration.Materials and methods. We included 30 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had spermatozoa present in their post-orgasmic urine and ultrasonographic evidence of impaired or absent bladder neck closure. The mean age of participants was 32 (30–35 years, mean duration of diabetes was 17 (12–22 years and mean preoperative glycated haemoglobin level was 7.4% (6.9%–8.0%. All participants had total retrograde ejaculation. We used conventional irrigated urethrocystoscopy under local anaesthesia. During urethroscopy, bladder neck gaping was observed in all cases. Biocompatible material was injected at three points under the mucous layer of the posterior urethra, reaching the closing of the opposite edges of the urethra. A spermiogram was examined 1 week after the operation.Results. Restoration of antegrade ejaculation was achieved for 22 patients (73%, and the effects persisted for a mean of 7 (2–12 months. The spouses of four men became pregnant after surgery. In one case, the pregnancy resulted in a spontaneous abortion at gestational week 8, but the other three cases continued normally.Conclusion.This new method provides a highly effective means of restoring the physiological passage of the ejaculate. The operation is a low-invasive endoscopic procedure that does not disrupt urination, and it is possible to receive ejaculate of sufficient.

  7. Annexin A1 and A2: roles in retrograde trafficking of Shiga toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Tcatchoff

    Full Text Available Annexins constitute a family of calcium and membrane binding proteins. As annexin A1 and A2 have previously been linked to various membrane trafficking events, we initiated this study to investigate the role of these annexins in the uptake and intracellular transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx and the plant toxin ricin. Once endocytosed, both toxins are retrogradely transported from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum before being targeted to the cytosol where they inhibit protein synthesis. This study was performed to obtain new information both about toxin transport and the function of annexin A1 and annexin A2. Our data show that depletion of annexin A1 or A2 alters the retrograde transport of Stx but not ricin, without affecting toxin binding or internalization. Knockdown of annexin A1 increases Golgi transport of Stx, whereas knockdown of annexin A2 slightly decreases the same transport step. Interestingly, annexin A1 was found in proximity to cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2, and the basal as well as the increased Golgi transport of Stx upon annexin A1 knockdown is dependent on cPLA(2 activity. In conclusion, annexin A1 and A2 have different roles in Stx transport to the trans-Golgi network. The most prominent role is played by annexin A1 which normally works as a negative regulator of retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi network, most likely by complex formation and inhibition of cPLA(2.

  8. Comparison of commonly used retrograde tracers in rat spinal motor neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-lai Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four fluorescent dyes, True Blue (TB, Fluoro-Gold (FG, Fluoro-Ruby (FR, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, in retrograde tracing of rat spinal motor neurons. We transected the muscle branch of the rat femoral nerve and applied each tracer to the proximal stump in single labeling experiments, or combinations of tracers (FG-DiI and TB-DiI in double labeling experiments. In the single labeling experiments, significantly fewer labeled motor neurons were observed after FR labeling than after TB, FG, or DiI, 3 days after tracer application. By 1 week, there were no significant differences in the number of labeled neurons between the four groups. In the double-labeling experiment, the number of double-labeled neurons in the FG-DiI group was not significantly different from that in the TB-DiI group 1 week after tracer application. Our findings indicate that TB, FG, and DiI have similar labeling efficacies in the retrograde labeling of spinal motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve when used alone. Furthermore, combinations of DiI and TB or FG are similarly effective. Therefore, of the dyes studied, TB, FG and DiI, and combinations of DiI with TB or FG, are the most suitable for retrograde labeling studies of motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve.

  9. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON TREATMENT OF LUMBAR VERTEBRAL RETROGRADE AFFECTION WITH ACUPUNCTURE, TDP-IRRADIATION AND CUPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, 70 cases of retrograde affection of the lumbar vertebrae are randomly and evenly divided into treatment group and control group. Shenshu (BL 23), Qihaishu (BL 24), Dachangshu (BL 25),Weizhong (BL 40), Jiaji (EX-B 2), etc. are used. In treatment group, acupuncture, TDP irradiation and cupping are performed, and in control group, only acupuncture is given. After 30 sessions (3 therapeutic courses) of treatment, in treatment and control groups, the total effective rates are 91.43 % and 71.43 % respectively. The therapeutic effect of comprehensive treatment is significantly superior to that of simple acupuncture therapy (P < 0.05).

  10. Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and related modalities have many roles in hepatobiliary hydatid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ersan (O)zaslan

    2006-01-01

    The authors report their experience about 8 cases of intrabiliary rupture of hepatobiliary hydatid disease, and add an algorithm for treatment. To our opinion, the use of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of hepatobiliary hydatid disease was not stated properly in their proposed algorithm. According to the algorithm, the use of ERCP and related modalities was only stated in the case of postoperative biliary fistulae. We think that postoperative persistant fistula is not a sole indication, there are many indications for ERCP and related techniques namely sphincterotomy, extraction, nasobiliary drainage and stenting, in the treatment algorithm before or after surgery.

  11. Retrograde ureteroscopic holmium laser endopyelotomy in a selected population of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling, Nicolaj; Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina;

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Significant controversy remains concerning the best way to treat ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). This study evaluates subjective and objective outcomes of retrograde holmium laser endopyelotomy in a selected population with UPJO. Material and methods. Forty-seven patients...... follow-up 110 weeks). Success criteria were defined as symptom relief and improved or preserved renal function. Results. Twenty-nine patients (66%) experienced complete symptom resolution and 10 patients (23%) had significant symptom improvement (i.e. no need for pain-killing medication). Five patients...

  12. Retrograde metasomatic effects on phase assemblages in an interlayered blueschist-greenschist sequence (Coastal Cordillera, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halama, Ralf; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Interlayered blueschists and greenschists of the Coastal Cordillera (Chile) are part of a Late Palaeozoic accretionary complex. They represent metavolcanic rocks with oceanic affinities based on predominantly OIB-type REE patterns and immobile trace element ratios. Both rock types have similar mineralogies, albeit with different mineral modal abundances. Amphibole is the major mafic mineral and varies compositionally from glaucophane to actinolite. The presence of glaucophane relicts as cores in zoned amphiboles in both blueschists and greenschists is evidence for a pervasive high-pressure metamorphic stage, indicating that tectonic juxtaposition is an unlikely explanation for the cm-dm scale interlayering. During exhumation, a retrograde greenschist-facies overprint stabilized chlorite + albite + winchitic/actinolitic amphibole + phengitic white mica ± epidote ± K-feldspar at 0.4 ± 0.1 GPa. Geochemical variability can be partly ascribed to primary magmatic and partly to secondary metasomatic processes that occurred under greenschist-facies conditions. Isocon diagrams of several adjacent blueschist-greenschist pairs with similar protolith geochemistry were used to evaluate metasomatic changes due to retrograde fluid-rock interaction. The most important geochemical changes are depletion of Si and Na and addition of water in the greenschists compared to the blueschists. Transition metals and LILE are mobilized to varying degrees. The unsystematic deviations from magmatic fractionation trends suggest open system conditions and influx of an external fluid. Pseudosection and water isopleth calculations show that the rocks were dehydrating during most of their exhumation history and remained at water-saturated conditions. The mineralogical changes, in particular breakdown of blue amphibole and replacement by chlorite, albite and calcic/sodic-calcic amphibole, are the prime cause for the distinct coloring. Pseudo-binary phase diagrams were used as a means to link bulk

  13. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidts, M.; Hou, Y; Cortes, C.R.; Mans, D. A.; Huber, C.; Boldt, K.; M. Patel; Van Reeuwijk, J; Plaza, J.M.; Beersum, S.E.C; Yap, Z.M.; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Taylor, S. P.; Herridge, W; Johnson, C A

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE Received 1 Oct 2014 | Accepted 31 Mar 2015 | Published 5 June 2015 TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport Miriam Schmidts1,2,3,4,*, Yuqing Hou5,*, Claudio R. Corte´s6, Dorus A. Mans2,3, Celine Huber7, Karsten Boldt8, Mitali Patel1, Jeroen van Reeuwijk2,3, Jean-Marc Plaza9, Sylvia E.C. van Beersum2,3, Zhi Min Yap1, Stef J.F. Letteboer2,3, S Paige Taylor10, Warren Herridge11, Colin A. Johns...

  14. Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography and Nasobiliary Drainage in the Management of Postoperative Biliary Leak

    OpenAIRE

    Goenka, M. K.; Kochhar, R; BHASIN, D; Nagi, B.; Wig, J. D.; Singh, G; Sriram, P. V. J.; Singh, K.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in evaluating the patients with post-operative biliary leak and of endoscopic nasobiliary drainage in its management, 36 patients with biliary leak seen over a period of 9 years were studied. Thirty-two had biliary leak following cholecystectomy, 3 following repair of liver trauma and 1 following choledochoduodenostomy. Patients presented at an interval of 4 days to 210 days (mean ± SEM, 32.4 ± 6.7 days) following laparotomy...

  15. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic esphinterotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with choledocolitiasis and cholelitiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case report of a 30 year-old presumably healthy patient, who attended the Gastroenterology Department from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, and suffering from biliary cholic, ictero, choluria, nausea, vomit and loss of appetite is presented. The complementary examinations confirmed the choledocolitiasis and cholelitiasis diagnosis, reason why it was necessary to carry out a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic esphinterotomy and ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a single anesthetic injection. The postoperative clinical course was favorable and she was discharged without complications 24 hours before the intervention

  16. Retrograde Percutaneous Transjejunal Creation of Biliary Neoanastomoses in Patients with Complete Hepaticojejunostomy Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giancarlo; Contro, Alberto; Zamboni, Giulia A; De Robertis, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    A technique of percutaneous hepaticojejunostomy (PHJ) was developed to allow creation of a neoanastomosis in cases of hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) dehiscence when endoscopic intervention is unfeasible as a result of postsurgical anatomy. PHJ involves transhepatic biliary catheterization and transjejunal retrograde enterotomy. A rendezvous establishes the communication between the bile ducts and the jejunum. PHJ was performed in five patients, and neoanastomosis creation without residual biliary leak was achieved in all cases, with no procedure-related complications. Bilirubin levels and white blood cell counts quickly decreased after PHJ (median, 1 d; range, 1-4 d). Median survival after PHJ was 210 days (range, 45-540 d). PMID:26408218

  17. Hepatic microabscess with ascending cholangitis complicated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP): A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Auh, Yong Ho; Lee, Moon Gyu [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulasn, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Complicated hepatic microabscess secondary to ascending cholangitis following ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram) is rare, and needs to be differentiated from other microabscesses, metastasis or Caroli's disease. We experienced a case of hepatic microabscess associated with septic cholangitis following ERCP. Cholangiogram showed multiple sac-like abscess pockets with characteristic biliary communication, and CT scan revealed multiple low attenuated lesions. At the resolving stage of cholangitic microabscess, CT scan showed partial rim enhancement of the abscesses and disproportional dilatation of intrahepatic ducts. The residual parenchymal enhancement surrounding the resolved microabscess pockets and dilatated biliary ducts, however, remained even after clinical recovery.

  18. Hepatic microabscess with ascending cholangitis complicated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP): A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complicated hepatic microabscess secondary to ascending cholangitis following ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram) is rare, and needs to be differentiated from other microabscesses, metastasis or Caroli's disease. We experienced a case of hepatic microabscess associated with septic cholangitis following ERCP. Cholangiogram showed multiple sac-like abscess pockets with characteristic biliary communication, and CT scan revealed multiple low attenuated lesions. At the resolving stage of cholangitic microabscess, CT scan showed partial rim enhancement of the abscesses and disproportional dilatation of intrahepatic ducts. The residual parenchymal enhancement surrounding the resolved microabscess pockets and dilatated biliary ducts, however, remained even after clinical recovery

  19. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging reveals net retrograde aqueductal flow in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringstad, Geir; Emblem, Kyrre Eeg; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The objective of this study was to assess the net aqueductal stroke volume (ASV) and CSF aqueductal flow rate derived from phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) in patients with probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, and to compare observations with intracranial pressure (ICP) scores. METHODS PC-MRI at the level of the sylvian aqueduct was undertaken in patients undergoing assessment for probable iNPH. Aqueductal flow in the craniocaudal direction was defined as positive, or antegrade flow, and net ASV was calculated by subtracting retrograde from antegrade aqueductal flow. Aqueductal flow rate per minute was calculated by multiplying net ASV by heart rate. During the same hospital admission, clinical examination was performed using NPH score and overnight continuous ICP monitoring. Twelve patients were followed prospectively 12 months after shunt placement with clinical assessment and a second PC-MRI. The study also included 2 healthy controls. RESULTS Among 21 patients examined for iNPH, 17 (81%) received a shunt (shunt group), and 4 were treated conservatively (conservative group). Among the patients with shunts, a clinical improvement was observed in 16 (94%) of the 17. Net ASV was negative in 16 (76%) of 21 patients before shunt placement and in 5 (42%) of 12 patients after shunt placement, and increased from a median of -5 μl (range -175 to 27 μl) to a median of 1 μl (range -61 to 30 μl; p = 0.04). Among the 12 patients with PC-MRI after shunt placement, 11 were shunt responders, and in 9 of these 11 either a reduced magnitude of retrograde aqueductal flow, or a complete reversal from retrograde to antegrade flow, occurred. Net ASV was significantly lower in the shunt group than in the conservative group (p = 0.01). The aqueductal flow rate increased from -0.56 ml/min (range -12.78 to 0.58 ml/min) to 0.06 ml/min (range -4.51 to 1.93 ml/min; p = 0.04) after shunt placement. CONCLUSIONS In

  20. [Intraparenchymal hepatic haematoma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreotography overinfected by Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Sebastián A; Belloni, Rodrigo; Baldoni, Fernando; Yantorno, Martín; Correa, Gustavo; Bologna, Adrián; Barbero, Rodolfo; Villaverde, Augusto; Chopita, Néstor

    2014-06-01

    This case report describes a 37-year-old woman who develops an intraparenchymal hepatic haematoma after an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with papillotomy and stone extraction. The procedure requires the passage of a guidewire. The patient develops acute abdominal pain 72 hours later and a magnetic resonance shows a hematoma of 124 x 93 mm. She remains under observation. Twenty one days later she complains of upper right abdominal pain and fever. Consequently, a percutaneous drainage is performed isolating Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE. The patient has a good evolution. PMID:25199307

  1. Valve Replacement Performed on the Beating Heart with Continuous Retrograde Coronary Sinus Isothermic Blood Perfusion Combined with Coronary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Saim Demirtürk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An operation on the beating heart was planned for a 60-year-old woman who applied to our clinic with aortic stenosis, three vessel coronary artery disease and poor left ventricular function. There are reports about beating heart valve surgery perfomed alone or combined with coronary artery bypass operations using continuous retrograde coronary sinus isothermic blood perfusion in patients with poor ventricle. We performed a coronary revascularization process for three-vessel disease on the pump beating heart and aortic valve replacement under cross-clamp using continuous retrograde coronary sinus isothermic blood perfusion in the same session. She was discharged on the sixth postoperative day after an uneventful recovery. She is well and active 24 months after the operation. Valve replacement using the retrograde coronary sinus isothermic blood perfusion technique due to its protective effect on the already borderline myocardial functions in patients with poor ventricles is a useful and clinically successful method.

  2. NEXT GENERATION OF TELESCOPES OR DYNAMICS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE IF EXO-MOONS HAVE PROGRADE OR RETROGRADE ORBITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We survey the methods proposed in the literature for detecting moons of extrasolar planets in terms of their ability to distinguish between prograde and retrograde moon orbits, an important tracer of the moon formation channel. We find that most moon detection methods, in particular, sensitive methods for detecting moons of transiting planets, cannot observationally distinguishing prograde and retrograde moon orbits. The prograde and retrograde cases can only be distinguished where the dynamical evolution of the orbit due to, e.g., three body effects is detectable, where one of the two cases is dynamically unstable, or where new observational facilities, which can implement a technique capable of differentiating the two cases, come online. In particular, directly imaged planets are promising targets because repeated spectral and photometric measurements, which are required to determine moon orbit direction, could also be conducted with the primary interest of characterizing the planet itself

  3. NEXT GENERATION OF TELESCOPES OR DYNAMICS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE IF EXO-MOONS HAVE PROGRADE OR RETROGRADE ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Karen M.; Fujii, Yuka [Earth-Life Science Institute (WPI-ELSI), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro district, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-08-20

    We survey the methods proposed in the literature for detecting moons of extrasolar planets in terms of their ability to distinguish between prograde and retrograde moon orbits, an important tracer of the moon formation channel. We find that most moon detection methods, in particular, sensitive methods for detecting moons of transiting planets, cannot observationally distinguishing prograde and retrograde moon orbits. The prograde and retrograde cases can only be distinguished where the dynamical evolution of the orbit due to, e.g., three body effects is detectable, where one of the two cases is dynamically unstable, or where new observational facilities, which can implement a technique capable of differentiating the two cases, come online. In particular, directly imaged planets are promising targets because repeated spectral and photometric measurements, which are required to determine moon orbit direction, could also be conducted with the primary interest of characterizing the planet itself.

  4. Cardioplegia retrógrada seqüencial Sequencial retrograde cardioplegy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otoni M Gomes

    1996-09-01

    extracorporeal circulation established. The following routes were employed for cardioplegic perfusion: 1 Antegrade - through ascending aortic canullation bellow the aortic occlusion clamp;2 Selective retrograde - through coronary synus (Co.S - 25 mmHg using a self-inflating ballooned cannula; 3 Total retrograde, (Co.S - 40 mmHg - through a cannula inserted in the right atrium (RA; 4 Sequencial retrograde, Co.S-RA - with the CS flowing first through the coronary synus lowering the interventricular septal temperature to 16 ºC and after through the RA cannula as in the total retrograde technique with the pulmonary artery occluded and;5 Sequencial retrograde, Co.S-RV - the RV chamber being directly cannulated through the tricuspid valve and perfused, instead of the RA in the latter technique. The temperature variation of the myocardium in the left ventricule (LV, RVt RA and sinus node region (SN was controlled employing an Omega needle termistor and thermometer. With the antegrade technique (70 mmHg pressure the most uniform myocardial cooling, the lowest CS volume and perfusion time duration was observed, followed In excelence by the Co.S-RA Sequencial retrograde technique and the Co.S-RV sequencial technique. The present data indicate that sequencial retrograde cardioplegic perfusion techinique is significantly better than the usual Co.S or RA total retrograde technique alone for myocardial protection when compared with the aortic root antegrade perfusion technique.

  5. Arthroscopic retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation to chondral lesion in femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Sarper; Toker, Berkin; Taser, Omer

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the treatment of 2 cases of full-thickness cartilage defect of the femoral head. The authors performed osteochondral autologous transplantation with a different technique that has not been reported to date. One patient was 37 years old, and the other was 42 years old. Both presented with hip pain. In both patients, radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a focal chondral defect on the weight-bearing area of the femoral head and acetabular impingement. A retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation technique combined with hip arthroscopy and arthroscopic impingement treatment was performed. After a 2-month recovery period, the symptoms were resolved. In the first year of follow-up, Harris Hip scores improved significantly (case 1, 56.6 to 87.6; case 2, 58.6 to 90). The technique described yielded good short- and midterm clinical and radiologic outcomes. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to describe a retrograde osteochondral transplantation technique performed with hip arthroscopy in the femoral head. PMID:24972445

  6. Effect of Retrograde Reaming for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis on Subtalar Joint Destruction: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jason A; Routh, Lucas K; Leary, Jeffrey T; Buzhardt, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Recent published data have suggested successful union of subtalar and tibiotalar joints without formal debridement during tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion procedures. Although previous studies have reported on the importance of the proper guidewire starting point and trajectory to obtain appropriate hindfoot alignment for successful fusion, to our knowledge, no studies have quantified the amount of articular damage to the subtalar joint with retrograde reaming. We hypothesized that reaming would destroy >50% of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint. The bilateral lower extremities of 5 cadavers were obtained and the subtalar joints exposed. Retrograde TTC nail guidewires were inserted, and a 12-mm reamer was passed through the subtalar and ankle joints. Pre- and postreaming images of the subtalar joint were obtained to compare the amount of joint destruction after reaming. We found an average of 5.89% articular destruction of the talar posterior facet and an average of 4.01% articular destruction of the posterior facet of the calcaneus. No damage to the middle facets of the subtalar joint was observed. TTC nailing is a successful procedure for ankle and subtalar joint fusion. Published studies have reported successful subtalar union using TTC nailing without formal open debridement of the subtalar joint, preserving the soft tissue envelope. TTC nail insertion using a 12-mm reamer will destroy 5.89% and 4.01% of the respective talar and calcaneal posterior facets of the subtalar joint. PMID:26372551

  7. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy with and without retrograde pyelography: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabibi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since the introduction of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, many changes have been added regarding the entrance to pyelocalyceal system such as insertion of the needle pointed to an opaque stone as a guided landmark. We aim at comparing the outcomes of managing renal calculi with and without retrograde pyelography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 55 cases with opaque renal calculi candidates for PCNL with stone in one calyce, in the pelvis or both in one calyce and the pelvis simultaneously were included in a nine-month study. They were randomized into 2 groups, noncatheterized (n = 28 and catheterized (n = 27, called intervention and control groups, respectively. RESULTS: The 2 groups had similar distributions regarding gender, age, duration of operation, length of hospital stay, past history of any surgical procedures on kidney, and stone size. Outcome (residual stone based on aforementioned management was evaluated with plain X-ray on the morning following the operation. Postoperative hemoglobin decrease was significantly higher in controls than in the intervention group (p < 0.001 (with no clinical significance. No difference in outcome, postoperative fever, duration of surgery, duration of hospital stay and radiation exposure was observed between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed no differences in major clinical outcomes between the 2 groups (with and without catheter insertion for retrograde pyelography.

  8. Alterations of mitochondrial dynamics allow retrograde propagation of locally initiated axonal insults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassus, Benjamin; Magifico, Sebastien; Pignon, Sandra; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Peyrin, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In chronic neurodegenerative syndromes, neurons progressively die through a generalized retraction pattern triggering retrograde axonal degeneration toward the cell bodies, which molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recent observations suggest that direct activation of pro-apoptotic signaling in axons triggers local degenerative events associated with early alteration of axonal mitochondrial dynamics. This raises the question of the role of mitochondrial dynamics on both axonal vulnerability stress and their implication in the spreading of damages toward unchallenged parts of the neuron. Here, using microfluidic chambers, we assessed the consequences of interfering with OPA1 and DRP1 proteins on axonal degeneration induced by local application of rotenone. We found that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevented axonal damage induced by rotenone, in low glucose conditions. While alteration of mitochondrial dynamics per se did not lead to spontaneous axonal degeneration, it dramatically enhanced axonal vulnerability to rotenone, which had no effect in normal glucose conditions, and promoted retrograde spreading of axonal degeneration toward the cell body. Altogether, our results suggest a mitochondrial priming effect in axons as a key process of axonal degeneration. In the context of neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, mitochondria fragmentation could hasten neuronal death and initiate spatial dispersion of locally induced degenerative events. PMID:27604820

  9. Numerical Simulations of Naturally Tilted, Retrogradely Precessing, Nodal Superhumping Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2012-01-01

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generates these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) using 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths...

  10. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retrograded starch (RS3 was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3.

  11. Glucocorticoids aggravate retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Li; Yang, Shu-Yuan; Dong, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2009-02-11

    Administration of glucocorticoid to patients with head injury has previously been demonstrated to impair memory. We hypothesize that glucocorticoids promote post-traumatic hippocampal apoptosis, resulting in retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring spatial memory deficiency in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and receiving dexamethasone (DXM at 0.5-10 mg/kg) or methylprednisolone (MP at 5-30 mg/kg); we also examined neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained for the acquisition of spatial memory, then subjected to FPI and tested for spatial reference memory on post-injury days 7 and 14 using the Morris Water Maze. Brain tissue from injured rats was examined 24 h to 2 weeks after injury. The percent time in the goal quadrant, which measures spatial reference memory, was significantly lower in injured rats receiving either high-dose DXM or MP than in control groups. TUNEL-positive cells in hippocampus were first detected 24 h post-injury, plateauing at 48h. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with either DXM or MP. The data suggest that glucocorticoid therapy for TBI may increase neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and, as a result, aggravate retrograde memory deficits induced by TBI. PMID:19236166

  12. [Successful selective electrical ablation of the retrograde pathway in atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia associated with syncope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukl, J; Cíhalík, C

    1992-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit on account of repeatedly occurring syncopes which developed at the peak of physical exertion. The attack was reproduced by exercise on a bicycle ergometer: the patient developed paroxysmal tachycardia with a narrow QRS and a frequency of 160/min leading after 20 sec. to severe hypotension and loss of consciousness. The same tachycardia caused by programmed atrial stimulation caused a drop of tension in the recumbent position by 30 mmHg and after more detailed analysis during electrophysiological examination it was evaluated as atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. By an electric discharge of 300 J administered by means of a stimulation electrode 7F USCI into the area of the AV node the retrograde conduction through the perinodal rapid pathways was completely interrupted and 1st. degree atrioventricular block developed. Repeated electrophysiological examination and exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer provided evidence of the disappearance of the retrograde pathway and the impossibility to elicit AVNRT. The authors express the view that the rapid perinodal pathway is interrupted in successful cases in both directions and the 1st. degree AV block is due to conduction along a slow pathway and not incidental slowing of conduction along the rapid pathway which is the generally accepted interpretation. Modification of the atrioventricular conduction by interruption of the rapid pathway by fulguration is according to data in the literature and the described patient a method which makes is possible to cure severe atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardias. PMID:1561778

  13. Tectonic history of subduction zones inferred from retrograde blueschist P-T paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W.G. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Many Phanerozoic convergent plate junctions are marked by discontinuous blueschist belts, reflecting relatively high-pressure (P) prograde trajectories. Common blueschist paragneisses, such as those of the western Alps, exhibit widespread overprinting by greenschist and/or epidote-amphibolite facies assemblages. For this type of high-P belt, retrograde metamorphism involved fairly rapid, nearly isothermal decompression; some terranes underwent continued heating during early stages of pressure release. Uplift probably occurred as a consequence of the entrance of an island arc, oceanic plateau, or segment of continental crust into the subduction zone (collision), resulting in marked deceleration or cessation of underflow and buoyant, approximately adiabatic rise of the stranded, recrystallized subduction complex. Other high-P belts, such as the Franciscan of western California, preserve metamorphic aragonite and lack a low-P overprint; retrogression approximately retraced the prograde P-T (temperature) path, or for early formed high-grade blocks, occurred at even higher P/T ratios. Parts of this type of metamorphic belt evidently migrated slowly back up the subduction zone in response to isostatic forces during continued plate descent and refrigeration. Upward motion took place as tectonically imbricated slices, as laminar return flow in melange zones, and perhaps partly a lateral spreading/extension of the underplated accretionary prism. Retrograde P-T trajectories of high-P belts therefore provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of convergent plate junctions.

  14. Gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena in starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites plasticized with different glycerol/water ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Sandra Camila; Salcedo, Felipe

    2016-10-20

    This study aims to gain insights into the intermolecular interactions present in thermoplastic starch (TPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites prepared using water and/or glycerol as plasticizers. Specifically, the impact of using different glycerol/water proportions on the nature of gelatinization and retrogradation processes is studied. Nanocomposites were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). It is shown that clay tactoids preferentially interact with glycerol molecules rather than starch macromolecules. Consequently, the effects of MMT incorporation strongly depend on the glycerol/water ratio; when a ratio of 0.5 is used minor variations were observed on the starch gelatinization process-although stronger clays-starch interactions were evident-whereas at higher ratios the addition of clays significantly increased the gelatinization temperature, up to values over 100°C. In the gelatinization process of starch in TPS samples having only glycerol as a plasticizer, the leaching of amylose and the melting of amylopectin crystalline domains seem to occur simultaneously. This different gelatinization mechanism produces a TPS having a substantially different morphology, which exhibited reduced retrogradation characteristics. PMID:27474559

  15. Interaction of Golgin-84 with the COG complex mediates the intra-Golgi retrograde transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohda, Miwa; Misumi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Ogata, Shigenori; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Hirose, Shinichi; Ikehara, Yukio; Oda, Kimimitsu

    2010-12-01

    The coiled-coil Golgi membrane protein golgin-84 functions as a tethering factor for coat protein I (COPI) vesicles. Protein interaction analyses have revealed that golgin-84 interacts with another tether, the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, through its subunit Cog7. Therefore, we explored the function of golgin-84 as the tether for COPI vesicles of intra-Golgi retrograde traffic. First, glycosylic maturation of both plasma membrane (CD44) and lysosomal (lamp1) glycoproteins was distorted in golgin-84 knockdown (KD) cells. The depletion of golgin-84 caused fragmentation of the Golgi with the mislocalization of Golgi resident proteins, resulting in the accumulation of vesicles carrying intra-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and cis-Golgi membrane protein GPP130. Similar observations were obtained by diminution of the COG complex, suggesting a strong correlation between the two tethers. Indeed, COG complex-dependent (CCD) vesicles that accumulate in Cog3 or Cog7 KD cells carried golgin-84. Surprisingly, the interaction between golgin-84 and another candidate tethering partner CASP (CDP/cut alternatively spliced product) decreased in Cog3 KD cells. These results indicate that golgin-84 on COPI vesicles interact with the COG complex before SNARE assembly, suggesting that the interaction of golgin-84 with COG plays an important role in the tethering process of intra-Golgi retrograde vesicle traffic. PMID:20874812

  16. Radionuclide assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in patients with mitral stenosis before and after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy; Use of list mode method in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Seishi; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Kimura, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Naohiko; Matsuura, Takashi; Inada, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Tomokuni (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC), equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography was performed in eight patients with mitral stenosis who had atrial fibrillation. Accurate cardiac function in patients with atrial fibrillation is difficult to assess, since the wide fluctation of cardiac cycle makes the ventricular hemodynamics variable. A new processing algorhythm was devised to make multiple gated images discriminated from a heart rate distribution histogram. We obtained about 1,000 beats data by list mode acquisition, and processed a heart rate distribution histogram. The data in the area {+-}5% of the most frequent heart rate were converted into frame mode and a representative time activity curve was derived. Mitral valve area calculated by echocardiography increased from 1.3{+-}0.5 to 2.0{+-}0.6 (cm{sup 2}) significantly (p<0.01). The mean transmitral pressure gradient measured by catheterization decreased from 12.4{+-}5.9 to 4.9{+-}3.7 (mmHg) significantly (p<0.01) and the clinical symptoms improved in all patients. The change in left ventricular ejection fraction from 43{+-}9 to 48{+-}13 (%) was not statistically significant, but peak filling rate (PFR) derived from the time activity curve increased from 1.5{+-}0.3 to 2.0{+-}0.4 (EDV/sec) significantly (p<0.01). Thus PFR is a noninvasive parameter that can evaluate the effect of PTMC. (author).

  17. THE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW AFTER RETROGRADE FLUSH AND COLD STORAGE OF LUNGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长志; 赵洪; 陆佩中

    2000-01-01

    ReSllm6 Objectif Nos studes Precedentes out montrd une panne fonCtion de la greffe pulmonaire traitde Prdalablementper perfusion forcde retrograde et un stockage d froid inns ~. L' etude Prdsente a pour but de determiner l' effet de ~ surlefiot mngUin du poumon trait4 Prdalablement per perfusion retrograde forcde et un stockage d froid. met~. 12poumons donneurs canins out ate trait4s per perfusion r4tFograde de solution UW. Chez 6 animaux du grouch A, 250ng furent injectes dans l' artrdre pulmonaire avant l...

  18. Optical imaging of neuronal activity in tissue labeled by retrograde transport of Calcium Green Dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, D R; McClellan, A D; O'Donovan, M J

    1997-05-01

    In many neurophysiological studies it is desirable to simultaneously record the activity of a large number of neurons. This is particularly true in the study of vertebrate motor systems that generate rhythmic behaviors, such as the pattern generator for locomotion in vertebrate spinal cord. Optical imaging of neurons labeled with appropriate fluorescent dyes, in which fluorescence is activity-dependent, provides a means to record the activity of many neurons at the same time, while also providing fine spatial resolution of the position and morphology of active neurons. Voltage-sensitive dyes have been explored for this purpose and have the advantage of rapid response to transmembrane voltage changes. However, voltage-sensitive dyes bleach readily, which results in phototoxic damage and limits the time that labeled neurons can be imaged. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio is typically small, so that averaging of responses is usually required. As an alternative to voltage-sensitive dyes, calcium-sensitive dyes can exhibit large changes in fluorescence. Most neurons contain voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, and numerous reports indicate that neuronal activity is accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In this protocol we describe a method to use retrograde transport of the dextran conjugate of a calcium-sensitive dye (Calcium Green Dextran) to label selectively populations of brain and spinal interneurons in a primitive vertebrate (lamprey), for subsequent video-rate imaging of changes in intracellular fluorescence during neuronal activity. Although described with specific reference to lampreys, the technique has also been applied to embryonic chick spinal cord and larval zebrafish preparations and should be easily adaptable to other systems. The most significant novel feature of the protocol is the use of retrograde axonal transport to selectively fill neurons that have known axonal trajectories. Using lampreys, we have obtained activity

  19. Poorly expandable common bile duct with stones on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Liang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe characteristics of a poorly expandable (PE common bile duct (CBD with stones on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. METHODS: A PE bile duct was characterized by a rigid and relatively narrowed distal CBD with retrograde dilatation of the non-PE segment. Between 2003 and 2006, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC images and chart reviews of 1213 patients with newly diagnosed CBD stones were obtained from the computer database of Therapeutic Endoscopic Center in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Patients with characteristic PE bile duct on ERC were identified from the database. Data of the patients as well as the safety and technical success of therapeutic ERC were collected and analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with CBD stones and characteristic PE segments were enrolled in this study. The median patient age was 45 years (range, 20 to 92 years; 66.7% of the patients were men. The diameters of the widest non-PE CBD segment, the PE segment, and the largest stone were 14.3 ± 4.9 mm, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm, and 11.2 ± 4.7 mm, respectively. The length of the PE segment was 39.7 ± 15.4 mm (range, 12.3 mm to 70.9 mm. To remove the CBD stone(s completely, mechanical lithotripsy was required in 25 (83.3% patients even though the stone size was not as large as were the difficult stones that have been described in the literature. The stone size and stone/PE segment diameter ratio were associated with the need for lithotripsy. Post-ERC complications occurred in 4 cases: pancreatitis in 1, cholangitis in 2, and an impacted Dormia basket with cholangitis in 1. Two (6.7% of the 28 patients developed recurrent CBD stones at follow-up (50 ± 14 mo and were successfully managed with therapeutic ERC. CONCLUSION: Patients with a PE duct frequently require mechanical lithotripsy for stones extraction. To retrieve stones successfully and avoid complications, these patients should be identified during ERC.

