WorldWideScience

Sample records for balloon overtube-guided colorectal

  1. Completely obstructed colorectal anastomosis: A new non-electrosurgical endoscopic approach before balloon dilatation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriele; Curcio; Marco; Spada; Fabrizio; di; Francesco; Ilaria; Tarantino; Luca; Barresi; Gaetano; Burgio; Mario; Traina

    2010-01-01

    Benign stricture is a relatively common complication of colorectal anastomosis after low anterior resection. On occasion, the anastomosis may close completely. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been described, but there is a lack of data from controlled prospective trials as to the optimal approach. Through-the-scope balloon dilatation is well known and easy to perform. Some case reports describe different endoscopic approaches, including endoscopic electrocision with a papillotomy knife or hook knife...

  2. Completely obstructed colorectal anastomosis: a new non-electrosurgical endoscopic approach before balloon dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Gabriele; Spada, Marco; di Francesco, Fabrizio; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Burgio, Gaetano; Traina, Mario

    2010-10-07

    Benign stricture is a relatively common complication of colorectal anastomosis after low anterior resection. On occasion, the anastomosis may close completely. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been described, but there is a lack of data from controlled prospective trials as to the optimal approach. Through-the-scope balloon dilatation is well known and easy to perform. Some case reports describe different endoscopic approaches, including endoscopic electrocision with a papillotomy knife or hook knife. We report a case of a colorectal anastomosis web occlusion, treated without electrocision. Gastrografin enema and sigmoidoscopy showed complete obstruction at the anastomotic site due to the presence of an anastomotic occlusive web. In order to avoid thermal injuries, we decided to use a suprapapillary biliary puncture catheter. The Artifon catheter was inserted into the center of the circular staple line at the level of the anastomosis, and fluoroscopic identification of the proximal bowel was obtained with dye injection. A 0.025-inch guidewire was then passed through the catheter into the colon and progressive pneumatic dilatation was performed. The successful destruction of the occlusive web facilitated passage of the colonoscope, allowing evaluation of the entire colon and stoma closure after three months of follow-up. The patient tolerated the procedure well, with no complications. This report highlights an alternative non-electrosurgical approach that uses a new device that proved to be safe and useful.

  3. Pumpkin Balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Jun; 西村, 純

    1992-01-01

    The Pumpkin shaped balloons, which are the extreme case of the heart-type balloons had been studied as one of the promising candidate of the super pressure balloons. Here, detailed studies for the features of the pumpkin balloons are described, particularly by comparing with those of the spherical shaped super pressure balloons.

  4. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  5. GHOST balloons around Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  6. Clefting in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  7. Development of a balloon volume sensor for pulsating balloon catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Timothy D C; Hattler, Brack G; Federspiel, William J

    2004-01-01

    Helium pulsed balloons are integral components of several cardiovascular devices, including intraaortic balloon pumps (IABP) and a novel intravenous respiratory support catheter. Effective use of these devices clinically requires full inflation and deflation of the balloon, and improper operating conditions that lead to balloon under-inflation can potentially reduce respiratory or cardiac support provided to the patient. The goal of the present study was to extend basic spirographic techniques to develop a system to dynamically measure balloon volumes suitable for use in rapidly pulsating balloon catheters. The dynamic balloon volume sensor system (DBVSS) developed here used hot wire anemometry to measure helium flow in the drive line from console to catheter and integrated the flow to determine the volume delivered in each balloon pulsation. An important component of the DBVSS was an algorithm to automatically detect and adjust flow signals and measured balloon volumes in the presence of gas composition changes that arise from helium leaks occurring in these systems. The DBVSS was capable of measuring balloon volumes within 5-10% of actual balloon volumes over a broad range of operating conditions relevant to IABP and the respiratory support catheter. This includes variations in helium concentration from 70-100%, pulsation frequencies from 120-480 beats per minute, and simulated clinical conditions of reduced balloon filling caused by constricted vessels, increased driveline, or catheter resistance.

  8. Mars Solar Balloon Lander Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  9. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  10. Space Weather Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  11. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  12. Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Schur, Willi W.

    NASA’s development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. Success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and developing of means for the quantitative assessment of design measures that prevent the occurrence of undesired equilibrium. In this paper, we will use the concept of stability to classify cyclically symmetric equilibrium states at full inflation and pressurization. Our mathematical model for a strained equilibrium balloon, when applied to a shape that mimics the Phase IV-A balloon of Flight 517, predicts instability at float. Launched in Spring 2003, this pumpkin balloon failed to deploy properly. Observations on pumpkin shape type super-pressure balloons that date back to the 1980s suggest that within a narrowly defined design class of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons where individual designs are fully described by the number of gores ng and by a single measure of the bulging gore shape, the designs tend to become more vulnerable with the growing number of gores and with the diminishing size of the bulge radius rB Weight efficiency considerations favor a small bulge radius, while robust deployment into the desired cyclically symmetrical configuration becomes more likely with an increased bulge radius. In an effort to quantify this dependency, we will explore the stability of a family of balloon shapes parametrized by (ng, rB) which includes a design that is very similar, but not identical, to the balloon of Flight 517. In addition, we carry out a number of simulations that demonstrate other aspects related to multiple equilibria of pumpkin balloons.

  13. Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J. A.; Cooper, H. W.; Hall, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Pauken, M. T.; White, C. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H. M.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Smith, I. S.; Shreves, C. M.; Lachenmeier, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of Mars superpressure balloons were flight tested for aerial deployment and inflation in the Earth's stratosphere in June, 2002. One was an 11.3 m diameter by 6.8 m high pumpkin balloon constructed from polyethylene film and Zylon (PBO) tendons, the second was a 10 m diameter spherical balloon constructed from 12 μm thick Mylar film. Aerial deployment and inflation occurred under parachute descent at 34 km altitude, mimicing the dynamic pressure environment expected during an actual Mars balloon mission. Two on-board video cameras were used on each flight to provide real-time upward and downward views of the flight train. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were also recorded. Both prototypes successfully deployed from their storage container during parachute descent at approximately 40 m/s. The pumpkin balloon also successfully inflated with a 440 g charge of helium gas injected over a 1.5-min period. Since the helium inflation system was deliberately retained after inflation in this test, the pumpkin balloon continued to fall to the ocean where it was recovered for post-flight analysis. The less robust spherical balloon achieved only a partial (~70%) inflation before a structural failure occurred in the balloon film resulting in the loss of the vehicle. This structural failure was diagnosed to result from the vigorous oscillatory motion of the partially inflated balloon, possibly compounded by contact between the balloon film and an instrumentation box above it on the flight train. These two flights together represent significant progress in the development of Mars superpressure balloon technology and pave the way for future flight tests that will include post-deployment flight of the prototype balloons at a stable altitude.

  14. Titan Balloon Convection Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  15. Buddy balloon for TAVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Jonathan; Silberman, Shuli; Almagor, Yaron

    2013-11-15

    Percutaneous transfemoral aortic valve replacement is a new rapidly evolving technique that has made significant progress in recent years. The technology is however limitted and in some cases has resulted in failure to deliver the prosthetic valve. We describe a new technique using a buddy balloon, from the contralateral femoral artery, to assist in crossing the native aortic valve in those cases where extreme calcification and or tortuosity have caused the delivery system to hang up on the aortic wall. The technique is easily applied and facilitates the success of the procedure in cases which may otherwise have to be converted to open surgical aortic valve replacement.

  16. A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J.; Franek, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described. This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons.

  17. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  18. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described.

  19. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  20. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  1. Superpressure Tow Balloon for Extending Durations and Modifying Trajectories of High Altitude Balloon Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation involves the concept of using a Superpressure Tow Balloon (STB) with existing NASA high altitude balloon designs to form a tandem balloon...

  2. Sensor System for Super-Pressure Balloon Performance Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-duration balloon flights are an exciting new area of scientific ballooning, enabled by the development of large super-pressure balloons. As these balloons...

  3. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.

    2004-01-01

    A lobed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super-pressure balloon. This paper deals with extensions of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes, belts or a strut. When the original pumpkin shape is modified by these systems, the superior characteristics of the 3-D gore design, incorporating large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail. Application for ground structures are also mentioned.

  4. Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.

  5. Yellow Balloon in a Briar Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frank; Fitzmaurice, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a meteorology unit, sixth grade science students launched helium balloons with attached return postcards. This article describes Weather Service monitoring of the balloons and postcard return results. (MA)

  6. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  7. Ballonnen in zee = balloons as marine litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Releasing balloons seems harmless. However, remains of balloons, especially valves and ribbons are becoming a common and persistent type of marine litter found on beaches. Following Dutch Queens day 2007, large numbers of Dutch balloons were found in Normandy, France. Animals may become entangled in

  8. Pseudoperforation during kissing balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Carmelo J; Fasseas, Panayotis; Raveendran, Ganesh; Garratt, Kirk N

    2004-11-01

    We describe a case of apparent perforation during kissing balloon angioplasty of a bifurcation lesion. There was no evidence of perforation on follow-up angiography or via intravascular ultrasound. Possible etiologies include minimal perforation that immediately sealed postdeflation or forced contrast into the microvascular bed via a proximal side branch.

  9. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  10. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  11. Metachronous colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....