  20. Poorly expandable common bile duct with stones on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Liang Cheng; Yung-Kuan Tsou; Cheng-Hui Lin; Jui-Hsiang Tang; Chien-Fu Hung; Kai-Feng Sung; Ching-Song Lee

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To describe characteristics of a poorly expandable (PE) common bile duct (CBD) with stones on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.METHODS:A PE bile duct was characterized by a rigid and relatively narrowed distal CBD with retrograde dilatation of the non-PE segment.Between 2003 and 2006,endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) images and chart reviews of 1213 patients with newly diagnosed CBD stones were obtained from the computer database of Therapeutic Endoscopic Center in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.Patients with characteristic PE bile duct on ERC were identified from the database.Data of the patients as well as the safety and technical success of therapeutic ERC were collected and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS:A total of 30 patients with CBD stones and characteristic PE segments were enrolled in this study.The median patient age was 45 years (range,20 to 92 years); 66.7% of the patients were men.The diameters of the widest non-PE CBD segment,the PE segment,and the largest stone were 14.3 ± 4.9 mm,5.8 ± 1.6 mm,and 11.2 ± 4.7 mm,respectively.The length of the PE segment was 39.7±15.4 mm (range,12.3 mm to 70.9 mm).To remove the CBD stone(s) completely,mechanical lithotripsy was required in 25 (83.3%) patients even though the stone size was not as large as were the difficult stones that have been described in the literature.The stone size and stone/PE segment diameter ratio were associated with the need for lithotripsy.Post-ERC complications occurred in 4 cases:pancreatitis in 1,cholangitis in 2,and an impacted Dormia basket with cholangitis in 1.Two (6.7%)of the 28 patients developed recurrent CBD stones at follow-up (50 ± 14 mo) and were successfully managed with therapeutic ERC.CONCLUSION:Patients with a PE duct frequently require mechanical lithotripsy for stones extraction.To retrieve stones successfully and avoid complications,these patients should be identified during ERC.

  1. Hippocampus and Retrograde Amnesia in the Rat Model: A Modest Proposal for the Situation of Systems Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Robert J.; Sparks, Fraser T.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that…

  2. Integrating bio-prosthetic valves in the Fontan operation - Novel treatment to control retrograde flow in caval veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, Marija; Conover, Timothy; Zhou, Jian; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Figliola, Richard

    2012-11-01

    For a child born with only one functional heart ventricle, the sequence of palliative surgeries typically culminates in the Fontan operation. This procedure is usually successful initially, but leads to later complications, for reasons not fully understood. Examples are respiratory-dependent retrograde flows in the caval and hepatic veins, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), hypothesized to be responsible for elevated pressure in the liver and disease of the liver and intestines. Here we study the parameters responsible for retrograde flows in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic vein (HV), and investigate two novel interventions to control retrograde flow: implanting either a Medtronic Contegra valved conduit or an Edwards lifescience pericardial aortic valve in the IVC or HV. We performed the experiments in a multi-scale, patient specific mock circuit, with normal and elevated PVR, towards the optimization of the Fontan circulation. The results show that both valves can significantly reduce retrograde flows in the veins, suggesting potential advantages in the treatment of the patients with congenital heart diseases. Fondation Leducq

  3. RETROGRADE CEREBRAL PERFUSION AS METHOD OF BRAIN PROTECTION DURING OPERATIONS ON ASCENDING AND TRANSVERSE AORTA WITH HYPOTHERMIC CIRCULATORY ARREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Tarabarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no optimal approach to cerebral protection during ascending and transverse aortic arch repairs in our days. This study was designed to analyze experience of using retrograde cerebral perfusion as method of brain protection during operations on ascending and transverse aorta with hypothermic circulatory arrest. 

  4. Serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei to the subthalamic nucleus; a retrograde- and anterograde neuronal tracing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reznitsky, Martin; Plenge, Per; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A not were present. Retrograde tracer FluoroGold or Choleratoxin subunit B were iontophoretically delivered in the STN and combined with immunohistochemistry for 5-HT in order to map the topographic organization in the dorsal raphe system. The study showed that approximately 320...

  5. Zerebrovaskuläre Komplikationen nach retrograder Katheterisierung der Aortenklappe bei Patienten mit Aortenklappenstenose - Fact or Fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamm G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Bei Patienten mit Aortenklappenstenose wird häufig neben einer echokardiographischen Untersuchung eine retrograde Katheterisierung der Aortenklappe zur Beurteilung des Stenoseschweregrades vorgenommen. Hierbei wurde in rezenten Publikationen das vermehrte Auftreten von zerebralen Embolien berichtet. Methodik: Wir untersuchten die Häufigkeit von neurologischen Komplikationen in einer retrospektiven Analyse von 325 Patienten, bei denen im Zeitraum von Jänner 2000 bis Dezember 2003 aufgrund einer Aortenklappenstenose eine Koronarangiographie mit retrograder Katheterisierung der Aortenklappe durchgeführt worden war. Als Vergleichsgruppe diente ein Patientenkollektiv von 1.868 konsekutiven Patienten mit koronarer Herzerkrankung ohne Aortenklappenstenose, bei denen ebenfalls eine Koronarangiographie mit Laevogramm durchgeführt worden war. Ergebnisse: Bei keinem der Patienten mit Aortenklappenstenose traten innerhalb von 72 Stunden nach retrograder Katheterisierung der Aortenklappe klinisch faßbare neurologische Komplikationen (zerebraler Insult oder transitorisch ischämische Attacke auf. In der Vergleichsgruppe kam es bei 2 von 1.868 Patienten innerhalb des oben genannten Zeitraumes zu neurologischen Komplikationen. Schlußfolgerung: In unserer retrospektiven Analyse war bei Patienten mit Aortenklappenstenose und durchgeführter retrograder Katheterisierung der Aortenklappe kein höheres Risiko für das Auftreten von klinisch manifesten neurologischen Ereignissen zu beobachten.

  6. NSAIDs for prevention of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: Ready for prime time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour A Parsi

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common and the most fearful complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis has therefore been of great interest to endoscopists performing ERCP procedures.So far,only pancreatic duct stenting during ERCP and rectal administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) prior to or immediately after ERCP have been consistently shown to be effective for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis.This commentary focuses on a short discussion about the rates,mechanisms,and risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis,and effective means for its prevention with emphasis on the use of NSAIDs including a recent clinical trial published in The New England Journal of Medicine by Elmunzer et al[11].

  7. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method. In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP to compensate for a lack of drug flow in the HFT method. In another case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced lower gingival cancer. The Seldinger method was applied to metastatic lymph nodes. In both cases, additional administration of CDDP using the Seldinger method resulted in a complete response. The combination of the HFT and Seldinger methods was useful to eradicate locally advanced oral cancer because each method compensated for the defects of the other.

  8. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masataka; Ohya, Ryouichi; Kodama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Asahina, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method). In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP) to compensate for a lack of drug flow in the HFT method. In another case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced lower gingival cancer. The Seldinger method was applied to metastatic lymph nodes. In both cases, additional administration of CDDP using the Seldinger method resulted in a complete response. The combination of the HFT and Seldinger methods was useful to eradicate locally advanced oral cancer because each method compensated for the defects of the other. PMID:26148622

  9. Biliary and pancreatic stenting: Devices and insertion techniques in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Arena, Monica; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Consolo, Pierluigi; Opocher, Enrico; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2016-02-10

    Stents are tubular devices made of plastic or metal. Endoscopic stenting is the most common treatment for obstruction of the common bile duct or of the main pancreatic duct, but also employed for the treatment of bilio-pancreatic leakages, for preventing post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and to drain the gallbladder and pancreatic fluid collections. Recent progresses in techniques of stent insertion and metal stent design are represented by new, fully-covered lumen apposing metal stents. These stents are specifically designed for transmural drainage, with a saddle-shape design and bilateral flanges, to provide lumen-to-lumen anchoring, reducing the risk of migration and leakage. This review is an update of the technique of stent insertion and metal stent deployment, of the most recent data available on stent types and characteristics and the new applications for biliopancreatic stents. PMID:26862364

  10. Gravitational Loss-Cone Instability in Stellar Systems with Retrograde Orbit Precession

    CERN Document Server

    Polyachenko, E V; Shukhman, I G

    2006-01-01

    We examine disk and spherical stellar systems of nearly radial orbits with retrograde orbit precession. Such systems are stable to the well known radial orbit instability. If there is a loss cone at low angular momentum, an instability similar to loss-cone instability in plasma may occur. Examples of systems with loss cone are the centers of galaxies or star clusters containing a massive black hole. The instability can cause an inward flux of stars to the galactic center fuelling nuclear activity. The study is based on simple characteristic equations describing small perturbations in a disk or a sphere of stellar orbits highly elongated in radius. These characteristic equations are derived from the linearized Vlasov equations (combining the collisionless Boltzmann kinetic equation and the Poisson equation), using the action - angle variables. We use two techniques for analyzing the characteristic equations: the first one is based on preliminary finding of neutral modes, and the second one employs a counterpar...

  11. Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Krupinska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed.

  12. Indomethacin for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis prophylaxis: Is it the magic bullet?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis Yang; Peter V Draganov

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Pancreatic duct stent insertion after ERCP has been widely accepted as the standard of care for the prevention of this complication in high-risk patients.Unfortunately,the placement of pancreatic stents requires higher level of endoscopic expertise and is not always feasible due to anatomic considerations.Therefore,effective non-invasive pharmacologic prophylaxis remains appealing,particularly if it is inexpensive,easily administered,has a low risk side effect profile and is widely available.There have been multiple studies evaluating potential pharmacologic candidates for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) prophylaxis,most of them yielding disappointing results.A recently published large,multicenter,randomized controlled trial reported that in high risk patients a single dose of rectal indomethacin administered immediately after the ERCP significantly decreased the incidence of PEP compare to placebo.

  13. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number of...... axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...... large neurons after crush and regeneration than in controls, indicating that regeneration of small neurons was less complete than that of large ones. This contrasted with the fact that unmyelinated axons in the regenerated sural nerve after 74 days were only slightly reduced....

  14. Cateterismo retrógrado em neuro-radiologia Retrograde catheterization in Neuro-radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. Raupp

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The bases and technical cares for the neuro-radiological study of the aorto-cervical and spinal vessels employing the retrograde catheterization according to Seldinger technic and with the Odman-Ledin catheters are reported. The authors recommend type II neuroleptanalgesia as anesthesical sedative and the use of percutaneous punction of the femoral artery or, by choice, of the axilar or humeral artery. For the selective catheterization by femoral via, they make previously an aortography, in order to know the anatomy of the supra-aortic vessels, with control through the image-inten-sifier or fluoroscopy. They employ manual injection for the study of the supra-aortic vessels and a Gidlung injector for the contrast of the ascending aorta. Complications are discussed.

  15. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 104 dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-μsec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 106 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (106 rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli

  16. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10/sup 4/ dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-..mu..sec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10/sup 6/ rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10/sup 6/ rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  17. Management of the dry ejaculate: a systematic review of aspermia and retrograde ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    A dry ejaculate (aspermia), may occur either because of an inability to transport semen (anejaculation) or because of an inability to ejaculate in an antegrade direction (retrograde ejaculation). The treatment of aspermia varies with underlying etiology and includes medical therapy with sympathomimetics, urinary sperm retrieval, bladder neck reconstruction, prostatic massage, penile vibratory stimulation, electroejaculation, and surgical sperm retrieval. A systematic review of the current literature was performed for articles on ejaculatory dysfunction related to dry ejaculate. However, the data are insufficient to allow firm comparisons between treatment options. Treatments must be tailored to the individual patient, and treatment decisions should involve consideration of ease of administration, degree of invasiveness, and anticipated success. PMID:26432530

  18. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can strain the occurrence of trocar site hernia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih; Sumer; Cuneyt; Kayaalp; Mehmet; Ali; Yagci; Emrah; Otan; Huseyin; Kocaaslan

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patientpresenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopiccholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the um-bilical trocar site had been neglected during the lapa-roscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative dayfive, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomyresolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with amore complicated clinical picture with an intestinal ob-struction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomog-raphy revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilicaltrocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCPhad strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergencysurgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed anischemic small bowel segment which was treated withresection and anastomosis. This report demonstratesthat negligence of trocar site closure can result in veryearly herniation, particularly if an endoscopic interven-tion is required in the early postoperative period.

  19. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can strain the occurrence of trocar site hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin

    2014-11-16

    This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period. PMID:25400872

  20. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  1. Comparison of regional pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic morphology in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P; Matzen, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation. The...... predrainage pressures were higher in the tail of the pancreas (29 mm Hg; range, 16-37 mm Hg) than in the head (18 mm Hg; range, 2-30 mm Hg; p = 0.02). The regional pressure differences were significantly greater in four patients who had previously undergone pancreatic surgery than in the 12 patients without...... previous surgery. A stone, total obstruction, or major stenosis in the pancreatic duct at ERP was related to a downstream pressure gradient significantly higher than found in a non-obstructed pancreatic main duct, but the relation was not uniform. Generally, there was no significant relation between...

  2. Post–Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreaticography complications in liver transplanted patients, a single-center experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, R B; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Hillingsø, J G;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications in the biliary tract occur in 5%-30% after liver transplantation and the main part of the complications is successfully managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). The incidence and risk factors for post-ERCP complications in liver transplantation...... patients are not well described. Our objective was to define the frequency of post-ERCP complications in liver transplantation patients at the Abdominal Center, Rigshospitalet, the only Liver Transplantation Center in Denmark. METHODS: Retrospective study of all ERCPs performed in liver transplantation...... cholangitis occurred after two procedures, respectively. Multivariate analysis concerning overall complications identified biliary sphincterotomy (p = 0.006) and time since liver transplantation within 90 days postoperatively (p = 0.044) as risk factors for post-ERCP complications. Specifically concerning...

  3. Percutaneous Retrograde Recanalization of a Chronic Total Coronary Artery Occlusion in a 7 Year Old

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natal-Hernandez, Luz; Meadows, Jeffery; Shunk, Kendrick A.; Boyle, Andrew J., E-mail: aboyle@medicine.ucsf.edu

    2013-03-15

    The arterial switch operation for correction of transposition of the great arteries can be complicated by late stenosis or occlusion of the coronary arteries that are re-implanted to the new aorta. We report the case of a young boy who underwent this operation as a neonate and was found to have an occluded anomalous left anterior descending artery (LAD) before age 3. Subsequent bypass surgery was complicated by anastomotic stricture and kinking of the left internal mammary artery graft to the LAD. At age 7, the LAD territory showed reversible ischemia on nuclear perfusion testing and he was referred for percutaneous coronary intervention. A combined approach with pediatric and adult interventional cardiologists resulted in successful retrograde PCI to recanalize the chronic total occlusion of the LAD. Important features of this technique in pediatric patients are discussed.

  4. Fatal air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): An 'impossible' diagnosis for the forensic pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Matteo; Battistini, Alessio; Pellegrinelli, Moira; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Fatal air embolism related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a very rare phenomenon. The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old female patient who developed this mortal complication; a computed tomography (CT) examination was performed in articulo mortis by the physicians. Autopsy was unreliable because of bizarre post-mortem changes (reabsorption of intra-cardiac gas vs. conservation of intra-cranial gas) and a lack of strong diagnostic value of histological findings. The right diagnosis was possible thanks only to the CT examination that permitted the assumption of this possible cause of death before the autopsy and to prepare the necessary procedures to recognise and probe air embolism. This case exemplifies how early post-mortem imaging can be crucial to avoid a wrong diagnosis. PMID:26209631

  5. Ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the morphologic diagnosis of pancreatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swobodnik, W.; Meyer, W.; Brecht-Kraus, D.; Wechsler, J.G.; Geiger, S.; Malfertheiner, P.; Junge, U.; Ditschuneit, H.

    1983-03-15

    From February to November 1981 the diagnostic relevance of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was compared prospectively in 75 patients with suspected pancreatic disease. Final diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy, surgery, clinical course, and further laboratory data. Thus it was possible to exclude pancreatic disorders in 32 patients. By ERCP we diagnosed all tumors; sensitivity was 100%. Sensitivity of US and CT were 63% each. In five cases US made the false positive diagnosis' pancreatic malignant tumor' (specifity 93%), CT and ERCP in two cases (specifity 97% each). In chronic pancreatitis specifity of US and ERCP were 100% and specifity of CT was 98%. Sensitivity of ERCP amounted to 93%, CT and US revealed 74% and 52%, respectively. We conclude that ERCP is the best morphologic diagnostic tool in differentiating chronic pancreatitis from pancreatic carcinoma. US is a good screening method and CT reveals good diagnostic results in acute pancreatitis.

  6. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiHuang; YannianHui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods:FG was injected to the superior colliculid(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei(dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results:FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG.The labeled cells gradually increased in density,reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal nuber on days 30.The density of labeled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area.The fluorescence intensity in labeled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion:The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC.Eye Science 2000;46:29-33.

  7. MICROLEAKAGE ASSOCIATED WITH RETROGRADE FILLING AFTER ROOT END RESECTION (in vitro study

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    Elka Radeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare microleakage after root end resection of the two materials (MTA and Biodentine for two different apical cavity preparation using the method of penetration of dye - 0, 2 % Rodamine B. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root tip with a high speed diamond bur at an angle of 90 degree to the long axis of the tooth. For the retrofilling, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were used. The teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1st group (10 teeth – the apical cavity was prepared with stainless steel fissure bur #10 at 3 mm depth in the root canal parallel to the long axis of the tooth and is filled retrograde with MTA. 3rd group (10 teeth - retrofilling with Biodentine. 2 nd group (10 teeth - with a round bur apical cavity was prepared with a concave shape and cavity along the root canal with a depth of 3 mm and retrograde obturation with MTA. 4th group (10 teeth - retrofilling with Biodentine. 5th group (8 teeth - control group - with preparation of the cavity after resection without retrofilling. The outer surface of the root is covered with two layers of varnish, with the exception of the apical 3 mm then immersed in 0.2% Rodamine B for 72 h. The degree of penetration of the dye is measured in millimeters. Results: Relative highest median value of penetration of the dye in mm is in the control group. MTA group has a higher value in mm versus the Biodentine. The apical preparation with a concave shape and cavity along the root canal with a depth of 3 mm after apicoectomy is important to reduce apical microleakage. Conclusion: Different apical cavity preparations in both types of material have led to the microleakage dye, but to varying degrees.

  8. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Melanie; Crisp, Peter A; d'Alessandro, Stefano; Ganguly, Diep; Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica; Pogson, Barry J

    2016-07-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen ((1)O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the (1)O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of (1)O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of (1)O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent (1)O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. PMID:27288360

  9. Technical difficulties and success of endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography in a group of patients

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    Pedro Juan Vázquez González

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography has been effective in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the biliopancreatic system. Objective: To determine the grade of technical difficulties and the success of cholangiopancreatography in a group of patients. Methods: prospective, descriptive, observational study that included all the patients who were tested through this procedure from January to December 2009 in the hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” from Cienfuegos. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied so the sample was composed by 34 patients. In order to define the technical difficulty of this test Madhotra’s difficulty modified test was used. Results: 67,6 % of the patients were males. Age comprised the interval from 31 to 90 years old patients with a mean age of 60.8±16 years. Cholestatic icterus was the predominant medical indication in (55,9 %, followed by choledocholitiasis (26,5 %. Echogram showed normal results in 41,2 % of the patients. The most frequent diagnosis of this test was postcholecystectomy with dilated biliary tract (17,6 % followed by choledocho and cholelithiasis (14,7 % each one. The grade of technical difficulty was 1 in 91,2 %, grade 2 in 8,8 %. A complete technical success was obtained in 55,9 %, partial success was obtained in 32,3 % and the attempt failed in 11,8 % of the patients. Conclusion: the grade of technical difficulty can influence upon the success of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography. Its usefulness has been demonstrated with a minimum amount of complications for the patient.

  10. Oral allopurinol to prevent hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hector Martinez-Torres; Xochilt Rodriguez-Lomeli; Carlos Davalos-Cobian; Jesus Garcia-Correa; Juan Manuel Maldonado-Martinez; Fabiola Medrano-Mu(n)oz; Clotilde Fuentes-Orozco; Alejandro Gonzalez-Ojeda

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of allopurinol to prevent hyperamylasemia and pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (PEP). METHODS: One hundred and seventy patients were enrolled and randomized to two groups: a study group ( n = 85) who received 300 mg of oral allopurinol at 15 h and 3 h before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and a control group ( n = 85) receiving an oral placebo at the same times. Main Outcome Measurements included serum amylase levels and the number severity of the episodes of pancreatitis. Serum amylase levels were classified as normal (<150 IU/L) or hyperamylasemia (>151 IU/L). Episodes of PEP were classified following Ranson's criteria and CT severity index. RESULTS: Gender distribution was similar between groups. Mean age was 53.5 ± 18.9 years for study group and 52.8 ± 19.8 years for controls. Also, the distribution of benign pathology was similar between groups. Hyperamylasemia was more common in the control group ( P = 0.003). Mild PEP developed in two patients from the study group (2.3%) and eight (9.4%) from control group ( P = 0.04), seven episodes were observed in high-risk patients of the control group (25%) and one in the allopurinol group (3.3%, P = 0.02). Risk factors for PEP were precut sphincterotomy ( P = 0.02),pancreatic duct manipulation ( P = 0.002) and multiple procedures ( P = 0.000). There were no deaths or side effects.CONCLUSION: Oral allopurinol before ERCP decreased the incidences of hyperamylasemia and pancreatitis in patients submitted to high-risk procedures.

  11. Pilot acute study of feedback-controlled retrograde peristalsis invoked by neural gastric electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neural gastric electrical stimulation (NGES) is a new method for invoking gastric contractions under microprocessor control. However, optimization of this technique using feedback mechanisms to minimize power consumption and maximize effectiveness has been lacking. The present pilot study proposes a prototype feedback-controlled neural gastric electric stimulator for the treatment of obesity. Both force-based and inter-electrode impedance-based feedback neurostimulators were implemented and tested. Four mongrel dogs (2 M, 2 F, weight 14.9 ± 2.3 kg) underwent subserosal implantation of two-channel, 1 cm, bipolar electrode leads and two force transducers in the distal antrum. Two of the dogs were stimulated with a force feedback system utilizing the force transducers, and the other two animals were stimulated utilizing an inter-electrode impedance-based feedback system utilizing the proximal electrode leads. Both feedback systems were able to recognize erythromycin-driven contractions of the stomach and were capable of overriding them with NGES-invoked retrograde contractions which exceeded the magnitudes of the erythromycin-driven contractions by an average of 100.6 ± 33.5% in all animals. The NGES-invoked contractions blocked the erythromycin-driven contractions past the proximal electrode pair and induced temporary gastroparesis in the vicinity of the distal force transducer despite the continuing erythromycin infusion. The amplitudes of the erythromycin-invoked contractions in the vicinity of the proximal force transducer decreased abruptly by an average of 47.9 ± 6.3% in all four dogs after triggering-invoked retrograde contractions, regardless of the specific feedback-controlled mechanism. The proposed technique could be helpful for retaining food longer in the stomach, thus inducing early satiety and diminishing food intake

  12. Exoplanets in binary star systems: on the switch from prograde to retrograde orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. P. S.; Mourão, D. C.; de Moraes, R. Vilhena; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-01-01

    The eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism, based on the secular theory, has been proposed as a mechanism that plays an important role in producing orbits that switch from prograde to retrograde. In the present work we study the secular dynamics of a triple system composed of a Sun-like central star and a Jupiter-like planet, which are under the gravitational influence of another perturbing star (brown dwarf). The perturbation potential is developed in closed form up to the fifth order in a small parameter (α =a1/a2), where a1 is the semimajor axis of the extrasolar planet and a2 is the semimajor axis of the perturbing star. To eliminate the short-period terms of the perturbation potential, the double-average method is applied. In this work we do not eliminate the nodes, a standard method in the literature, before deriving the equations of motion. The main goal is to study the effects of the higher-order terms of the expansion of the perturbing force due to the third body in the orbital evolution of the planet. In particular, we investigate the inclination and the shape (eccentricity) of these orbits. We show the importance of the higher-order terms in changing the inversion times of the flip, i.e., the times where the inclination of the inner planet flips from prograde to retrograde trajectories. We also show the dependence of the first flip with respect to the semimajor axis and eccentricity of the orbit of the planet. The general conclusion is that the analytical model increases its accuracy with the inclusion of higher-order terms. We also performed full numerical integrations using the Bulirsch-Stoer method available in the Mercury package for comparison with the analytical model. The results obtained with the equations developed in this work are in accordance with direct numerical simulations.

  13. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the rat optic nerve by fluorogold spectrometry.

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    Christian van Oterendorp

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Disturbed axonal transport is an important pathogenic factor in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, an eye disease characterised by progressive atrophy of the optic nerve. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the optic nerve usually requires labour intensive histochemical techniques or expensive equipment for in vivo imaging. Here, we report on a robust alternative method using Fluorogold (FG as tracer, which is spectrometrically quantified in retinal tissue lysate. METHODS: To determine parameters reflecting the relative FG content of a sample FG was dissolved in retinal lysates at different concentrations and spectra were obtained. For validation in vivo FG was injected uni- or bilaterally into the superior colliculus (SC of Sprague Dawley rats. The retinal lysate was analysed after 3, 5 and 7 days to determine the time course of FG accumulation in the retina (n = 15. In subsequent experiments axona transport was impaired by optic nerve crush (n = 3, laser-induced ocular hypertension (n = 5 or colchicine treatment to the SC (n = 10. RESULTS: Spectrometry at 370 nm excitation revealed two emission peaks at 430 and 610 nm. We devised a formula to calculate the relative FG content (c(FG, from the emission spectrum. c(FG is proportional to the real FG concentration as it corrects for variations of retinal protein concentration in the lysate. After SC injection, c(FG monotonously increases with time (p = 0.002. Optic nerve axonal damage caused a significant decrease of c(FG (crush p = 0.029; hypertension p = 0.025; colchicine p = 0.006. Lysates are amenable to subsequent protein analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Spectrometrical FG detection in retinal lysates allows for quantitative assessment of retrograde axonal transport using standard laboratory equipment. It is faster than histochemical techniques and may also complement morphological in vivo analyses.

  14. Synthesis of partial stabilized cement-gypsum as new dental retrograde filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhasivam, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jung-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,Taiwan (China); Savitha, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ming-Xiang; Hsu, Chung-King [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Pin [School of Dentistry and Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    The study describes the sol-gel synthesis of a new dental retrograde filling material partial stabilized cement (PSC)-gypsum by adding different weight percentage of gypsum (25% PSC + 75% gypsum, 50% PSC + 50% gypsum and 75% PSC + 25% gypsum) to the PSC. The crystalline phase and hydration products of PSC-gypsum were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The handling properties such as setting time, viscosity, tensile strength, porosity and pH, were also studied. The XRD and microstructure analysis demonstrated the formation of hydroxyapatite and removal of calcium dihydrate during its immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on day 10 for 75% PSC + 25% gypsum. The developed PSC-gypsum not only improved the setting time but also greatly reduced the viscosity, which is very essential for endodontic surgery. The cytotoxic and cell proliferation studies indicated that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible. The increased alkaline pH of the PSC-gypsum also had a remarkable antibacterial activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new dental retrograde filling material PSC-gypsum was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PSC-gypsum cement has shown excellent initial and final setting time as 15-35 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It not only improved the setting time but also retain the viscosity, 2 Pa{center_dot}s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High alkaline pH of the cement had a remarkable antibacterial activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible.

  15. Synthesis of partial stabilized cement–gypsum as new dental retrograde filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study describes the sol–gel synthesis of a new dental retrograde filling material partial stabilized cement (PSC)–gypsum by adding different weight percentage of gypsum (25% PSC + 75% gypsum, 50% PSC + 50% gypsum and 75% PSC + 25% gypsum) to the PSC. The crystalline phase and hydration products of PSC–gypsum were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The handling properties such as setting time, viscosity, tensile strength, porosity and pH, were also studied. The XRD and microstructure analysis demonstrated the formation of hydroxyapatite and removal of calcium dihydrate during its immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on day 10 for 75% PSC + 25% gypsum. The developed PSC–gypsum not only improved the setting time but also greatly reduced the viscosity, which is very essential for endodontic surgery. The cytotoxic and cell proliferation studies indicated that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible. The increased alkaline pH of the PSC–gypsum also had a remarkable antibacterial activity. - Highlights: ► A new dental retrograde filling material PSC–gypsum was developed. ► PSC–gypsum cement has shown excellent initial and final setting time as 15–35 min. ► It not only improved the setting time but also retain the viscosity, 2 Pa·s. ► High alkaline pH of the cement had a remarkable antibacterial activity. ► Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible.

  16. Sources of sensory innervation of the hip joint capsule in the rabbit - a retrograde tracing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, A; Chrószcz, A; Janeczek, M; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the sensory innervation of the hip joint capsule in the rabbit. Individual animals were injected with retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) into the lateral aspect of the left hip joint capsule (group LAT, n = 5) or into the medial aspect of the hip joint capsule (group MED, n = 5), respectively. FB-positive (FB+) neurons were found within ipsilateral lumbar (L) and sacral (S) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from L7 to S2 (group LAT) and from L6 to S4 (group MED). They were round or oval in shape with a diameter of 20-90 μm. The neurons were evenly distributed throughout the ganglia. The average number of FB+ neurons was 16 ± 2.8 and 27.6 ± 3.5 in rabbits from LAT and MED, respectively. The largest average number of FB+ neurons in animals of group LAT was found within the S1 DRG (8 ± 1.7), while S2 ganglion contained the smallest number of the neurons (3.6 ± 1). In the L7 DRG, the average number of FB+ neurons was 6.2 ± 1.6. In rabbits of MED group, the largest number of FB+ neurons was found within the S1 DRG (13.4 ± 4), while the smallest one was found within the S3 ganglion (1.4 ± 0.4). In L6, L7, S2 and S4 ganglia, the number of retrogradely labelled neurons amounted to 1.6 ± 0.5, 4 ± 1.5, 4.4 ± 1.5 and 2.8 ± 1.7, respectively. The data obtained can be very useful for further investigations regarding the efficacy of denervation in the therapy of hip joint disorders in rabbits. PMID:23406258

  17. Bilateral Single-Session Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for the Treatment of Bilateral Renal Stones

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    Gokhan Atis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery in the treatment of bilateral renal stones. Materials and Methods From December 2008 to February 2012, 42 patients who had undergone bilateral single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS and laser lithotripsy were included in the study. The procedures were performed in the lithotomy position on an endoscopy table under general anesthesia, beginning on the side in which the stone size was smaller. Plain abdominal radiography, intravenous urograms (IVU, renal ultrasonography (USG and / or non-contrast tomography (CT scans were conducted for all patients. The success rate was defined as patients who were stone-free or only had residual fragment less than 4 mm. Results A total of 42 patients (28 male, 14 female with a mean age 39.2 ± 14.2 were included in the present study. The mean stone size was 24.09 ± 6.37 mm with a mean operative time of 51.08 ± 15.22 minutes. The stone-free rates (SFR were 92.8% and 97.6% after the first and second procedures, respectively. The average hospital stay was 1.37 ± 0.72 days. In two patients (4.7%, minor complications (Clavien I or II were observed, whereas no major complications (Clavien III-V or blood transfusions were noted in the studied group. Conclusions Bilateral single-session RIRS and laser lithotripsy can be performed safely and effectively with a high success rate and low complication rate in patients with bilateral renal stones.

  18. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

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    Yucel Colkesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalization, puncturing and cannulation of a tiny dorsalis pedis artery with a narrow bore [20-gauge (0.8 mm] intravenous cannula is described.

  19. Proficiency of virtual reality simulator training in flexible retrograde ureteroscopy renal stone management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-liang; ZHANG Yi; SUN Guo-feng; LI Ning-chen; YUAN Xue-li; NA Yan-qun

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive flexible ureteroscopy techniques have widely adopted in the management of patients with renal stones.We performed this study to investigate the value of virtual reality simulator training in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy renal stone treatment for catechumen.Methods Thirty catechumen,included 17 attending physicians and 13 associate chief physicians,were selected for study.The trainees first underwent 1-hour basic training to get familiar with the instrument and basic procedures,then followed by 4-hour practice on virtual reality simulators.Before and after the 4-hour training,all trainees undertake an assessment with task 7 program (right low pole calyces stone management).We documented for each trainee the total time of procedure,time of progressing from the orifice to stone,stone translocation and fragmentation time,laser operate proficiency scale,total laser energy,maximal size of residual stone fragments,number of trauma from the scopes and tools,damage to the scope and global rating scale (GRS).The proficiency of this training program was analyzed by the comparison of the first and second assessment outcomes.Results Significant improvement was observed in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy management of renal stone on virtual reality simulators after finishing the 4 hour special-purpose training.This was demonstrated by improvement in total procedure time ((18.37±2.59) minutes vs.(38.67±1.94) minutes),progressing time from the orifice to stone ((4.00±1.08) minutes vs.(13.80±2.01) minutes),time of stone translocation ((1.80±0.71) minutes vs.(6.57±1.01) minutes),fragmentation time ((4.43±1.25) minutes vs.(13.53±1.46) minutes),laser operate proficiency scale (8.47±0.73 vs.3.77±0.77),total laser energy ((3231.6±401.4) W vs.(5329.8±448.9) W),maximal size of residual stone fragments ((2.66±0.39) mm vs.(5.77±0.63) mm),number of trauma from the scopes and tools (3.27±1.01 vs.10.37±3.02),damage to the scope (0 vs.0.97±0

  20. Ankle fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail for sequela of lower extremity compartment syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu; MA Xin; ZHANG Chao; HUANG Jia-zhang; GU Xiang-jie; JIANG Jian-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of ankle fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail in the treatment of sequela of lower extremity compartment syndrome.Methods:Thirty-five cases of equinus deformity following tibiofibular compartment syndrome treated by means of ankle fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail from January 2001 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.The complications,the time needed for bony fusion of the ankle joint assessed by anteroposterior and lateral X-ray photographs as well as patients' subjective evaluation were recorded and analysed.Results: Among the 35 patients,15 had previously undergone surgical treatment twice on the same limb,13 had thrice and 7 had to be operated on four times before ankle fusion.An anterior midpoint approach to the ankle joint was adopted in 29 cases,while anterior midpoint approach plus a small incision on the posterior ankle joint was made in 17 cases,whereas lateral approach in 6 cases.Tarsus joint fusion was performed on 4 cases.The follow-up period ranged 6-124 months,averaged 40.6 months.Bone grafting was not performed in this series.Preoperative tibial shaft fracture occurred in one patient and was healed after conservative treatment.Incision dehiscence located at previous Achilles tendon incision was found in two patients.As a result,one received an intramedullary nail emplacement at calcaneoplantar part while the wound at anterosuperior part of the other one was healed by dressing change.Two patients failed to bony union 5 months postoperatively,in which one healed 10 weeks after retrieval of proximal tibial nail and another by iliac grafting.Terminal necrosis of the toe due to blood supply dysfunction was not found in this series.All the patients were satisfied with the ankle joint function postoperatively.The time for bony union on X-rays was 9.8 weeks on average.Except for one patient who demanded removal of intramedullary nail,all the intramedullary nails were not retrieved at

  1. Management of a large periapical lesion using Biodentine TM as retrograde restoration with eighteen months evident follow up

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    Ajinkya M Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to anterior teeth is a common event. It requires a treatment approach that assures the complete biologic healing and functional restoration of the tooth or teeth involved. A cystic lesion, which is unable to heal nonsurgically, heals well with surgical intervention and use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA as retrograde filling has been reported in literature. Another material with largely improved handling properties; Biodentine™ (Septodont, St. Maurdes Fossιs, France was introduced in 2011. It is a calcium silicate based material and manufacturers claim that it can be used for crown and root dentin repair treatment, repair of perforations or resorptions, apexification, and root end fillings. This article presents a case report of surgical management of a large cystic lesion using Biodentine™ as retrograde filling material which has not been reported in literature so far. Eighteen months radiographic follow-up exhibited completely healed cystic lesion.