  12. Scientific ballooning in India: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M. N.; Damle, S. V.

    The National Scientific Balloon Facility (NBF) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) has been conducting regular balloon flights for various experiments in the areas of Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in all aspects of Scientific Ballooning through a sustained R and D programme ensures uptodate services and a better handle on the design specifications for the balloon. Recent developments in balloon grade films, continuous improvements in design specifications, balloon manufacturing methods, flight operational procedures and improved balloon flight capabilities have resulted in a greatly improved flight performance in the last five years. A launch capability upgradation programme in terms of new launch spool and new launch vehicle has been initiated to be able to safely launch balloons with gross lifts upto 3500 kg, balloon volumes upto 450,000 m^3 and payloads upto 1400 kg. A series of steps have been initiated to improve long duration flight capabilities. In this paper, we present details on some of these aspects of Scientific Ballooning in India.

  13. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  14. Five Myths about Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them. Myth: Colorectal cancer is a man’s disease. Truth: Colorectal cancer is almost as common among women as men. ... tested for colorectal cancer because it’s deadly anyway. Truth: Colorectal cancer is often highly treatable. If it’s found and ...

  15. Detection of colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib J; Rasmussen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Serological biomarkers may be an option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study assessed 8 cancer-associated protein biomarkers in plasma from subjects undergoing first time ever colonoscopy due to symptoms attributable to colorectal neoplasia. Plasma AFP, CA19-9, CEA, hs...

  16. Colorectal cancers choosing sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, Cristina; Bakker, Elvira R. M.; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of sporadic colorectal cancer which predominantly occur in the distal colon, most mismatch repair deficient tumours arise at the proximal side. At present, these regional preferences have not been explained properly. Recently, we have screened colorectal tumours for mutat

  17. Peroxiredoxins in colorectal neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, X.Y.; Fu, X.Z.; Wang, X. H.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are novel group proteins with efficient antioxidant capacity, and some of them also have effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Altogether six distinct Prxs expressions were investigated in histological samples of colorectal neoplasm and the distant normal tissues and investigated associatedly with parameters such as clinical stage and lymphnodes metastasis. Normal colorectal tis...

  18. Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously unattainable...

  19. Scientific Ballooning Activities and Recent Developments in Technology and Instrumentation of the TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) is a unique center of expertise working throughout the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons mainly for space astronomy, atmospheric science and engineering experiments. Recently TIFR-BF extended its support to new user scientists for conducting balloon launches for biological and middle atmospheric sciences. For the first time two balloon launches conducted for sending live lab rats to upper stratosphere and provided launch support for different balloon campaigns such as Tropical Tropopause Dynamics (TTD) to study water vapour content in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric regions over Hyderabad and the other balloon campaign to study the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL) during the Indian summer monsoon season. BATAL is the first campaign to conduct balloon launches during active (South-West) monsoon season using zero pressure balloons of different volumes. TIFR-BF also provided zero pressure and sounding balloon support to various research institutes and organizations in India and for several international space projects. In this paper, we present details on our increased capability of balloon fabrication for carrying heavier payloads, development of high strength balloon load tapes and recent developments of flight control and safety systems. A summary of the various flights conducted in two years will be presented along with the future ballooning plans.

  20. Intragastric balloon and multidisciplinary team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mazure

    Full Text Available Background: The intragastric balloon is widely used for weight reduction in obese patients, but results are variable. We describe our results enhancing the importance of a Multidisciplinary Team (MT taking part in the treatment. Methods: A retrospective review was done concerning a total of 119 balloons , placed in 116 patients, under endoscopic control and conscious sedation, from May 2001 until August 2006. 49 patients were prepared and recommended to be followed by a MT in a physical unit, at least every 15 days during 6 months. 67 were indicated and followed by other colleagues, without MT. Removal was performed 6 months later. Results: Concerning our 49 patients, mean age was 38, 1 years, 31 female and 18 males, with BMI ranged between 32 and 63, average of 42. The average decrease of weight excess was 31, 85% (-4, 45-80, 4%, and the BMI diminished 5,3 points (from 13,6 to gain of 0,9. The treatment failed in 34,6 % of our patients -including 4 patients lost of follow-up (8, 16%-, compared with 53, 8% of patients without structured MT for selection and follow-up. Physical exercise enhanced markedly the results with 45, 8% of excess of weight loss in women and 39, 7% in males, compared with 14, 6 and 15, 6% in patients who didn't follow the program. The weight loss was mostly fat mass, 89,9% in men and 75,6% in women.- The results maintenance was obtained in 40% of patients one year later. There were no major complications; one balloon had to be removed at 3 weeks because of intolerance, another at 5 months because of gastroesophageal reflux. Conclusions: BIB is an effective help to achieve a short term weight loss in obese patients; nevertheless, good and long lasting results will depend on the modification of life style obtained by a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Paraplegia following intraaortic balloon circulatory assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benício Anderson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is frequently used in patients experiencing severe ventricular dysfunction following maximal drug therapy. However, even with the improvement of percutaneous insertion techniques, the procedure has always been followed by vascular, infectious, and neurological complications. This article describes a case of paraplegia due to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

  2. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  3. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  4. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  5. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  7. Malignant colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Juan; I; Arenas-Mirave

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of cases in which malignant colorectal polyps are removed is increasing due to colorectal cancer screening programmes. Cancerous polyps are classified into non-invasive high grade neoplasia (NHGN), when the cancer has not reached the muscularis mucosa, and malignant polyps, classed as T1, when they have invaded the submucosa. NHGN is considered cured with polypectomy, while the prognosis for malignant polyps depends on various morphological and histological factors. The prognostic facto...

  8. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yik-Hong; Ho; Mohamed; Ahmed; Tawfi; k; Ashour

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastom...

  9. Airborne Internet Providing Tethered Balloon System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvriti Dhawan1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall introduce a new system for providing wireless network communication over a specified area using ’lighter than air’ balloons. This technology will replace the existing fiber optic network system. This will be done by using a tethered balloon along with the payload (containing a receiver, a transmitter and a radio communication device.This payload will be suspended from the ground at an altitude (depending on the area of coverage required. Users under this area will be able to access this system directly for internet connectivity. This system can be used over large areas like universities, companies and societies to provide internet facility to their users through Wi-Fi or over an area where the user is specified (commercial purposes. Currently Google is working on similar idea called the ’Google Loon’ in which they use high altitude balloons which float at an altitude twice as high as air planes and the weather. They recently tested this system over New-Zealand by providing internet to their pilot testers on ground. Their balloons not being stationary, move with directional winds and have to be replaced one after the other to maintain consistency. This can be a huge problem over the areas where upper atmospheric winds are not in favorable direction. We can resolve this problem by using our stationary tethered balloon system which can communicate with the loon balloons to provide internet facility over a desired area. Moreover when our balloon will communicate with the loon balloon it will increase the coverage area as the loon balloon has to communicate to a point which is above the ground. Our system will not only replace the existing fiber optic system but it will also be selfsustaining i.e. It will generate its own power using solar panels.

  10. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  11. Stratospheric electric field measurements with transmediterranean balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Morena, B. A.; Alberca, L. F.; Curto, J. J.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The horizontal component of the stratospheric electric field was measured using a balloon in the ODISEA Campaign of Transmediterranean Balloon Program. The balloon flew between Trapani (Sicily) and El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) along the 39 deg N parallel at a height between 34 and 24 km. The high values found for the field on fair-weather and its quasi-turbulent variation, both in amplitude and direction, are difficult to explain with the classical electric field source. A new source, first described by Holzworth (1989), is considered as possibly causing them.

  12. A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.S.; Apple, M.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer has been successfully developed and flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report details instrument design, calibration and data conversion procedure. Free and tethered balloon transport and telemetry systems are described. Data taken during March 1989 South-Central New Mexico free flight ascents are presented as vertical profiles of atmospheric particle scattering coefficient, temperature and balloon heading. Data taken during December 1989 Albuquerque, New Mexico tethered flights are also presented as vertical profiles. Data analysis shows superior instrument performance. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  13. Looners: Inside the world of balloon fetishism

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1997, Shaun had just broken up with a boyfriend, and his roommate had moved out. Living alone for the first time and relieved of the fear that someone might walk in the door, he was finally able to indulge his fantasy. The young man sat on his couch and started blowing up balloons. Shaun had loved playing with balloons since he was a child. When he hit puberty, he felt his first orgasm rubbing against a balloon. It was then that his relationship with the object took ...

  14. Laparoscopic reintervention in colorectal surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, RP Ten; Goor, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has developed in the 1990's and beginning of 2000. The favourable results and great progress in the development of laparoscopic techniques have expanded the indications of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. More and more complicated colorectal cases are treated laparosc

  15. Shielded Mars Balloon Launcher (SMBL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, along with its partner Vertigo Industries, proposes a novel approach to deployment of balloon-based payloads into the Martian atmosphere....

  16. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  17. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —   NASA has plans to fly stratospheric ULDBs for missions of 100 days or more in the next few years. As these balloons circumnavigate the globe multiple times,...

  18. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  19. Magnetometer for Balloons and UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will investigate a new, low-cost approach to atomic magnetometry that is suited for operation from UAVs and research balloons. Atomic...

  20. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing with a w...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context.......Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...

  1. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  2. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy.

  3. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  4. Imaging Sunlit Aurora from Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummerzheim, D.; Zhou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1892 when aurora was first imaged by Martin Brendel, useful auroral images have been obtained only when the aurora is in darkness. While UV imagers onboard satellite provide global auroral dynamics, the sunlit aurora in the UV band is overwhelmed by the UV airglow that has the same wavelengths with the UV auroral emissions. The visible band imaging is feasible only when the aurora is in darkness to avoid the sunlight contamination. However, sunlit aurora (such as dayside aurora) is closely related to the solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling. In addition, limited land area has badly restricted the capability of imaging dayside aurora from the northern hemisphere and nightside aurora from the southern hemisphere. We have confirmed that sunlit aurora can be imaged using a near-infrared (NIR) camera on board the balloon platform flying in Antarctica or Arctic. This method provides a unique capability for dayside and conjugate auroral investigations. Scientific questions that can be addressed by such observations include how does the dayside aurora respond to solar wind transient variations? Are auroras hemispherically symmetric? Are auroral forms and their variations under sunlight the same as those in darkness? etc. The new method is also cost effective comparing to space-borne imagers, and offers capabilities not obtainable from space and the ground. With the accomplishment of identifying auroral dynamics in sunlight and darkness, in the south and north simultaneously, our knowledge and understanding of auroral phenomenon and its causes will be expanded.

  5. Epigenetic changes in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jia; Mingzhou Guo

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic changes frequently occur in human colorectal cancer.Genomic global hypomethylation,gene promoter region hypermethylation,histone modifications,and alteration of miRNA patterns are major epigenetic changes in colorectal cancer.Loss of imprinting (LOI) is associated with colorectal neoplasia.Folate deficiency may cause colorectal carcinogenesis by inducing gene-specific hypermethylation and genomic global hypomethylation.HDAC inhibitors and demethylating agents have been approved by the FDA for myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia treatment.Non-coding RNA is regarded as another kind of epigenetic marker in colorectal cancer.This review is mainly focused on DNA methylation,histone modification,and microRNA changes in colorectal cancer.

  6. Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources was started in 1969 by the late S. Hayakawa of Nagoya Univ. and B. V. Sreekantan of TIFR. Cosmic background X-ray and soft gamma-ray spectra, simultaneous X-ray and optical flux variation, and size of X-ray emitting region of Crab Nebula were observed successfully by balloon flights at Hyderabad in 1969-1975. H. Shibai of Nagoya Univ. and T. N. Rengarajan of TIFR have organized collaboration on far infrared sky survey at wavlength of 150 micron emitted from CII. By employing improved detectors, CII distribution of Orion Nebula has been obtained in good accuracy by more than ten balloon flights in 1999-2008.

  7. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2015-06-01

    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  8. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for NASA's Scientific Balloon Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  9. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons.

  10. There is a Text in 'The Balloon'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which a supernatu......From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which...

  11. Cutting balloon angioplasty for intrastent restenosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Orávio de Freitas Jr

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe here two patients with angiographic diagnosis of intrastent restenosis and regional myocardial ischemia. One stent restenosis was located in a native coronary artery and the other in a vein graft. Both were treated with cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA, inflated at low pressures. Angiographic success was obtained and both patients were discharged in the day after the procedure. Cutting balloon angioplasty using low inflation pressures achieved important luminal gains, in these two cases of intrastent restenosis. Further studies are necessary before the effectiveness of this procedure can be precisely defined.

  12. On the inflation of a rubber balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermarlière, Julien

    2016-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that it is difficult to start a balloon inflating. But after a pressure peak that occurs initially, it becomes far easier to do it! The purpose of this article is to establish the experimental pressure-radius chart for a rubber balloon and to compare it to the theoretical one. We will demonstrate that the barometer of a smartphone is a very suitable tool to reach this goal. We hope that this phenomenon will help students realize that sometimes very simple questions can lead to very interesting and counterintuitive science.

  13. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  14. Auditory Risk of Exploding Hydrogen-Oxygen Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.; Macedone, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Although hydrogen-oxygen balloon explosions are popular demonstrations, the acoustic impulse created poses a hearing damage risk if the peak level exceeds 140 dB at the listener's ear. The results of acoustical measurements of hydrogen-oxygen balloons of varying volume and oxygen content are described. It is shown that hydrogen balloons may be…

  15. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  16. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among......Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities...

  18. Single-balloon versus double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Sun, Zhenzhong; Wang, Zhiwen; Jiang, Weimin

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-eight patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) were treated with single-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty (Group A), and 40 patients were treated with double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty (Group B). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, vertebral height, and kyphotic angle (KA) were evaluated pre-operatively, post-operatively (3 days after surgery) and at final follow-up. Operative time, X-ray exposure frequency and costs were recorded. The mean operative time and X-ray exposure frequency in Group A were greater than in Group B (pkyphoplasty is a safe and cost-effective surgical method for the treatment of OVCF. It can achieve pain relief comparable with double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty. However, double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty is more efficacious in terms of the restoration of vertebral height and reduction of KA, and the operative time and X-ray exposure frequency are lower.

  19. Experiments with Helium-Filled Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zable, Anthony C.

    2010-12-01

    The concepts of Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and ideal gas law physics are often treated as separate and isolated topics in the typical introductory college-level physics course, especially in the laboratory setting. To bridge these subjects, a simple experiment was developed that utilizes computer-based data acquisition sensors and a digital gram scale to estimate the molar mass of the gas in an inflated balloon. In this experiment, the comparable density of an inflated balloon to that of atmospheric air introduces a significant role for buoyancy that must be accounted for. The ideal gas law approximation is assumed for both the isolated gas mixture within the balloon and the surrounding air, which defines the relationship between the gas pressure, volume, temperature, and molar quantity. Analysis of the forces associated with the inflated balloon with the incorporation of Archimedes' principle and the ideal gas law into Newton's second law results in an experimental method for the measurement of the molar mass and mole fraction of a gas that is easy to implement yet academically challenging for students. The following narrative describes the basic setup of this experiment, along with a sample set of data as acquired and analyzed by a typical physics student from one of my classes.

  20. Pumpkins and onions and balloon design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, J. A.

    The reach for a capability to make long flights (months) with heavy payloads (tonnes) has long been pursued. The closest we have come is with polar flights devoid of a significant diurnal cycle. Superpressure technology, with its ability to survive diurnal cycles, is an obvious choice, but materials limitations have been an obstacle to realizing these ambitious goals. Now comes an assortment of new synthetic materials, coupled with a special variety of superpressure balloon which, in combination, is poised to yield a solution for our enhanced duration/payload quest. In this paper we are looking not at materials, but only at a balloon concept. This concept is a "natural shape" oblate spheroid balloon whose shape is chosen to exploit properties of component materials, particularly newly available ones. The current variation of this concept is called a "pumpkin" balloon. The most visible work on this shape is that done by France's CNES, Japan's ISAS, and in the USA by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. But the basic design idea is not new; it extends back at least a half century. This paper traces the origins of the shape, its evolution through various iterations, and it speculates on some of the recent thinking regarding construction details.

  1. Stratospheric Balloon Platforms for Near Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    For over five decades, high altitude aerospace balloon platforms have provided a unique vantage point for space and geophysical research by exposing scientific instrument packages and experiments to space-like conditions above 99% of Earth's atmosphere. Reaching altitudes in excess of 30 km for durations ranging from hours to weeks, high altitude balloons offer longer flight durations than both traditional sounding rockets and emerging suborbital reusable launch vehicles. For instruments and experiments requiring access to high altitudes, engineered balloon systems provide a timely, responsive, flexible, and cost-effective vehicle for reaching near space conditions. Moreover, high altitude balloon platforms serve as an early means of testing and validating hardware bound for suborbital or orbital space without imposing space vehicle qualifications and certification requirements on hardware in development. From float altitudes above 30 km visible obscuration of the sky is greatly reduced and telescopes and other sensors function in an orbit-like environment, but in 1g. Down-facing sensors can take long-exposure atmospheric measurements and images of Earth's surface from oblique and nadir perspectives. Payload support subsystems such as telemetry equipment and command, control, and communication (C3) interfaces can also be tested and operationally verified in this space-analog environment. For scientific payloads requiring over-flight of specific areas of interests, such as an active volcano or forest region, advanced mission planning software allows flight trajectories to be accurately modeled. Using both line-of-sight and satellite-based communication systems, payloads can be tracked and controlled throughout the entire mission duration. Under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program, NSC can provide a range of high altitude flight options to support space and geophysical research: High Altitude Shuttle System (HASS) - A balloon-borne semi-autonomous glider carries

  2. Measurements of gondola motion on a stratospheric balloon flight

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Mathew, Joice; Murthy, Jayant; Anand, Devarajan; Kapardhi, B V N; Kumar, B Suneel; Kulkarni, P M

    2016-01-01

    Balloon experiments are an economically feasible method of conducting observations in astronomy that are not possible from the ground. The astronomical payload may include a telescope, a detector, and a pointing/stabilization system. Determining the attitude of the payload is of primary importance in such applications, to accurately point the detector/telescope to the desired direction. This is especially important in generally unstable lightweight balloon flights. However, the conditions at float altitudes, which can be reached by zero pressure balloons, could be more stable, enabling accurate pointings. We have used the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), placed on a stratospheric zero pressure balloon, to observe 3-axis motion of a balloon payload over a fight time of 4.5 hours, from launch to the float altitude of 31.2 km. The balloon was launched under nominal atmospheric conditions on May 8th 2016, from a Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