  2. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN EKSTRAKSI LIPID TERHADAP GELATINASASI DAN RETROGRADASI TEPUNG MLINJO (Gnetum gnemon [Effects of Different Lipid Extractions on Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Bitter Nuts (Gnetum gnemon Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Agus Siswoyo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different lipid extraction on gelatinization and retrogradation of bitter nuts (Gnetum gnemon starch was studied by the measurement of starch-lipids complex formation using differential scanning calorimetry. The bitter nuts samples were extracted sequentially with hexane for surface lipid starch (SL and hot water-saturated butanol for internal lipid starch (IL. The gelatinization enthalpies of starch increased significantly with extracting step, but the starch-lipid complex enthalpies of SL and IL were statistically lower, when compared with the native starch. According to the Avrami equation, the retrogradation rate of native bitter nuts starch was slower than that of the SL or IL, whereas the retrogradation rate of IL was slower than SL. High number of starch-lipids complex could retard the retrogradation of bitter nuts starch during storage

  3. Motoneuron organisation of the muscles of the spinal accessory complex of the sheep investigated with the fluorescent retrograde tracer technique.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Clavenzani; Scapolo, P A; Callegari, E; Barazzoni, A M; Petrosino, G.; Lucchi, M L; Bortolami, R

    1994-01-01

    Retrograde transport of the fluorescent tracers Diamidino Yellow dihydrochloride and Fast Blue was used to determine the location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the sheep. We also considered whether in this species the sternocephalic, brachiocephalic, omotransversarius and trapezius muscles, i.e. the muscles of the spinal accessory complex, are supplied by more than one population of motoneurons. The spinal accessory nucleus extends as a single column of neurons from C1 to C7...

  4. Percutaneous Retrograde Recanalization of the Celiac Artery by Way of the Superior Mesenteric Artery for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 52-year-old man presented with recurrent postprandial abdominal pain, sitophobia, and progressive weight loss. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) due to subtotal occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and flush occlusion of the celiac artery (CA) was diagnosed. Retrograde recanalization of the CA by way of a collateral channel from the SMA was performed using contemporary recanalization equipment. The CA and SMA were then stented, resulting in sustained resolution of CMI-related symptoms.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase-positive afferent axons in mucosa of urinary bladder of adult cats: retrograde tracing and degeneration studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Kojima, Y.; Makiura, Y.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Maeda, T.

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AchE)-positive afferent axons in the mucosa of the cat urinary bladder were examined in the present experiments. Smallsized dorsal root ganglion cells containing AchE enzyme activity were labelled by injection of retrograde tracer (wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to enzymatically inactive horseradish peroxidase gold complex) into the bladder mucosa of adult cats. Results show that 48.9% (901184) of the labelled ganglion cells possesse...

  6. Targeting of Shiga Toxin B-Subunit to Retrograde Transport Route in Association with Detergent-resistant Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Falguières, Thomas; Mallard, Frédéric; Baron, Carole; Hanau, Daniel; Lingwood, Clifford; Goud, Bruno; Salamero, Jean; Johannes, Ludger

    2001-01-01

    In HeLa cells, Shiga toxin B-subunit is transported from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, via early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus, circumventing the late endocytic pathway. We describe here that in cells derived from human monocytes, i.e., macrophages and dendritic cells, the B-subunit was internalized in a receptor-dependent manner, but retrograde transport to the biosynthetic/secretory pathway did not occur and part of the internalized protein wa...

  7. Assessment of the effects of ketamine-fentanyl combination versus propofol-remifentanil combination for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Sayed Morteza; Loghmani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as a diagnostic and treatment procedure is used in most biliary tract and pancreatic. Either sedation or general anesthesia could be considered for this procedure. Combining a sedative with an opioid agent can provide effective moderate sedation. This study compared the impact of ketamine-fentanyl (KF) versus propofol-remifentanil (PR) on sedation scale in patients undergoing ERCP. Materials and Methods: As a double-blinded ran...

  8. Thylakoid redox signals are integrated into organellar-gene-expression-dependent retrograde signalling in the prors1-1 mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eTadini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations in organellar gene expression (OGE and the thylakoid redox state (TRS activate retrograde signalling pathways that adaptively modify nuclear gene expression (NGE, according to developmental and metabolic needs. The prors1-1 mutation in Arabidopsis down-regulates the expression of the nuclear gene Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase1 (PRORS1 which acts in both plastids and mitochondria, thereby impairing protein synthesis in both organelles and triggering OGE-dependent retrograde signalling. Because the mutation also affects thylakoid electron transport, TRS-dependent signals may likewise have an impact on the changes in NGE observed in this genotype. In this study, we have investigated whether signals related to TRS are actually integrated into the OGE-dependent retrograde signalling pathway. To this end, the chaos mutation (for chlorophyll a/b binding protein harvesting-organelle specific, which shows a partial loss of PSII antennae proteins and thus a reduction in PSII light absorption capability, was introduced into the prors1-1 mutant background. The resulting double mutant displayed a prors1-1-like reduction in plastid translation rate and a chaos-like decrease in PSII antenna size, whereas the hyper-reduction of the thylakoid electron transport chain, caused by the prors1-1 mutation, was alleviated, as determined by monitoring chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence and thylakoid phosphorylation. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the nucleus-encoded photosynthesis genes down-regulated in the prors1-1 mutant are expressed at nearly wild-type rates in prors1-1 chaos leaves, and this recovery is reflected in the steady-state levels of their protein products in the chloroplast. We therefore conclude that signals related to photosynthetic electron transport and TRS, and indirectly to carbohydrate metabolism and energy balance, are indeed fed into the OGE-dependent retrograde pathway to modulate NGE and adjust the abundance of chloroplast proteins.

  9. Massive hemobilia due to hepatic arteriobiliary fistula during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancretography: An extremely rare guidewir-related complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jeong Gu; Seo, Young Woo; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Weon, Young Cheol; Kang, Byeong Seong; Bang, Sung Jo; Bang, Min Seo [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an effective modality for diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic diseases, the risk for procedure-related complications is high. Hemorrhage is one of major complications of ERCP. Most ERCP-associated bleeding is primarily a complication related to sphincterotomy rather than diagnostic ERCP. We are reporting a case of massive hemobilia due to hepatic arteriobiliary fistula caused by guidewire-associated injury during ERCP, which was successfully treated with transarterial embolization of the hepatic artery.

  10. Comparative analysis of uniplanar external fixator and retrograde intramedullary nailing for ankle arthrodesis in diabetic Charcot′s neuroarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul S Shah

    2011-01-01

    Results: All five (100% patients treated by intramedullary nailing achieved radiological union on an average follow-up of 16 weeks. The external fixation group had significantly higher rate of complications with one amputation, four non unions (66.7% and a delayed union which went on to full osseous union. Conclusion: The retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibio-talar arthrodesis in Charcot′s neuroarthropathy yielded significantly better outcomes as compared to the use of uniplanar external fixator.

  11. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography as a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Panniculitis in a Post-Liver Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mithun; Reddy, Duvurru Nageshwar; Kiat, Tan Chee

    2014-01-01

    Post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatic panniculitis is a rare condition caused by fat necrosis following release of pancreatic enzymes into the bloodstream. No previous reports of pancreatic panniculitis have been reported in post-liver transplant subjects undergoing ERCP. We present a 63-year-old cryptogenic cirrhotic female post-cadaveric liver transplant who underwent ERCP for suspected biliary stricture and subsequently developed pancreatic panniculitis.

  12. A dispersive wave pattern on Jupiter's fastest retrograde jet at $20^\\circ$S

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, J H; Adamoli, G; Jacquesson, M; Vedovato, M; Orton, G S

    2016-01-01

    A compact wave pattern has been identified on Jupiter's fastest retrograding jet at 20S (the SEBs) on the southern edge of the South Equatorial Belt. The wave has been identified in both reflected sunlight from amateur observations between 2010 and 2015, thermal infrared imaging from the Very Large Telescope and near infrared imaging from the Infrared Telescope Facility. The wave pattern is present when the SEB is relatively quiescent and lacking large-scale disturbances, and is particularly notable when the belt has undergone a fade (whitening). It is generally not present when the SEB exhibits its usual large-scale convective activity ('rifts'). Tracking of the wave pattern and associated white ovals on its southern edge over several epochs have permitted a measure of the dispersion relationship, showing a strong correlation between the phase speed (-43.2 to -21.2 m/s) and the longitudinal wavelength, which varied from 4.4-10.0 deg. longitude over the course of the observations. Infrared imaging sensing low...

  13. The Spin of the Black Hole GS 1124-683: Observation of a Retrograde Accretion Disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Morningstar, Warren R; Reis, Rubens C; Ebisawa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine archival Ginga data for the black hole binary system GS 1124-683, obtained when the system was undergoing its 1991 outburst. Our analysis estimates the dimensionless spin parameter a=cJ/GM^2 by fitting the X-ray continuum spectra obtained while the system was in the "Thermal Dominant" state. For likely values of mass and distance, we find the spin to be a=-0.25 (-0.64, +0.05) (90% confidence), implying that the disk is retrograde (i.e. rotating antiparallel to the spin axis of the black hole). We note that this measurement would be better constrained if the distance to the binary and the mass of the black hole were more accurately determined. This result is unaffected by the model used to fit the hard component of the spectrum. In order to be able to recover a prograde spin, the mass of the black hole would need to be at least 15.25 Msun, or the distance would need to be less than 4.5 kpc, both of which disagree with previous determinations of the black hole mass and distance. If we allow f_col ...

  14. The Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatographic Manifestations of Histopathologically Diagnosed Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Obstructive Jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋; 龚彪; 卢乃熙; 刘南植

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the manifestations of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients of obstructive jaundice associated with HCC, 32 cases of histopathologically diagnosed HCC with obstructive jaundice were successfully examined with routine ERCP. 31 pa tients were demonstrated by ERCP as having malignant obstructive jaundice. Among them, 19were hepatic perihilar bile duct stricture, 7 bile ductile tumorous thrombus, 3 perihilar bile duct stricture complicated with thrombus, 2 metastasis to hilar lymph node, and 1 common bile duct stone as proven by sphincterotomy. The malignant perihilar stricture was all of type Ⅲ and IV by Bismuth standard of Klastin tumor. In patients identified as having bile duct tumor thrombus, by the Ueda classification, none was of type I and I ; 1 type Ⅲ a; 4 Ⅲ b; 2 type IV. HCC with ob structive jaundice was mainly caused by the malignant infiltration of tumor, and most stricture was of serious nature. When major extra-hepatic bile duct was involved by tumor thrombus, obstructive jaundice might develop. Malignant perihilar stricture and tumor thrombus might coexist in some patients. Jaundice was rarely caused by hepatic hilar lymph node metastasis. Jaundice was not necessarily caused by tumors and sometimes, it might be caused by common bile stones. Care should be exercised in differentiation diagnosis in such patients.

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao Itoi; Fumihide Itokawa; Atsushi Sofuni; Toshio Kurihara; Takayoshi Tsuchiya; Kentaro Ishii; Shujiro Tsuji; Nobuhito Ikeuchi; Fuminori Moriyasu

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided biliary drainage was performed for treatment of patients who have obstructive jaundice in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In the present study, we introduced the feasibility and outcome of EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy in four patients who failed in ERCP. We performed the procedure in 2 papilla of Vater, including one resectable case, and 2 cases of cancer of the head of pancreas. Using a curved linear array echoendoscope, a 19 G needle or a needle knife was punctured transduodenally into the bile duct under EUS visualization. Using a biliary catheter for dilation, or papillary balloon dilator, a 7-Fr plastic stent was inserted through the choledochoduodenostomy site into the extrahepatic bile duct. In 3 (75%) of 4 cases, an indwelling plastic stent was placed, and in one case in which the stent could not be advanced into the bile duct, a naso-biliary drainage tube was placed instead. In all cases, the obstructive jaundice rapidly improved after the procedure. Focal peritonitis and bleeding not requiring blood transfusion was seen in one case. In this case, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and the surgical findings revealed severe adhesion around the choledochoduodenostomy site. Although further studies and development of devices are mandatory, EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy appears to be an effective alternative to ERCP in selected cases.

  16. Evaluation of radiation doses in patient and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure dose must be optimised because the hazard resulting from an interventional radiology procedure is long term depending on the patient. The aim of this study was to measure the radiation doses received by the patients and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Data were collected during 126 ERCP procedures, including the dose-area product (DAP), entrance dose (ED), effective dose (E), fluoroscopy time (T) and number of digital radiographs (F). The medical staff members each wore a personal thermoluminescence dosemeter to monitor exposure during ERCP procedures. The mean DAP, ED, E and T were 47.06 Gy cm2, 196.06 mGy, 8.93 mSv, 7.65 min and 9.21 images, respectively. The mean dose to the staff was 0.175 mSv and that to the assistant was 0.069 mSv. The dose to the medical staff was minimal when appropriate protective measures were used. The large variation in the patient doses must be further investigated. (authors)

  17. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-03-01

    Adverse reactions after intravascular administration of iodine contrast media are common and prophylactic regiments consisting of the use of steroids and low osmolality contrast media are highly effective in significantly decreasing the adverse reactions rate. The same type of contrast media are also used for opacification of the biliary tree and the pancreatic duct at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Systemic absorption of contrast media after ERCP routinely occurs. Although the adverse reaction rate appears to be very low the exact incidence remains unknown due to the retrospective nature of all reports. Despite the lack of formal recommendations, numerous prophylactic regiments are routinely used prior to ERCP in patients with history of prior reaction to intravascular contrast media. Moreover, the use of prophylaxis has even expanded to patients with no prior reaction to intravascular contrast media who are somehow perceived to be at increase risk (e.g. shellfish allergy). Recently, the first large scale prospective study reported exceedingly low incidence of adverse reaction to high oslmolality iodine-containing contrast media administered at the time of ERCP done without prophylactic premedication even in patients considered to be at the highest risk (prior severe reaction to intravascular contrast media administration). These data suggest that the use of prophylactic regiments prior to ERCP appears to be unnecessary. PMID:19275689

  18. Failed biliary cannulation: Clinical and technical outcomes after tertiary referral endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael P Swan; Michael J Bourke; Stephen J Williams; Sina Alexander; Alan Moss; Rick Hope; David Ruppin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Prospective evaluation of repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for failed Schutz grade 1 biliary cannulation in a high-volume center.METHODS: Prospective intention-to-treat analysis of patients referred for biliary cannulation following recent unsuccessful ERCP.RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (35 female; mean age: 62.5 years; age range: 40-87 years) with previous failed biliary cannulation were referred for repeat ERCP. The indication for ERCP was primarily choledocholithiasis (45%) or pancreatic malignancy (18%). Successful biliary cannulation was 100%. The precut needle knife sphincterotomy (NKS) rate was 27.4%. Complications occurred in 3.9% (post-ERCP pancreatitis). An identifiable reason for initial unsuccessful biliary cannulation was present in 55% of cases. Compared to a cohort of 940 na?ve papilla patients (female 61%; mean age: 59.9 years; age range: 18-94 years) who required sphincterotomy over the same time period, there was no statistical difference in the cannulation success rate (100% vs 98%) or post-ERCP pancreatitis (3.1% vs 3.9%). Precut NKS use was more frequent (27.4% vs 12.7%) (P = 0.017).CONCLUSION: Referral to a high-volume center following unsuccessful ERCP is associated with high technical success, with a favorable complication rate, compared to routine ERCP procedures.

  19. Identification of retrograde transport vesicles containing nerve growth factor in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Survival, differentiation, and development of responsive neurons are regulated by neurotrophins secreted from the target cells that they innervate. These responsive neurons must meet the challenge of transporting the neurotrophins chemical message from the target tissue to the soma; the distance of which may be a few millimetres to many meters. One hypothesis involves the formation of a signalling organelle at the neurite tip and subsequent retrograde axonal transport to the soma. This signalling vesicle is derived from the endocytosis of the neurotrophin-receptor complex. By modifying a method developed to isolate signalling endosomes from PC12 cells, we are able to isolate signalling vesicles from rat and mouse sciatic tissue. Approximately, 4 mole of I125 -labelled neurotrophin was injected into the rodent foot pad and the sciatic nerve ligated under 88 μ/g ketamine and 16 μ/g rompun (i.p.) anaesthetic. All experiments had the approval of the ANU animal ethics committee. We achieved a recovery of 23% and 34% in the mouse and rat respectively of total transported iodinated neurotrophin accumulating on the distal side of the ligation. The homogenized tissue was characterized via differential centrifugation, blotted, and probed using antibodies to the neurotrophin receptors. Electron microscopy confirmed that the membrane pellet containing the transported neurotrophin from this in vivo preparation contained vesicular structures. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  20. Kinetics on the turbidity change of wheat starch during its retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Soma; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2016-08-01

    Wheat starch dispersions of 10-40% (w/w) were gelatinized and the change in turbidity of each solution during storage was measured in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range. The relative transmittance, defined as the ratio of transmittance at any storage time to that at the initial time, decreased when the solutions were stored at 5 and 30 °C; the decrease, reflecting the progress of retrogradation, was larger at 5 °C than at 30 °C. Most of the changes in relative transmission taking place over 14 days were achieved during the first 90 min. The change in the relative transmittance is inversely proportional to the energy required for deformation. The kinetics on change in relative transmittance can be expressed by Weibull equation. The larger rate constant at higher starch concentration could be ascribed to the state of the starch granules, which depended on starch concentration. PMID:27088718

  1. THE SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE GS 1124–683: OBSERVATION OF A RETROGRADE ACCRETION DISK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We re-examine archival Ginga data for the black hole binary system GS 1124–683, obtained when the system was undergoing its 1991 outburst. Our analysis estimates the dimensionless spin parameter a * = cJ/GM2 by fitting the X-ray continuum spectra obtained while the system was in the ''thermal dominant'' state. For likely values of mass and distance, we find the spin to be a∗=−0.25−0.64+0.05 (90% confidence), implying that the disk is retrograde (i.e., rotating antiparallel to the spin axis of the black hole). We note that this measurement would be better constrained if the distance to the binary and the mass of the black hole were more accurately determined. This result is unaffected by the model used to fit the hard component of the spectrum. In order to be able to recover a prograde spin, the mass of the black hole would need to be at least 15.25 M ☉, or the distance would need to be less than 4.5 kpc, both of which disagree with previous determinations of the black hole mass and distance. If we allow f col to be free, we obtain no useful spin constraint. We discuss our results in the context of recent spin measurements and implications for jet production

  2. Axon Degeneration Gated by Retrograde Activation of Somatic Pro-apoptotic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David J; Pitts, Jason; Hertz, Nicholas T; Yang, Jing; Yamagishi, Yuya; Olsen, Olav; Tešić Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-02-25

    During development, sensory axons compete for limiting neurotrophic support, and local neurotrophin insufficiency triggers caspase-dependent axon degeneration. The signaling driving axon degeneration upon local deprivation is proposed to reside within axons. Our results instead support a model in which, despite the apoptotic machinery being present in axons, the cell body is an active participant in gating axonal caspase activation and axon degeneration. Loss of trophic support in axons initiates retrograde activation of a somatic pro-apoptotic pathway, which, in turn, is required for distal axon degeneration via an anterograde pro-degenerative factor. At a molecular level, the cell body is the convergence point of two signaling pathways whose integrated action drives upregulation of pro-apoptotic Puma, which, unexpectedly, is confined to the cell body. Puma then overcomes inhibition by pro-survival Bcl-xL and Bcl-w and initiates the anterograde pro-degenerative program, highlighting the role of the cell body as an arbiter of large-scale axon removal. PMID:26898330

  3. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-11-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  4. Retrograde intramedullary nailing in treatment of diaphysical femoral fractures in patients between 6 and 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study was carried out, with the object of determine the clinical evolution and surgical timing of treatment of diaphysical femoral fractures in patients between 6 and 12 years of age using retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. We followed 62 fractures in 62 patients (46 boys and 16 girls). The average follow-up time was 6 months (range 4 to 20 months). Average age of patients was 8.3 years. The time of duration for the surgical procedure averaged 52.6 minutes. Average in-hospital stay was 7.8 days. We did not have any cases of deep infection. There were 4 cases of superficial skin infection and 3 patients required reoperation due to protrusion of the medial nail under the skin. None of the patients had complications such as loss of range of motion, non-union, hardware failure, injury to the neither distal femoral physis nor heterotopic ossification. In conclusion we recommend this method as an excellent treatment modally for diaphyseal fractures of the femur in patients between 6 and 12 years of age

  5. Proteomic analysis of the Simkania-containing vacuole: the central role of retrograde transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Jo-Ana; Pons, Valérie; Becher, Dörte; Hecker, Michael; Krohne, Georg; Barbier, Julien; Berger, Hilmar; Rudel, Thomas; Mehlitz, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Simkania negevensis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that grows in amoeba or human cells within a membrane-bound vacuole forming endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. The membrane of this Simkania-containing vacuole (SnCV) is a critical host-pathogen interface whose origin and molecular interactions with cellular organelles remain poorly defined. We performed proteomic analysis of purified ER-SnCV-membranes using label free LC-MS(2) to define the pathogen-containing organelle composition. Of the 1,178 proteins of human and 302 proteins of Simkania origin identified by this strategy, 51 host cell proteins were enriched or depleted by infection and 57 proteins were associated with host endosomal transport pathways. Chemical inhibitors that selectively interfere with trafficking at the early endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) interface (retrograde transport) affected SnCV formation, morphology and lipid transport. Our data demonstrate that Simkania exploits early endosome-to-TGN transport for nutrient acquisition and growth. PMID:26374382

  6. Parameters That May Be Used for Predicting Failure during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Balik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is frequently used for the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic, biliary tract, and pancreatic disorders. However, failure during cannulation necessitates other interventions. The aim of this study was to establish parameters that can be used to predict failure during ERCP. Methods. A total of 5884 ERCP procedures performed on 5079 patients, between 1991 and 2006, were retrospectively evaluated. Results. Cannulation was possible in 4482 (88.2% patients. For each one-year increase in age, the cannulation failure rate increased by 1.01-fold (. A history of previous hepatic biliary tract surgery caused the cannulation failure rate to decrease by 0.487-fold (. A tumor infiltrating the ampulla, the presence of pathology obstructing the gastrointestinal passage, and peptic ulcer increased the failure rate by 78-, 28-, and 3.47-fold, respectively (. Conclusions.Patient gender and duodenal diverticula do not influence the success of cannulation during ERCP. Billroth II and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy surgeries, a benign or malignant obstruction of the gastrointestinal system, and duodenal ulcers decrease the cannulation success rate, whereas a history of previous hepatic biliary tract surgery increases it. Although all endoscopists had equal levels of experience, statistically significant differences were detected among them.

  7. WASP-17b: AN ULTRA-LOW DENSITY PLANET IN A PROBABLE RETROGRADE ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of the transiting giant planet WASP-17b, the least-dense planet currently known. It is 1.6 Saturn masses, but 1.5-2 Jupiter radii, giving a density of 6%-14% that of Jupiter. WASP-17b is in a 3.7 day orbit around a sub-solar metallicity, V = 11.6, F6 star. Preliminary detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect suggests that WASP-17b is in a retrograde orbit (λ ∼ -1500), indicative of a violent history involving planet-planet or star-planet scattering. WASP-17b's bloated radius could be due to tidal heating resulting from recent or ongoing tidal circularization of an eccentric orbit, such as the highly eccentric orbits that typically result from scattering interactions. It will thus be important to determine more precisely the current orbital eccentricity by further high-precision radial velocity measurements or by timing the secondary eclipse, both to reduce the uncertainty on the planet's radius and to test tidal-heating models. Owing to its low surface gravity, WASP-17b's atmosphere has the largest scale height of any known planet, making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy.

  8. WASP-17b: an ultra-low density planet in a probable retrograde orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Gillon, M; Triaud, A H M J; Smalley, B; Hebb, L; Cameron, A Collier; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; West, R G; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Horne, K; Lister, T A; Mayor, M; Parley, N R; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Ségransan, D; Udry, S; Wilson, D M

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting giant planet WASP-17b, the least-dense planet currently known. It is 1.6 Saturn masses but 1.5-2 Jupiter radii, giving a density of 6-14 per cent that of Jupiter. WASP-17b is in a 3.7-day orbit around a sub-solar metallicity, V = 11.6, F6 star. Preliminary detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect suggests that WASP-17b is in a retrograde orbit (lambda ~ -150 deg), indicative of a violent history involving planet-planet or planet-star scattering. WASP-17b's bloated radius could be due to tidal heating resulting from recent or ongoing tidal circularisation of an eccentric orbit, such as the highly eccentric orbits that typically result from scattering interactions. It will thus be important to determine more precisely the current orbital eccentricity by further high-precision radial velocity measurements or by timing the secondary eclipse, both to reduce the uncertainty on the planet's radius and to test tidal-heating models. Owing to its low surface gravity, WASP-17...

  9. VPS35 regulates developing mouse hippocampal neuronal morphogenesis by promoting retrograde trafficking of BACE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lei Wang

    2012-10-01

    VPS35, a major component of the retromer, plays an important role in the selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but its function in developing mouse brain remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for VPS35 promoting dendritic growth and maturation, and axonal protein transport in developing mouse hippocampal neurons. Embryonic hippocampal CA1 neurons suppressing Vps35 expression by in utero electroporation of its micro RNAs displayed shortened apical dendrites, reduced dendritic spines, and swollen commissural axons in the neonatal stage, those deficits reflecting a defective protein transport/trafficking in developing mouse neurons. Further mechanistic studies showed that Vps35 depletion in neurons resulted in an impaired retrograde trafficking of BACE1 (β1-secretase and altered BACE1 distribution. Suppression of BACE1 expression in CA1 neurons partially rescued both dendritic and axonal deficits induced by Vps35-deficiency. These results thus demonstrate that BACE1 acts as a critical cargo of retromer in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VPS35 plays an essential role in regulating apical dendritic maturation and in preventing axonal spheroid formation in developing hippocampal neurons.

  10. Assessment of patient dose and radiogenic risks during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Medical Radiologic Science, P. O. Box 1908, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E. [King Saud University, College of Applied Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Abuzaid, M. [University of Sharjah, College of Health Sciences, Medical Diagnostic Imaging Department, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Dalton, A.; Bradley, D., E-mail: Abdelmoneim_a@yahoo.com [University of Surrey, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, GU2-7XH, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an invasive technique that has been used for over 30 years in the diagnosis and management of pancreaticobiliary disorders. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the patient entrance surface air kerma doses (ESAK) and estimate the organ and effective doses during ERCP in three hospitals in Khartoum. A total of 55 patients were examined in three hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan. Calibrated thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD)-Gr-200-A)) were used to measure patients ESAK. The overall mean of ESAK for all ERCP procedures was 42.4 mGy. The mean patient ESAK in Fedail, Soba and Ibn sena centers were 26.7 mGy, 26.0 mGy, 72.4 mGy, respectively. The effective doses in three centers were 1.6, 1.56 and 2.67 mSv in that order and the overall mean effective dose was 2.01 mSv. Patient radiation doses vary widely among the different hospitals. Patient ESAK is low compared to previous studies in the light of the current practice. Patient dose was decreased significantly in the last two decades. (Author)

  11. Significance of C-reactive Protein in the Endoscopic Retrograd Cholangiopancreatography Related Pancreatitis

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    Mete Akin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP may be related with complications such as pancreatitis. C-reactive protein (CRP can be provides reliable informations about post-ERCP complications and their severity. In our study, the role of CRP levels in the follow-up post-ERCP pancreatitis was investigated. Material and Method: 476 patients, whom performed ERCP for different indications, were retrospectively evaluated. 136 patients with measurement of serum amylase, lipase and CRP levels before and 12-24 hours after the procedure were included the study. Alterations of these parameters in complicated and uncomplicated patiens were investigated. The role of CRP in the follow-up and prediction of severity of pancreatitis was investigated in 22 complicated patients with measurement of serum amylase, lypase and CRP levels 36-48 hours after the procedure. Pancreatitis were classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: Post-ERCP pancreatitis occured in 23 (17% patients (9 mild and 14 moderate pancreatitis. The mean CRP levels (mg/l at 12 to 24 hours were 23,5 ± 24,18 in uncomplicated patients, and 59,2 ± 44,87 in patiens with pancreatitis (p

  12. An unusual case of prolonged post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios Tziatzios; Paraskevas Gkolfakis; Ioannis S Papanikolaou; George Dimitriadis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Despite the effectiveness of endoscopic retro-grade cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the treatment of choledocholithiasis, various complications have been described. We herein report the ifrst case of prolonged post-ERCP jaundice due to toxicity of the contrast agent Iobitridol (®XENETIX, Guerbet, Roissy CdG Cedex, France) in a patient who underwent ERCP with sphincterectomy and common bile duct stone removal. While clinical improvement and nor-malization of aminotransferases and cholestatic enzymes after the procedure, an unexplained increase of direct bilirubin was noticed. A second ERCP was performed one week later, exclud-ing possible remaining choledocholithiasis. Nevertheless, se-rum direct bilirubin increased further up to 15 mg/dL. Other potential causes of direct hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out and patient’s liver biopsy was compatible with drug-induced liver toxicity. Additionally, the cause-result time connection between the use of Iobitridol and bilirubin increase indicated the possibility of a toxic effect related to the repeated use of the particular contrast agent. Iobitridol, a contrast agent, can induce prolonged direct hyperbilirubinemia.

  13. Mitochondria Retrograde Signaling and the UPRmt: Where Are We in Mammals?

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    Thierry Arnould

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial unfolded protein response is a form of retrograde signaling that contributes to ensuring the maintenance of quality control of mitochondria, allowing functional integrity of the mitochondrial proteome. When misfolded proteins or unassembled complexes accumulate beyond the folding capacity, it leads to alteration of proteostasis, damages, and organelle/cell dysfunction. Extensively studied for the ER, it was recently reported that this kind of signaling for mitochondrion would also be able to communicate with the nucleus in response to impaired proteostasis. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt is activated in response to different types and levels of stress, especially in conditions where unfolded or misfolded mitochondrial proteins accumulate and aggregate. A specific UPRmt could thus be initiated to boost folding and degradation capacity in response to unfolded and aggregated protein accumulation. Although first described in mammals, the UPRmt was mainly studied in Caenorhabditis elegans, and accumulating evidence suggests that mechanisms triggered in response to a UPRmt might be different in C. elegans and mammals. In this review, we discuss and integrate recent data from the literature to address whether the UPRmt is relevant to mitochondrial homeostasis in mammals and to analyze the putative role of integrated stress response (ISR activation in response to the inhibition of mtDNA expression and/or accumulation of mitochondrial mis/unfolded proteins.

  14. Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Kevin T; Mundell, Nathan A; Pan, Y Albert; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells. To date, their use has been largely restricted to mammals. In order to explore the use of such viruses in an expanded host range, we tested the transsynaptic tracing ability of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in a variety of organisms. Successful infection and gene expression were achieved in a wide range of organisms, including vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Moreover, rVSV enabled transsynaptic tracing of neural circuitry in predictable directions dictated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (G), derived from either VSV or rabies virus (RABV). Anterograde and retrograde labeling, from initial infection and/or viral replication and transmission, was observed in Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, jellyfish, zebrafish, chickens, and mice. These vectors are widely applicable for gene delivery, afferent tract tracing, and/or directional connectivity mapping. Here, we detail the use of these vectors and provide protocols for propagating virus, changing the surface glycoprotein, and infecting multiple organisms using several injection strategies. PMID:26729030

  15. Does Allopurinol Prevent Post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio- Pancreatography Pancreatitis? A Randomized Double Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nPost endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP pancreatitis is a frequent complication either for diagnosis or treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases. A number of pharmacological agents have been tried for prevention or alleviation of the complication. Allopurinol with free radical scavenger property has been considered as an effective prophylactic agent in some clinical trials. Administration of allopurinol in these trials was done in a long period before doing ERCP. Hence allopurinol converts to oxupurinol in the liver rapidly; it seems that clinical judgment about the net effect of allopurinol on prevention of post ERCP pancreatitis is doubtful. In this randomized double blind clinical trial, effect of allopurinol on prevention or alleviation of clinical and laboratory signs of pancreatitis has been evaluated in 74 patients undergoing ERCP. Results showed that there is not any difference between allopurinol and placebo in occurrence and severity of post ERCP pancreatitis (P=0.97. Also there is not any significant difference in amylase rises between 2 groups in 8 and 16 hours after ERCP (P=0.947, 0.287 respectively. Beneficial effects of allopurinol in some of the previous studies may be attributed to its active metabolite (oxypurinol. Further studies recommended about the net effect of allopurinol and oxypurinol in the complication.