  3. Report on the Activities of National Balloon Facility, Hyderabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Sreenivasan, S.; Suneel Kumar, B.; Kulkarni, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    More than five and half decades back, the Indian Balloon Group at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai started development of stratospheric zero pressure balloon technology and today it is one among the leading balloon groups in the world. For the past 40 years, the Institute has been operating a Scientific Balloon Facility at Hyderabad and carried out 478 balloon flights for various disciplines of space sciences like primary cosmic ray studies, X ray, Gamma Ray, Infra Red Astronomies and Atmospheric science maintaining 100% success rate during the past nine years. The Balloon Facility has the capability to build balloons of volume up to 750,000 Cu.M. as well as carrying out R & D in all aspects of scientific ballooning like balloon engineering, balloon material development, general and flight support instrumentation. A continued effort in R & D for ultra thin balloon material for High Altitude Sounding Flights has resulted in lowering the thickness of the proven indigenous Antrix film initially from 6 to 3.8 microns in the first phase and further reduction to 2.7 microns in the second phase. A test balloon of volume 5000 Cu.M. using the 2.7 micron film attained a record altitude of 45.0 Km. amsl with 1 Kg. GPS sonde payload. A 60,000 Cu.M. balloon fabricated out of 3.8 micron film capable of reaching 47 Km. Altitude with 10 Kg. Payload is awaiting trial. This report briefly describes our balloon activities during the past two years. In atmospheric sciences, aerosol studies were made with OPC,QCM,Aethelometer, Nephelometer,MWR, CIMEL Sun Photometer and Raman LIDAR.Measuments of vertical profile of Meteorological parameters and ozone upto stratosphere using GPS Radiosonde and Ozone sonde is made respectively.Study of Ionospheric tomography is done with CADI and CRABEX.

  4. Metastatic paediatric colorectal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R

    2012-03-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our unit with crampy abdominal pain, change in bowel habit, a subjective impression of weight loss and a single episode of haematochezia. She was found to have a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma and proceeded to laparoscopic anterior resection, whereupon peritoneal metastases were discovered. She received chemotherapy and is alive and well ten month later with no radiological evidence of disease. Colorectal carcinoma is rare in the paediatric population but is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis is critical to enable optimal outcomes.

  5. Robotics in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, J; Rockall, T; Darzi, A

    2004-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been shown to offer many advantages to general surgical patients but has not been widely adopted for colorectal disease. Initial fears surrounding the oncological safety of laparoscopic colectomies have largely subsided but the technical challenges still remain. Surgical robots or telemanipulators present the laparoscopic surgeon with unrivaled dexterity and vision, which may allow colonic resections to be completed with greater ease. Although initial studies suggest promising results using currently available systems, it will take further time for patient benefits to be proven, therefore justifying the greater expense of operating with this new technology.

  6. Establishment of model of visceral pain due to colorectal distension and its behavioral assessment in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yang; Ming Yao; Xing-Hong Jiang; Li-Na Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a visceral pain model via colorectal distension (CRD) and to evaluate the efficiency of behavioral responses of CRD by measuring the score of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in rats.METHODS: Thirty-eight male SD rats weighing 180-240g were used to establish the visceral pain model. The rat was inserted intra-anally with a 7 cm long flexible latex balloon under ether anesthesia, and colorectal distensions by inflating the balloon with air were made 30 min after recovering from the anesthesia.Five AWR scores (AWR0 to AWR4) were used to assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimuli. It was regarded as the threshold of the minimal pressure (kPa). For abdominal flatting was induced by colorectal distension.RESULTS: A vigorous AWR to distension of the descending colon and rectum was found in 100% of the awake rats tested. The higher the pressure of distension; the higher the score of AWR. The distension pressures of 0, 2.00, 3.33, 5.33 and 8.00 kPa produced different AWR scores (P<0.05). The pain threshold of AWR was constant for up to 80 min after the initial windup (first 1-3 distensions), the mean threshold was 3.69±0.35 kPa. Systemic administration of morphine sulfate elevated the threshold of visceral pain in a dosedependent and naloxone reversible manner.CONCLUSION: Scoring the AWR during colorectal distensions can assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimulus. Flatting of abdomen (AWR 3) to CRD as the visceral pain threshold is clear, constant and reliable.This pain model and its behavioral assessment are good for research on visceral pain and analgesics.

  7. Balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes postulated to explain the high-energy emission mechanisms of compact astrophysical sources often yield polarised soft gamma rays (X-rays). PoGOLite is a balloon-borne polarimeter operating in the 25-80 keV energy band. The polarisation of incident photons is reconstructed using Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption in an array of phoswich detector cells comprising plastic and BGO scintillators, surrounded by a BGO side anticoincidence shield. The polarimeter is aligned to observation targets using a custom attitude control system. The maiden balloon flight is scheduled for summer 2011 from the Esrange Space Centre with the Crab and Cygnus X-1 as the primary observational targets.

  8. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  9. Double balloon enteroscopy examinations in general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laszlo; Zubek; Lena; Szabo; Peter; Laszlo; Lakatos; Janos; Papp; Janos; Gal; Gabor; Elo

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To demonstrate that the double balloon enteroscopy(DBE) can be safely performed in general anesthesia with intubation.METHODS:We performed a retrospective examination between August 2005 and November 2008 amongpatients receiving intubation narcosis due to DBE examination.The patients were grouped based on sex,age and physical status.Anesthesia records includedduration of anesthesia,quantity of medication usedand anesthesia-related complications.We determinedthe frequency of complications in the differen...

  10. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    , and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal......-term survivals since it started in 2001 for both patients with colon and rectal cancers.......AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed...

  11. MAXIS Balloon Observations of Electron Microburst Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R. M.; Hunter, A. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding relativistic electron variability in the radiation belts. SAMPEX observations indicate that electron microburst precipitation is a major loss mechanism during active periods; the loss of relativistic electrons during a six hour period due to microburst precipitation was recently estimated to be comparable to the total number of trapped electrons in the outer zone (Lorentzen et al., 2001). Microburst precipitation was first observed from a balloon (Anderson and Milton, 1964), but these early measurements were only sensitive to MAXIS 2000 long duration balloon campaign. MAXIS was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica carrying a germanium spectrometer, a BGO scintillator and two X-ray imagers designed to measure the bremsstrahlung produced by precipitating electrons. The balloon circumnavigated the south pole in 18 days covering magnetic latitudes ranging from 58o-90o South. During the week following a moderate geomagnetic storm (with Dst reaching -91 nT), MAXIS detected a total of over 16 hours of microburst precipitation. We present high resolution spectra obtained with the MAXIS germanium spectrometer which allow us to determine the precipitating electron energy distribution. The precipitating distribution will then be compared to the trapped distribution measured by the GPS and LANL satellites. We also examine the spatial distribution of the precipitation.

  12. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  13. Report on the Brazilian Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Joao

    2016-07-01

    We report on the recent scientific ballooning activities in Brazil, and present the plans for the next few years. Recent technological developments, especially on telecommunications and gondola attitude control systems will be reported. We also present the recent progress achieved in the development of the protoMIRAX balloon experiment. protoMIRAX is a balloon-borne hard X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in a hard X-ray coded-aperture imager to operate in the 20-200 keV energy range. The detector plane is a square array of 196 10mm x 10mm x 2mm CdZnTe (CZT) planar detectors. A collimator defines a fully-coded field-of-view of 20 x 20 degrees, with 7 x 7 degrees of full sensitivity and an angular resolution of 1.7 degrees. We describe the final stages of development and testing of the front-end electronics, with charge preamplifiers, LNAs, shapers and Wilkinson-type ADCs customized for these detectors. We also show detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the flight background and the expected flight images of bright sources performed with the use of GEANT4.

  14. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  15. [Colorectal cancer in spouses of colorectal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumata, T; Shikada, Y; Hasuda, S; Kishihara, F; Suehiro, T; Funahashi, S; Nagamatsu, Y; Iso, Y; Shima, I; Koga, C; Osamura, S; Ueda, M; Furuya, K; Sakino, I

    2000-06-01

    Married couples share home environments and life style for years. In the case of colorectal cancer, an association with insulin resistance was reported. We determined the presence of the insulin-resistance syndrome (IRS, 1 or more of the following: body mass index of > 25 kg/m2, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia) in 84 colorectal cancer patients, of whom 61 patients (73%) had IRS. The incidence of the distal colorectal cancer, which has been declining in the United States, was significantly higher in the IRS group than in the non-IRS group (75.4 vs 52.2%, p = 0.0400). Some mechanisms may promote the progression of mucosal lesions to invasive cancers in the distal colorectum. There were no significant differences with respect to the age (64.6 +/- 9.4 vs 64.3 +/- 11.3 yr, p = 0.8298), height (159 +/- 9 vs 157 +/- 8 cm, p = 0.1375), and body mass index (22.2 +/- 3.6 vs 22.4 +/- 2.7 kg/m2, p = 0.6364) between the patients and their spouses. In 84 couples in whom colorectal cancer develops at least in one may then not illustrate the nursery rhyme: "Jack Sprat could eat no fat, His wife could eat no lean...". The spouses had been married for an average of 38 years, and in 30 spouses who had been followed in a colorectal cancer screening, 5 developed colorectal cancer. To diminish the incidence of colorectal cancer in Japan, we might advise screening colonoscopy to the spouses of colorectal cancer patients, or déjà vu all over again?

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consisted of treatment with just two drugs, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin. A third drug, irinotecan, was approved ... FDA in 1996 for use in combination with 5-FU and leucovorin in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (cancer ...

  17. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-11-15

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has stimulated significant interest in lysyl oxidase as a strong candidate for developing and deploying inhibitors as functional efficacious cancer therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the rapidly expanding body of knowledge concerning lysyl oxidase in solid tumor progression, highlighting recent advancements in the field of colorectal cancer.

  18. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  19. AUTOPERFUSION BALLOON CATHETER FOR COMPLICATED CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY - A PROSPECTIVE-STUDY WITH RETROSPECTIVE CONTROLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMUINCK, ED; VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; MEEDER, JG; LIE, KI

    1992-01-01

    Prolonged angioplasty balloon inflation with an autoperfusion balloon for failed conventional coronary angioplasty, was compared with emergency surgery for this condition. Restenosis was assessed 6 weeks after successful intervention with the autoperfusion balloon. Forty consecutive patients with pe

  20. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients. PMID:27746895

  1. Advances in pediatric colorectal surgical techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, S.J.; Blaauw, I. de

    2010-01-01

    The operative management of pediatric colorectal diseases has improved significantly in recent years through the development of innovative approaches for operative exposure and a better understanding of colorectal anatomy. Advances in transanal and minimal access techniques have formed the cornersto

  2. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic counseling, and a genetic counselor may recommend genetic testing based on your family health history. When collecting ... find information on colorectal cancer, Lynch syndrome, cancer genetic testing, and genetic counseling services. Colorectal Cancer, Centers for ...

  3. Stratospheric composition from balloon based measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencaraglia, F.; Carli, B. [Ist. per le Ricerche sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Firenze (Italy); Bonetti, A.; Ciarpallini, P. [Univ. di Firenze (Italy); Carlotti, M.; Lepri, G. [Univ. di Bologna (Italy); Alboni, F.; Cortesi, U.; Ridolfi, M. [Fondazione per la Metereologia Applicata, Firenze (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the composition of the earth`s atmosphere is of fundamental importance for the study of atmospheric chemistry and for developing models that can predict the evolution of the atmosphere itself. Here, the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere has been measured using a polarizing interferometer operating in the far infrared and submillimetric spectral region. The instrument was flown three times (in 1992, 1993 and 1994) from the NSBF balloon base (Fort Sumner, New Mexico) in coincidence with overpasses of the UARS satellite, for a total of about 50 hours of measurements. In this paper the authors report some of the results obtained from the data analysis made up to now.

  4. Double-balloon endoscopy: Who needs it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, J.W.; Vilmann, P.; Jensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) made the small bowel accessible to inspection and therapy in its entirety. However, DBE is a time-consuming procedure that requires a highly skilled endoscopist, several nurses and - more often than not - anesthesiological support. This makes the selectio...... within the next 12 months. Conclusions. CE can be applied as a screening procedure for DBE and allows for an approximately two-thirds reduction in the need for DBE as well as enabling a choice to be made between the oral and anal route Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  5. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw Dejene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation.

  6. Ballooning Spiders: The Case for Electrostatic Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    We consider general aspects of the physics underlying the flight of Gossamer spiders, also known as ballooning spiders. We show that existing observations and the physics of spider silk in the presence of the Earth's static atmospheric electric field indicate a potentially important role for electrostatic forces in the flight of Gossamer spiders. A compelling example is analyzed in detail, motivated by the observed "unaccountable rapidity" in the launching of such spiders from H.M.S. Beagle, recorded by Charles Darwin during his famous voyage.

  7. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate?

  8. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  9. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870... repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the... effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  10. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  11. A Rare and Serious Unforeseen Complication of Cutting Balloon Angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vemula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA is one of the adept ways of treating “in-stent restenosis.” Various complications related to cutting balloon angioplasty have been reported including arterial rupture, delayed perforation and fracture of microsurgical blades. Here we report a very unusual and inadvertent extraction of a stent previously deployed in the ramus intermedius coronary branch by a cutting balloon catheter. This required repeat stenting of the same site for an underlying dissection. Even though stent extraction is a rare complication it can be serious due to dissection, perforation, and closure of the artery. Physicians performing coronary artery interventions would need to be aware of this rare and serious complication especially if any difficulty is encountered while withdrawing the cutting balloon. Therefore, after removal, cutting balloon should be examined thoroughly for possible stent dislodgment or extraction when used for “in-stent restenosis.”

  12. A New Paradigm in Space Based Experiments Using Rubber Balloons

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Palit, Sourav; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Mondal, Sushanta; Bhattacharyya, Arnab; Middya, Susanta; Chakrabarti, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics is engaged in long duration balloon borne experiments with typical payloads less than ~ 3kg. Low cost rubber balloons are used. In a double balloon system, the booster balloon lifts the orbiter balloon to its cruising altitude where data is taken for a long time. Here we present results of muon detections and recent solar activities, including the light curves and flare spectra in the 20-100keV range. We not only show that we have successfully obtained several flares and there spectra at different altitudes, we also found that the high energy X-ray flux of strong flares at altitudes of 10-13 km (the flight altitude of commercial planes) could be more than the contribution due to cosmic rays.

  13. An overview of instrumentation capabilities for Scientific ballooning in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Anand; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Bangaru, Kapardhi; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra; Koli, Santosh

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) in India, launches scientific balloons for research in the field of astronomy, astrobiology and atmospheric sciences. TIFR-BF not only has the capability to design, fabricate and launch zero-pressure balloons, but also provide operational and engineering support for launching them. The Control Instrumentation Group (CIG) at the balloon facility handles all electronics related to telemetry, telecommand, tracking, real-time data display, data storage, air-safety and payload recovery. In the recent past, it has designed and developed customized electronics and payload orientation mechanism to meet specific experimental objectives. Small, inexpensive and rugged industrial grade radio data modems were successfully deployed in balloon flights for low bit rate data and image telemetry. This paper will provide an overview and in-flight performance of some of the recent developments in instrumentation and electronics systems. Our plans for future upgradations will also be discussed.

  14. Global kinetic ballooning mode simulations in BOUT++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. H.; Xu, X. Q.

    2017-01-01

    We report on simulation results of a 3+1 gyro-Landau-fluid (GLF) model in BOUT++ framework, which contributes to increasing the physics understanding of the edge turbulence. We find that there is no second stability region of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) in the concentric circular geometry. The first unstable β of KBM decreases below the ideal ballooning mode threshold with increasing {ηi} . In order to study the KBM in the real tokamak equilibrium, we find that the approximation of shifted circular geometry (β \\ll {{\\varepsilon}2} ) is not valid for a high β global equilibrium near the second stability region of KBM. Thus we generate a series of real equilibria from a global equilibrium solver CORSICA, including both Shafranov shift and elongation effects, but not including bootstrap current. In these real equilibria, the second stability region of KBM are observed in our global linear simulations. The most unstable mode for different β are the same while the mode number spectrum near the second stability region is wider than the case near the first stability region. The nonlinear simulations show that the energy loss of an ELM keeps increasing with β, because the linear drive of the turbulence remains strong for the case near the second stability region during profile evolution.

  15. A constitutive equation for stratospheric balloon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J.; Sterling, J.

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of desired properties. In order to achieve the required combination of weight per unit area, helium permeation, strength, flexibility and toughness at low temperatures, low density polyethylene has been used for the last half century. During the last decade, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) has been found to have even better properties for this application. Thin films extruded from this type resin have been found to have time dependent properties which should be understood in order to make an intelligent analysis of the balloon. This paper describes the current effort to characterize a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE as a nonlinearly viscoelastic material. The resulting constitutive equation may be used to accurately describe the time dependent creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress. Recent laboratory data have been used to modify an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structure design optimization and reliability assessment, and may further be utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Unfortunately, current structural analysis techniques based on linear elastic properties will predict stresses in excess of those which actually exist. An example will be presented which demonstrates the magnitude of this error when nonlinear behavior is ignored.

  16. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  17. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Valentina, E-mail: scottiv@na.infn.it; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  18. THE KISSING BALLOON TECHNIQUE WITH 2 OVER-THE-WIRE BALLOON CATHETERS THROUGH A SINGLE 8-FRENCH GUIDING CATHETER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENHEIJER, P; BERNINK, PJLM; VANDIJK, RB; TWISK, SPM; LIE, KI

    1991-01-01

    Some of the newer over-the-wire coronary angioplasty catheters have shaft sizes of 3.0 French (F) or less. The inner diameter of modern 8-F guiding catheters is large enough to accommodate two of such balloon catheters. We report a kissing balloon procedure with two over-the-wire catheters through a

  19. Effect of intra-aortic balloon pump on coronary blood flow during different balloon cycles support: A computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin Pa Pa; Htet, Zwe Lin; Singhavilai, Thamvarit; Naiyanetr, Phornphop

    2015-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been used in clinical treatment as a mechanical circulatory support device for patients with heart failure. A computer model is used to study the effect on coronary blood flow (CBF) with different balloon cycles under both normal and pathological conditions. The model of cardiovascular and IABP is developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK. The effect on coronary blood flow has been studied under both normal and pathological conditions using different balloon cycles (balloon off; 1:4; 1:2; 1:1). A pathological heart is implemented by reducing the left ventricular contractility. The result of this study shows that the rate of balloon cycles is related to the level of coronary blood flow.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  1. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYBackground and purpose Colorectal cancer is a common disease in Denmark with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although survival in recent years has improved, Denmark still has the lowest 5-year survival compared to the other Nordic countries. The treatment of patients depends on local...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...... with the resulting pathological examination in relation to differentiating benign from malignant polyps and determining tumour stage and lymph node status. In this context we also performed an observer comparison using both TRUS and MRI. Consistency of tumour outgrowth of rectal cancer rated by TRUS and MRI...