  16. Evaluation of radiation doses in patient and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Deoknam; Kim, Kie Hwan; Kim, Jung-Su; Han, Seonggyu; Park, Kyung; Kim, Jungmin

    2016-03-01

    The radiation exposure dose must be optimised because the hazard resulting from an interventional radiology procedure is long term depending on the patient. The aim of this study was to measure the radiation doses received by the patients and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Data were collected during 126 ERCP procedures, including the dose-area product (DAP), entrance dose (ED), effective dose (E), fluoroscopy time (T) and number of digital radiographs (F). The medical staff members each wore a personal thermoluminescence dosemeter to monitor exposure during ERCP procedures. The mean DAP, ED, E and T were 47.06 Gy cm(2), 196.06 mGy, 8.93 mSv, 7.65 min and 9.21 images, respectively. The mean dose to the staff was 0.175 mSv and that to the assistant was 0.069 mSv. The dose to the medical staff was minimal when appropriate protective measures were used. The large variation in the patient doses must be further investigated. PMID:26269518

  17. MR urography versus retrograde pyelography/ureteroscopy for the exclusion of upper urinary tract malignancy

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    Lee, K.S., E-mail: kslee@bidmc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Zeikus, E. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); DeWolf, W.C. [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Rofsky, N.M.; Pedrosa, I. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) versus retrograde pyelography and/or ureteroscopy (RPU) in the detection of upper urinary tract neoplasms. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 35 patients with suspected upper urinary tract malignancy who underwent MRU and RPU within 6-months in our institution during the study period (February 2002 to January 2007). MRU and RPU reports were reviewed and results recorded. For each patient, the urinary tract was sub-divided into four regions for analysis: left kidney/renal pelvis, left ureter, right kidney/renal pelvis, and right ureter. MRU and RPU results for each patient were compared to a reference standard and the diagnostic performance of both techniques was compared. Results: A total of 113 regions were analysed on MRU and 90 regions on RPU. Nineteen neoplasms were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the detection of urinary tract neoplasms were 63, 91, 60, and 92% for MRU, respectively, and 53, 97, 83, and 88% for RPU, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The high negative predictive value of MRU in the present series supports its use as a non-invasive screening examination for excluding the presence of upper urinary tract malignancy.

  18. MR urography versus retrograde pyelography/ureteroscopy for the exclusion of upper urinary tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) versus retrograde pyelography and/or ureteroscopy (RPU) in the detection of upper urinary tract neoplasms. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 35 patients with suspected upper urinary tract malignancy who underwent MRU and RPU within 6-months in our institution during the study period (February 2002 to January 2007). MRU and RPU reports were reviewed and results recorded. For each patient, the urinary tract was sub-divided into four regions for analysis: left kidney/renal pelvis, left ureter, right kidney/renal pelvis, and right ureter. MRU and RPU results for each patient were compared to a reference standard and the diagnostic performance of both techniques was compared. Results: A total of 113 regions were analysed on MRU and 90 regions on RPU. Nineteen neoplasms were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the detection of urinary tract neoplasms were 63, 91, 60, and 92% for MRU, respectively, and 53, 97, 83, and 88% for RPU, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The high negative predictive value of MRU in the present series supports its use as a non-invasive screening examination for excluding the presence of upper urinary tract malignancy.

  19. Retrosplenial Cortical Contributions to Anterograde and Retrograde Memory in the Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark J; Mitchell, Anna S

    2016-06-01

    Primate retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is important for memory but patient neuropathologies are diffuse so its key contributions to memory remain elusive. This study provides the first causal evidence that RSC in macaque monkeys is crucial for postoperative retention of preoperatively and postoperatively acquired memories. Preoperatively, monkeys learned 300 object-in-place scene discriminations across sessions. After RSC removal, one-trial postoperative retention tests revealed significant retrograde memory loss for these 300 discriminations relative to unoperated control monkeys. Less robust evidence was found for a deficit in anterograde memory (new postoperative learning) after RSC lesions as new learning to criterion measures failed to reveal any significant learning impairment. However, after achieving ≥90% learning criterion for the postoperatively presented novel 100 object-in-place scene discriminations, short-term retention (i.e., measured after 24 h delay) of this well-learnt set was impaired in the RSC monkeys relative to controls. A further experiment assessed rapid "within" session acquisition of novel object-in-place scene discriminations, again confirming that new learning per se was unimpaired by bilateral RSC removal. Primate RSC contributes critically to memory by supporting normal retention of information, even when this information does not involve an autobiographical component. PMID:26946129

  20. Assessment of patient dose and radiogenic risks during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an invasive technique that has been used for over 30 years in the diagnosis and management of pancreaticobiliary disorders. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the patient entrance surface air kerma doses (ESAK) and estimate the organ and effective doses during ERCP in three hospitals in Khartoum. A total of 55 patients were examined in three hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan. Calibrated thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD)-Gr-200-A)) were used to measure patients ESAK. The overall mean of ESAK for all ERCP procedures was 42.4 mGy. The mean patient ESAK in Fedail, Soba and Ibn sena centers were 26.7 mGy, 26.0 mGy, 72.4 mGy, respectively. The effective doses in three centers were 1.6, 1.56 and 2.67 mSv in that order and the overall mean effective dose was 2.01 mSv. Patient radiation doses vary widely among the different hospitals. Patient ESAK is low compared to previous studies in the light of the current practice. Patient dose was decreased significantly in the last two decades. (Author)

  1. Status in physical properties of coloured rice varieties before and after inducing retro-gradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagi, HameedaBanu N; Singh, Vasudeva

    2015-12-01

    Three varieties of paddy in brown, red (non-waxy) and black (waxy) forms were de-husked and milled before and after inducing retro-gradation and their physical properties were studied. Normalized grain weight, porosity of parboiled paddy (PP) and its de-husked rice (DR), were high compared to their respective native. True and bulk density were lowest for black variety, its DR, its raw and parboiled forms compared to other varieties of paddy. Angle of repose increased from raw paddy to PP whereas it decreased from raw DR to parboiled DR. Under similar conditions of milling of DR, raw and parboiled milled rice of black variety was the darkest. Raw husk showed higher EMC compared to husk of parboiled. Hardness followed the pattern: Raw: Paddy (~230-280 N) > DR (~120-260 N) > Milled rice (~110 N); for parboiled: DR (~270-480 N) > PP (~260-425 N) > Parboiled milled rice (~250-340 N). Cooking time was high for DR of parboiled ones and least for waxy raw milled rice. Results of this study will be helpful in understanding the quality of pigmented rice cultivars, design and fabrication of some of the equipments in rice processing industry. PMID:26604348

  2. Role of ciprofloxacin in patients with cholestasis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thawee Ratanachu-ek; Pitchaya Prajanphanit; Kawin Leelawat; Suchart Chantawibul; Sukij Panpimanmas; Somboon Subwongcharoen; Jerasak Wannaprasert

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of ciprofloxacin in reducing cholangitis in cholestatic patients with adequate biliary drainage after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial was performed in 48 cholestatic patients at Rajavithi Hospital (Tertiary Referral Center for ERCP: 600 cases per year). All the 48 patients received 200 mg ciprofloxacin intravenous injection for 30 min before starting any procedures, and then were randomly divided in two groups. Twenty-two patients in study group continually received ciprofloxacin until 48 h after ERCP. Causes of biliary obstruction, bacteriology of bile and blood (in cholangitis) and clinical cholangitis were recorded.RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled and divided into continuous ciprofloxacin treatment group (n = 22) and discontinuous ciprofloxacin treatment group (n = 26). During ERCP, stones were found in 22 patients,malignant diseases in 24 patients and other pathologic lesions in 5 patients. One (4.5%) of the 22 patients who received ciprofloxacin and 2 (6.3%) of the 26 patients who discontinued ciprofloxacin after ERCP developed cholangitis (relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.14-3.65;P = 0.88). Bacterobilia was found in 27 (56.3%) out of 48 patients. E. coli and Streptococcus viridans were the most common organisms.CONCLUSION: Continual use of ciprofloxacin in patients with cholestasis after adequate biliary drainage procedures plays no role in reducing cholangitis.

  3. Gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt: treated by retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization to treat the gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. Methods: From Nov. 2006 to Jun. 2010, retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization was performed on 8 patients who had gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. All the patients were men and the age ranged from 40 to 61 years. The balloon catheter was inserted into the spontaneous gastrorenal shunt through the right femoral vein, then percutaneous transhepatic splenic vein venography was performed to identify the number and morphology of gastric varices. After that gastric varices embolization was performed while the balloon catheter was dilated, which was withdrawn one day after the procedure. Results: Technical success of interventional treatment was achieved in all 8 cases with no significant complications. The increase of average portal venous pressure was 5.5 cm H2O (1 cm H2O=0.098 kPa, preoperative 35.0 to 41.0 cm H2O, postoperative 39.0 to 45.5 cm H2O). After follow up of 1 to 46 months, no recurrence haemorrhage occurred. Conclusion: Retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization can be safely performed and could be one of the effective choices for patients who had gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt, which is not suitable to treat by the endoscopic sclerotherapy. (authors)

  4. Retrograde catheterization via politeal artery for the treatment of ipsilateral superficial femoral artery occlusive disease: its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect and application of retrograde catheterization via politeal artery in treating ipsilateral superficial femoral artery occlusive diseases. Methods: During the period from Jan. 2008 to June 2011, 15 patients with superficial femoral artery occlusive diseases were collected. A total of 17 narrowed or obstructed superficial femoral arteries were detected, including right (n=10) and left (n=7) femoral arteries. The length of the diseased artery ranged from 9 to 18 cm, with a mean of (12.5±6.8) cm. Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) through ipsilateral retrograde catheterization via politeal artery together with stent implantation was performed to reopen the narrowed or obstructed superficial femoral arteries. After the procedure all patients were followed up for 3-24 months. The clinical results were analyzed. Results: The therapeutic success rate was 100% (17/17). No serious complications occurred. After the treatment, the ischemic symptoms were markedly improved or even disappeared. In 89.47% of patients (17/19) the superficial femoral arteries remained patent during the follow-up period. The preoperative ankle brachial index (ABI) was 0.15-0.48 (mean 0.28), while the postoperative ABI was 0.69-1.05 (mean 0.88). The difference in ABI between pre-operation and post-operation was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: For the treatment of superficial femoral arterial occlusive diseases, PTA through ipsilateral retrograde catheterization via politeal artery together with stent implantation is a safe effective therapy. (authors)

  5. The Retrograde Ulnar Dorsal Flap: Surgical Technique and Experience as Island Flap in Coverage of Hand Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Flaps from the forearm are often used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects in the hand. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap has the advantage that it does not sacrifice a major vascular axis. The anatomic bases of this flap are the proximal and distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery. The distal branch is partially accompanied with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, and arrives under the abductor digiti quinti muscle making anastomoses with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. The proximal branch reaching the proximal third of the forearm, and anastomose with perforating branches of the ulnar artery. I used this island flap in 12 patients with coverage defects on the hand. The biggest flap was 13×6 cm. Only 1 flap had partial necrosis which did not lead to problems. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap is a flap designed with reverse flow from the distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery, and which does not sacrifice the ulnar artery. The donor defect on the forearm ulnar side had a greater esthetic acceptance. Knowing other distal anastomoses, described by other authors later, dorsal at the base of the fourth interdigital space grant greater security to the retrograde ulnar dorsal flap. It is worth highlighting the importance of preserving the adipofascial tissue around the pedicle. Experience with this flap permits us to state that it is a safe and reproducible flap to cover any defect on the dorsal of the hand as well as the first web space. PMID:26079665

  6. Retrograde fluoroscopy-guided trans-urethral exchange of ureteral stents: Comparison of direct grasping vs. modified snare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Francesco Grasso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several different techniques including guide-wire lasso, simple snare, modified snare (MS and direct grasping (DG, are available for retrograde ureteral stent retrieval and exchange. Choice among them is not always easy and depends on many different factors, including the local level of expertise. Objective: To compare the MS and DG during retrograde exchange of double-J ureteral stent under fluoroscopic guidance. Settings and Design: 66 patients (36 men and 30 women; mean age 66.6 years needing retrograde ureteral stent exchange were included. All stents were previously placed through an anterograde way. Materials and Methods: Time needed to grasp each single stent was recorded as well as the complications. Statistical Analysis: Fisher′s test was used to compare procedural time in both groups; P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 102 stents were exchanged. Mean time was 4.46 min for DG and 7.81 min for MS (P = 0.029. No significant complications were encountered. Conclusions: Compared to the MS, the DG is easier, quicker, and less expensive.

  7. Retrograde Tracing with Recombinant Rabies Virus Reveals Correlations Between Projection Targets and Dendritic Architecture in Layer 5 of Mouse Barrel Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, DeLaine D.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Edward M Callaway

    2008-01-01

    A recombinant rabies virus was used as a retrograde tracer to allow complete filling of the axonal and dendritic arbors of identified projection neurons in layer 5 of mouse primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in vivo. Previous studies have distinguished three types of layer 5 pyramids in S1: tall-tufted, tall-simple, and short. Layer 5 pyramidal neurons were retrogradely labeled from several known targets: contralateral S1, superior colliculus, and thalamus. The complete dendritic arbors of lab...

  8. Retrograde-viewing device improves adenoma detection rate in colonoscopies for surveillance and diagnostic workup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter D Siersema; Amit Rastogi; Anke M Leufkens; Paul A Akerman; Kassem Azzouzi; Richard I Rothstein; Frank P Vleggaar

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine which patients might benefit most from retrograde viewing during colonoscopy through subset analysis of randomized,controlled trial data.METHODS:The Third Eye(R) Retroscope(R) Randomized Clinical Evaluation (TERRACE) was a randomized,controlled,multicenter trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a retrograde-viewing auxiliary imaging device that is used during colonoscopy to provide a second video image which allows viewing of areas on the proximal aspect of haustral folds and flexures that are difficult to see with the colonoscope's forward view.We performed a post-hoc analysis of the TER-RACE data to determine whether certain subsets of the patient population would gain more benefit than others from use of the device.Subjects were patients scheduled for colonoscopy for screening,surveillance or diagnostic workup,and each underwent same-day tandem examinations with standard colonoscopy (SC)and Third Eye colonoscopy (TEC),randomized to SC followed by TEC or vice versa.RESULTS:Indication for colonoscopy was screening in 176/345 subjects (51.0%),surveillance after previous polypectomy in 87 (25.2%) and diagnostic workup in 82 (23.8%).In 4 subjects no indication was specified.Previously reported overall results had shown a net additional adenoma detection rate (ADR) with TEC of 23.2% compared to SC.Relative risk (RR) of missing adenomas with SC vs TEC as the initial procedure was 1.92 (P =0.029).Post-hoc subset analysis shows additional ADRs for TEC compared to SC were 4.4% for screening,35.7% for surveillance,55.4% for diagnostic and 40.7% for surveillance and diagnostic combined.The RR of missing adenomas with SC vs TEC was 1.11 (P =0.815) for screening,3.15 (P =0.014) for surveillance,8.64 (P =0.039) for diagnostic and 3.34(P =0.003) for surveillance and diagnostic combined.Although a multivariate Poisson regression suggested gender as a possibly significant factor,subset analysis showed that the difference between genders was

  9. When the past is lost: focal retrograde amnesia. Focus on the "functional" form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciari, Andrea; Fonti, Cristina; Guarino, Maria

    2008-01-01

    We report the clinical findings and neuropsychological profiles of a sample of patients exhibiting a focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) seen consecutively during the period 1992-2007. The cohort comprised 13 patients, five males, with a mean age of 30 years (range 16-49). They were given a neurologic examination, psychiatric interview and formal neuropsychological examination (all but one) during the amnesic phase, underwent neuroimaging, and were followed up for six months to ten years. All presented with an acute amnesia characterized by an impaired recollection of memories predating the acute event, with spared or minimally and transiently affected anterograde memory, thus consistent with FRA. The events triggering FRA varied widely: mild to severe head injury, road accident without head injury, seizure, dissociative fugue, BDZ overdose, posttraumatic headache, syncope, migraine attack, acute distress. The neuropsychological hallmark of FRA was a selective or prominent impairment of autobiographical memory. The defect was often so severe as to cover most or all of the patients' lives and, in some cases, to erase the knowledge of their own identity. Conventional neuroimaging (brain CT and MRI) was unimpressive. Cerebral SPECT/PET disclosed unilateral frontal hypoperfusion in three (two left). All but one patient fully recovered, time of recovery ranging from three days to six months. FRA is a condition reflecting a block of memory function triggered by heterogeneous events, including both physical and psychic insults. Analogies shared with the more frequently encountered and better known condition of transient global amnesia suggests common pathogenetic mechanisms. A tentative nosographic classification of FRA is finally offered. PMID:19641249

  10. The Retrograde Ventriculosinusal Shunt in an Animal Experimental Model of Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Fernando Campos Gomes; Becco, Rodrigo; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco; Souza, Podalyro Amaral de; Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, hydrocephalus treatment is performed mainly with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. This experimental study aims at assessing whether the experimental model of hydrocephalus in dogs is applicable to the laboratory study of the retrograde ventriculosinusal shunt (RVSS). Four mongrel dogs were assessed. After randomization, the animals were divided into two groups: an experimental group that underwent the induction of hydrocephalus/RVSS and a control group, for the measurement of the mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and pressure in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). The controls presented a mean arterial pressure of 68 mm Hg (71 and 65), an intracranial pressure of 163 mm H2O (149.6 and 176.8) and a pressure at the SSS of 40 mm H2O (40 and 40). The kaolin injection into the cisterna magna at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml was capable of inducing the clinical and radiological mechanism of hydrocephalus (intracranial pressure = 250 mm H2O, pressure at the SSS = 50 mm H2O). The caliber of the SSS was 2.5 ± 1.0 mm. The fact that the SSS caliber of the dog was the same size as the external diameter of the catheter used resulted in the complete obstruction of the SSS when the catheter was inserted. We believe we could design and perform an experimental model to test the RVSS. It is applicable and feasible. The model of hydrocephalus, the surgical apparatus and the scenario were adequate, but the shunt system needs to be proportionally made to the canine anatomy. PMID:26942592

  11. Double-balloon-enteroscopy-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in post-surgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Raithel; Harald Dormann; Andreas Naegel; Frank Boxberger; Eckhart G Hahn; Markus F Neurath; Juergen Maiss

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in post-surgical patients to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and interventions. METHODS: In 37 post-surgical patients, a stepwise approach was performed to reach normal papilla or enteral anastomoses of the biliary tract/pancreas. When conventional endoscopy failed, DBE-based ERCP was performed and standard parameters for DBE, ERCP and interventions were recorded.RESULTS: Push-enteroscopy (overall, 16 procedures) reached enteral anastomoses only in six out of 37 post-surgical patients (16.2%). DBE achieved a high rate of luminal access to the biliary tract in 23 of the remaining 31 patients (74.1%) and to the pancreatic duct (three patients). Among all DBE-based ERCPs (86 procedures), 21/23 patients (91.3%) were successfully treated. Interventions included ostium incision or papillotomy in 6/23 (26%) and 7/23 patients (30.4%),respectively. Biliary endoprosthesis insertion and regular exchange was achieved in 17/23 (73.9%) and 7/23 patients (30.4%), respectively. Furthermore, bile duct stone extraction as well as ostium and papillary dilation were performed in 5/23 (21.7%) and 3/23 patients (13.0%), respectively. Complications during DBE-based procedures were bleeding (1.1%), perforation (2.3%) and pancreatitis (2.3%), and minor complications occurred in up to 19.1%.CONCLUSION: The appropriate use of DBE yields a high rate of luminal access to papilla or enteral anastomoses in more than two-thirds of post-surgical patients, allowing important successful endoscopic therapeutic interventions.

  12. Locking plate versus retrograde intramedullary nail fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis A retrospective analysis

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    Chi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA surgery is indicated for the end-stage disease of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints.Although different fixation technique of TTCA has been proposed to achieve high fusion rate and low complication rate, there is still no consensus upon this point. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy of retrograde intramedullary nail fixation (RINF and locking plate fixation (LPF for TTCA. Materials and Methods: Fifty four patients who underwent TTCA through the lateral approach with lateral fibular osteotomy using RINF (32 patients, 18 male/14 female, mean age: 48 or LPF (22 patients, 12 male/10 female, mean age: 51 between January 2007 and January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics, surgery (operation time, blood loss outcomes (postoperative fusion rates, visual analog scale and foot and ankle surgery score and complications were compared. Results: The LPF group had a shorter operation time (72.3 ± 9.2 vs. 102.8 ± 11.1 min, P < 0.001, less blood loss (75.9 ± 20.2 vs. 140.0 ± 23.8 ml, P < 0.001 and less intraoperative fluoroscopy sessions (3.6 ± 0.9 vs. 8.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001 than the RINF group. Patients were followed up for 12-24 months (mean of 16.2 months. Both groups had similar postoperative fusion rates (90.6% and 95.4% and the LPF group showed a nonsignificant lower complication rate (18.2% vs. 28.1% respectively. Patients at higher risk on nonunion due to rheumatoid diseases may have a lower nonunion rate with LPF than RINF (one out of eight vs. three out of nine, P < 0.001. Conclusions: The LPF for TTCA was simpler to perform compared with RINF, but with similar postoperative outcomes and complication rates.

  13. Long-term Cre-mediated Retrograde Tagging of Neurons Using a Novel Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassana Oyibo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions contain diverse populations of neurons that project to different long-range targets. The study of these subpopulations in circuit function and behavior requires a toolkit to characterize and manipulate their activity in vivo. We have developed a novel set of reagents based on Pseudorabies Virus (PRV for efficient and long-term genetic tagging of neurons based on their projection targets. By deleting IE180, the master transcriptional regulator in the PRV genome, we have produced a mutant virus capable of infection and transgene expression in neurons but unable to replicate in or spread from those neurons. IE180-null mutants showed no cytotoxicity, and infected neurons exhibited normal physiological function more than 45 days after infection, indicating the utility of these engineered viruses for chronic experiments. To enable rapid and convenient construction of novel IE180-null recombinants, we engineered a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC shuttle-vector system for moving new constructs into the PRV IE180-null genome. Using this system we generated an IE180-null recombinant virus expressing the site-specific recombinase Cre. This Cre-expressing virus (PRV-hSyn-Cre efficiently and robustly infects neurons in vivo and activates transgene expression from Cre-dependent vectors in local and retrograde projecting populations of neurons in the mouse. We also generated an assortment of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins (mCherry, EGFP, ECFP. These viruses exhibit long-term labeling of neurons in vitro but transient labeling in vivo. Together these novel IE180-null PRV reagents expand the toolkit for targeted gene expression in the brain, facilitating functional dissection of neuronal circuits in vivo.

  14. Lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology from prograde and retrograde blueschist of the Franciscan Complex, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of ancient and active subduction zones are critically important to understanding processes of interplate coupling, crust-mantle recycling, and arc magmatism. Dating subduction metamorphism in order to constrain such processes, however, has proven extremely difficult. Lu-Hf dating of lawsonite, a critical index mineral of high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphism associated with subduction zones, provides a potentially powerful new tool for constraining subduction zone processes in a pressure-temperature window where few successful geochronometers exist. Broad application of lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology requires constraining the role of pressure-temperature path and lawsonite forming reactions on the Lu and Hf systematics within lawsonite and other blueschist facies minerals. We are working to address the role of the metamorphic path on the applicability of lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology within the Franciscan Complex of California. The Franciscan Complex preserves mafic high-grade exotic blocks in mélange that underwent a counterclockwise pressure-temperature path wherein garnet, which strongly partitions heavy rare-earth elements, formed prior to lawsonite. Coherent mafic rocks within the Franciscan Complex, however, underwent a clockwise pressure-temperature path and lawsonite growth occurred prior to garnet. We sampled two exotic blocks of lawsonite blueschist from the Berkeley Hills and Tiburon Peninsula of California. We collected four samples from coherent lawsonite blueschist from across the lawsonite - pumpellyite - epidote isograds in Ward Creek, near Cazadero California. Samples from retrograde exotic blocks contain lawsonite formed by garnet breakdown reactions that exhibit elevated Lu concentrations (>0.5 - 1.3 ppm) and 176Lu/177Hf ratios (low Lu concentrations and low 176Lu/177Hf ratios (low temperature lawsonite formed via the prograde breakdown of zeolite minerals may not be suitable for Lu-Hf geochronology.

  15. Preliminary diagnostic reference levels for endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography in Greece.

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    Tsapaki, V; Delinikolas, P; Paraskeva, K D; Paspatis, I A G; Scotiniotis, H; Georgopoulos, P; Voudoukis, E; Finou, P; Athanasopoulos, N; Lydakis, I; Giannakopoulos, A; Mathou, N; Angelogiannakopoulou, N; Triantopoulou, C; Karagiannis, J A

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the preliminary Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and fluoroscopy time (Tf) during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Additionally, an investigation was conducted to explore the statistical relation between KAP and Tf. Data from a set of 200 randomly selected patients treated in 4 large hospitals in Greece (50 patients per hospital) were analyzed in order to obtain preliminary DRLs for KAP and Tf during therapeutic ERCP procedures. Non-parametric statistic tests were performed in order to determine a statistically significant relation between KAP and Tf. The resulting third quartiles for KAP and Tf for hospitals (A, B, C and D) were found as followed: KAPA=10.7Gycm(2), TfA=4.9min; KAPB=7.5Gycm(2), TfB=5.0min; KAPC=19.0Gycm(2), TfC=7.3min; KAPD=52.4Gycm(2), TfD=15.8min. The third quartiles, calculated for the total 200 cases sample, are: KAP=18.8Gycm(2) and Tf=8.2min. For 3 out of 4 hospitals and for the total sample, p-values of statistical indices (correlation of KAP and Tf) are less than 0.001, while for the Hospital A p-values are ranging from 0.07 to 0.08. Using curve fitting, we finally determine that the relation of Tf and KAP is deriving from a power equation (KAP=Tf(1.282)) with R(2)=0.85. The suggested Preliminary DRLs (deriving from the third quartiles of the total sample) for Greece are: KAP=19Gycm(2) and Tf=8min, while the relation between KAP and Tf is efficiently described by a power equation. PMID:27068273

  16. Is it necessary to actively remove stone fragments during retrograde intrarenal surgery?

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    Lee, You Jin; Bak, Dong Jae; Chung, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Based on the experiences of our center, we sought to verify the necessity of actively removing stones during retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the management of renal stones. Materials and Methods From March 2010 to March 2015, 248 patients underwent RIRS at our center. We classified these patients into 2 groups according to the performance of active stone removal; group A (n=172) included the patients whose stones were actively removed using a stone basket, and group B (n=76) included the patients whose stones were fragmented with laser lithotripsy without active removal of the fragments. We retrospectively compared the operation time, success rate, and complication rate between the 2 groups. Results There were no significant differences between groups A and B in terms of mean age (56.1 years vs. 58.6 years), male to female ratio (115:57 vs. 46:30), mean body mass index (24.5 kg/m2 vs. 25.0 kg/m2), mean preoperative size of stone (11.1 mm vs. 11.1 mm), the ratio of unilateral and bilateral stones (136:36 vs. 64:12), success rate (89.0% vs. 86.8%), operation time (82.5 minutes vs. 82.1 minutes), overall complication rate (9.9% vs. 11.8%), incidence of febrile urinary tract infection (6.4% vs. 2.6%), gross hematuria (1.7% vs. 2.6%), or postoperative de novo hydronephrosis (2.9% vs. 5.3%). Conclusions This study demonstrated that during RIRS, fragmentation only, without the active removal of stones, is a safe and effective technique in which the surgical outcomes are comparable to those of procedures involving the active removal of stones. PMID:27437537

  17. Treatment of distal femoral nonunion and delayed union by using a retrograde intramedullary interlocking nail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the causes of distal femoral nonunion and delayed union and assess the outcome of the corresponding treatment, retrograde intramedullary interlocking nail (RIIN).   Methods: From June 1995 to December 1998, 15 patients (9 males and 6 females) with distal femoral nonunion and delayed union were treated with RIIN. The average age of the patients was 34.5 years (23-46 years). Bone grafting was performed in 10 patients, closed reaming was done in the other 5 patients. Correction osteotomy was performed in 2 patients, and intra-articular release of knee adhesion in 11 patients. X-ray examination and knee society clinical rating system (KSS) were used to evaluate the results.   Results: All fractures were followed up for at least 9 months with average follow-up duration of 14.5 months (9-33 months). Solid union was documented in all patients at 6.4 months on average. There were no infections or malunions in this series. Based on the final follow-up data, acceptable functional range of motion (ROM) of over 90° was achieved in most patients. The average ROM was 93.5° with significant improvement of 28° (42.7%, P<0.05) compared with the preoperative ROM. The average knee score was 96. Excellent ROM emerged in 13 patients. The knee function score was 90.5 on average.   Conclusions: The main causes of distal femoral nonunion and delayed union are improper indications and improper use of the implants. RIIN is an effective alternative for treatment of distal femoral nonunion and delayed union because it can provide a stable and reliable fixation which is beneficial for early functional exercise of knee. Bone grafting, closed reaming and intra-articular release of knee adhesion should be considered in order to enhance the bone healing and improve ROM and the knee function.

  18. N-acetylcysteine does not prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janusz Milewski; Grazyna Rydzewska; Malgorzata Degowska; Maciej Kierzkiewicz; Andrzej Rydzewski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common and often severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The early step in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is probably the capil lary endothelial injury mediated by oxygen-derived freeradicals. N-acetylcysteine - a free radical scavenger may be potentially effective in preventing post-ERCP acute pancreatitis and it is also known that N-acetylcysteine (ACC) can reduce the severity of disease in experimental model of AP.METHODS: One hundred and six patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Fifty-five patients were given N-acetylcysteine (two 600 mg doses orally 24 and 12 h before ERCP and 600 mg was given iv, twice a day for two days after the ERCP). The control group consisted of 51 patients who were given iv. isotonic saline twice a day for two days after the ERCP. Serum and urine amylase activities were measured before ERCP and 8 and 24 h after the procedure. The primary outcome parameter was post-ERCP acute pancreatitis and the secondary outcome parameters were differences between groups in serum and urine amylase activity.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis between two groups (10patients overall, 4 in the ACC group and 6 in the control group). There were also no significant differences in baseline and post-ERCP serum and urine amylase activity between ACC group and control group.CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine fails to demonstrate any significant preventive effect on post-ERCP pancreatitis, as well as on serum and urine amylase activity.