  2. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  3. [New drugs for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C; Jäger, D; Knuth, A

    2004-09-01

    Drug treatment of colorectal cancer has made impressive progress during the past 10 years. In addition to fluorouracil new anticancer drugs like irinotecan and oxaliplatin have become available. The activity of fluorouracil was optimized by using schedules of prolonged infusion. Capecitabine is an oral pro-drug of fluorouracil. When colorectal metastases are limited to the liver they should be resected if possible. Sometimes they can be reduced in size by primary chemotherapy (downstaging) and resected later. Very new and exciting are reports with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy. Bevacizumab blocks angiogenesis. So far it is available only in the USA.

  4. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Mahmoud El-Tawil

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers.

  5. Design and Calibrations of the Protomirax Balloon Telescope and the Brazilian Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Joao; D'Amico, Flavio; Avila, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    In this presentation we report on the recent scientific ballooning activities in Brazil, including important international collaborations, and present our plan for the next few years. We also present the recent progress achieved in the design of the detector system of the protoMIRAX balloon experiment and report on the scientific balloon activities in Brazil. protoMIRAX is a balloon-borne X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in an X-ray (30-200 keV) coded-aperture imager which employs a square array of 196 10mm x 10mm x 2mm CdZnTe (CZT) planar detectors made by eV Products in the USA. A collimator defines a fully-coded field-of-view of 20o x 20o, with 4o x 4o of full sensitivity. The final angular resolution will depend on the mask pattern used. In this paper we describe the design and development of the detector plane, including the front-end electronics. Preamplifiers and shaping amplifiers, customized for these detectors, were designed and built at INPE. Laboratory spectral measurements show an energy resolution of 12.0% at 60 keV, of which 10.6% is due to intrinsic electronics noise measured with a pulser at similar pulse height levels. We present spectral results obtained in the laboratory as well as initial calibration results of the acquisition system designed to get positions and energies in the detector plane. We show simulations of the coded-aperture images with different mask designs and iterative reconstruction methods.

  6. Balloon observations of spatial coherence in the Global Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Polar Patrol Balloon Team

    The first campaign of the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) experiment (1st-PPB) was carried out at Syowa Station in Antarctica during 1990-1991 and 1992-1993. Based on the results of the 1st-PPB experiment, the next campaign (2nd-PPB) was carried out in the austral summer of 2002-2003. This paper will present the global circuit results from the 2nd-PPB experiment. In that experiment, three balloons were launched for the purpose of upper atmosphere physics observation (3 balloons). Payloads of these 3 flights were identical with each other, and were launched as close together in time as allowed by weather conditions to constitute a cluster of balloons during their flights. Such a "Balloon Cluster" is suitable to observe temporal evolution and spatial distribution of phenomena in the ionospheric regions and boundaries that the balloons traversed during their circumpolar trajectory. More than 20 days of simultaneous fair weather 3-axis electric field and stratospheric conductivity data were obtained at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from sub-auroral to the polar cap. Balloon separation varied from ˜ 60 to ˜ 500 km. This paper will present the global circuit observations with emphasis on the times of apparent spatial variation in the vertical fair weather field.

  7. Geodesic Acoustic Propagation and Ballooning Mode Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Young, G. G.; Arakawa, M.

    2005-10-01

    Relevance of ballooning formalism (BMF) in nonlinear interaction of toroidal electromagnetic drift waves in the presence of zonal flows and Geodesic Acoustic Oscillation (GAO) is critically examined from a physical argument of radial propagation of wave packets. To achieve the quasi-translational invariance of poloidal harmonics which is necessary for the BMF, the geodesic curvature induced transfer [1] of fluctuation energy in radial direction should occur faster than the time scale of physical interest. Of course, this does not happen necessarily in drift-Alfven (DALF) turbulence simulations [2]. This observation casts considerable doubts on the applicability of various codes based on the BMF concept to nonlinear electromagnetic problems. [1] B. Scott, Phys. Letters A 320 (2003) 53. [2] B. Scott, New J. Phys 7 (2005) 92.

  8. The Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatteboe, Rolf

    2001-08-01

    The status and recent developments of the Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program are presented with focus on national activities and recent achievements. The main part of the Norwegian program is sounding rocket launches conducted by Andøya Rocket Range from the launch facilities on Andøya and at Svalbard. For the majority of the programs, the scientific goal is investigation of processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. The in situ measurements are supplemented by a large number of ground-based support instruments located at the ALOMAR Observatory. The ongoing and planned projects are described and the highlights of the latest completed projects are given. The scientific program for the period 2001-2003 will be reviewed. Several new programs have been started to improve the services available to the international science comunity. The Hotel Payload project and MiniDusty are important examples that will be introduced in the paper. Available space related infrastructure is summarized.

  9. Intragastric balloon: ethics, medical need and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzampassi, Katerina; Shrewsbury, Anne D

    2008-01-01

    The development of the intragastic balloon as a safe, noninvasive, alternative method to weight reduction raises all the ethical questions routinely faced by practitioners of other forms of cosmetic surgery. In the case of the morbidly, severely or merely obese, the surgeon is faced with a medical decision in a situation defined by medical parameters. The case of the overweight or normal may, however, create an ethical dilemma in which the doctor is forced to make decisions of a nonmedical nature, for which his training has not prepared him, and relating essentially to his personal attitudes and moral beliefs, culture and the recognition that 'if I don't, somebody else--possibly less competent--will'.

  10. Results of the first EUSO-Balloon flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.; Bertaina, M.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    EUSO-Balloon, a balloon-borne diffractive fluorescence telescope, was launched by the French Space Agency ONES from the Timmins base in Ontario (Canada) on August 25th in 2014. After reaching the floating altitude of about 38 km, EUSO-Balloon imaged the UV background for more than 5 hours before descending to ground using the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. A detailed and precise measurement of the UV background in different atmospheric and ground conditions was achieved. The instrument proved the capability of detecting Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by observing laser tracks with similar characteristics. This contribution will summarise the first results obtained concerning all the topics described above.

  11. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented. PMID:27297421

  12. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: Terry.Price@gmail.com [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  13. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  14. Perspectives of colorectal cancer screening in Germany 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Andreas; Friedrich, Kilian

    2009-10-15

    Adequate screening methods can decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. The guaiac test for fecal occult-blood (FOBT) is part of the German CRC Screening Program since 1970 and has evidence level Ia. In randomized multicenter-studies FOBT has an average sensitivity of 24% and decreases CRC mortality up to 30%. Immunological tests for human haemoglobin (iFOBT) show better performance characteristics than guaiac FOBT, with augmented sensitivity and specificity. However, the single tests show wide differences in diagnostic performance and iFOBT is not yet covered by insurance companies although it should replace the guaiac test for CRC screening. Visual colonoscopy, which was introduced to the German National Cancer Screening Program in 2002, is the gold standard for the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia. From 2003 to 2007 more than 2.8 million examinations have been documented in Germany. The prevalence of adenomas is around 20% and of CRC about 0.7% to 1.0% of the screenings. Seventy percent of the carcinomas detected during screening are in an early stage (UICC I and II). Furthermore, screening colonoscopy is a cost saving procedure with a low complication rate (0.25% overall). Insurance companies save 216€ for each screening colonoscopy mainly by prevention of neoplasia due to polypectomy. In Germany, virtual colonography by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging still lacks standardization of the hard and software. In experienced centres the sensitivity for CRC and large polyps of CT colonography is comparable to colonoscopy but in meta-analyses the ranking is lower. New technologies like computer-aided colonoscopies with sheath or double balloon techniques are coming up as well as capsule colonoscopy, which sensitivity for large polyps is about 70%. Advised by his physician, the patient can choose his most acceptable examination method from this whole set of screening tools.

  15. [Systemic therapy for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C; Jäger, D; Knuth, A

    2005-06-01

    Drug treatment of colorectal cancer has made impressive progress during the past 10 years. In addition to the traditional 5-fluorouracil, newer anticancer drugs are available including irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Monoclonal antibodies like bevacizumab and cetuximab have been integrated into modern treatment regimens. Based on randomized clinical trials we can formulate rational treatment strategies as outlined in this article.

  16. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...

  17. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina;

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...

  18. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with comorbiditie

  19. COLORECTAL-CARCINOMA - AN UPDATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SINNIGE, HAM; MULDER, NH

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade important advances have occurred in the fields of understanding genesis, molecular biology, detection of "precancerous data", intervention, and metastatic behaviour of colorectal cancer. An important step forward has been made in adjuvant therapy. Better understanding of 5-flu

  20. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  3. Immediate Outcome of Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty with JOMIVA Balloon during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramona; Kaliappan, Tamilarasu; Gopalan, Rajendiran; Palanimuthu, Ramasmy; Anandhan, Premkrishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic mitral stenosis is the most common Valvular Heart Disease encountered during pregnancy. Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty (BMV) is one of the treatment option available if the symptoms are refractory to the medical management and the valve anatomy is suitable for balloon dilatation. BMV with Inoue balloon is the most common technique being followed worldwide. Over the wire BMV is a modified technique using Joseph Mitral Valvuloplasty (JOMIVA) balloon catheter which is being followed in certain centres. Aim To assess the immediate post procedure outcome of over the wire BMV with JOMIVA balloon. Materials and Methods Clinical and echocardiographic parameters of pregnant women with significant mitral stenosis who underwent elective BMV with JOMIVA balloon in our institute from 2005 to 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Severity of breathlessness (New York Heart Association Functional Class), and duration of pregnancy was included in the analysis. Pre procedural echocardiographic parameters which included severity of mitral stenosis and Wilkin’s scoring were analysed. Clinical, haemodynamic and echocardiographic outcomes immediately after the procedure were analysed. Results Among the patients who underwent BMV in our Institute 38 were pregnant women. Twenty four patients (63%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. All of them were in sinus rhythm except two (5%) who had atrial fibrillation. Thirty four patients (89.5%) were in second trimester of pregnancy at the time of presentation and four (10.5%) were in third trimester. Echocardiographic analysis of the mitral valve showed that the mean Wilkin’s score was 7.3. Mean mitral valve area pre procedure was 0.8 cm2. Mean gradient across the valve was 18 mmHg. Ten patients (26.5%) had mild mitral regurgitation and none had more than mild mitral regurgitation. Thirty six patients had pulmonary hypertension as assessed by tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity. All of them underwent BMV

  4. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge;

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability...

  5. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  6. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  7. 10 meter Sub-Orbital Large Balloon Reflector (LBR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Besides serving as a launch vehicle, the carrier balloon provides a stable mount for the enclosed telescope. Looking up, the LBR will serve as a telescope. Looking...

  8. Ohmic scaling based on current diffusive ballooning mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1996-01-01

    Based on the anomalous transport model due to current diffusive ballooning mode turbulence, the global energy confinement time in a tokamak with Ohmic heating is theoretically studied. Relations to empirical scaling laws are also discussed. (author)

  9. Design Evolution and Methodology for Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program has had many technical development issues discovered and solved along its road to success as a new vehicle. It has the promise of being a sub-satellite, a means to launch up to 2700 kg to 33.5 km altitude for 100 days from a comfortable mid-latitude launch point. Current high-lift long duration ballooning is accomplished out of Antarctica with zero-pressure balloons, which cannot cope with the rigors of diurnal cycles. The ULDB design is still evolving, the product of intense analytical effort, scaled testing, improved manufacturing, and engineering intuition. The past technical problems, in particular the s-cleft deformation, their solutions, future challenges, and the methodology of pumpkin balloon design will generally be described.

  10. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  11. Balloon Pump with Floating Valves for Portable Liquid Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Morimoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a balloon pump with floating valves to control the discharge flow rates of sample solutions. Because the floating valves were made from a photoreactive resin, the shapes of the floating valves could be controlled by employing different exposure patterns without any change in the pump configurations. Owing to the simple preparation process of the pump, we succeeded in changing the discharge flow rates in accordance with the number and length of the floating valves. Because our methods could be used to easily prepare balloon pumps with arbitrary discharge properties, we achieved several microfluidic operations by the integration of the balloon pumps with microfluidic devices. Therefore, we believe that the balloon pump with floating valves will be a useful driving component for portable microfluidic systems.

  12. The Hubble party balloon and the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Rosi, T.; Oss, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the metaphor of the inflated balloon used to describe expanding space-time according to the Hubble law can be transformed into a simple laboratory experiment. We obtain, in terms of measured recession speeds and distances of ink dots drawn on a party balloon, easy renditions of various cosmological models, such as the static one and the Einstein-De Sitter universe.

  13. Small Research Balloons in a Physics Course for Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Verner, E.; Long, T.; Montanaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    At The Catholic Univ. of America, we teach an experimental physics course entitled Physics 240: The Sun-Earth Connection, which is designed for the undergraduate education major. The emphasis is on providing hands-on experience and giving the students an exciting experience in physics. As part of this course, in the Spring 2013 semester, we instituted a project to plan, build, launch, and retrieve a small (~1.3 kg) research balloon payload. The payload flown was a small GPS unit that sent its position to an Internet site, a small wide-angle high-resolution video camera, and an analog refrigerator thermometer placed in the field of view of the camera. All data were stored on the camera sim-card. Students faced the problems of flying a small research balloon in the congested, densely populated Northeast Corridor of the US. They used computer simulators available on the Web to predict the balloon path and flight duration given velocities for the Jet Stream and ground winds, as well as payload mass and amount of helium in the balloon. The first flight was extremely successful. The balloon was launched 140 km NW of Washington DC near Hagerstown, MD and touched down 10 miles (16 km) NW of York, PA, within 1.6 km of what was predicted. The balloon reached 73,000 ft (22,000 m) and the thermometer indicated temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit (-57 C) during the flight. Further balloon flights are planned in conjunction with this course. Additional exercises and experiments will be developed centered around these flights. Besides learning that science can be exciting, students also learn that science is not always easily predictable, and that these balloon flights give an understanding of many of problems that go into real scientific space missions. This project is supported in part by an educational supplement to NASA grant NNX10AC56G

  14. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Morihisa [Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Fukuyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-07-01

    The effect of finite gyroradius on the current diffusive ballooning mode is examined. Starting from the reduced MHD equations including turbulent transports, coupling with drift motion and finite gyroradius effect of ions, we derive a ballooning mode equation with complex transport coefficients. The eigenfrequency, saturation level and thermal diffusivity are evaluated numerically from the marginal stability condition. Preliminary results of their parameter dependence are presented. (author)

  15. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or r...

  16. Watchful waiting versus colorectal resection after polypectomy for malignant colorectal polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Kjær, Monica; Bulut, Orhan;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexpected malignancy in removed colorectal polyps is reported in up to 9% of cases. The introduction of screening for colorectal cancer will inevitably increase the number of removed colorectal polyps and therefore also the incidence of malignant polyps. The treatment strategy is e...

  17. DECAY ACCELERATING FACTOR AND COLORECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪芹; 鲁艳芹; 韩金祥

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the significance of decay accelerating factor (DAF) in the eolorectal cancer, we searched the data from PubMed and selected the related articles for review. It was found that DAF were expressed in the adenomas and adenocarcinoma of colorectal tissues. The release of DAF in the stool of the patients was also detectable. It increased more significantly in the stool of patients with colorectal cancer than other gastrointestinal cancer. Its detection by ELISA method may render a good test for the noninvasive diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It can be concluded that DAF is expressed extensively in colorectal cancer. And the detection of DAF released in the stool of colorectal cancer patients may be a good noninvasive method for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  18. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  19. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  20. Introduction (Special Issue on Scientific Balloon Capabilities and Instrumentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.

    2014-01-01

    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3,000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science.) Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  1. Development of a tiny tandem balloon system for atmospheric observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Masatomo

    2016-07-01

    A tandem balloon system with a combination of a zero-pressure balloon on top and a super-pressure balloon on the bottom has a unique trajectory characteristic, with different flight altitudes between day and night and thus with ascending and descending motions at dawn and dusk, respectively. This characteristic provides a unique opportunity to explore the atmosphere, e.g., the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric region with cross-tropopause measurements twice a day. We started development of a tiny tandem balloon system using a 10 m^{3} super-pressure balloon and a 100 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon, with a capability of carrying 3 kg of payload. One of the scientific targets is to measure water vapor, cloud particles, and temperature around the tropical tropopause which is the entry point of the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. For the data transfer, the iridium satellite communication module, SBD9603 is used. In this paper, the current status of the development will be reported.

  2. Robotic Colorectal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sami AlAsari; Byung Soh Min

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Robotic colorectal surgery may be a way to overcome the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. It is an emerging field; so, we aim in this paper to provide a comprehensive and data analysis of the available literature on the use of robotic technology in colorectal surgery. Method. A comprehensive systematic search of electronic databases was completed for the period from 2000 to 2011. Studies reporting outcomes of robotic colorectal surgery were identified and analyzed. Results. 41 studies...

  3. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    The project is intended to catch cometary particles in the atmosphere by using balloons. The investigation is based upon knowledge that the Earth crosses the comet’s tails during the year. One can catch these particles at different altitudes in the atmosphere. So, we will be able to gradually advance in the ability to launch balloons from low to high altitudes and try to catch particles from different comet tails. The maximum altitude that we have to reach is 40 km. Both methods - distance observation and cometary samples from mission Stardust testify to the presence of organic components in comet’s particles. It would be useful to know more details about this organic matter for astrobiology; besides, the factor poses danger to the Earth. Moreover, it is important to prove that it is possible to get fundamental scientific results at low cost. In the last 5 years launching balloons has become popular and this movement looks like hackers’ one - as most of them occur without launch permission to airspace. The popularity of ballooning is connected with low cost of balloon, GPS unit, video recording unit. If you use iPhone, you have a light solution with GPS, video, picture and control function in one unit. The price of balloon itself begins from $50; it depends on maximum altitude, payload weight and material. Many university teams realized balloon launching and reached even stratosphere at an altitude of 33 km. But most of them take only video and picture. Meanwhile, it is possible to carry out scientific experiments by ballooning, for example to collect comet particles. There is rich experience at the moment of the use of mineral, chemical and isotopic analysis techniques and data of the comet’s dust after successful landing of StarDust capsule with samples in 2006. Besides, we may use absolutely perfect material to catch particles in the atmosphere, which was used by cosmic missions such as Stardust and Japanese Hayabusa. As to balloon launches, we could use

  4. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. Benestent Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Serruys, P.W.; de Jaegere, P; Kiemeneij, F.; Macaya, C; Rutsch, W; Heyndrickx, G.; Emanuelsson, H.; Marco, J.; Legrand, Victor; Materne, P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Balloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes as compared with standard balloon angioplasty. METHODS: A total of 520 patients with stable angina and a single coronary-artery lesion were randomly assigned to either stent implantation (262 patients)...