  19. Experimental study and clinical application of retrograde liberated highlyselective vagotomy for the treatment of duodenal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao Da Chen; Xiao Ming Lu; Wei You; Jian Ying Chen; Zhi Yi Luo; Jian Hua Liu

    2000-01-01

    AIM We introduce a new highly selective vagotomy (HSV) procedure which can completely destroy anyexisting variant vagal fibers innervating the proximal stomach.METHODS Twenty-eight dogs were divided into three groups: group A had retrograde liberated highlyselective vagotomy (RLHSV), group B had traditional HSV and group C as control group. Gastric acidsecretion function was tested and gastric parasympathetic and sympathetic enervation were studied byretrograde tracing the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or by histochemical staining. After being convincedthat the modified procedure was an easier and more effective HSV on animal model, we applied thetechnique to the treatment of duodenal ulcers in 100 patients.RESULTS Significant decrease of acid secretion was found in operated dogs in both group A and B. After injection of HRP subserously into the fundus and body, no HRP positive cells were found in the vagal dorsalnucleus in group A and B but were in group C. When HRP was injected into the antrum, HRP stained cellswere found in dorsal nucleus in all three groups. The negative histochemical staining of AchE and the positivefluorescence in the fundus and body in group A and B indicate that parasympathetic nerve fibers weredestroyed completely while norepinephrinergic nerve fibers were intact. When the operation was applied topatients, no severe complications or operative mortality occurred. Patients were followed up for 6- 84months. They all had complete gastric emptying function. Ninety-four patients were graded as Visick I orⅡ. Six as Visick Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Eighty patients had been followed up with gastroscopy for two years afteroperation. Four patients had recurrent ulcers. Among them two patients were asymptomatic and the othertwo had symptoms and were treated with partial gastrectomy.CONCLUSION Compared to the classic HSV, our modified procedure is more effective clinically andconvenient technically.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of retrograded starch nanoparticles through homogenization and miniemulsion cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongbo; Zheng, Jiong; Zhang, Fusheng; Kan, Jianquan

    2016-10-20

    A new and convenient route to synthesizing retrograded starch nanoparticles (RS3NPs) through homogenization combined with a water-in-oil miniemulsion cross-linking technique was developed. The RS3NPs were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design. Homogenization pressure (X1), oil/water ratio (X2), and surfactant (X3) were selected as independent variables, whereas particle size was considered as a dependent variable. Results indicated that homogenization pressure was the main contributing variable for particle size. The optimum values for homogenization pressure, oil/water ratio, and surfactant were 30MPa, 9.34:1, and 2.54g, respectively, whereas the particle size was predicted to be 288.2 nm. Morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties of the RS3NPs were the assessed. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering images showed that RS3NP granules were broken down to size of about 222.2nm. X-ray diffraction results revealed a disruption in crystallinity. The RS3NPs exhibited a slight decrease in To, but Tp and Tc increased and narrowest Tc-To. The solubility and swelling power were also increased. New peaks at 1594.84 and 1403.65cm(-1) were observed in the FTIR graph. However, homogenization minimally influenced the antidigestibility of RS3NPs. The absorption properties improved, and the adsorption kinetic described the contact time on the adsorption of captopril onto RS3NPs. In vitro release experiment indicated that the drug was released as follows: 21% after 2h in SGF, 42.78% at the end of 8h (2h in SGF and 6h in SIF), and 92.55% after 12h in SCF. These findings may help better utilize RS3NP in biomedical applications as a drug delivery material. PMID:27474611

  1. Molecular phylogenetics of the Anolis onca series: a case history in retrograde evolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kirsten E; Mijares-Urrutia, Abraham; Larson, Allan

    2006-09-15

    Anoles of the Anolis onca series represent a dramatic case of retrograde evolution, exhibiting great reduction (A. annectens) and loss (A. onca) of the subdigital pads considered a key innovation for the evolutionary radiation of anoles in arboreal environments. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of these anoles and their closest known relatives (A. auratus, A. lineatus, A. meridionalis, and A. nitens) using new mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the ND2 gene, five tRNA genes (tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr)), the origin of light-strand replication, and a portion of the CO1 gene (1,446 aligned base positions, 612 parsimony informative). Our results confirm monophyly of the A. onca series and suggest an evolutionary separation of approximately 10 million years between A. annectens and A. onca. Evolution of subdigital structure in this series illustrates ectopic expression of developmental programs that replace flexible subdigital lamellae of the toepad with rigid, keeled scales resembling dorsal digital scales. Our phylogenetic results indicate that narrowing of the toepad in A. auratus evolved separately from toepad reduction in the A. onca series. Expansion of the subdigital lamellae along the phalanges in A. auratus appears to compensate constriction of lamellae by digital narrowing, maintaining greater climbing capability in this species. Toepad evolution in the lineage ancestral to A. auratus features changes of the same developmental modules as the A. onca series but in the opposite direction. Large molecular distances between geographic populations of A. auratus indicate that its derived toepad structure is at least 9 million years old. PMID:16506231

  2. A comparative study of endoscopic ultrasonography versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in children with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Karaksy Hanaa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS is a less invasive modality and may be equal or superior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP in visualizing the biliary tree. Its role and feasibility in children need to be accurately defined. Aim: This study aimed at evaluation of EUS in assessment of children with chronic liver disease (CLD in comparison with ERCP. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out between September 2004 and February 2006 on 40 children suffering from CLD. Patients were selected from the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Children′s Hospital, Egypt. They were included if they had: sonographic (n = 8 or histopathological evidence of biliary pathology (n = 2; autoimmune hepatitis with high gamma glutammyl transpeptidase (GGT levels and/or not responding to immunosuppressive therapy (n = 15; cryptogenic CLD (n = 13; neonatal cholestasis with relapsing or persistent course (n = 2. They all underwent EUS and ERCP. Results: Three of six cases with intrahepatic biliary radicle dilatation had Caroli′s disease by EUS and ERCP; and the other 3 had sclerosing cholangitis. EUS was equal to ERCP in diagnosis of biliary pathology. However, one false positive case was described to have dilatation and tortuosity of the pancreatic duct by EUS as compared to ERCP. EUS could detect early pancreatitis in 5 cases. One case with cryptogenic liver disease proved to have sclerosing cholangitis by both EUS and ERCP. Conclusion: EUS is an important diagnostic tool for biliary pathology and pancreatitis in children with pancreatico-biliary pathology. ERCP should be reserved for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Application of retrograde dissection method for isolation of bone marrow cells from rat femurs and tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C M; Fu, B M; Zhang, L C; Tang, B; Zhu, L; Zhao, Y; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no practical and efficient method for the isolation of bone marrow cells (BMCs) from rat femurs and tibiae. Here, we attempted to develop a rapid, simple, effective, and non-contaminating method for the isolation of BMCs from rat femurs and tibiae. Rat femurs and tibiae were dissected from the ankle to the hip joint; subsequently, a three-step "locate-slide-twist" procedure was performed using scissors and forceps to remove the femurs and tibiae completely, from the surrounding musculature. The bones were flushed with phosphate-buffered saline to harvest BMCs. The femurs and tibiae were dissected in 1.8 ± 0.6 min, and the BMC suspension preparation time was 13.1 ± 2.3 min. The bone marrow cavities did not incur any fractures or injuries during the isolation. Culture of harvested BMCs for 72 h led to a significant increase in cell number from 4.4 ± 0.3 x 106 to 6.9 ± 0.7 x 10(6) (P 0.05). Microscopic examination of the isolated BMCs after the 72-h incubation period revealed the no-microbial or muscle cell contamination. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that cultured BMCs (72-h culture) grew well. Here, we have reported a rapid, simple, effective, and non-contaminating method for the isolation of BMCs from rat femurs and tibiae by using retrograde dissection. This method can be used to harvest a large number of viable BMCs without the risk of contamination from muscle and connective tissues. PMID:27323101

  4. Immune dysfunction in patients with obstructive jaundice before and after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Camara, Miguel; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Zaitoun, Abed M; Eremin, Oleg; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-09-01

    This prospective observational study investigated monocyte cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in patients with obstructive jaundice (OJ) before and after endoscopic biliary drainage. Dendritic cell (DC) subsets and their expression of co-stimulatory molecules were also studied. Forty patients with OJ and ten non-jaundiced patients with normal gastroscopy findings were recruited. Ten healthy volunteers provided control blood samples for immunological assays. Patients with OJ had blood and duodenal mucosa sampled at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and further blood sampled during the recovery phase. Monocyte cytokine responses to LPS, DC subsets and co-stimulatory molecule expression were compared with controls. Duodenal morphology and occludin expression were also assessed. Monocytes obtained before ERCP from jaundiced patients demonstrated reduced cytokine responses to endotoxin compared with controls (IL-1β: 2678 compared with 4631 pg/ml, P=0.04 and IL-6: 3442 compared with 6157 pg/ml, P=0.002). Monocytes from patients with malignancy had poorer responses to endotoxin than from those with benign OJ (IL-1β: 2025 compared with 3332 pg/ml, P=0.001). After ERCP, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes obtained from jaundiced patients increased (IL-1β: 2150 compared with 2520 pg/ml, P=0.03 and IL-6: 2488 compared with 3250 pg/ml, P=0.01). Occludin expression (85 compared with 95%, P=0.004) and mean duodenal villus height (334 compared with 404 μm, P=0.03) were lower in jaundiced patients. Before biliary drainage, patients with OJ had a higher percentage of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and greater mDC expression of CD40 (P=0.04) and CD86 (P=0.04). Monocytes from patients with OJ had lower proinflammatory cytokine secretion in response to LPS, an effect reversed following biliary drainage. PMID:27252406

  5. Retrograde wire-track based percutaneous transcatheter closure of persistent duct arteriosus: a new application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value and technique key point of retrograde wire-track based new application in percutaneous transcatheter closure of persistent duct arteriosus (PDA). Methods: From May 1998 to July 2005, 831 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure, 11 cases ( about 1.3% ) with anatomy too difficult to be antegradely approached and were closed by building femoral artery-PDA- pulmonary artery-femoral vein wire-track. The mean age of the 11 patients was (42±20) years (ranged from 8 to 76 years), the mean weight was (61±23) kg (ranged from 20 to 100 kg); the mean diameter of PDA was (4.1±1.9) mm (ranged from 1.6 to 6.7). Results: Wire-track were smoothly built up in all the 10 patients and then finished deployment according to Amplatzer method. The size of occluders were 6/4 mm (3 cases), 8/6 mm(4 cases), 10/8 mm(2 cases), 12/10 mm( 1 case), 14/12 mm(1 case). There was complete closure in 10 patients immediately, and tiny residual shunt in only 1 patient at the descending aortography. Twenty minutes later, the tiny residual shunt disappeared. There were no other complications. Conclusion: Deformed ostium and difficult anatomy of PDA leads to failure to track the delivery system to cross the ductus from the pulmonary artery. This new application by building femoral artery-PDA-pulmonary artery-femoral vein wire-track can overcome the technical difficulty safely and effectively. (authors)

  6. Comparison between retrograde and transeptal approach in radiofrequency catheter ablation of left accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, S; Choudhury, A K; Paul, G K; Rahman, M Z

    2015-01-01

    To study a series of patients submitted to radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) of left accessory pathways (AP) using the transeptal approach (TSA) as compared to the conventional retrograde arterial approach (RAA). Sixty consecutive patients (44 male; mean age of 35.60±11.63 years) with 60 left APs (39 overt and 21 concealed) underwent catheter ablation using the TS method (30 patients) and the RAA method (30 patients) in an alternate fashion. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The transeptal puncture was successfully performed in 29 patients (96%). This access allowed primary success in the ablation in all the patients without any complication. When we compared this approach with the RAA there was no difference as regards the primary success (p=0.103), fluoroscopy time (p=0.565) and total time (p=0.1917). Three patients in the RAA group presented a vascular complication. The TSA allowed shorter ablation times (p=0.006) and smaller number of radiofrequency applications (p=0.042) as compared to the conventional RAA. The patients who had unsuccessful ablation in the first session in each approach underwent with the opposite technique (cross-over), with a final ablation success rate of 100%.The TS and RA approaches showed similar efficacy and safety for the ablation of left accessory pathways. The TSA allowed shorter ablation times and smaller number of radiofrequency applications. When the techniques were used in a complementary fashion, they increased the final efficacy of the ablation. PMID:25725674

  7. Impact of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy on kidney functional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hoarau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate renal function and to identify factors associated with renal function deterioration after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS for kidney stones. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with renal stones treated by RIRS between January 2010 and June 2013 at a single institute. We used the National Kidney Foundation classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD to classify Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR in 5 groups. The baseline creatinine level was systematically pre-operatively and post-operatively evaluated. All patients had a creatinine blood measurement in June 2013. A change toward a less or a more favorable GFR group following RIRS was considered significant. Results: We included 163 patients. There were 86 males (52.8% and 77 females (47.3% with a mean age of 52.8±17 years. After a mean follow-up of 15.5±11.5 months, median GFR was not significantly changed from 84.3±26.2 to 84.9±24.5 mL/min (p=0.675. Significant renal function deterioration occurred in 8 cases (4.9% and significant renal function amelioration occurred in 23 cases (14.1%. In univariate analysis, multiple procedures (p=0.023; HR: 5.4 and preoperative CKD (p=0.011; HR: 6.8 were associated with decreased renal function. In multivariate analysis these factors did not remain as predictive factors. Conclusion: Stone management with RIRS seems to have favorable outcomes on kidney function; however, special attention should be given to patients with multiple procedures and preoperative chronic kidney disease.

  8. Metabolic Profiling of Retrograde Pathway Transcription Factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 Knockout Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah Hashim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rtg1 and Rtg3 are two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors found in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial retrograde (RTG pathway. Under RTG response, anaplerotic synthesis of citrate is activated, consequently maintaining the supply of important precursors necessary for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis. Although the roles of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in TCA and glyoxylate cycles have been extensively reported, the investigation of other metabolic pathways has been lacking. Characteristic dimer formation in bHLH proteins, which allows for combinatorial gene expression, and the link between RTG and other regulatory pathways suggest more complex metabolic signaling involved in Rtg1/Rtg3 regulation. In this study, using a metabolomics approach, we examined metabolic alteration following RTG1 and RTG3 deletion. We found that apart from TCA and glyoxylate cycles, which have been previously reported, polyamine biosynthesis and other amino acid metabolism were significantly altered in RTG-deficient strains. We revealed that metabolic alterations occurred at various metabolic sites and that these changes relate to different growth phases, but the difference can be detected even at the mid-exponential phase, when mitochondrial function is repressed. Moreover, the effect of metabolic rearrangements can be seen through the chronological lifespan (CLS measurement, where we confirmed the role of the RTG pathway in extending the yeast lifespan. Through a comprehensive metabolic profiling, we were able to explore metabolic phenotypes previously unidentified by other means and illustrate the possible correlations of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in different pathways.

  9. Anterograde transport blockade precedes deficits in retrograde transport in the visual projection of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Dengler-Crish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Axonal transport deficits have been reported as an early pathology in several neurodegenerative disorders, including glaucoma. However, the progression and mechanisms of these deficits are poorly understood. Previous work suggests that anterograde transport is affected earlier and to a larger degree than retrograde transport, yet this has never been examined directly in vivo. Using combined anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods, we examined the time-course of anterograde and retrograde transport deficits in the retinofugal projection in pre-glaucomatous (3 month-old and glaucomatous (9-13 month old DBA/2J mice. DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ mice were used as a control strain and were shown to have similar retinal ganglion cell densities as C57BL/6J control mice—a strain commonly investigated in the field of vision research. Using cholera toxin-B injections into the eye and FluoroGold injections into the superior colliculus (SC, we were able to measure anterograde and retrograde transport in the primary visual projection. In DBA/2J, anterograde transport from the retina to superior colliculus (SC was decreased by 69% in the 9-10 month-old age group, while retrograde transport was only reduced by 23% from levels seen in pre-glaucomatous mice. Despite this minor reduction, retrograde transport remained largely intact in these glaucomatous age groups until 13-months of age. These findings indicate that axonal transport deficits occur in semi-functional axons that are still connected to their brain targets. Structural persistence as determined by presence of estrogen-related receptor beta label in the superficial SC was maintained beyond time-points where reductions in retrograde transport occurred, also supporting that transport deficits may be due to physiological or functional abnormalities as opposed to overt structural loss.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of sealing ability of MTA and EndoSequence as root-end filling materials with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla Nagesh; Eppala Jeevani; Varri Sujana; Bharagavi Damaraju; Kaluvakolanu Sreeha; Penumaka Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Forty human single rooted teeth were taken. Crowns were decoronated and canals were obturated. Apically roots were resected and retrograde cavities were done. Based on the type of retrograde material placed and the typ...

  11. An extended fluorescence in situ hybridization approach for the cytogenetic study of cholangiocarcinoma on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brushing cytology preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, Larisa E; Papadhimitriou, Stefanos I; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Georgiakaki, Maria; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Romanos, Andreas; Dourakis, Spyridon P

    2013-10-01

    The cytological diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma has been significantly aided by applying a 4-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization system on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brushing smears, aiming mainly at the detection of hyperdiploidy. However, this approach adds little to our understanding of the genetic background of the disease. With the prospect of obtaining additional data on chromosomal aberrations, we have extended the fluorescence in situ hybridization study, with the application of 4 independent 2-probe systems in 35 patients with documented cholangiocarcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays were performed on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brushing smears, with probes for the 7q31, 11q13 (CCND1), 17p53 (TP53), and 9p21 (INK4 locus) bands, together with the respective centromeric probe. Hyperdiploidy, involving at least 2 of the 4 chromosomes targeted, was found in 31 patients. 17p13 deletion was detected in 3, and 9p21 deletion, in 5 of the hyperdiploid cases, with the 2 aberrations concurrent in 1. CCND1 amplification was found in 1 case as the sole abnormality and in another together with hyperdiploidy, but in apparently unrelated clones. This work indicates that interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is a practical and useful tool for the cytogenetic study of cholangiocarcinoma on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brushing smears, which is often the only available tissue specimen of the tumor. Apart from hyperdiploidy, it provides additional data on the genetic profile of cholangiocarcinoma, especially regarding structural chromosomal aberrations and clonal diversity. This line of investigation may prove useful in the delineation of oncogenesis and the interpretation of the diverse clinical features of the disease. PMID:23845469

  12. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the diagnosis and management of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiographical findings in four patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis one of whom had co-existent cholangiocarcinoma, are reported. The need for surgical exploration to make the diagnosis was averted by the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in one patient who was managed initially with medical treatment alone. Endoscopic cholangiography may be used to monitor the progress of the sclerosing lesions; but failure to fill the intrahepatic ducts is associated with a poor prognosis due either to the severity of the sclerosing process or the presence of coexistent cholangiocarcinoma. (author)

  13. Femoral Condyles Tangential Views: An Effective Method to Detect the Screw Penetration of Femoral Condyles After Retrograde Nailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Le Zheng; Xian Yu; Wei Chen; Yue-Ju Liu; Kun-Lun Yu; Tao Wu; Ying-Ze Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative knee soft tissue irritation is a common complication after retrograde nail fixation of femoral fractures.Distal locking screw prominence is one of the causes for soft tissue irritation.This study aimed to determine whether the use of the femoral condyles tangential views improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with anteroposterior (A-P) view in detecting distal locking screw penetrations during retrograde femoral nailing.Methods: The angle between the sagittal plane and lateral aspect of the condyle and the angle between the sagittal plane and medial aspect of condyle were measured on computed tomography (CT) images.After the angles were measured and recorded, cadaveric femurs were used in a simulated surgical procedure.The retrograde femoral nail was inserted into the femur and placed distal locking screws, which were left 2, 4, and 6 mm proud of the medial and lateral condyles for each femur.A-P view, lateral condyle tangential view and medial condyle tangential view were obtained.All fluoroscopic images were recorded and sent to three observers blinded to the experimental procedure to determine whether screws penetrated the condyle cortex or not.Results: According to the results of CT scan, the lateral condyle view was 20.88 ± 0.98° and the medial condyle view was 40.46 ± 3.14°.In the A-P view, we detected 0% at 2 mm penetration, 16.7% (lateral condyle screw) and 25.0% (medial condyle screw) at 4 mm, and 41.7% (lateral condyle screw) and 58.3% (medial condyle screw) at 6 mm.In the lateral tangential view, we detected 91.7% at 2 mm penetration of the lateral condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm.In the medial tangential view, we detected 66.7% at 2 mm penetration of the medial condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm.The femoral condyle tangential views provided significant improvement in detecting screw penetrations at all lengths (2, 4, and 6 mm) compared with the A-P view (P < 0.05).Conclusions: The femoral condyles

  14. Femoral Condyles Tangential Views: An Effective Method to Detect the Screw Penetration of Femoral Condyles After Retrograde Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Le Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative knee soft tissue irritation is a common complication after retrograde nail fixation of femoral fractures. Distal locking screw prominence is one of the causes for soft tissue irritation. This study aimed to determine whether the use of the femoral condyles tangential views improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with anteroposterior (A-P view in detecting distal locking screw penetrations during retrograde femoral nailing. Methods: The angle between the sagittal plane and lateral aspect of the condyle and the angle between the sagittal plane and medial aspect of condyle were measured on computed tomography (CT images. After the angles were measured and recorded, cadaveric femurs were used in a simulated surgical procedure. The retrograde femoral nail was inserted into the femur and placed distal locking screws, which were left 2, 4, and 6 mm proud of the medial and lateral condyles for each femur. A-P view, lateral condyle tangential view and medial condyle tangential view were obtained. All fluoroscopic images were recorded and sent to three observers blinded to the experimental procedure to determine whether screws penetrated the condyle cortex or not. Results: According to the results of CT scan, the lateral condyle view was 20.88 ± 0.98° and the medial condyle view was 40.46 ± 3.14°. In the A-P view, we detected 0% at 2 mm penetration, 16.7% (lateral condyle screw and 25.0% (medial condyle screw at 4 mm, and 41.7% (lateral condyle screw and 58.3% (medial condyle screw at 6 mm. In the lateral tangential view, we detected 91.7% at 2 mm penetration of the lateral condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm. In the medial tangential view, we detected 66.7% at 2 mm penetration of the medial condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm. The femoral condyle tangential views provided significant improvement in detecting screw penetrations at all lengths (2, 4, and 6 mm compared with the A-P view (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The femoral condyles

  15. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  16. Short-and long-term outcomes of kidney transplants with kidneys lavaged by retrograde perfusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Wu Han; Xiao-Dong Zhang; Yong Wang; Xi-Quan Tian; Jian-Wen Wang; Bu-He Amin; Wei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of the retrograde perfusion technique in kidney transplantation.Methods: Between January 2001 and June 2011, 24 cases of kidney transplantation with kidneys perfused using the retrograde perfusion technique due to renal artery variations or injury were selected as the observation group (retrograde perfussion roup, RP group).Twenty-two cases of kidney transplantation via conventional perfusion were chosen as the control group (antegrade perfussion group, AP group).There were no statistically significant differences in donor data between the two groups.Cold ischemia time, warm ischemia time, renal perfusion time, amount of perfusion fluid, acute renal tubular necrosis, wound infection, urinary fistula, graft kidney function, and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney in both groups were observed and recorded.Results: The kidney perfusion time was shorter in the RP group than that in the AP group (3.14 ± 1.00 vs.5.02 ± 1.15 min, P =0.030).There were 10 cases of acute renal tubule necrosis in the RP group and 5 in the AP group.The length of hospital stay was 40 ± 14 d in the RP group and 25 ± 12 d in the AP group.The follow-up time was 3.5-8.5 years (mean 6.25 years).The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney were 95.8%, 75.5%, and 65.5% in the RP group and 97.1%, 82.5%, and 68.4% in the AP group, respectively (P>0.05).Conclusions: This study indicates that retrograde perfusion is safe and practicable for cadaveric kidney harvesting and can be regarded as a better alternative or remedial measure for a poorly perfused kidney due to vascular deformity or injury.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  17. Retrograde ureteroscopic intrarenal surgery for large (1.6-3.5 cm) upper ureteric/renal calculus

    OpenAIRE

    M. Prabhakar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of retrograde ureteroscopic intrarenal surgery (RIRS) as a viable alternate to percutaneous nephrostolithotripsy (PCNL) in treating patients with renal and upper ureteric calculus of 1.6 cm to 3.5 cm stone burden. Materials and Methods: From October 2007 to November 2008, a total of 30 cases of upper ureteric and renal stone of 1.6 cm to 3.5 cm (Average size 2.5 cm) stone burden, for which PCNL would be done otherwise, were treated by RIRS with combined fl...

  18. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  19. Microleakage Evaluation Around Retrograde Filling Materials Prepared Using Conventional and Ultrasonic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Nagesh; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Vemuri, Sayesh; Chukka, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of the retrograde cavity preparation and the material used to restore is of utmost importance to achieve successful surgical endodontics. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the apical micro-leakage of root end cavities filled with Mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine and light cure GIC using two different cavity preparation techniques that is conventional bur preparation and ultrasonic tip preparation. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted single rooted human teeth (except mandibular incisors) with one canal, fully developed apices and without any major carious lesion are collected for the study. The teeth were sectioned at CEJ to standardize the length. Roots are instrumented upto master apical file 40 K size and obturated with gutta percha and AH plus sealer in lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then resected apically at 90° angle axis to the long axis of the root removing 3 mm of the apex. The teeth were divided in to four groups of 20 each- • Group I- samples restored with MTA. • Group II- samples restored with Biodentine. • Group III- (Positive control group)- samples restored with Light activated GIC. • Group IV - (negative control group)- no filling material. Each group is divided into two subgroups (a, b) of ten teeth each 1. Retropreparation done with ultrasonic retrotip. 2. Retropreparation done with conventional bur. The teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 h. The teeth were split longitudinally and the interface between the restored material and the canal wall is observed under Confocal laser scanning microscope. Depth of dye penetration was examined under stereomicroscope. Results: The statistical analysis was performed by One way ANOVA, t test. Pair wise comparision was done by Newman – Keuls multiple post hoc test. The mean values of Dye penetration for Group Ia (321.23), Group Ib (490.11), Group IIa (1065.14), Group IIb (1170.96), Group IIIa (1888.90), Group

  20. Computer animation in teaching science: Effectiveness in teaching retrograde motion to 9th graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Kristin Elmstrom

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether an instructional approach which includes computer animations is more effective than a traditional textbook-only approach in helping ninth grade students learn an abstract concept, in this case planetary retrograde motion. This investigation uses a quasi-experimental design with convenient sampling. The independent variable is the type of instruction provided to students; traditional text-based instruction (control group) compared to traditional instruction which also includes the viewing of 4 computer animations (treatment). Two conditions of the treatment examine the relative advantage of the order of the presentation of the animations and text-based instruction, as well as the quality of understanding and the retention of the learning over time. The dependent variable is student achievement which is measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Comparison of the independent variable to the dependent variable based upon the results from a Repeated Measure Factorial Design in ANOVA indicates that the treatment is an effective instructional technique. The posttest1 mean score of the treatment groups was significantly greater than the posttest1 mean score of the control group. Further posthoc tests indicate that there was no significant difference between the two treatments (1 and 2); read/animation versus animation/read. However, there was a significant difference in the mean score depending on the pathway, students enrolled in the A pathway achieved a significantly higher mean score after the treatment than students in the B pathway. The A pathway (n = 185) represent the larger heterogeneous population of students as compared to the B pathway (n=16) which includes students with lower cognitive abilities and special needs. When all of the students are included in the analysis the results indicate that students do not retain their understanding of the concept. However, when the students in the B

  1. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors : comparison of MR pancreatography(MRP) and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance pancreatography(MRP) is a non-invasive imaging technique for visualization of the pancreatic duct system, and is similar to those obtained by means of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP). To determine the role of MRP in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, the diagnostic confidence and imaginal difference of MRP and ERP were compared. Twenty patients(13 male and 7 female, mean age 59 years) with pancreatic tumors underwent MRP and ERP. The former involved the use of a single shot fast spin-echo sequence on a 1.5T system. All images were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist and a gastroenterologist, working together. Both MRP and ERP were compared for separate visualization of the head, body and tail portion of the pancreatic duct, and scored as excellent (4), good (3), fair (2), poor (1), or no visualization (0). In addition, the overall diagnostic confidence of both modalities was graded subjectively from non-diagnoses (0) to definite information (4). The final diagnoses derived from surgical findings (n=9) or imaging findings and clinical follow-up (n=7) were as follows : pancreatic cancer (n=12), mucin-producing pancreatic cancer (n=2), mucinous ductectatic tumor (n=4), serous cystadenoma (n=2). To assess the statistical significance of difference, the paired t-test was used. Mean scores of visualization of the pancreatic duct by MRP and ERP were 2.91 and 3.15 in the pancreatic head (p=NS), 3.11 and 2.18 in the pancreatic body (p=NS), and 3.07 and 1.09 in the pancreatic tail (p<0.01). The mean score of diagnostic confidence was 4.03 for MRP and 2.51 for ERP, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In 11 patients with obstruction of the pancreatic duct due to malignant lesions, MRP visualized the duct both proximally and distally to the site of obstruction, while ERP visualized only the distal duct to the site of obstruction. MRP was also better at defining the extent of tumor by visualization of surrounding pancreatic

  2. Surgical Success in Chronic Pancreatitis: Sequential Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Surgical Longitudinal Pancreatojejunostomy (Puestow Procedure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathryn; Paul, Anu; Harrison, Phillip; Davenport, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can be a cause of recurrent, severe, disabling abdominal pain in children. Surgery has been suggested as a useful therapy, although experience is limited and the results unpredictable. We reviewed our experience of a two-stage protocol-preliminary endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and duct stenting, and if symptoms resolved, definitive surgical decompression by longitudinal pancreatojejunostomy (LPJ) (Puestow operation). Patients and Methods This is a single-center, retrospective review of children with established CP who underwent an LPJ between February 2002 and September 2012. A questionnaire was completed (incorporating visual analog scale pain and lifestyle scores) to assess functional outcome. Data are expressed as median (range). Results In this study, eight (M:F ratio of 4:4) children underwent an LPJ and one female child had a more limited pancreatojejunostomy anastomosis following preliminary ERCP and stent placement where possible. Diagnoses included hereditary pancreatitis (n = 3), idiopathic or structural pancreatitis (n = 5), and duct stricture following radiotherapy (n = 1). Median duct diameter presurgery was 5 (4-11) mm. Endoscopic placement of a Zimmon pancreatic stent was possible in six with relief of symptoms in all. Median age at definitive surgery was 11 (range, 7-17) years with a median postoperative stay of 9 (range, 7-12) days and a follow-up of 6 (range, 0.5-12) years. All children reported markedly reduced episodes of pain postprocedure. One developed diabetes mellitus, while three had exocrine deficiency (fecal elastase < 200 µg/g) requiring enzyme supplementation. The child with limited LPJ had symptomatic recurrence and required restenting and further surgery to widen the anastomosis to become pain free. Conclusion ERCP and stenting provide a therapeutic trial to assess possible benefit of a definitive duct drainage procedure. LPJ-the modified Puestow

  3. Increased fat in pancreas not associated with risk of pancreatitis post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhrel B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bhupesh Pokhrel,1 Eun Kwang Choi,1 Omer Khalid,2 Kumar Sandrasegaran,3 Evan L Fogel,1 Lee McHenry,1 Stuart Sherman,1 James Watkins,1 Gregory A Cote,1 Henry A Pitt,4 Nicholas J Zyromski,4 Beth Juliar,1 Glen A Lehman11Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 2Department of Gastroenterology, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: A preliminary study has shown increased pancreatic fat in patients with idiopathic pancreatitis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to determine if an increased quantity of pancreatic fat is an independent risk factor for pancreatitis post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP.Methods: In this case control study, we retrospectively reviewed a local radiological and ERCP database to identify patients who had had abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI followed by ERCP no more than 60 days later between September 2003 and January 2011. Percentage of fat was determined by recording signal intensity in the in-phase (Sin and out-of-phase (Sout T1-weighted gradient sequences, and calculation of the fat fraction as (Sin - Sout/(Sin × 2 by an abdominal radiologist blinded to clinical history. Controls matched for age, gender, and other pancreatobiliary disease were selected from a group with no post-ERCP pancreatitis (before fat content of the pancreas was analyzed.Results: Forty-seven patients were enrolled. Compared with controls, subjects with post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar in terms of age (41.4 years versus 41.1 years, gender (21.2% versus 20.2% males, pancreatobiliary disease characteristics, and most ERCP techniques. Measurements of pancreatic head, body, and tail fat and body mass index were similar in patients and controls.Conclusion: Increased pancreatic fat on MRI criteria is not an independent

  4. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors : comparison of MR pancreatography(MRP) and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Ki Suh; Seo, Jung Hoon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Bok; Chung, Jae Joon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    Magnetic resonance pancreatography(MRP) is a non-invasive imaging technique for visualization of the pancreatic duct system, and is similar to those obtained by means of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP). To determine the role of MRP in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, the diagnostic confidence and imaginal difference of MRP and ERP were compared. Twenty patients(13 male and 7 female, mean age 59 years) with pancreatic tumors underwent MRP and ERP. The former involved the use of a single shot fast spin-echo sequence on a 1.5T system. All images were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist and a gastroenterologist, working together. Both MRP and ERP were compared for separate visualization of the head, body and tail portion of the pancreatic duct, and scored as excellent (4), good (3), fair (2), poor (1), or no visualization (0). In addition, the overall diagnostic confidence of both modalities was graded subjectively from non-diagnoses (0) to definite information (4). The final diagnoses derived from surgical findings (n=9) or imaging findings and clinical follow-up (n=7) were as follows : pancreatic cancer (n=12), mucin-producing pancreatic cancer (n=2), mucinous ductectatic tumor (n=4), serous cystadenoma (n=2). To assess the statistical significance of difference, the paired t-test was used. Mean scores of visualization of the pancreatic duct by MRP and ERP were 2.91 and 3.15 in the pancreatic head (p=NS), 3.11 and 2.18 in the pancreatic body (p=NS), and 3.07 and 1.09 in the pancreatic tail (p<0.01). The mean score of diagnostic confidence was 4.03 for MRP and 2.51 for ERP, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In 11 patients with obstruction of the pancreatic duct due to malignant lesions, MRP visualized the duct both proximally and distally to the site of obstruction, while ERP visualized only the distal duct to the site of obstruction. MRP was also better at defining the extent of tumor by visualization of surrounding pancreatic

  5. New precut sphincterotomy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in difficult biliary duct cannulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively investigate the effect and safety of various new type precut sphincterotomy techniques (VNTPST) in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) due to difficult biliary duct cannulation (DBC).METHODS: A plough-like pull-type sphincterotome (PLPTS) or improved short nose sphincterotome or improved needle knife was applied. VNTPST was carried out in 30 of 280 patients, whose biliary tract could not be exposed well or deep cannulation was difficult to perform during ERCP with traditional methods. Patients were followed up for short-term complications and the therapeutic effect of VNTPS was observed and compared with that of traditional endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST).RESULTS: A total 280 patients underwent ERCP, of which 3 failed in operation because of pathological features in stomch or duodenum, 247 successfully underwent traditional ERCP (89.1%, 247/277), 30 failed (10.8%, 30/277). VNTPS technique succeeded in 24(80%, 24/30) of 30 cases. The successful rate of deep biliary duct cannulation increased 8.6% (24/277), the total cannulation successful rate following precut was 97.7%. There was a significant difference between the two groups (97.7% vs 89.1%, χ2= 17.1, P < 0.01).The incidence of complications was 9.3% (26/277) for traditional ERCP group and 13.3% (4/30) for VNTPS technique group. Guideline tip was broken in pancreatic duct (KPDGP) of one patient, and there was no pancreatitis, slight or moderate bleeding postoperatively occurred in 2 patients, 1 patient had bleeding during operation (PDWN). There were no differences between VNTPS technique group and traditional ERCP(TRERCP)group (13.3% vs 9.3%,χ2 = 0.478, P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: VNTPS procedure and Deng's precut are highly effective methods to get biliary access during ERCP with DBC. With skillful techniques, it can increase the successful rate for deep cannulation of biliary duct and decrease complications. VNTPS technique, especially Deng's precut is as effective and

  6. DEĞİŞİK RETROGRAD DOLGU MADDELERİNİN MİKROSIZINTI YÖNÜNDEN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ* MICROLEAKAGE OF DIFFERENT RETROGRADE MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Haznedaroğlu, Faruk; SÜBAY, RÜSTEM KEMAL; Tank, Kutlu; Aşcı, Selmin

    2012-01-01

    ÖzetBu çalışma, retrograd dolgu uygulamalarında kullanılan kavite vernikli amal gam, gümüş cam iyonomer simam, güçlendirilmiş çinko oksit öjenol simam ve düşük ısılı enjekte termoplastik güta perkanın apikal sız-dırmazlık özelliklerini incelemek amacıyla planlandı. Kök kanalları genişletildi ve dolduruldu. Kök uçları re-zeke edildi ve retrograd dolgular için kaviteler hazırlandı. Dişler her hiri 10 dişten oluşan dört gruba ayrıldı. Ayrıca beş diş negatif kontrol, beş diş ise pozitif kontrol i...

  7. Biomechanical analysis of a synthetic femoral spiral fracture model: Do end caps improve retrograde flexible intramedullary nail fixation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Lucas M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastic Stable intramedullary Nailing (ESIN of dislocated diaphyseal femur fractures has become an accepted method for the treatment in children and adolescents with open physis. Studies focused on complications of this technique showed problems regarding stability, usually in complex fracture types such as spiral fractures and in older children weighing > 40 kg. Biomechanical in vitro testing was performed to evaluate the stability of simulated spiral femoral fractures after retrograde flexible titanium intramedullary nail fixation with and without End caps. Methods Eight synthetic adolescent-size femoral bone models (Sawbones® with a medullar canal of 10 mm and a spiral fracture of 100 mm length identically sawn by the manufacturer were used for each group. Both groups underwent retrograde fixation with two 3.5 mm Titanium C-shaped nails inserted from medial and lateral entry portals. In the End Cap group the ends of the nails of the eight specimens were covered with End Caps (Synthes Company, Oberdorf, Switzerland at the distal entry. Results Beside posterior-anterior stress (4.11 Nm/mm vs. 1.78 Nm/mm, p Conclusion In this biomechanical study the use of End Caps did not improve the stability of the intramedullary flexible nail osteosynthesis.

  8. THE 10,000 FOLD EFFECT OF RETROGRADE NEUROTRANSMISSION, A NEW CONCEPT FOR STROKE REVIVAL: USE OF INTRACAROTID SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA showed a level 1 benefit in acute stroke (within 3-6 hrs. Intracarotid sodium nitroprusside (ICSNP has been studied in this context with a wide treatment window, fast recovery and affordability. This work proposes two mechanisms for acute cases and one mechanism for chronic cases, which are interrelated, for physiological recovery. RETROGRADE NEUROTRANSMISSION (acute cases: Normal excitatory impulse: at the synaptic level, glutamate activates NMDA receptors, with nitric oxide synthetase (NOS on the postsynaptic membrane, for further propagation by the calcium-calmodulin complex. Nitric oxide (NO, produced by NOS travels backward across the chemical synapse and binds the axon-terminal NO receptor/sGC of a presynaptic neuron, regulating anterograde neurotransmission (ANT via retrograde neurotransmission (RNT. Heme is the ligand-binding site of the NO receptor/sGC. Heme exhibits >10, 000-fold higher affinity for NO than for oxygen (the 10, 000-fold effect and is completed in 20 msec

  9. Line-depth-ratio temperatures for the close binary nu Octantis: new evidence supporting the conjectured retrograde planet

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, David J

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibly that either star-spots or pulsations are the cause of a periodic radial-velocity signal (P~400 days) from the K-giant binary nu Octantis (P~1050 days, e~0.25), alternatively conjectured to have a retrograde planet. Our study is based on temperatures derived from 22 line-depth ratios (LDRs) for nu Oct and twenty calibration stars. Empirical evidence and stability modelling provide unexpected support for the planet since other standard explanations (star-spots, pulsations and additional stellar masses) each have credibility problems. However, the proposed system presents formidable challenges to planet-formation and stability theories: it has by far the smallest stellar separation of any claimed planet-harbouring binary (a_bin~2.6 au) and an equally unbelievable separation ratio (a_pl/a_bin~0.5), hence the necessity that the circumstellar orbit be retrograde. The LDR analysis of 215 nu Oct spectra acquired between 2001--2007, from which the RV perturbation was first revealed, have no sig...

  10. Evaluation of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration by bifocal distraction osteogenesis with retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Shogen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects.

  11. Mitigation of nociception via transganglionic degenerative atrophy: possible mechanism of vinpocetine-induced blockade of retrograde axoplasmic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csillik, Bertalan; Mihály, András; Krisztin-Péva, Beata; Farkas, Ibolya; Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Vinpocetine, a derivative of vincamine, widely used in the clinical pharmacotherapy of cerebral circulatory diseases, inhibits retrograde axoplasmic transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nerve, resulting in transganglionic degenerative atrophy (TDA) in the related ipsilateral superficial spinal dorsal horn, as shown in our previous publications. TDA induced by vinpocetine has been demonstrated to be followed by depletion of the marker enzyme fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and its isoenzyme thiamine monophosphatase (TMP), and by the decrease in the pain-related neuropeptide substance P from laminae I-II-(III) from the segmentally related, ipsilateral substance of Rolando of the spinal cord. In the present paper, we report on the behavioral effects of perineurally administered vinpocetine. Nociception, induced by intraplantar injection of formalin, was mitigated by vinpocetine; increased expression of c-fos in the ipsilateral, segmentally related upper dorsal horn was also prevented. Since vinpocetine is not a microtubule inhibitor, and its chemical structure differs from that of vincristin and vinblastin (used formerly by us in the therapy of intractable, chronic neuropathic pain), its mode of action is enigmatic. We assume that the effect of vinpocetine in blocking retrograde axoplasmic transport of NGF might be related to its interaction with membrane trafficking proteins, such as signalling endosomes and the endocytosis-mediating "pincher" protein. Temporary, locally restricted decrease of nociception, induced by vinpocetine, might be useful in the clinical treatment of intractable, chronic neuropathic pain, since vinpocetine can successfully be applied by transcutaneous iontophoresis. PMID:18413267

  12. Effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified White sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sorghum starches were chemically modified. ► Starch–lipid complexes were studied in the presence of emulsifiers. ► Type II complexes were also detected in native and oxidized starches on adding GMS. ► Starch–lipid complexes sharply reduced retrogradation in modified starches. - Abstract: The effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified white sorghum starches was studied. Complex forming tendency of white sorghum starch with commercially available emulsifiers GMS and DATEM improved after acetylation. Presence of emulsifiers reduced λmax (wavelength of maximum absorbance) both for native and modified sorghum starches suggesting lower availability of amylose chains to complex with iodine. In native white sorghum starch (NWSS) and oxidized white sorghum starch (OWSS), both Type I and Type II starch–lipid complexes were observed on addition of 1.0% GMS prior to gelatinization. Acetylated-oxidized white sorghum starch (AOWSS) formed weakest complexes among all the modified starches. The results revealed that antistaling characteristics of modified sorghum starches were enhanced when used in combination with emulsifiers. The most prominent decline in reassociative capability among modified starches was observed for acetylated starches.

  13. Rabies virus glycoprotein pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors enables retrograde axonal transport and access to the nervous system after peripheral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, N D; Azzouz, M; Rohll, J B; Ellard, F M; Wilkes, F J; Olsen, A L; Carter, E E; Barber, R D; Baban, D F; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; O'Malley, K; Mitrophanous, K A

    2001-09-15

    In this report it is demonstrated for the first time that rabies-G envelope of the rabies virus is sufficient to confer retrograde axonal transport to a heterologous virus/vector. After delivery of rabies-G pseudotyped equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) based vectors encoding a marker gene to the rat striatum, neurons in regions distal from but projecting to the injection site, such as the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, become transduced. This retrograde transport to appropriate distal neurons was also demonstrated after delivery to substantia nigra, hippocampus and spinal cord and did not occur when vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped vectors were delivered to these sites. In addition, peripheral administration of rabies-G pseudotyped vectors to the rat gastrocnemius muscle leads to gene transfer in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord. In contrast the same vector pseudotyped with VSV-G transduced muscle cells surrounding the injection site, but did not result in expression in any cells in the spinal cord. Long-term expression was observed after gene transfer in the nervous system and a minimal immune response which, together with the possibility of non-invasive administration, greatly extends the utility of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy of human neurological disease. PMID:11590128

  14. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Transfer to Renal Tubule Cells via a Retrograde Ureteral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gene therapy involves delivery of exogenous DNA to provide a therapeutic protein. Ideally, a gene therapy vector should be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, easy to produce, and efficient in protecting and delivering DNA into target cells. Methods: Adeno-associated virus (AAV offers these advantages and few, if any, disadvantages, and over 100 isolates exist. We previously showed that AAV-mediated gene therapy can be used to restore vision to patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis, a disease of childhood blindness. Results: Here we show that novel recombinant AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 transduce kidney tubule cells with high efficiency both in vitroin cell culture and in vivoin mice. In addition, we adapted and modified a retrograde approach to allow for optimal transgene delivery to renal tubular cells that further minimizes the risk of an immunogenic reaction. Conclusions: We believe that recombinant AAV2, especially AAV2/8, gene delivery to renal tubule cells via a retrograde approach represents a viable method for gene therapy for a multitude of renal disorders ranging from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to acute kidney injury.

  15. Comparative dynamics of retrograde actin flow and focal adhesions: formation of nascent adhesions triggers transition from fast to slow flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Y Alexandrova

    Full Text Available Dynamic actin network at the leading edge of the cell is linked to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs, and at the same time it undergoes retrograde flow with different dynamics in two distinct zones: the lamellipodium (peripheral zone of fast flow, and the lamellum (zone of slow flow located between the lamellipodium and the cell body. Cell migration involves expansion of both the lamellipodium and the lamellum, as well as formation of new FAs, but it is largely unknown how the position of the boundary between the two flow zones is defined, and how FAs and actin flow mutually influence each other. We investigated dynamic relationship between focal adhesions and the boundary between the two flow zones in spreading cells. Nascent FAs first appeared in the lamellipodium. Within seconds after the formation of new FAs, the rate of actin flow decreased locally, and the lamellipodium/lamellum boundary advanced towards the new FAs. Blocking fast actin flow with cytochalasin D resulted in rapid dissolution of nascent FAs. In the absence of FAs (spreading on poly-L-lysine-coated surfaces retrograde flow was uniform and the velocity transition was not observed. We conclude that formation of FAs depends on actin dynamics, and in its turn, affects the dynamics of actin flow by triggering transition from fast to slow flow. Extension of the cell edge thus proceeds through a cycle of lamellipodium protrusion, formation of new FAs, advance of the lamellum, and protrusion of the lamellipodium from the new base.

  16. Comparative dynamics of retrograde actin flow and focal adhesions: formation of nascent adhesions triggers transition from fast to slow flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Arnold, Katya; Schaub, Sébastien; Vasiliev, Jury M; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Bershadsky, Alexander D; Verkhovsky, Alexander B

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic actin network at the leading edge of the cell is linked to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs), and at the same time it undergoes retrograde flow with different dynamics in two distinct zones: the lamellipodium (peripheral zone of fast flow), and the lamellum (zone of slow flow located between the lamellipodium and the cell body). Cell migration involves expansion of both the lamellipodium and the lamellum, as well as formation of new FAs, but it is largely unknown how the position of the boundary between the two flow zones is defined, and how FAs and actin flow mutually influence each other. We investigated dynamic relationship between focal adhesions and the boundary between the two flow zones in spreading cells. Nascent FAs first appeared in the lamellipodium. Within seconds after the formation of new FAs, the rate of actin flow decreased locally, and the lamellipodium/lamellum boundary advanced towards the new FAs. Blocking fast actin flow with cytochalasin D resulted in rapid dissolution of nascent FAs. In the absence of FAs (spreading on poly-L-lysine-coated surfaces) retrograde flow was uniform and the velocity transition was not observed. We conclude that formation of FAs depends on actin dynamics, and in its turn, affects the dynamics of actin flow by triggering transition from fast to slow flow. Extension of the cell edge thus proceeds through a cycle of lamellipodium protrusion, formation of new FAs, advance of the lamellum, and protrusion of the lamellipodium from the new base. PMID:18800171

  17. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  18. Percutaneous transvenous balloon occlusion of arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure of arteriovenous fistulas, using a balloon catheter introduced through the vein draining the fistula, is discussed. The application of this method to the closure of an iatrogenic vertebrovertebral fistula is described. (orig.)

  19. Under X-ray guidance stent implantation through retrograde popliteal artery puncturing for the treatment of superficial femoral artery occlusion: the initial results in nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the application of retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance in the interventional therapy for superficial femoral artery occlusion. Methods: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance was carried out in nine patients with long-segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery as antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach had failed in them. After retrograde route was successfully established, the balloon dilation and subsequent stent placement for occluded vessel were performed. Results: The technical success was obtained in all patients. The occluded superficial femoral arteries were reopened and the symptoms of intermittent claudication disappeared. No serious complications such as injuries of adjacent nerves or vessels occurred. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) increased from preoperative (0.38±0.13) to postoperative (0.92±0.11) with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). A follow-up period lasting for 2-16 months was conducted. Eleven months after the treatment, intermittent claudication recurred in one case, and CT angiography showed that the distal part of the stent was narrowed. The symptoms were improved after percutaneous transcatheter angioplasty was performed again. Conclusion: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial femoral artery long-segment occlusion with stent placement, especially for patients in whom antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach fails. (authors)

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with retrograde intralumen contrast enhancement of the rectum in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer. Experience of application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usova, A.; Frolova, I.; Afanasev, S.; Tarasova, A.; Molchanov, S.

    2016-02-01

    Experiment of use of MRI in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer is shown on clinical examples. We used retrograde contrasting of a rectum with 150ml ultrasonic gel to make MRI more informative in case of low diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound, colonoscopy and gynecological examination.

  1. Laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct and removal of dead worm in a patient of cholangitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkoo Mushtaq

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a dead ascaris-induced extrahepatic bilary obstruction in a young female who presented with acute cholangitis. The dead ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of common bile duct after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure. Patient had an uneventful hospital course after the procedure and was discharged afebrile after 3 days of hospital stay.

  2. Selective Retrograde Venous Revascularization of the Myocardium when PCI or CABG Is Impossible: Investigation in a Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Nørgaard, Martin A; Gøtze, Jens P;

    2008-01-01

    (LIMA) was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary vein (LAD vein) in an off-pump procedure. The LAD vein was ligated proximal to the anastomosis. The LAD artery was ligated proximally. The physiological effects were monitored using microdialysis, tissue oxygen tension, blood flow in LIMA......We investigated the possibility of nourishing the myocardium through selective retrograde coronary venous bypass grafting (CVBG) with an off-pump technique and evaluated various methods of monitoring the physiological effects of this procedure. In a porcine model, the left internal mammary artery......, blood samples, and hemodynamic and histological analyses. As controls, 5 pigs underwent surgery involving only LAD artery ligation without CVBG. CVBG with LAD ligation was performed in 16 pigs; 12 survived CVBG and were monitored for 2-2.5 hours while in sinus rhythm, a 75% salvage rate after an...

  3. The diameter of main pancreatic duct on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and the appearance of main pancreatic duct on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out a comparative study of the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD) on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) with the fequency of detection of MPD by computed tomography (CT) in order to clarify the importance of MPD appearance on CT in the pancreatic and biliary diseases. The normal MPD on ERP was demonstrated by CT in a low frequency. MPD was most frequently observed in the pancreatic body on CT. The dilatation of MPD on ERP was found in both moderate and advanced pancreatitis group. However, the significant demonstration of MPD by CT was found in advanced group alone. We observed that CT finding of dilated duct correlated with that on ERP in advanced group alone. (author)

  4. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: casual parameters and duration of memory loss. Final report for November 84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron-beam exposure was investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task for 10, 1, and 0.1 microsecond pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 1,000,000 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (1,000,000 rad/s) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory system activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  5. A new metamorphic map of Syros Island (Aegean Sea, Greece): implications for strain localization from prograde to retrograde path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Roche, Vincent; Augier, Romain; Scaillet, Stéphane; Cardello, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean domain is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and has undergone a complex Alpine history that can be summarized in two successive episodes: (1) The formation of the Hellenides-Taurides belt due to the convergence between Eurasia and Africa; during this episode, a series of oceanic and continental nappes entered the subduction zone and were thrust on top of each other in a HP-LT metamorphic context. (2) From 35-30 Ma, an acceleration of slab retreat led to the collapse of the belt and the formation of large detachments. The island of Syros (Cycladic Blueschists belt) is worldwide known for the excellent preservation of HP-LT tectonic and metamorphic features associated with these processes, possibly providing one of the best places to study the deformation and metamorphic evolution of the subduction interface. Syros has recorded a complex deformation history during both the prograde and retrograde phase that resulted in the juxtaposition of two main units: (1) the Cycladic Blueschists Unit (CBU), and (2) the Vari unit cropping out in the SE of the island. Conflicting tectonic interpretations have been proposed to explain the evolution of the island, in part reflecting the lack of consensus about the detailed tectonic structure of the CBU. A new geological and metamorphic map of Syros is proposed to better characterize the different structures related to prograde and/or retrograde deformation stages. High-resolution field-mapping, combined with detailed structural-petrological observations, allows us to subdivide the CBU into three sub-units separated by major ductile shear zones. From top to bottom, these are: 1) the Kampos, 2) the Chroussa, and 3) the Posidonia units. Each of these units experienced similar peak eclogite-facies conditions (ca. 20 kbar - 550 °C), variably overprinted under blueschist- and greenschist-facies conditions across the nappe pile. New ductile structures have been discovered. Among those, a new large-scale top

  6. Prophylactic effect of glyceryl trinitrate on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Yu Hao; Dong-Fang Wu; Yue-Zeng Wang; Ying-Xin Gao; Hai-Po Lang; Wei-Zhen Zhou

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the prophy lacticef fect of glyceryl trinitrate on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia.METHODS: Patients scheduled for ERCP were randomly divided into study group and placebo group. Patients in study group and placebo group were treated with 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate and 100 mg vitamin C, respectively, 5 min before endoscopic maneuvers.RESULTS: A total of 74 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. Post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred in 3 patients (7.9%) of the study group and 9 patients (25%) in the placebo group ( P = 0.012).Hyperamylasemia occurred in 8 patients of the study group (21.1%) and 13 patients (36.1%) of the placebo group ( P = 0.037).CONCLUSION: Glyceryl trinitrate before ERCP can effectively prevent post-ERCP and hyperamylasemia.

  7. The retrograde limb of internal mammary vessels as reliable recipient vessels in DIEP flap breast reconstruction: a clinical and radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgarello, Marzia; Visconti, Giuseppe; Barone-Adesi, Liliana; Cina, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    For many microsurgeons, antegrade internal mammary vessels (AIMVs) represent the recipients of choice in autogenous breast reconstruction. For the past few years, the retrograde internal mammary vessels (RIMVs) have been demonstrated to be a further reliable option when needed, according to many papers focusing more on the vein than on the artery. Besides the clinical evidence, the hemodynamic features of the retrograde system have been very seldom analyzed.In this article, we report our clinical experience with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps anastomosed to RIMVs, along with a perioperative radiological follow-up to study RIMVs' hemodynamics and to further support the reliability of the retrograde system with particular focus on the retrograde internal mammary artery.Prospective, preoperative, and postoperative (3 days, 21 days, and 3 months, respectively) color Doppler sonographies of the internal mammary artery (IMA) and DIEPs have been performed to collect the velocity of flow (v) and resistive index (RI) data. Twenty-two patients agreed to undergo this protocol, of which 10 unipedicle flaps were anastomosed to AIMVs ("control" group), 10 bipedicle DIEPs to both AIMVs and RIMVs ("study" group), and 2 DIEPs anastomosed to retrograde internal mammary artery and antegrade internal mammary vein (not statistically analyzed for their paucity). Student t test was performed to compare the "control" and "study" groups.All the flaps survived, and no re-exploration was needed. Internal mammary artery and perforators v showed similar but speculate trend, whereas IMA and perforators RI looked stable during that time. Significant differences have been found in the "study" group for IMA v at 3-day period, for perforator v at 21- and 90-day periods, and for perforator RI at 90-day period, without any clinical implication for flap viability.Retrograde internal mammary vessels can be considered reliable vessels for both arterial flap input and venous flap

  8. Mg chelatase in chlorophyll synthesis and retrograde signaling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: CHLI2 cannot substitute for CHLI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezowski, Pawel; Sharifi, Marina N; Dent, Rachel M; Morhard, Marius K; Niyogi, Krishna K; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    The oligomeric Mg chelatase (MgCh), consisting of the subunits CHLH, CHLI, and CHLD, is located at the central site of chlorophyll synthesis, but is also thought to have an additional function in regulatory feedback control of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway and in chloroplast retrograde signaling. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, two genes have been proposed to encode the CHLI subunit of MgCh. While the role of CHLI1 in A. thaliana MgCh has been substantially elucidated, different reports provide inconsistent results with regard to the function of CHLI2 in Mg chelation and retrograde signaling. In the present report, the possible functions of both isoforms were analyzed in C. reinhardtii Knockout of the CHLI1 gene resulted in complete loss of MgCh activity, absence of chlorophyll, acute light sensitivity, and, as a consequence, down-regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes. These observations indicate a phenotypical resemblance of chli1 to the chlh and chld C. reinhardtii mutants previously reported. The key role of CHLI1 for MgCh reaction in comparison with the second isoform was confirmed by the rescue of chli1 with genomic CHLI1 Because CHLI2 in C. reinhardtii shows lower expression than CHLI1, strains overexpressing CHLI2 were produced in the chli1 background. However, no complementation of the chli1 phenotype was observed. Silencing of CHLI2 in the wild-type background did not result in any changes in the accumulation of tetrapyrrole intermediates or of chlorophyll. The results suggest that, unlike in A. thaliana, changes in CHLI2 content observed in the present studies do not affect formation and activity of MgCh in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26809558

  9. Prograde and retrograde growth of monazite in migmatites:An example from the Nagercoil Block, southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim E. Johnson; Chris Clark; Richard J.M. Taylor; M. Santosh; Alan S. Collins

    2015-01-01

    Data from a migmatised metapelite raft enclosed within charnockite provide quantitative constraints on the pressureetemperatureetime (PeTet) evolution of the Nagercoil Block at the southernmost tip of peninsular India. An inferred peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet, K-feldspar, sillimanite, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, spinel and melt is consistent with peak metamorphic pressures of 6e8 kbar and temperatures in excess of 900 ?C. Subsequent growth of cordierite and biotite record high-temperature retrograde decompression to around 5 kbar and 800 ?C. SHRIMP UePb dating of magmatic zircon cores suggests that the sedimentary protoliths were in part derived from felsic igneous rocks with Palae-oproterozoic crystallisation ages. New growth of metamorphic zircon on the rims of detrital grains con-strains the onset of melt crystallisation, and the minimum age of the metamorphic peak, to around 560 Ma. The data suggest two stages of monazite growth. The first generation of REE-enriched monazite grew during partial melting along the prograde path at around 570 Ma via the incongruent breakdown of apatite. Relatively REE-depleted rims, which have a pronounced negative europium anomaly, grew during melt crystallisation along the retrograde path at around 535 Ma. Our data show the rocks remained at suprasolidus temperatures for at least 35 million years and probably much longer, supporting a long-lived high-grade metamorphic history. The metamorphic conditions, timing and duration of the implied clockwise PeTet path are similar to that previously established for other regions in peninsular India during the Ediacaran to Cambrian assembly of that part of the Gondwanan supercontinent.

  10. Marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA to root dentin surface with orthograde/retrograde application techniques: A microcomputed tomographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Fouzan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achieving a good apical seal for root canals is known to be associated with good mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA adaptation to dentin. Aims: This study aims to compare the marginal adaptation of MTA with root dentin between orthograde and retrograde application techniques using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT analysis. Settings and Design: Fifty-two single-rooted human teeth were divided into four equal groups: (Group 1 Retrograde MTA (RMTA, (Group 2 Orthograde MTA (OMTA, (Group 3 Etched RMTA (ERMTA, and (Group 4 Etched OMTA (EOMTA. Materials and Methods: For Group 1, 3-mm retrograde cavities were prepared and filled with MTA. For Group 2, the apical 6 mm of the canals were filled with MTA and sealed with sealer cement and warm gutta-percha. In Groups 3 and 4, canals were treated the same as Groups 1 and 2, respectively, except that before placing the MTA, canals were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. After 48 hours, all the teeth were analyzed using a micro-CT scanner. Statistical Analysis: Mean dentin-MTA contact and the mean length and width of each gap was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Statistical significance was set at an α level of 5%. Results: No significant difference in gap volumes was observed in the dentin-MTA adaptation in both orthograde and retrograde application techniques. However, significant difference in the gap volumes was observed between RMTA and ERMTA (P = 0.045. Etching significantly improved the MTA-Dentin adaptation (P < 0.05. The type of application technique did not significantly improve the dentin-MTA adaptation, instead with the use of 17% EDTA, a significant improvement could be achieved. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it concludes that MTA adaptation to dentin tooth structure is not significantly different between an orthograde and retrograde approach. However, the use of EDTA significantly improved the MTA-Dentin adaptation.

  11. Value of portal venous system radiological indices in predicting esophageal varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaduputi V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Gaduputi,1 Harish Patel,1 Sailaja Sakam,1 Srivani Neshangi,1 Rafeeq Ahmed,1 Michael Lombino,2 Sridhar Chilimuri11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center New York, NY, USAIntroduction: Portal hypertension results from increased resistance to portal blood flow and has the potential complications of variceal bleeding and ascites. The splenoportal veins increase in caliber with worsening portal hypertension, and partially decompress by opening a shunt with systemic circulation, ie, a varix. In the event of portosystemic shunting, there is a differential decompression across the portal vein and splenic vein (portal vein > splenic vein, with a resultant decrease in the ratio of portal vein diameter to that of splenic vein. Portal vein to splenic vein diameter ratio and gradient could be valuable tools in predicting the presence of portosystemic shunting.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with cirrhosis who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD for variceal screening and had a computerized tomogram (CT of the abdomen within 6 months of the index endoscopic study, between January 2009 and December 2013. Patients on nonselective beta blockers, patients with presinusoidal portal hypertension (portal vein thrombosis or extrinsic compression, and patients who had undergone portosystemic shunting procedures (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS] or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO were excluded from the study. Splenic and portal vein diameters were measured (in mm just proximal and distal to the splenomesenteric venous confluence, respectively.Results: A total of 164 patients were included in the study; of these, 60% (n=98 were male and 40% (n=66 were female. The mean age of the study population was 58.7 years. A total of 126 patients (77% had varices, while 38 patients (33% did not. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score was 5.9 for those

  12. Outcome analysis of retrograde nailing and less invasive stabilization system in distal femoral fractures: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hierholzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two major therapeutic principles can be employed for the treatment of distal femoral fractures: retrograde intramedullary (IM nailing (RN or less invasive stabilization on system (LISS. Both operative stabilizing systems follow the principle of biological osteosynthesis. IM nailing protects the soft-tissue envelope due to its minimally invasive approach and closed reduction techniques better than distal femoral locked plating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare outcome of distal femur fracture stabilization using RN or LISS techniques. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study from 2003 to 2008, we analyzed 115 patients with distal femur fracture who had been treated by retrograde IM nailing (59 patients or LISS plating (56 patients. In the two cohort groups, mean age was 54 years (17-89 years. Mechanism of injury was high energy impact in 57% (53% RN, 67% LISS and low-energy injury in 43% (47% RN, 33% LISS, respectively. Fractures were classified according to AO classification: there were 52 type A fractures (RN 31, LISS 21 and 63 type C fractures (RN 28, LISS 35; 32% (RN and 56% (LISS were open and 68% (RN and 44% (LISS were closed fractures, respectively. Functional and radiological outcome was assessed. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation demonstrated osseous healing within 6 months following RN and following LISS plating in over 90% of patients. However, no statistically significant differences were found for the parameters time to osseous healing, rate of nonunion, and postoperative complications. The following complications were treated: hematoma formation (one patient RN and three patients LISS, superficial infection (one patient RN and three patients LISS, deep infection (2 patients LISS. Additional secondary bone grafting for successful healing 3 months after the primary operation was required in four patients in the RN (7% of patients and six in the LISS group (10% of patients

  13. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  14. Provenance of metasedimentary rocks from the Ceará Central Domain of Borborema Province, NE Brazil: implications for the significance of associated retrograded eclogites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelmi, Matheus Fernando; Santos, Ticiano José Saraiva dos; Amaral, Wagner da Silva; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Zincone, Stefano Albino

    2015-03-01

    In the Forquilha area (NE Brazil), in NW Borborema Province, high to ultra-high pressure rocks are an important geological key to understanding West Gondwana amalgamation. U-Pb geochronological data for a retrograded eclogite sample yielded an upper intercept age of ca. 1520 Ma and a lower intercept age of ca. 620 Ma. These ages most likely represent the crystallization age of the basaltic protolith and the regional metamorphism, respectively. The retrograded eclogites are enclosed in migmatized quartz-feldspathic gneiss and sillimanite (after kyanite)-garnet-biotite gneiss. Detrital U-Pb zircon data for these paragneisses show only Paleoproterozoic zircon grains with ages clustering from ca. 1800 Ma (the maximum depositional age) to ca. 2480 Ma, and frequency peaks at 2.2-2.0 Ga. Combined with Nd isotopic data from the Forquilha paragneisses, one can assume a single Paleoproterozoic source. Basement rocks of the Ceará Central and the Rio Grande do Norte domains are the most likely candidates. The absence of Meso- and Neoproterozoic zircon grains suggest that the retrograded eclogite bodies possibly do not represent slivers of oceanic rocks captured in active margin sequences during subduction. It was identified that the high-pressure rocks of the Forquilha area are in tectonic contact with high-pressure granulite facies rocks of the Ceará Complex (Independência unit) that present detrital zircon records of an active margin setting, with ages ranging from ca. 660 Ma to 2200 Ma. Metamorphism of this sequence occurred at ca. 650 Ma. Considering previous studies, field relationships, and metamorphic paragenesis, a tectonic scenario is inferred, in which the Forquilha retrograded eclogites represent Mesoproterozoic basaltic rocks of an extensional event that were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during Late Neoproterozoic continental subduction/collision, and juxtaposed to an active margin sequence during the exhumation process.

  15. Periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following total knee arthroplasty: clinical comparison and related complications of the femur plate system and retrograde-inserted supracondylar nail

    OpenAIRE

    Gondalia, Viral; Choi, Duck Hyun; Lee, Su Chan; Nam, Chang Hyun; Hwang, Bo Hyun; Ahn, Hye Sun; Ong, Alvin C.; Park, Ha Young; Jung, Kwang Am

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical results and related complications of the femur plate system (FP) and the retrograde-inserted supracondylar nail (RISN). Materials and methods The study included 42 cases of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures (PSF) proximal to posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty between 2005 and 2009. Twenty-four cases of PSF were treated with the FP, and the other 18 cases were treated with the RISN. This study cohort was div...

  16. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN EKSTRAKSI LIPID TERHADAP GELATINASASI DAN RETROGRADASI TEPUNG MLINJO (Gnetum gnemon) [Effects of Different Lipid Extractions on Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Bitter Nuts (Gnetum gnemon) Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Agus Siswoyo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different lipid extraction on gelatinization and retrogradation of bitter nuts (Gnetum gnemon) starch was studied by the measurement of starch-lipids complex formation using differential scanning calorimetry. The bitter nuts samples were extracted sequentially with hexane for surface lipid starch (SL) and hot water-saturated butanol for internal lipid starch (IL). The gelatinization enthalpies of starch increased significantly with extracting step, but the starch-lipid complex e...

  17. Extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy versus retrograde ureteroscopy: is radiation exposure a criterion when we choose which modern treatment to apply for ureteric stones?

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Pricop; Adrian Maier; Dragos Negru; Ovidiu Malau; Martha Orsolya; Daniel Radavoi; Serban, Dragomir R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two major urological procedures in terms of patient exposure to radiation. We evaluated 175 patients, that were subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) and extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (ESWL) for lumbar or pelvic ureteral lithiasis, at two urological departments. The C-arm Siemens (produced in 2010 by Siemens AG, Germany) was used for ureteroscopy. The radiological devices of the lithotripters used in this study in the two clinical centers had ...

  18. Usefulness of Interventional Treatment for Dysfunctional Hemodialysis Shunts of the Upper Arm by Means of the Retrograde Transradial Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Shin, Tae Beom; Na, Jae Beom; Jung, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Eun [Gyeongsang National University Hospital College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yun Gyu [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Gyoo Sik [Kosin University Hospital College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of endovascular intervention using the retrograde transradial approach to treat dysfunctional hemodialysis shunts of the upper arms. During the last 3 years, sixteen procedures were performed by the transradial approach in 13 patients with dysfunctional hemodialysis shunts of the upper arms. The radial artery was accessed with the use of 20-gauge needle and a 6-Fr sheath. Angiography was performed using a 5-Fr catheter placed in the brachial artery, and then the interventional procedure was performed. The technical and clinical success rates, complications and patency rates were evaluated. Fistulography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty via the transradial approach were performed in 16 cases of the 13 patients. Fistulography demonstrated stenosis in 7 cases and occlusions in 9 cases. Lesion multiplicity was identified in 9 out of 16 cases. Balloon angioplasty was performed in all cases and a stent was placed to overcome restenosis or to treat venous rupture in two cases. The technical success rate of balloon angioplasty was 87.5% (14/16) and the technical success rate with including stent insertion was 100% (16/16). The clinical success rate was 93.8%. There was one procedural-related complication. The primary patency rates at 6 and 12 months were 84.6% and 74%, respectively. The transradial approach seems to be technically feasible and effective for the management of insufficient hemodialysis shunts of the upper arms

  19. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study.

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    Saravanapriyan Soundappan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM, as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I - MTA, Group II - Biodentine, Group III - IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis.The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine.In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material.

  20. SWIFT J1910.2-0546: A possible black hole binary with a retrograde spin or truncated disk

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, R C; Miller, J M; Walton, D J; Maitra, D; King, A; Degenaar, N

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from a long (51 ks) XMM-Newton observation of the Galactic X-ray binary Swift J1910.2-0546 in a intermediate state, obtained during its 2012 outburst. A clear, asymmetric iron emission line is observed and physically motivated models are used to fully describe the emission-line profile. Unlike other sources in their intermediate spectral states, the inner accretion disk in Swift J1910.2-0546 appears to be truncated, with an inner radius of \\rin$=9.4^{+1.7}_{-1.3}$\\rg\\ at a 90% confidence limit. Quasi-periodic oscillations are also found at approximately 4.5 and 6 hz, which correlates well with the break frequency of the underlying broad-band noise. Assuming that the line emission traces the ISCO, as would generally be expected for an intermediate state, the current observation of Swift J1910.2-0546 may offer the best evidence for a possible retrograde stellar mass black hole with a spin parameter $a< -0.32 cJ/GM^2$ (90% confidence). Although this is an intriguing possibility, t...

  1. Rewiring AMPK and Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling for Metabolic Control of Aging and Histone Acetylation in Respiratory-Defective Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magnus N. Friis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal respiratory metabolism plays a role in numerous human disorders. We find that regulation of overall histone acetylation is perturbed in respiratory-incompetent (ρ0 yeast. Because histone acetylation is highly sensitive to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA availability, we sought interventions that suppress this ρ0 phenotype through reprogramming metabolism. Nutritional intervention studies led to the discovery that genetic coactivation of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus retrograde (RTG response and the AMPK (Snf1 pathway prevents abnormal histone deacetylation in ρ0 cells. Metabolic profiling of signaling mutants uncovered links between chromatin-dependent phenotypes of ρ0 cells and metabolism of ATP, acetyl-CoA, glutathione, branched-chain amino acids, and the storage carbohydrate trehalose. Importantly, RTG/AMPK activation reprograms energy metabolism to increase the supply of acetyl-CoA to lysine acetyltransferases and extend the chronological lifespan of ρ0 cells. Our results strengthen the framework for rational design of nutrient supplementation schemes and drug-discovery initiatives aimed at mimicking the therapeutic benefits of dietary interventions.

  2. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy in the early course of mild acute pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) leucocyte scintigraphy in mild acute pancreatitis. A study design was chosen that gave us an opportunity to assess patients by leucocyte scintigraphy in the very early course of the disease. Thirty-two consecutive patients referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were followed according to a very rigid protocol with laboratory tests and clinical examination before and after the endoscopic procedure and leucocyte scintigraphy [including single-photon emission tomography (SPET)] performed within 24 h. Planar and SPET images were examined by two observers who were blinded to each other and to the clinical history and diagnosis. Eight (25%) of the 32 patients developed mild acute pancreatitis, and only one of these patients had a positive scan. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 13%, 79% and 63%, respectively, were achieved when both planar and SPET images were considered. When only planar images were considered the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 13%, 96% and 75%, respectively. No evidence of pathological leucocyte accumulation in mild acute pancreatitis was found despite the aforementioned very rigid protocol, allowing patients to be assessed by 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy in the very early phase of the disease (this was true even when using SPET). From a clinical point of view, we believe that leucocyte scintigraphy should be used only when the disease is moderate or severe and serious intra-abdominal complications are suspected. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN RETROGRADE INTRARENAL SURGERY (RIRS AND PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY (PCNL IN THE TREATMENT OF SINGLE RENAL STONE 2 - 3CM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Open surgery has given way to endoscopic surgeries. PCNL makes its way puncturing renal parenchyma where there is an unknown factor of damaging a major blood vessel. This may be overcome by retrograde intrarenal surgeries (RIRS but the instrument has to traverse a long way through natural orifice and lumen. Which is less harmful and more hel pful. AIM: To compare results from RIRS and PCNL in treating renal calculi of 2 to 3cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent PCNL or RIRS for stones with 20 – 30mm diameter, in a single institution between Janua ry 2008 and December 2014. RESULTS: Mean operative time for PCNL is significantly less as compared to RIRS (p=0.001. Hemoglobin drop was significantly high in PCNL group 1.2gm%. Stone clearance rate was much higher in PCNL group with 95.7% of the patients requiring only single procedure. CONCLUSION: PCNL is more effective than RIRS for stones between 2 – 3cm at a cost of longer hospital stay, increased blood loss, increased need for transfustions.

  4. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing. PMID:26213009

  5. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): Comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44%and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. CONCLUSION: Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  6. mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Srivastava, Archita; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Manvati, Siddharth; Chopra, Rupali; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    mtDNA non-synonymous germ line variation (G10398A; p.A114T) has remained equivocal with least mechanistic understanding in showing an association with cancer. This has necessitated showing in-vitro how an over-expression within mitochondria of either of the variants produces higher intracellular ROS, resulting in differential anchorage dependent and independent growth. Both these features were observed to be relatively higher in ND3:114T variant. An elevated amount of intracellular carbonylated proteins and a reduced activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate kinase M2, along with high glucose uptake and lactate production were other pro-cancerous features observed. The retrograde signaling through surplus ROS was generated by post-ND3 over-expression regulated nuclear gene expression epigenetically, involving selectively the apoptotic-DDR-pathways. The feature of ND3 over-expression, inducing ROS mediated pro-cancerous features in the cells in in vitro, was replicated in a pilot study in a limited number of sporadic breast tumors, suggesting the importance of mitochondrial germ-line variant(s) in enabling the cells to acquire pro-cancerous features. PMID:25300428

  7. Rabies Virus CVS-N2c(ΔG) Strain Enhances Retrograde Synaptic Transfer and Neuronal Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas R; Murray, Andrew J; Turi, Gergely F; Wirblich, Christoph; Croce, Katherine R; Schnell, Matthias J; Jessell, Thomas M; Losonczy, Attila

    2016-02-17

    Virally based transsynaptic tracing technologies are powerful experimental tools for neuronal circuit mapping. The glycoprotein-deletion variant of the SAD-B19 vaccine strain rabies virus (RABV) has been the reagent of choice in monosynaptic tracing, since it permits the mapping of synaptic inputs to genetically marked neurons. Since its introduction, new helper viruses and reagents that facilitate complementation have enhanced the efficiency of SAD-B19(ΔG) transsynaptic transfer, but there has been little focus on improvements to the core RABV strain. Here we generate a new deletion mutant strain, CVS-N2c(ΔG), and examine its neuronal toxicity and efficiency in directing retrograde transsynaptic transfer. We find that by comparison with SAD-B19(ΔG), the CVS-N2c(ΔG) strain exhibits a reduction in neuronal toxicity and a marked enhancement in transsynaptic neuronal transfer. We conclude that the CVS-N2c(ΔG) strain provides a more effective means of mapping neuronal circuitry and of monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity in vivo in the mammalian CNS. PMID:26804990

  8. [Thoracoabdominal CT scan: a useful tool for the diagnosis of air embolism during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B K; Saunier, C-F; Cotton, F; Gueugniaud, P-Y; Piriou, V

    2008-03-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old woman treated with biliary stents for an ampulloma of Vater's papilla, with recurrent stenosis of the common bile duct. She was hospitalized with a cholestasis. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was scheduled to change the biliary stent for a metallic one, under general anaesthesia, with oral intubation. The ERCP was performed initially without any complication, but as the metallic biliary stent was placed, an air embolism occurred and a cardiac arrest happened immediately. The etiologic diagnosis was quickly confirmed by an injected multislice body-scan, which showed liver, right heart and brain gas embolism. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation allowed a complete haemodynamic recovery but a poor neurological recovery. The patient was transferred in intensive care unit, were she died 12 days after, despite hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the disappearance of the air embolism on the following computed tomography scan. This case may be useful to recall the utility of a body-scan for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of an air embolism during ERCP. PMID:18313255

  9. U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircons from prograde and retrograde transition zones in high-grade orthogneisses, Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, N.; Liew, T.C.; Todt, W.; Hofmann, A.W. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany)); Kroener, A. (Univ. Mainz (West Germany)); Williams, I.S. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    1991-07-01

    The authors present U-Pb zircon isotopic data from locally restricted prograde (arrested in situ charnockitization) and retrograde metamorphic transition zones, which are well exposed in Proterozoic orthogneisses tectonically interbanded with granulite facies supracrustal rocks of the Highland Group in Sri Lanka. These granitoid rocks yield apparent ages of 1942 {plus minus} 22 Ma, {approximately} 770 Ma, {approximately} 660 Ma, and {approximately} 560 Ma. All samples show severe Pb-loss some 550-560 Ma ago. The main phase of granulite-formation could not be dated unambiguously but is bracketed between {approximately} 660 Ma and {approximately} 550 Ma. The pervasive Pb-loss event around 550-560 Ma reflects the end of this period of high-grade metamorphism and was associated with widespread igneous activity and retrogression. This is constrained by the 550 {plus minus} 3 Ma intrusion age for a post-tectonic granite. They relate this late phase of thermal activity to crustal uplift of the Sri Lankan granulites. This data unambiguously prove the high-grade history of the Sri Lanka gneisses to be a late Precambrian event that may be related to the Pan-African evolution along the eastern part of Africa.

  10. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery versus Percutaneous Lithotripsy to Treat Renal Stones 2-3 cm in Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursad Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS performed using a flexible ureterorenoscope marked the beginning of a new era in urology. Today, even staghorn stones are successfully treated via RIRS. The recommended treatment for larger stones is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL. However, the question of whether PNL or RIRS should be the first-line treatment option for larger stones remains controversial. In this study, we contribute to the debate by comparing the success and complication rates of PNL and RIRS that were used to treat renal pelvis stones 2-3 cm in diameter. Materials and Methods. The medical records of 154 patients (74 PNL, 80 RIRS were retrospectively evaluated. PNL patients were placed in Group 1 and RIRS patients in Group 2. Results. The complete stone-free rates were 95.5% in the PNL group and 80.6% in the RIRS group 1 month postoperatively (P=0.061. The respective complication rates (evaluated using the Clavien system were 13.5% and 8.8% (P=0.520. Conclusions. RIRS affords a comparable success rate, causes fewer complications than PNL, and seems to be a promising alternative to PNL when larger stones are to be treated. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Retrograde Approach Using Surgical Cutdown Technique for Limb Salvage in a Case of Critical Limb Ischemia With Severely Calcified Tibial Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tatsuya; Iida, Osamu; Suemitsu, Kotaro; Tsuji, Yoriko; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    We here report a successful angioplasty for tibial artery occlusion using direct tibial puncture and subsequent retrograde approach under surgical cutdown technique. An 82-year-old man with ulcer/gangrene in first and second digits was referred to our hospital for endovascular therapy (EVT) of lower extremity ischemia. Diagnostic angiogram revealed anterior tibial artery (ATA) occlusion with severe calcification. Subintimal angioplasty was attempted using a 0.014-inch hydrophilic guidewire but was unsuccessful. A retrograde approach was subsequently attempted for ATA recanalization. However, because of severe calcification of dorsal pedis artery (DPA), percutaneous distal puncture was also unsuccessful. Direct puncture under surgical cutdown technique for DPA was subsequently performed and was successful. A 0.014-inch hydrophilic wire was advanced in retrograde fashion across the ATA occlusion and was used to access the microcatheter positioned at the proximal ATA via antegrade approach. Angioplasty of the ATA occlusion was performed using a 2.5-/3.0-mm tapered balloon. Completion angiogram revealed restoration of flow without dissection. Skin perfusion pressure was dramatically improved. Complete wound healing was achieved 5 months after EVT. PMID:27207678

  12. Single-particle tracking uncovers dynamics of glutamate-induced retrograde transport of NF-κB p65 in living neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Darius; Klenke, Christin; Nair, Deepak; Heidbreder, Meike; Malkusch, Sebastian; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Heilemann, Mike; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Retrograde transport of NF-κB from the synapse to the nucleus in neurons is mediated by the dynein/dynactin motor complex and can be triggered by synaptic activation. The caliber of axons is highly variable ranging down to 100 nm, aggravating the investigation of transport processes in neurites of living neurons using conventional light microscopy. We quantified for the first time the transport of the NF-κB subunit p65 using high-density single-particle tracking in combination with photoactivatable fluorescent proteins in living mouse hippocampal neurons. We detected an increase of the mean diffusion coefficient ([Formula: see text]) in neurites from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] after stimulation with glutamate. We further observed that the relative amount of retrogradely transported p65 molecules is increased after stimulation. Glutamate treatment resulted in an increase of the mean retrograde velocity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], whereas a velocity increase from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] was observed for anterogradely transported p65. This study demonstrates for the first time that glutamate stimulation leads to an increased mobility of single NF-κB p65 molecules in neurites of living hippocampal neurons. PMID:27226975

  13. A new endoscopic therapeutic method for acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis post Roux-en-Y anastomosis: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography through jejunostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo YANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objective  To probe the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC through jejunostomy in patients in whom ERC could not be performed via the mouth after Roux-en-Y anastomosis on the upper gastrointestinal tract. Methods  In two patients suffering from acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis after a radical operation for cholangiocarcinoma, ERC could not be performed through the mouth due to the presence of a long non-functional jejunal loop. A jejunostomy was first done in the afferent loop of the jejunum, and a gastroscope was then inserted via the jejunostomy and passed retrogradely, to find the stoma of the cholangiointestinal anastomosis. ERC was then successfully performed, and followed by endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD. Results  The operation was successful. It was found that cholangio-jejunostomy stoma was narrow, and a large amount of purulent mucus was present in the enlarged intrahepatic duct. ERC was done to enlarge the stoma, and a stent was placed into the main branch of the intrahepatic duct. Two patients achieved surgical success and smooth recovery after the operation. Conclusion  ERC through a jejunostomy in the patients who had Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy following radical resection for cholangiocarcinoma, is a safe and effective surgical procedure.

  14. 冷藏条件下荞麦淀粉回生规律的研究%Study on the retrogradation law of buckwheat in cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤生; 周雪; 连喜军; 吴常燕

    2013-01-01

    荞麦食品一般在冷藏条件下贮藏,研究冷藏贮藏过程荞麦淀粉的回生规律有利于确定荞麦食品适宜的贮藏条件.本实验以荞麦淀粉为原料,研究淀粉乳浓度和冷藏时间对荞麦淀粉回生的影响.实验结果表明,当荞麦淀粉浓度为1%和10%时,0℃贮藏荞麦淀粉回生率较高,达到30%以上,5%、15%和20%浓度下2℃和6℃下贮藏淀粉回生率高.荞麦淀粉浓度高于5%时冷藏容易回生.电镜图片显示,荞麦淀粉呈现不规则块状,有凸起和凹陷截面,颗粒直径为1~10μm,部分颗粒表面有针扎状小孔.荞麦回生淀粉呈粘状结构.荞麦淀粉吸附碘后的最大可见吸收波长为564nm,而回生后荞麦淀粉没有最大可见吸收波长.%Most of the buckwheat foods were kept at cold storage,and the research on cold storage process of buckwheat starch retrogradation rule was beneficial to determine suitable storage conditions for the buckwheat food.In this experiment,the buckwheat starch was used as raw materials,the effect of starch concentration and storage time on buckwheat starch retrogradation were investigated.The experimental results showed that,when the buckwheat starch concentrations were 1% and 10%,the buckwheat starch retrogradation rate was higher at 0℃ storage,reaching above 30%.For concentrations of 5%,15% and 20%,the retrogradation rates at 2℃ and 6℃ were higher.The buckwheat starch inclined to retrograde when its concentrations was in excess of 5% in cold storage.Electron microscopy images showed that buckwheat starch granule was irregular block with a rising or falling in surface,its particle diameter was of 1~10μm.Some of the granule surface had needle shaped holes.Retrograded buckwheat starch had adhesive structure.The maximum visible absorption of buckwheat starch attached with l2/Kl was 564nm and its retrograded ones had no maximum absorption.

  15. Arl5b is a Golgi-localised small G protein involved in the regulation of retrograde transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Fiona J; Bellingham, Shayne A; Hill, Andrew F; Bourges, Dorothée; Ang, Desmond K Y; Gemetzis, Timothy; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Gleeson, Paul A

    2012-03-10

    Regulation of membrane transport is controlled by small G proteins, which include members of the Rab and Arf families. Whereas the role of the classic Arf family members are well characterized, many of the Arf-like proteins (Arls) remain poorly defined. Here we show that Arl5a and Arl5b are localised to the trans-Golgi in mammalian cells, and furthermore have identified a role for Arl5b in the regulation of retrograde membrane transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The constitutively active Arl5b (Q70L)-GFP mutant was localised efficiently to the Golgi in HeLa cells whereas the dominant-negative Arl5b (T30N)-GFP mutant was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and resulted in perturbation of the Golgi apparatus. Stable HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged Arl5b (Q70L) showed an increased rate of endosome-to-Golgi transport of the membrane cargo TGN38 compared with control HeLa cells. Depletion of Arl5b by RNAi resulted in an alteration in the intracellular distribution of mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and significantly reduced the endosome-to-TGN transport of the membrane cargo TGN38 and of Shiga toxin, but had no affect on the anterograde transport of the cargo E-cadherin. Collectively these results suggest that Arl5b is a TGN-localised small G protein that plays a key role in regulating transport along the endosome-TGN pathway. PMID:22245584

  16. Effectiveness of ultrasonography and plain abdominal graphy in the follow-up of patients after retrograde intrarenal surgery

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    Mustafa Reşorlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effectivenessof combined use of ultrasonography (US and plain radiography(PR in the postoperative follow-up of patientsundergoing retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS.Materials and methods: The charts of 207 patients whounderwent RIRS for renal stones in a 3-years-periodwere retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-eight patients wereincluded to study who were evaluated with combinationof urinary US, PR and computed tomography (CT at 1month after surgery.Results: Of 58 procedures with perioperative completestone fragmentation, 49 were completely stone-free(84.4%, while fragments (≥ 3 mm were observed in 9patients and hydronephrosis was detected in 5 patients(8.6% on the CT. Of the 9 residual stones and 5 hydronephrosis,the radiologists truly diagnosed 6 stones (66.6%and 5 hydronephrosis (100% by using the combination ofUS and PR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negativepredictive values of US and PR for detecting presenceof residual stone and hydronephrosis were 66.6%and 100%, 98% and 98%, 85.7% and 83.3%, 94.2% and100%, respectively.Conclusions: A combination of urinary US and plain filmhas clear advantages about lack of radiation exposureover CT scan and it is a highly specific and sensitive testfor detecting hydronephrosis. However this procedurehas limited accuracy for detecting small residual stones,so we believe that CT scan is only necessary when patienthas persistent pain or sonographic evidence of hydronephrosisis present.Key words: Renal stone, plain abdominal film, retrogradeintrarenal surgery, ultrasonography

  17. Sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis versus primary sclerosing cholangitis: comparison on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, MR cholangiography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim; Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu [Dept. of Radiology and Research Inst. of Radiology, Univ. of Ulsan Coll. of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr; Kim, Myung-Hwan [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ulsan Coll. of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Background: It is essential to differentiate sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis (SC-AIP) from primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as the treatment and prognosis of the two diseases are totally different. Purpose: To compare image findings of SC-AIP and PSC on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed ERC, MRC, CT, and MRI in 28 SC-AIP and 23 PSC patients in consensus. Factors evaluated included the length, location, and multiplicity of bile duct stricture, the presence of characteristic cholangiographic features of PSC on ERC and MRC, and the presence, location, thickness, and pattern of bile duct wall thickening on CT and MRI. Results: On ERC, focal stricture, multifocal and intrahepatic bile duct stricture, and beaded, pruned-tree, and diverticulum-like appearance were more frequent in PSC than in SC-AIP patients (P = 0.006). On MRC, multifocal and intrahepatic bile duct stricture and pruned-tree appearance were more frequent in PSC than in SC-AIP patients (P = 0.044). On CT and MRI, the bile duct wall was thicker (5.1 mm vs. 3.1 mm; P = 0.033 and 4.3 mm vs. 3.0 mm; P = 0.01, respectively) in SC-AIP than in PSC patients. PSC was more frequently associated with intrahepatic bile duct wall thickening on both CT (93% vs. 50%; P = 0.024) and MRI (100% vs. 50%; P = 0.023) than SC-AIP. Conclusion: The combination of ERC or MRC with cross-sectional images, including CT and MRI, may be helpful in differentiating between SC-AIP and PSC.

  18. The impact of brush cytology from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) on patient management at a UK teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Rajiv; Singh, Kaushiki; Warner, Ben; Mahadeva, Ula; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with suspected pancreaticobiliary cancers frequently undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to obtain brush cytology for confirmatory diagnosis. The outcome of this often leads to the management of the patient and can avoid more invasive investigations. There is a wide range of sensitivities and specificities reported in the literature. Aims To determine the accuracy of the brush cytology obtained at ERCP by performing a retrospective audit of all patients admitted to Guy's and St. Thomas’ Hospital for ERCP during 2008–2013. Also, to evaluate the impact of cytology results on patient care following ERCP. Method Data were collected from 4 January 2008 to 27 December 2013. This involved analysing EndoSoft (the in-house software for endoscopic data entry), Pathnet (the pathology database) and Electronic Patient Records. Results 162 patients underwent brush cytology during ERCP. 58 patients had positive cytology. With intention-to-treat analysis, sensitivity was 54.7%, specificity was 100.0% and negative predictive value was 53.9% with a positive predictive value of 100%. Patients with a positive brush cytology result required fewer investigations compared with patients with a negative cytology result. Conclusions Our results compare favourably with previous studies in the field. Brush cytology has been ignored in recent times due to perceived poor results and efficacy. Our audit shows that it can reduce the number of investigations required to reach a diagnosis of malignancy and so is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary malignancies. However, better guidance on preparation of samples for cytology is needed to reduce the number of insufficient samples. PMID:27103983

  19. Detection of K-ras point mutation and telomerase activity during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Jie-Fei Huang; Zhao-Shen Li; Guo-Ming Xu; Feng Liu; Hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the value of monitoring K-ras point mutation at codon 12 and telomerase activity in exfoliated cells obtained from pancreatic duct brushings during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Exfoliated cells obtained from pancreatic duct brushings during ERCP were examined in 27 patients: 23with pancreatic cancers, 4 with chronic pancreatitis. K-fas point mutation was detected with the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Telomerase activity was detected by PCR and telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay (PCR-TRAPELISA).RESULTS: The telomerase activities in 27 patients were measured in 21 exfoliated cell samples obtained from pancreatic duct brushings. D450 value of telomerase activities in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis were 0.446±0.27and 0.041±0.0111, respectively. Seventy-seven point eight percent (14/18) of patients with pancreatic cancer and none of the patients with chronic pancreatitis showed telomerase activity in cells collected from pancreatic duct brushings when cutoff value of telomerase activity was set at 2.0. The K-ras gene mutation rate (72.2%) in pancreatic cancer was higher than that in chronic pancreatitis (33.3%)(P<0.05). In considering of both telomerase activities and K-ras point mutation, the total positive rate was 83.3%(15/18), and the specificity was 100%.CONCLUSION: Changes of telomerase activities and K-ras point mutation at codon 12 may be an early event of malignant progression in pancreatic cancer. Detection of telomerase activity and K-ras point mutation at codon 12may be complementary to each other, and is useful in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Innovations and techniques for balloon-enteroscope-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains challenging in patients who have undergone surgical reconstruction of the intestine. Recently, many studies have reported that balloon-enteroscope-assisted ERCP (BEA-ERCP) is a safe and effective procedure. However, further improvements in outcomes and the development of simplified procedures are required. Percutaneous treatment, Laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, endoscopic ultrasound-guided anterograde intervention, and open surgery are effective treatments. However, treatment should be noninvasive, effective, and safe. We believe that these procedures should be performed only in difficult-to-treat patients because of many potential complications. BEA-ERCP still requires high expertise-level techniques and is far from a routinely performed procedure. Various techniques have been proposed to facilitate scope insertion (insertion with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) rendezvous technique, Short type single-balloon enteroscopes with passive bending section, Intraluminal injection of indigo carmine, CO2 inflation guidance), cannulation (PTBD or percutaneous transgallbladder drainage rendezvous technique, Dilation using screw drill, Rendezvous technique combining DBE with a cholangioscope, endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous technique), and treatment (overtube-assisted technique, Short type balloon enteroscopes) during BEA-ERCP. The use of these techniques may allow treatment to be performed by BEA-ERCP in many patients. A standard procedure for ERCP yet to be established for patients with a reconstructed intestine. At present, BEA-ERCP is considered the safest and most effective procedure and is therefore likely to be recommended as first-line treatment. In this article, we discuss the current status of BEA-ERCP in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy. PMID:26074685

  1. Definition of a core module for the nuclear retrograde response to altered organellar gene expression identifies GLK overexpressors as gun mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leister, Dario; Kleine, Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Retrograde signaling can be triggered by changes in organellar gene expression (OGE) induced by inhibitors such as lincomycin (LIN) or mutations that perturb OGE. Thus, an insufficiency of the organelle-targeted prolyl-tRNA synthetase PRORS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana activates retrograde signaling and reduces the expression of nuclear genes for photosynthetic proteins. Recently, we showed that mTERF6, a member of the so-called mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family, is involved in the formation of chloroplast (cp) isoleucine-tRNA. To obtain further insights into its functions, co-expression analysis of MTERF6, PRORS1 and two other genes for organellar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases was conducted. The results suggest a prominent role of mTERF6 in aminoacylation activity, light signaling and seed storage. Analysis of changes in whole-genome transcriptomes in the mterf6-1 mutant showed that levels of nuclear transcripts for cp OGE proteins were particularly affected. Comparison of the mterf6-1 transcriptome with that of prors1-2 showed that reduced aminoacylation of proline (prors1-2) and isoleucine (mterf6-1) tRNAs alters retrograde signaling in similar ways. Database analyses indicate that comparable gene expression changes are provoked by treatment with LIN, norflurazon or high light. A core OGE response module was defined by identifying genes that were differentially expressed under at least four of six conditions relevant to OGE signaling. Based on this module, overexpressors of the Golden2-like transcription factors GLK1 and GLK2 were identified as genomes uncoupled mutants. PMID:26876646

  2. Late results of retrograd intramedullary Küntscher nailing on children between 3-12 years old -Changes on growth of proximal femur-

    OpenAIRE

    Caniklioglu, Mustafa; Yigit, Acarhan; Yazici, Nuzhet; Yalaman, Okan; Parmaksizoglu, Atilla; Mirzanli, Cuneyt

    2004-01-01

    In our clinic, 33 children between 3-12 ages old had been treated by open reduction and retrograd intramedullary Küntscher nailing. Patients were followed up approxiamately 47 months (range 18-84 months). Growth changes and length differences of the proximal femur were evaluated by gage's medhod. All fractures had united and no early complication was seen.On eight patients, no leg lenght discrepancy developed but on the others, mean 9.7 miıimeters (mostly 25 milimeters) length increase develo...

  3. On the role of protein disulfide isomerase in the retrograde cell transport of secreted phospholipases A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Oberčkal

    Full Text Available Following the finding that ammodytoxin (Atx, a neurotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 in snake venom, binds specifically to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI in vitro we show that these proteins also interact in living rat PC12 cells that are able to internalize this group IIA (GIIA sPLA2. Atx and PDI co-localize in both differentiated and non-differentiated PC12 cells, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Based on a model of the complex between Atx and yeast PDI (yPDI, a three-dimensional model of the complex between Atx and human PDI (hPDI was constructed. The Atx binding site on hPDI is situated between domains b and b'. Atx interacts hPDI with an extensive area on its interfacial binding surface. The mammalian GIB, GIIA, GV and GX sPLA2s have the same fold as Atx. The first three sPLA2s have been detected intracellularly but not the last one. The models of their complexes with hPDI were constructed by replacement of Atx with the respective mammalian sPLA2 in the Atx-hPDI complex and molecular docking of the structures. According to the generated models, mammalian GIB, GIIA and GV sPLA2s form complexes with hPDI very similar to that with Atx. The contact area between GX sPLA2 and hPDI is however different from that of the other sPLA2s. Heterologous competition of Atx binding to hPDI with GV and GX sPLA2s confirmed the model-based expectation that GV sPLA2 was a more effective inhibitor than GX sPLA2, thus validating our model. The results suggest a role of hPDI in the (pathophysiology of some snake venom and mammalian sPLA2s by assisting the retrograde transport of these molecules from the cell surface. The sPLA2-hPDI model constitutes a valuable tool to facilitate further insights into this process and into the (pathophysiology of sPLA2s in relation to their action intracellularly.

  4. Ultrastructural study on the effects of retrograde infusion of water-soluble contrast medium the rabbit submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author observed the effects of retrograde infusion of water soluble contrast media (Telebrix 30) on the rabbit submandibular glands and compared the effects of different degrees of filling. 26 rabbit were divided into 2 group of 1 2 each as experimental and 1 group of 2 as normal controls. One experimental group was filed with 0.2 ml and the other with 0.4 ml. Right submandibular gland of each rabbit was infused with contrast media and left one with physiologic saline as a ex perimental control, at a constant rate of 0.12 ml/min. Using an infusion pump via the main excretory duct. Immediately after the inclusion of contrast media, oblique lateral radiographs of the glands were made with occlusal film in order to confirm the glandular filling. The rabbit were sacrificed after varying periods (1, 8, 24 hours and 3, 6, 10 days) and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results were as follows: 1. In glands filled with 0.2 ml contrast media, the initial changes were a few vacuole formation in the acini and slight dilation of the intralobular duct. The moderately severe changes such as vacuole formation in the acini, the abnormal substructure within the secretory granule, dilation of acinar and intercalated duct lumen, scalloping of striated duct lumen and inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed at 3 days. The general appearance was successively recovered, so the tissue had a normal appearance at 10 days. 2. In glands filled with 0.4 ml contrast media, the most prominent alterations such as severe acinar atrophy, decreased number of secretory granules, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and pronounced inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared at 6 days. Although the general appearance returned to be almost normal at 10 days, acinar cells showed some atrophy and decreased secretory granules. 3. In glands subjected to 0.4 ml infusion, the alterations were more severe and recovery was slower than those seen in the glands

  5. Ultrastructural study on the effects of retrograde infusion of water-soluble contrast medium the rabbit submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Dental Radiology, Collage of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author observed the effects of retrograde infusion of water soluble contrast media (Telebrix 30) on the rabbit submandibular glands and compared the effects of different degrees of filling. 26 rabbit were divided into 2 group of 1 2 each as experimental and 1 group of 2 as normal controls. One experimental group was filed with 0.2 ml and the other with 0.4 ml. Right submandibular gland of each rabbit was infused with contrast media and left one with physiologic saline as a ex perimental control, at a constant rate of 0.12 ml/min. Using an infusion pump via the main excretory duct. Immediately after the inclusion of contrast media, oblique lateral radiographs of the glands were made with occlusal film in order to confirm the glandular filling. The rabbit were sacrificed after varying periods (1, 8, 24 hours and 3, 6, 10 days) and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results were as follows: 1. In glands filled with 0.2 ml contrast media, the initial changes were a few vacuole formation in the acini and slight dilation of the intralobular duct. The moderately severe changes such as vacuole formation in the acini, the abnormal substructure within the secretory granule, dilation of acinar and intercalated duct lumen, scalloping of striated duct lumen and inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed at 3 days. The general appearance was successively recovered, so the tissue had a normal appearance at 10 days. 2. In glands filled with 0.4 ml contrast media, the most prominent alterations such as severe acinar atrophy, decreased number of secretory granules, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and pronounced inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared at 6 days. Although the general appearance returned to be almost normal at 10 days, acinar cells showed some atrophy and decreased secretory granules. 3. In glands subjected to 0.4 ml infusion, the alterations were more severe and recovery was slower than those seen in the glands

  6. Impact of changing our cannulation method on the incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis after pancreatic guidewire placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clarify whether the incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP pancreatitis (PEP after pancreatic guidewire placement (PGW can be reduced by using a different cannulation method. METHODS: Between April 2001 and October 2009, PGW was performed in 142 patients with native papilla to overcome difficult biliary cannulation. Our cannulation method for ERCP was changed from contrast injection (CI using a single-lumen catheter (April 2001-May 2008 to wire-guided cannulation (WGC using a double-lumen catheter (June 2008-October 2009. The CI protocol was also changed during the study period: in the first period it was used for routine pancreatography for detecting small pancreatic cancer (April 2001-November 2002, whereas in the second period it was not (December 2002-May 2008. In PGW with CI using a single-lumen catheter, the contrast medium in the catheter lumen was injected into the pancreatic duct. The success rate of biliary cannulation, the incidence of PEP according to the cannulation method, and the impact of CI using a single-lumen catheter on PEP in comparison with WGC using a double-lumen catheter were investigated. RESULTS: CI with routine pancreatography, CI without routine pancreatography, and WGC were performed in 27 patients, 77 patients and 38 patients, respectively. Routine pancreatography did not contribute to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in our study period. In CI without routine pancreatography and WGC, diagnostic pancreatography was performed in 17 patients and no patients, respectively. The success rate of biliary cannulation by PGW alone was 69%, and the final success rate was increased to 80.3% by the addition of consecutive maneuvers or a second ERCP. PEP occurred in 22 patients (15.5%, and the severity was mild in all cases. When analyzed according to cannulation method, the incidence of PEP was 37.0% (10/27 in the patients who underwent CI with routine pancreatography, 14.3% (11

  7. Dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for conscious sedation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: An open-label randomised controlled trial

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    Priyanka Sethi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, midazolam has been used for providing conscious sedation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Recently, dexmedetomidine has been tried, but very little evidence exists to support its use. Objective: The primary objective was to compare haemodynamic, respiratory and recovery profile of both drugs. Secondary objective was to compare the degree of comfort experienced by patients and the usefulness of the drug to endoscopist. Study Design: Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial. Methods: Subjects between 18 and 60 years of age with American Society of Anaesthesiologist Grade I-II requiring ERCP were enrolled in two groups (30 each. Both groups received fentanyl 1 μg/kg IV at the beginning of ERCP. Group M received IV midazolam (0.04 mg/kg and additional 0.5 mg doses until Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS score reached 3-4. Group D received dexmedetomidine at loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h infusion until RSS reached 3-4. The vital parameters (heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, respiration rate, SpO 2 , time to achieve RSS 3-4 and facial pain score (FPS were compared during and after the procedure. In the recovery room, time to reach modified Aldrete score (MAS 9-10 and patient and surgeon′s satisfaction scores was also recorded and compared. Any complication during or after the procedure were also noted. Results: In Group D, patients had lower HR and FPS at 5, 10 and 15 min following the initiation of sedation (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in BP and respiratory rate. The procedure elicited a gag response in 29 (97% and 7 (23% subjects in Group M and Group D respectively (P<0.05. MAS of 9-10 at 5 min during recovery was achieved in 27 (90% subjects in Group D in contrast to 5 (17% in Group M (P<0.05. Dexmedetomidine showed higher patient and surgeon satisfaction scores (P<0.05. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine can be a superior alternative to midazolam

  8. Microbiological Assessment of Bile and Corresponding Antibiotic Treatment: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study of 1401 Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Christian; Bode, Konrad; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Rudolph, Gerda; Bergemann, Janine; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Chahoud, Fadi; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Sauer, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria in bile samples and to analyze the clinical relevance of the findings as only limited information about risk factors for elevated frequence of bacterial and fungal strains in routinely collected bile samples has been described so far.A prospective cohort study at a tertiary care center was conducted. Seven hundred forty-four patients underwent 1401 endoscopic retrograde cholangiographies (ERCs) as indicated by liver transplantation (427/1401), primary sclerosing cholangitis (222/1401), choledocholithiasis only (153/1401), obstruction due to malignancy (366/1401), or other conditions (233/1401). Bile samples for microbiological analysis were obtained in all patients.The 71.6% (823/1150) samples had a positive microbiological finding, and 57% (840/1491) of the bacterial isolates were gram-positive. The main species were Enterococcus spp (33%; 494/1491) and Escherichia coli (12%; 179/1491). Of the samples, 53.8% had enteric bacteria and 24.7% had Candida spp; both were associated with clinical and laboratory signs of cholangitis (C-reactive proteins 35.0 ± 50.1 vs 44.8 ± 57.6; 34.5 ± 51.2 vs 52.9 ± 59.7; P < 0.001), age, previous endoscopic intervention, and immunosuppression. Multi-resistant (MR) strains were found in 11.3% of all samples and were associated with clinical and laboratory signs of cholangitis, previous intervention, and immunocompromised status. In subgroup analysis, strain-specific antibiotic therapy based on bile sampling was achieved in 56.3% (89/158) of the patients. In cases with a positive bile culture and available blood culture, blood cultures were positive in 29% of cases (36/124), and 94% (34/36) of blood cultures had microbial species identical to the bile cultures.Bactobilia and fungobilia can usually be detected by routine microbiological sampling, allowing optimized, strain-specific antibiotic treatment. Previous endoscopic

  9. ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F For More Information American College of Gastroenterology American Gastroenterological Association American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Society of American Gastrointestinal and ...

  10. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of sealing ability of MTA and EndoSequence as root-end filling materials with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesh, Bolla; Jeevani, Eppala; Sujana, Varri; Damaraju, Bharagavi; Sreeha, Kaluvakolanu; Ramesh, Penumaka

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Forty human single rooted teeth were taken. Crowns were decoronated and canals were obturated. Apically roots were resected and retrograde cavities were done. Based on the type of retrograde material placed and the type of smear layer removal agent used for retrograde cavities, they were divided into four groups (N = 10): Group I chitosan with EndoSequence, group II chitosan with MTA, group III CMC with EndoSequence, and Group IV CMC with MTA. All the samples were longitudinally sectioned, and the SEM analysis was done for marginal adaptation. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Witney analysis tests. Results: SEM images showed the presence of less gaps in group III, i.e., CMC with EndoSequence when compared to other groups with statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Within the limited scope of this study, it was concluded that EndoSequence as retrograde material showed better marginal sealing ability. PMID:27099420

  11. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of sealing ability of MTA and EndoSequence as root-end filling materials with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC as retrograde smear layer removing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolla Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and EndoSequence with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC as retrograde smear layer removing agents using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Forty human single rooted teeth were taken. Crowns were decoronated and canals were obturated. Apically roots were resected and retrograde cavities were done. Based on the type of retrograde material placed and the type of smear layer removal agent used for retrograde cavities, they were divided into four groups (N = 10: Group I chitosan with EndoSequence, group II chitosan with MTA, group III CMC with EndoSequence, and Group IV CMC with MTA. All the samples were longitudinally sectioned, and the SEM analysis was done for marginal adaptation. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Witney analysis tests. Results: SEM images showed the presence of less gaps in group III, i.e., CMC with EndoSequence when compared to other groups with statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Within the limited scope of this study, it was concluded that EndoSequence as retrograde material showed better marginal sealing ability.

  12. 小学低年级识字回生现象及解决路径%Phenomenon and solution ways of the literacy retrogradation phenomenon of lower grade of primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 王安全

    2013-01-01

    The new curriculum reform, primary school lower grade literacy amount increases in literacy, pressure, low grade primary school students have read retrogradation phenomenon.This comprehensive literacy retrogradation phenomenon is analyzed, that the reason mainly has:literacy retrogradation of teachers' literacy, light to read and write, literacy teaching mode, lack of innovation, the students review not properly consolidate method. According to the author read retrogradation phenomenon of read-write combination, diversified literacy method, optimization of review and consolidate the lower literacy retrogradation rate.%  新课程改革后,小学低年级识字量增大,在识字压力增大的情况下,小学低年级学生出现了识字回生现象。本文针对识字回生现象进行了综合分析,认为出现识字回生的原因主要有:教师重识字,轻读写、识字教学模式化,缺乏创新性、学生复习巩固方法不得当。针对识字回生现象笔者提出了通过读写结合、多元化的识字方法、优化复习巩固降低识字回生率。

  13. Primary hip spica with crossed retrograde intramedullary rush pins for the management of diaphyseal femur fractures in children: A prospective, randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ruhullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral fractures are common in children aged between 2 and 12 yearsand 75% of the lesions affect the femoral shaft. Traction followed by a plaster cast is universally accepted as a conservative treatment. We compared primary hip spica or traction followed by hip spica with closed reduction and fixation with retrogradely passed crossed Rush pins for diaphyseal femur fracture in 25 children of the age group 3-12 years, randomly distributed in each group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children (age: 3-13 years, mean; 9 years with femoral fractures were evaluated; 25 of them underwent the conservative treatment using immediate hip spica (group A and 25 underwent treatment with crossed retrograde Rush pins (group B. Results: Mean duration of fracture union was within 15 weeks in group A and 12 weeks in group B. Mean duration of weight bearing was 14weeks in group A and 7 weeks in group A. Mean hospital stay were 4 days in group A and 8days in group B. The man follow-up period was 16 months in group A and 17 months in group B. Complications like angulation, shortening and infection were compared. Bursitis and penetration of pins at the site of Rush pin insertion is a complication associated with this method of treatment. Conclusion: Closed reduction and internal fixation with crossed Rush pins was a superior treatment method in terms of early weight bearing and restoration of normal anatomy.

  14. Microstructural records of multiple retrograde local H2O supplement in the pelitic gneiss, Lützow-Holm Complex at Akarui Point, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Kitamura, Masao; Kawakami, Tetsuo

    2014-04-01

    The alkali-feldspar and biotite in the sillimanite-biotite-garnet gneiss from East Antarctica preserves characteristic microstructural evidence of multi-stage H2O supplement during the retrograde metamorphism. The first microstructural evidence is the "zoned feldspar," in which the mesoperthitic zone, the anti-perthitic zone, and lamella-free plagioclase zone coexist within a single crystal. They are occasionally found next to biotite, and are always depleted in orthoclase (Or) component toward the biotite. The formation process of this microstructure could be explained by the diffusion that oversteps the solvus. The second microstructural evidence is the serrate boundary between alkali-feldspar and biotite. The projections of biotite are selectively developed next to Or lamellae of alkali-feldspar every 3-5 μm. These two microstructures would have formed as the biotite grew by consuming potash in alkali-feldspar when H2O-bearing fluid locally passed through the grain boundaries. The former microstructure was formed at 825-900 °C before lamella formation, and the latter microstructure was formed after the lamella formation. These microstructures are the indicators of fluid pathways formed under two different temperature conditions. The common coexistence of these microstructures implies that the fluid used similar pathways during the retrograde metamorphism.

  15. Femoral shaft fractures Retrograde versus antegrade approach%股骨干骨折--逆行穿钉与顺行穿钉的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim Pohlemann; David Ring; Hartmut R. Siebert; 陈滨; 姜小惟

    2005-01-01

    It appears that both the retrograde and antegrade approaches to treating emoral fractures yield high union and similar malunion rates. Those receiving antegrade nailing may heal faster although this is not consistent. Knee pain appears common after retrograde nailing, whereas there are consistent findings in hip pain and heterotopic ossification predominating in those patients receiving antegrade nailing. Neither appears to significantly increase the risk of other complications. Functional outcomes cannot be determined.%在对股骨骨折进行逆行和顺行置入髓内钉治疗时,两种治疗方法产生很高的愈合率和相近的畸形愈合率.虽然未经过一致的认定,但那些接受顺行穿钉治疗的患者愈合较快.患者在接受逆行穿钉治疗后膝关节疼痛频繁出现,然而髋关节疼痛和异位骨化现象却在接受顺行穿钉治疗的患者中存在.患其它并发症的几率也无显著增长.因此不能决定功能结果.

  16. Retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and daily concurrent radiotherapy for stage III and IV oral cancer: Analysis of therapeutic results in 112 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and rate of organ preservation in patients with stage III or IV oral cancer treated with retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and daily concurrent radiotherapy. Materials and methods: One hundred and twelve patients with stage III and IV oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy. Catheterization from the superficial temporal and occipital arteries was performed. Treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (docetaxel, total 60 mg/m2, cisplatin, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (total of 60 Gy) for 6 weeks. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 46.2 months (range, 10–76 months). After intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy, primary site complete response was achieved in 98 (87.5%) of 112 cases. Five-year survival and local control rates were 71.3% and 79.3%, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included mucositis in 92.0%, neutropenia in 30.4%, dermatitis in 28.6%, anemia in 26.8%, and thrombocytopenia in 7.1% of patients. Grade 3 toxicities included dysphagia in 72.3%, nausea/vomiting in 21.4%, fever in 8.0%, and renal failure in 0.9% of patients. Conclusion: Retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and daily concurrent radiotherapy for stage III and IV oral cancer provided good overall survival and local control

  17. Retrograde trafficking from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network mediated by the retromer is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenhui; Zheng, Huawei; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Qiurong; Lin, Xiaolian; Chen, Ahai; Yu, Wenying; Lu, Guodong; Shim, Won-Bo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-06-01

    In eukaryotes, the retromer is an endosome-localized complex involved in protein retrograde transport. However, the role of such intracellular trafficking events in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of the retromer complex in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using cell biological and genetic methods. We observed the retromer core component FgVps35 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35) in the cytoplasm as fast-moving puncta. FgVps35-GFP co-localized with both early and late endosomes, and associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN), suggesting that FgVps35 functions at the donor endosome membrane to mediate TGN trafficking. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole significantly restricted the transportation of FgVps35-GFP and resulted in severe germination and growth defects. Mutation of FgVPS35 not only mimicked growth defects induced by pharmacological treatment, but also affected conidiation, ascospore formation and pathogenicity. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we determined the interactions among FgVps35, FgVps26, FgVps29, FgVps17 and FgVps5 which are analogous to the yeast retromer complex components. Deletion of any one of these genes resulted in similar phenotypic defects to those of the ΔFgvps35 mutant and disrupted the stability of the complex. Overall, our results provide the first clear evidence of linkage between the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:26875543

  18. Chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion for advanced oral cancer. Therapeutic effect for T3 and T4 squamous cell carcinoma of the upper gingiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion demonstrates good local control and overall survival rates due to the advantage of simultaneous infusion of anticancer agent with the synergistic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic results of 17 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper gingiva (T3, T4) treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion. Treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial infusions (docetaxel, total 60 mg/m2: cisplatin, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (total 60 Gy) for 6 weeks. Patients underwent biopsy of the primary lesion and radiological examinations 4 weeks after the completion of all treatments. Complete response (CR) of the primary site was achieved in 14 (82.4%) patients. Among them, 1 patient showed local recurrence and 1 patient showed cervical and pulmonary metastases. Four patients died, 1 of pulmonary metastases, 1 of cervical metastases, and 2 of uncontrolled local lesion during follow-up. Two-year cumulative local control and overall survival rates by the Kaplan-Meier method were 76.5% and 81.4%, respectively. (author)

  19. Retrograde transdorsal-to-plantar or transplantar-to-dorsal intraluminal re-entry treatment following unsuccessful subintimal angioplasty for below-the-ankle arterial occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the technical feasibility and efficacy of transdorsal-to-plantar (TDP) or transplantar-to-dorsal (TPD) intraluminal re-entry procedure following unsuccessful subintimal angioplasty for the treatment of arterial occlusion below the ankle. Methods: TDP or TPD retrograde intraluminal re-entry angioplasty was carried out in 8 diseased limbs of 8 diabetic patients (5 males and 3 females, aged 62∼81 years with a mean age of 75±8 years), who were accompanied with chronic below-the-ankle arterial occlusive disease, after the standard transtibial subintimal angioplasty had failed. Both before and after the procedure the clinical symptoms, dorsal or plantar arterial pulse volume scores and ankle-brachial indexes (ABI) were determined in all patients, the results were compared and statistically analysed. During the follow-up period, the degree of pain relief, the healing of the wound, the salvage of the diseased limb and the restenosis occurrence of the target vessels were evaluated. Results: Of the total 8 patients, TDP or TPD retrograde intraluminal re-entry angioplasty was successfully performed in 5(62.5%). After the treatment the foot pain was markedly relieved, the median pulse volume scores and ankle-brachial indexes were increased from 0.60±0.55 and 0.32±0.20 before the procedure to 2.40±0.55 and 0.75±0.12 after the procedure, respectively (P<0.01 for both). At the end of the follow-up lasting for twelve months, the visual analogue scale was apparently improved, the scores decreased from preoperative 7.40±1.14 to 2.20±1.48 (P=0.002). Of two cases with intractable skin ulcer, the skin lesion was completely healed in one and was significantly decreased in size in another. No amputation surgery was needed in all successfully treated patients. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed that one target vessel developed re-stenosis. Conclusion: TDP and TDP retrograde intraluminal re-entry techniques are clinically feasible and effective for the

  20. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Holman, Matthew J; Payne, Matthew J; Fraser, Wesley C; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J; Tonry, John L; Magnier, Eugene A; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV$_{42}$ (Drac), with a half-life of $\\sim 500$ Myr. Comparing similar high inclination TNOs and Centaurs ($q > 10$ AU, $a 60^\\circ$), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-$\\sigma$. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigate a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  1. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  2. The effect of thermal resetting and recrystallisation on white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages during retrograde metamorphism on Syros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunk, Bertram; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2015-04-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar dating is a proven powerful tool for constraining timing of metamorphism, deformation and exhumation. However, in high-pressure metamorphic rocks, dating often results in wide age ranges which are not in agreement with constraints from other isotopic systems, indicating that geological and chemical processes complicate straightforward 40Ar/39Ar dating. In this research project, white mica ages from rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece with contrasting rheology and strain mechanisms are compared, in order to better understand the role of deformation, recrystallization and fluid flow on 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica during retrograde metamorphism. Resulting ages vary along different sections on the island, inconsistent with other isotopic constraints on eclogite-blueschist metamorphism (55-50 Ma) and greenschist overprinting (41-30 Ma). Two end-member models are possible: 1) Results represent continuous crystallization of white mica while moving from blueschist to greenschist conditions in the metamorphic P-T loop, or 2) white mica equilibrated in eclogite-blueschist conditions and their diffusion systematics were progressively perturbed during greenschist overprinting. The single grain fusion analyses yielded contrasting age distributions, which indicate contrasts in degree of re-equilibration during retrograde metamorphism. Step wise heating of larger grain populations resulted in flat plateau shapes, providing no evidence for partial resetting. Electron microprobe measurements of Si per formula unit, as a proxy for pressure during crystallisation, do not explain age variation within sections or on the island scale. The previously unreported north-south age trend and age ranges per sample, as shown only in the 40Ar/39Ar system of the metapelitic and marble lithologies, contains key information that will allow us to test between different scenarios for age formation. Excess argon infiltration at this stage seems to have been of

  3. Postischemic fish oil treatment restores long-term retrograde memory and dendritic density: An analysis of the time window of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; Godinho, Jaqueline; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Matsushita, Makoto; Gohara, Aline Kirie; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Lima, Jéssica de Carvalho; Previdelli, Isolde Santos; Melo, Silvana Regina; Ribeiro, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin; Milani, Humberto

    2016-09-15

    We reported that fish oil (FO) prevented the loss of spatial memory caused by transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI), provided the treatment covered the first days prior to and after ischemia. Continuing these studies, trained rats were subjected to TGCI, and FO was administered for 10days, with a time window of efficacy (TWE) of 4, 8 or 12h post-ischemia. Retrograde memory was assessed up to 43days after TGCI. In another experiment, ischemic rats received FO with a 4- or 12-h TWE, and dendritic density was assessed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The brain lipid profile was evaluated in sham-operated and ischemic rats that were treated with FO or vehicle with a 4-h TWE. Ischemia-induced retrograde amnesia was prevented by FO administration that was initiated with either a 4- or 8-h TWE. Fish oil was ineffective after a 12-h TWE. Independent of the TWE, FO did not prevent ischemic neuronal death. In the hippocampus, but not cerebral cortex, TGCI-induced dendritic loss was prevented by FO with a 4-h TWE but not 12-h TWE. The level of docosahexaenoic acid almost doubled in the hippocampus in ischemic, FO-treated rats (4-h TWE). The data indicate that (i) the anti-amnesic effect of FO can be observed with a TWE of up to 8h, (ii) the stimulation of dendritic neuroplasticity may have contributed to this effect, and (iii) DHA in FO may be the main active constituent in FO that mediates the cognitive and neuroplasticity effects on TGCI. PMID:27235715

  4. 抑制玉米淀粉回生的面粉蛋白酶解液筛选%Screening of different wheat protease hydrolysates inhibiting retrogradation of corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊杰; 康海岐; 孙海波; 连喜军; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    为防止玉米淀粉食品会因回生而降低品质,该文利用酸性、中性和碱性3种蛋白酶水解小麦面粉中的球蛋白、谷蛋白和醇溶蛋白,研究酶解物中混合多肽对玉米淀粉回生的影响。研究结果表明,酸性蛋白酶水解谷蛋白所得多肽混合液能强烈抑制玉米淀粉回生,使玉米淀粉回生率由14.0%降低到8.0%。其他2种水解物促进玉米淀粉回生,促进最多的是碱性蛋白酶水解醇溶蛋白,使玉米淀粉回生率由14.0%升高到19.5%。通过红外和核磁分析了混合多肽抑制或促进玉米淀粉回生的可能机理。研究成果为控制淀粉回生提供一条全新的途径。%Retrogradation is the molecular interaction that occurs between glucan molecules in gelatinized starch during cooling. It profoundly affects quality, acceptability, and shelf-life of starch-containing foods. Corn starch is cheap and is widely used in foods such as instant noodles, sausages, pastries, etc. But the quality of these foods in hardness, digestion, compatibility, etc, becomes deteriorated during storage due to starch retrogradation. Wheat gluten is a kind of nutritious, high quality, and inexpensive plant-based protein. It is often suggested that gluten has an anti-firming effect in bread, but the reason for this is not clear. There are four kinds of proteins in wheat flour:albumin, globulin, glutenin, and gliadin. In order to find the peptides with the ability of hindering corn starch retrogradation, these proteins were hydrolyzed by acid, neutral, and alkali proteases. The effects of these peptides in hydrolysate of globulin, glutenin, and gliadin on the retrogradation of corn starch were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the peptides from hydrolysis of glutenin by acid protease strongly inhibited retrogradation of corn starch, lowering the retrogradation rate of corn starch from 14.0%to 8.0%. Other hydrolysis promoted the retrogradation of corn starch

  5. Effect of Treatment of Endodontic and Periodontal for Retrograde Pulpitis%牙髓牙周联合治疗逆行性牙髓炎的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬鹰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析牙髓牙周联合治疗逆行性牙髓炎的临床治疗效果,对该类疾病治疗提供参考。方法2012年~2014年我院共接收了149例逆行性牙髓炎患者,共有患牙151颗,我们为患者进行了牙髓、牙周兼顾治疗的方式,对临床治疗效果进行观察分析。结果全部151颗患牙有132颗治疗有效,有效率为87.42%,共19颗治疗无效,占总数的12.58%,治疗有效病例的患牙,其牙髓炎症状得到了改善,咬合情况良好,疼痛缓解,和传统牙髓以及牙周单一治疗方式比较,效果更优秀,见效更快速。结论逆行性牙髓炎是因为牙周组织感染所致,病情延伸至牙髓部分,因此该疾病既有牙髓疾病的特点,也有牙周疾病的特点,使用牙髓联合治疗见效快,治疗效果突出。%Objective To investigate the effect of combined endodontic with periodontal for retrograde pulpitis,provide reference for the treatment.Methods Selected 149 cases of retrograde pulpitis from 2012 to 2014 in our hospital,a total of 151 teeth. We conducted endodontic with periodontal treatment approach for patients. Clinical outcomes were observed and analyzed.Results A total of 132 teeth treatment were effective,efficient was 87.42%,19 cases of invalid,accounting for 12.58% of the total,effective treatment of cases,their pulpitis symptoms had improved,bite in good condition,pain relief,compared with traditional single treatment,the effect was more outstanding,effective and faster.Conclusion Retrograde pulpitis is caused by periodontal tissue infections,part of the disease extends to the pulp. Therefore,both the characteristics of the endodontic and periodontal,the use of endodontic therapy was effective,the treatment effect is prominent.

  6. Retrograde cystography US. A new ultrasound technique for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux; L'ecocistografia retrogada: una nuova tecnica ecografica per la diagnosi e stadiazione del reflusso vescico-ureterale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, R.; Arena, C.; Pennisi, F.; Di Benedetto, V.; Politi, G.; Di Benedetto, A. [Catania Univ., Catania (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-05-01

    The authors investigated the accuracy of a new US (ultrasound) investigation technique, called retrograde cystography US, in the early diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux. 5 patients, aged 3 months to 10 years, suffering from hydronephrosis and/or pyelonephritis, were examined using retrograde cystography US followed by conventional retrograde cystography. Retrograde cystography US consists in the transcatheter introduction of a contrast agent into the bladder and a subsequent color Doppler examination to show or exclude the presence of reflux. Superpubic scanning of bladder, ureters and pyelocaliceal cavity was performed after echo contrast agent introduction to assess the reflux grade. US was performed with an Esaote AU 590 asynchronous scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex probe. The total agreement of conventional and US findings seems to confirm the importance of the US method for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux. [Italian] Sono stati reclutati 5 pazienti con eta' compresa fra 3 mesi e 10 anni affetti da idrofrenosi e/o pielofrenite, per valutare l'accuratezza di una nuova metodica d'indagine, l'ecocistografia retrograda nella diagnosi e stadiazione del reflusso vescico-ureterale. E' stata eseguita ecocistigrafia retrograda e successivamente cistografia retrograda di controllo. L'ecocistografia retrograda consiste nell'introduzione trans-catetere di un mezzo di contrasto Levovist nella vescia e successivamente controllo con eco color Doppler per evidenziare o escludere la presenza del reflusso. Le indagini ecografiche sono state condotte con un apparecchio AU 590 Asyncronus con sonda convex da 3.5 MHz. La piena sovrapponobilita' dei dati emersi con l'ecocistografia con quelli della cistografia retrograda ne sembra confrmare il ruolo importante nella diagnosi e stadiazione del reflusso vescico-ureterale.

  7. Chemistry, reaction mechanisms and micro-structures during retrograde metamorphism of gedrite-biotite-plagioclase bearing rocks from Bergslagen, south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrow, Embaie A.; Ripa, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    The Proterozoic rhyolitic volcanics constituting the foot-wall rocks in the Stollberg ore-field, Bergslagen, south-central Sweden, locally contain gedrite altered to chlorite and serpentine, biotite altered to chlorite and plagioclase altered to epidote. The intergrowths between the host gedrite and the chlorite/serpentine inclusions are oriented with the a ∗ of gedrite parallel to the c ∗ of serpentine and chlorite. The biotite has been altered to chlorite by brucitization of both the K-interlayer and talc-like layer. In both cases the net change in volume during chloritization is small. The assumption that Al is conserved during alteration of gedrite and biotite agrees very well with the micro-structures and orientation relations observed by transmission electron microscopy. Normalizing the chlorite to 1.00 mole, the overall chemical change that took place during the retrograde metamorphism of the Stollberg rocks can be written as: 0.84Ged+0.14Bio+0.65Mg+4.76H 2O+0.42H=1.00Chl+0.57Alb+0.72Fe+0.01Na+0.12K+0.01Ti+0.05Mn+0.95H 4SiO 4 The reaction results in ca 9% increase in volume for the solid phases. Thus, a slightly acidic Mg-rich fluid started the reaction and, upon leaving the system, the metasomatic fluid was enriched in Na, Fe, K, and Si.

  8. Evaluation of staff, patient and foetal radiation doses due to endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) procedures in a pregnant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) in pregnant patients is not rare. Most studies on the safety and efficacy of these procedures report short- and long-term pregnancy outcomes and but not foetal absorbed doses. This investigation reports on an ERCP procedure for a 40-y-old woman who was 32-34 weeks pregnant. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD 100) were used to measure doses received by the patient and the staff. Additionally, Monte Carlo calculations were performed using a 3D computational phantom representing a 9-month pregnant patient to estimate the foetal absorbed dose. The results show that the spleen of the mother received the largest absorbed dose of 12.18 mGy since it was closer to the source than other internal organs. For the foetus and uterus, the lowest absorbed dose was found to be 0.01 mGy to the foetal brain, while the largest absorbed dose was estimated to be 0.13 mGy to the placenta. (authors)

  9. Effect of Acetylation on Stability to Retrogradation of Starch Extracted from Wild Polynesian Arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides (L. Kuntze for Utilization as Adhesive on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Abba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch was isolated from T. leontopetaloides tubers, chemically modified by acetylation with varying amounts of acetic anhydride. Monolayer of the ten acetylated and control starch powders was exposed on roof top for five weeks and pastes of both exposed and unexposed (control samples were prepared with distilled water (1 : 3 w/w. The effects of acetylation, degree of substitution (DS, and exposure to sunlight were investigated to evaluate the retrogradation tendency of the adhesive pastes from changes in syneresis, tack strength, optical clarity, viscosity, gelation time, and drying time. The results obtained showed that all the adhesive properties studied were affected by both DS and exposure to sunlight. While tack strength, viscosity, and drying time were found to increase with increase in DS, syneresis, optical clarity, and gelation time were found to decrease with increase in DS. Increase in tack strength and reduction in syneresis imply that the acetylation treatment has made T. leontopetaloides starch more suitable for use in remoistenable adhesive applications. The reduction in syneresis, optical clarity, and gelation time with increase in DS was attributed to the strengthening of the bonds between the amylose and amylopectin molecules, preventing water leaching out of the starch granules.

  10. Time variation of Kepler transits induced by stellar rotating spots - a way to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion. II. Application to KOIs

    CERN Document Server

    Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi; Fabrycky, Dan; Nachmani, Gil; McQuillan, Amy; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Orosz, Jerome A; Welsh, William F; Ford, Eric B; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Mazeh, Holczer, and Shporer (2015) have presented an approach that can, in principle, use the derived transit timing variation (TTV) of some transiting planets observed by the Kepler mission to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion of their orbits with respect to the rotation of their parent stars. The approach utilizes TTVs induced by spot-crossing events that occur when the transiting planet moves across a spot on the stellar surface, by looking for a correlation between the derived TTVs and the stellar brightness derivatives at the corresponding transits, even in data that can not resolve the spot-crossing events themselves. We present here the application of this approach to the Kepler KOIs, identifying nine systems where the photometric spot modulation is large enough and the transit timing accurate enough to allow detection of a TTV-brightness-slope correlation. Excluding KOI-1546, which has been found recently to be a stellar binary, we are left with eight hot-Jupiter systems with high sen...

  11. Differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct at dynamic CT, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and MR cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare findings at dynamic computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in patients with sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis (SC-AIP) and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct (CBD), and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ERC and MRC in differentiating between the two diseases. Bile duct changes at dynamic CT, ERC and MRC were compared in 58 patients with SC-AIP and CBD involvement and 93 patients with periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. Two radiologists rated their confidence in differentiating between the two diseases and the diagnostic performances of ERC and MRC were compared. At CT, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with intrapancreatic CBD involvement, thinner CBD walls, concentric wall thickening, smooth outer margins, and lower degrees of upstream ductal dilatation and contrast enhancement (P {<=} 0.05) than CBD cancer. At ERC and MRC, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with smooth margins, gradual and symmetric narrowing, multifocal involvement and hourglass appearance (P {<=} 0.027) than CBD cancer. MRC showed good diagnostic performance comparable to ERC. Dynamic CT, ERC and MRC can be helpful in distinguishing SC-AIP from periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. MRC may be a useful diagnostic alternative to ERC in differentiating between the two diseases. (orig.)

  12. Extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy versus retrograde ureteroscopy: is radiation exposure a criterion when we choose which modern treatment to apply for ureteric stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Pricop

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare two major urological procedures in terms of patient exposure to radiation. We evaluated 175 patients, that were subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy (URS and extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (ESWL for lumbar or pelvic ureteral lithiasis, at two urological departments. The C-arm Siemens (produced in 2010 by Siemens AG, Germany was used for ureteroscopy. The radiological devices of the lithotripters used in this study in the two clinical centers had similar characteristics. We evaluated patient exposure to ionizing radiation by using a relevant parameter, the air kerma-area product (PKA; all values in cGy cm2, calculated from the radiation dose values recorded by the fluoroscopy device. PKA depends on technical parameters that change due to anatomical characteristics of each case examined, such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and stone location. For the patients subjected to ESWL for lumbar ureteral lithiasis the mean of PKA (cGy cm2 was 509 (SD=180, while for those treated for pelvic ureteral lithiasis the mean of PKA was 342 (SD=201. In the URS group for lumbar ureteral lithiasis, the mean of PKA (cGy cm2 was 892 (SD=436, while for patients with pelvic ureteral lithiasis, the mean of PKA was 601 (SD=429. The patients treated by URS had higher exposure to ionizing radiation dose than patients treated by ESWL. The risk factors of higher radiation doses were obesity, exposure time, and localization of the stones.

  13. Evolving Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Management of Extrahepatic Hepatic Ductal Injuries due to Blunt Trauma: Diagnostic and Treatment Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil P. Jaik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic hepatic ductal injuries (EHDIs due to blunt abdominal trauma are rare. Given the rarity of these injuries and the insidious onset of symptoms, EHDI are commonly missed during the initial trauma evaluation, making their diagnosis difficult and frequently delayed. Diagnostic modalities useful in the setting of EHDI include computed tomography (CT, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS, nuclear imaging (HIDA scan, and cholangiography. Traditional options in management of EHDI include primary ductal repair with or without a T-tube, biliary-enteric anastomosis, ductal ligation, stenting, and drainage. Simple drainage and biliary decompression is often the most appropriate treatment in unstable patients. More recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP allowed for diagnosis and potential treatment of these injuries via stenting and/or papillotomy. Our review of 53 cases of EHDI reported in the English-language literature has focused on the evolving role of ERCP in diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms incorporating ERCP have been designed to help systematize and simplify the management of EHDI. An illustrative case is reported of blunt traumatic injury involving both the extrahepatic portion of the left hepatic duct and its confluence with the right hepatic duct. This injury was successfully diagnosed and treated using ERCP.

  14. A Prospective Blinded Study Evaluating the Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound before Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in the Setting of "Positive" Intraoperative Cholangiogram during Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Anjuli K; Aggarwal, Vipul; Mishra, Girish; Conway, Jason; Evans, John A

    2016-04-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is used to identify common bile duct (CBD) stones. In patients whose IOC is suspicious for stones, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the modality of choice for stone removal. However, IOC has a false positive rate of 30 to 60 per cent, and ERCP adverse events may occur in 11 per cent of patients. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may serve as a noninvasive means of diagnosing suspected CBD stones. This study sought to assess the role of EUS in predicting the likelihood of choledocholithiasis at ERCP in patients found to have a positive IOC. This was a prospective blinded study of EUS before ERCP in patients with a positive IOC. Recruited subjects who underwent cholecystectomy and had an IOC with suspicion for obstruction were referred for ERCP within one month of their procedure. In patients with a positive IOC, EUS had a positive predictive value of 95 per cent in detecting choledocholithiasis. IOC with single or multiple filling defects more often correlated to the presence of CBD stones. At ERCP, choledocholithiasis was present in 65 per cent of patients who had an IOC suspicious for CBD stones. EUS should be used as a noninvasive method to correctly identify retained CBD stones in low-to-moderate risk patients with a positive IOC. PMID:27097628

  15. The conjectured S-type retrograde planet in nu Octantis: more evidence including four years of iodine-cell radial velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, D J; Endl, M; Hearnshaw, J B; Wittenmyer, R A; Gunn, F; Bergmann, C; Kilmartin, P; Brogt, E

    2016-01-01

    We report 1212 radial-velocity (RV) measurements obtained in the years 2009-2013 using an iodine cell for the spectroscopic binary nu Octantis (K1III/IV). This system (a_bin~2.6 au, P~1050 days) is conjectured to have a Jovian planet with a semi-major axis half that of the binary host. The extreme geometry only permits long-term stability if the planet is in a retrograde orbit. Whilst the reality of the planet (P~415 days) remains uncertain, other scenarios (stellar variability or apsidal motion caused by a yet unobserved third star) continue to appear substantially less credible based on CCF bisectors, line-depth ratios and many other independent details. If this evidence is validated but the planet is disproved, the claims of other planets using RVs will be seriously challenged. We also describe a significant revision to the previously published RVs and the full set of 1437 RVs now encompasses nearly 13 years. The sensitive orbital dynamics allow us to constrain the three-dimensional architecture with a bro...

  16. Discovery of a New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of a Common Orbital Plane for Low Semimajor Axis, High-inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Tonry, John L.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high-inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname “Niku,” detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ˜500 Myr. Comparing similar high-inclination TNOs and Centaurs (q > 10 au, a 60°), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-σ. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  17. Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion Results in Better Perfusion to the Striatum Than the Cerebral Cortex During Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest: A Microdialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Meng-Ya; Chen, Guang-Xian; Tang, Zhi-Xian; Rong, Jian; Yao, Jian-ping; Wu, Zhong-Kai

    2016-03-01

    It remains controversial whether contemporary cerebral perfusion techniques, utilized during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), establish adequate perfusion to deep structures in the brain. This study aimed to investigate whether selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) can provide perfusion equally to various anatomical positions in the brain using metabolic evidence obtained from microdialysis. Eighteen piglets were randomly assigned to 40 min of circulatory arrest (CA) at 18°C without cerebral perfusion (DHCA group, n = 6) or with SACP (SACP group, n = 6) or RCP (RCP group, n = 6). Microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate) were measured every 30 min in cortex and striatum. After 3 h of reperfusion, brain tissue was harvested for Western blot measurement of α-spectrin. After 40 min of CA, the DHCA group showed marked elevations of lactate and glycerol and a reduction in glucose in the microdialysis perfusate (all P spectrin expression in brain tissue were similar between cortex and striatum in the SACP group (all P > 0.05). In the RCP group, the cortex exhibited lower glucose, higher lactate, and higher glycerol in the perfusate and higher α-spectrin expression in brain tissue compared with the striatum (all P 0.05). In summary, SACP provided uniform and continuous cerebral perfusion to most anatomical sites in the brain, whereas RCP resulted in less sufficient perfusion to the cortex but better perfusion to the striatum. PMID:26333187

  18. Differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct at dynamic CT, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and MR cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare findings at dynamic computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in patients with sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis (SC-AIP) and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct (CBD), and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ERC and MRC in differentiating between the two diseases. Bile duct changes at dynamic CT, ERC and MRC were compared in 58 patients with SC-AIP and CBD involvement and 93 patients with periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. Two radiologists rated their confidence in differentiating between the two diseases and the diagnostic performances of ERC and MRC were compared. At CT, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with intrapancreatic CBD involvement, thinner CBD walls, concentric wall thickening, smooth outer margins, and lower degrees of upstream ductal dilatation and contrast enhancement (P ≤ 0.05) than CBD cancer. At ERC and MRC, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with smooth margins, gradual and symmetric narrowing, multifocal involvement and hourglass appearance (P ≤ 0.027) than CBD cancer. MRC showed good diagnostic performance comparable to ERC. Dynamic CT, ERC and MRC can be helpful in distinguishing SC-AIP from periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. MRC may be a useful diagnostic alternative to ERC in differentiating between the two diseases. (orig.)

  19. Comparison between magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); Comparacion entre calongiografia por resonancia magnetica (CPRM) y colangiografia retrograda endoscopia (CPRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulpeiro, J. R.; Armesto, V. [Clinica Nosa Senora dos Ollos Grandes. Lugo (Spain); Lopez-Roses, L.; Lancho, A.; Gonzalez, A. [Hospital Xeral. Lugo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To assess the correlation between magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The authors carried out a prospective study of 71 patients suspected of having biliary diseases. MRCP was performed, followed by ERCP.MRCP was done with a 1.5-T system using hypergradients, abdominal phase array coil and single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequences with maximum signal intensity in T2-weighted images. This sequence only provides images of the fluids, similar to those obtained with ERCP. The results of ERCP were employed as a reference standard. Thirty patients were found to have stenosis (19 malignant and 11 benign). 25 had choledocholithiasis and 16 showed no abnormal findings. The correlation was complete in patients with stenosis. MRCP detected 23 cases of choledocholithiasis (ERCP was normal in the remaining two patients, but calculi were discovered on shpincterotomy). MRCP confirmed the normal condition of the bile duct in 12 of the 16 patients free of biliary disease (2 patients in whom ERCP had been normal had been diagnosed as having bile duct dilatation due to choledocholithiasis 24 hours and 10 days earlier, respectively, and two cases of presented ectasia due to fibrosis of the sphincter of Oddi showed good emptying during ERCP). MRCP using SSFSE is highly correlated with ERCP, which should be reserved for cases in which the diagnosis is in doubt or endoscopic management is necessary. (Author) 25 refs.

  20. Time variation of Kepler transits induced by stellar rotating spots - a way to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion I. Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Shporer, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Some transiting planets discovered by the Kepler mission display transit timing variations (TTVs) induced by stellar spots that rotate on the visible hemisphere of their parent stars. A TTV can be derived when a planet crosses a spot, modifying the shape of the transit light curve. We present an approach that can, in principle, use the derived TTVs of a planet to distinguish between a prograde and a retrograde planetary motion with respect to the stellar rotation. Assuming a single spot darker than the stellar disc, spot crossing by the planet can induce measured positive (negative) TTV, if the crossing occurs in the first (second) half of the transit. On the other hand, the motion of the spot towards (away from) the center of the stellar visible disc causes the stellar brightness to decrease (increase). Therefore, for a planet with prograde motion, the TTV is positive when the local slope of the stellar flux at the time of transit is negative, and vice versa. Using a simplistic model we show that TTVs induce...