  5. Extended resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; SONG Xin-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Colorectal cancer is a common cause of cancer-related mortality.1 In China, it is one of eight cancers in the cancer control blueprint, which are suggested to have comprehensive treatment.Some patients with colorectal cancer presented no symptoms when they were diagnosed, yet the tumor had already penetrated the intestinal wall and involved adjacent organs. If the tumor is localized at time of diagnosis without distant metastases, it is termed locally advanced colorectal cancer (LACC)regardless of whether there is lymph node metastasis. LACC commonly encountered in clinical practice accounts for 5%-10% of all colorectal cancers.2

  6. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  7. Balloon borne arcsecond pointer feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip R.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2003-08-01

    A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which balloon vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target. In this paper, the foundation for a high fidelity controller simulation is presented and it is shown that sub-arcsecond pointing stability can be achieved for a large instrument pointing at an inertial target. The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis. A multiple controller scheme is introduced with a coarse azimuth pointer and a pitch-yaw gimbal mount for fine pointing. An analysis and demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided along with a solution to eliminate static friction from the system dynamics. A control scheme involving linear accelerometers for enhanced disturbance rejection is also presented. This paper establishes that the proposed control strategy can be made robustly stable with significant design margins. Also demonstrated is the efficacy of the proposed system in rejecting disturbances larger than those considered realistic.

  8. Ballooning mode spectrum in general toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, R.L.; Glasser, A.H.

    1982-04-01

    A WKB formalism for constructing normal modes of short-wavelength ideal hydromagnetic, pressure-driven instabilities (ballooning modes) in general toroidal magnetic containment devices with sheared magnetic fields is developed. No incompressibility approximation is made. A dispersion relation is obtained from the eigenvalues of a fourth order system of ordinary differential equations to be solved by integrating along a line of force. Higher order calculations are performed to find the amplitude equation and the phase change at a caustic. These conform to typical WKB results. In axisymmetric systems, the ray equations are integrable, and semiclassical quantization leads to a growth rate spectrum consisting of an infinity of discrete eigenvalues, bounded above by an accumulation point. However, each eigenvalue is infinitely degenerate. In the nonaxisymmetric case, the rays are unbounded in a four dimensional phase space, and semiclassical quantization breaks down, leading to broadening of the discrete eigenvalues and accumulation point of the axisymmetric case into continuum bands. Analysis of a model problem indicates that the broadening of the discrete eigenvalues is numerically very small, the dominant effect being broadening of the accumulation point.

  9. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in mitral stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Oh, Byung Hee; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Young Woo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty(PBV) was successfully performed in 8 mitral stenosis patients for recent 3 months. Five patients have aortic insufficiencies also and two patients have mitral regurgitations below grade II/IV. All patients showed sinus rhythm on EKG, and had no mitral valvular calcification on echocardiography and fluoroscopy. PBV resulted in an increase in mitral valve area from 1.22{+-}0.22 to 2.57{+-}0.86 cm{sup 2}, a decrease in mean left atrial pressure from 23.4{+-}9.6 to 7.5{+-}3.4 mmHg and a decrease in mean mitral pressure gradient from 21.3{+-}9.4 to 6.8{+-}3.1 mmHg. There were no significant complications except 2 cases of newly appeared and mildly aggravated mitral regurgitation. We believe that PBV will become a treatment modality of choice replacing surgical commissurotomy or valve replacement in a group of mitral stenosis patients, because of its effectiveness and safety.

  10. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  11. Optical coherence tomography monitoring of angioplasty balloon inflation in a deployment tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Bourezak, Rafik; Boulet, Benoit; Lamouche, Guy

    2010-08-01

    We present an innovative integration of an intravascular optical coherence tomography probe into a computerized balloon deployment system to monitor the balloon inflation process. The high-resolution intraluminal imaging of the balloon provides a detailed assessment of the balloon quality and, consequently, a technique to improve the balloon manufacturing process. A custom-built swept-source optical coherence tomography system is used for real-time imaging. A semicompliant balloon with a nominal diameter of 4 mm is fabricated for the experiments. Imaging results correspond to balloon deployment in air and inside an artery phantom. A characterization of the balloon diameter, wall thickness, compliance, and elastic modulus is provided, based on image segmentation. Using the images obtained from the probe pullback, a three-dimensional visualization of the inflated balloon is presented.

  12. Intragastric balloon followed by diet vs intragastric balloon followed by another balloon: a prospective study on 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Alfredo; Cipriano, Massimiliano; Bacci, Vincenzo; Maselli, Roberta; Paone, Emanuela; Lorenzo, Michele; Basso, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) followed by diet with BIB followed by another BIB. A prospective study was designed: a homogeneous group of 100 obese patients (age range 25-35, BMI range 40.0-44.9, M/F ratio 1/4) was allocated into two groups according to procedure: BIB (6 months) followed by diet therapy (7 months; group A = 50 pts), BIB positioning followed by another BIB after 1 month (group B = 50 pts). Baseline demographics were similar in both groups (Group A 10M/40F; mean age 31.4 ± 2.6; range 25-35; mean weight 106.3 ± 12.5 Kg; range 88-150; mean BMI 42.6±2.7 Kg/m(2); range 40.2-43.8; Group B 10M/40F; mean age 32.1 ± 2.1; range 25-35; mean weight 107.1 ± 11.9 Kg; range 90-150; mean BMI 42.9 ± 2.3; range 40.2-43.9). In both groups, weight loss parameters (Kg, BMI, and % EBL) were considered. Statistics were by Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05 was considered significant). At the time of 1st BIB removal, weight loss parameters in both groups were not significantly different: Group A: mean weight was 83.7±19.1 (range 52-151); mean BMI 34.2 ± 3.9 (range 32.4-43.8); and mean %EBL 43.5 ± 21.1 (range 0-68). Group B: mean weight was 84.9 ± 18.3 (range 50-148); mean BMI 34.8 ± 3.3 (range 32.4-43.8); and mean % EBL 45.2 ± 22.5% (range 0-68). At the study end, weight loss parameters were significantly lower in patients who underwent consecutive BIB (p < 0.05): mean BMI was 30.9 ± 7.2 Kg/m(2) (range 24-40), and 35.9 ± 9.7 Kg/m(2) (range 34-42); mean % EBL was 51.9 ± 24.6% (range 0-100) and 25.1 ± 26.2% (range 0-100) in group B and A, respectively. As compared with diet, a second intragastric balloon can be positioned without difficulties, achieving good results with continuous weight loss.

  13. Adjuvant therapies for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The management of colon and rectal cancer has changed dramatically over the last 25 years. The use of adjuvant therapies has become standard practice in locally advanced (stage Ⅲ and selected stage Ⅱ) colorectal cancer. Improved surgical techniques, chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy are resulting in higher cure rates and the development of agents targeting proliferative and angiogenic pathways offer further promise. Here we explore risk factors for local and distant recurrence after resection of colon and rectal cancer, and the role of adjuvant treatments. Discussion will focus on the evidence base for adjuvant therapies utilised in colorectal cancer, and the treatment of sub-groups such as the elderly and stage Ⅱ disease. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer in reduction of recurrence will be explored and the role and optimal methods for surveillance post-curative resection with or without adjuvant therapy will also be addressed.

  14. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along......Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...

  15. Extradural balloon obliteration of the empty sella report of three cases (intrasellar balloon obliteration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioğlu, N; Akar, Z; Ak, H; Işlak, C; Koçer, N; Seçkin, M S; Kuday, C

    1999-01-01

    Empty sella syndrome is an anatomical and clinical entity composed of intrasellar reposition of the CSF and compression of the pituitary tissue, resulting in a clinical picture of headache, visual field defect, CSF rhinorrhea and some mild endocrinological disturbances. While some cases are primary with no appreciable aetiology, secondary cases are associated with prior operation or radiotherapy of the region. In our series, 3 patients with primary empty sella syndrome were treated by the current approach of extradural filling of the sellar cavity. This technique was first described by Guiot and widely accepted thereafter. We used a detachable silicon balloon filled with HEMA or liquid silicone for obliteration of the sellar cavity and obtained clinically satisfactory results without complications. Visual symptoms regressed and headache disappeared. But at long term follow-up all the balloons were found to be deflated. Despite the facility and efficacy of the technique we do not recommend it in the treatment of the empty sella because the filling of the sella is only transient and relapses may occur.

  16. Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system.

  17. Coolability of ballooned VVER bundles with pellet relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Z.; Nagy, I.; Windberg, P.; Vimi, A. [AEKI, P.O.box 49, Budapest, H-1525 (Hungary)

    2009-06-15

    During a LOCA incident the high pressure in the fuel rods can lead to clad ballooning and the debris of fuel pellets can fill the enlarged volume. The evaluation of the role of these two effects on the coolability of VVER type fuel bundles was the main objective of the experimental series. The tests were carried out in the modified configuration of the CODEX facility. 19-rod electrically heated VVER type bundle was used. The test section was heated up to 600 deg. C in steam atmosphere and the bundle was quenched from the bottom by cold water. Three series of tests were performed: 1. Reference bundle with fuel rods without ballooning, with uniform power profile. 2. Bundle with 86% blockage rate and with uniform power profile. The blockage rate was reached by superimposing hollow sleeves on all 19 fuel rods. 3. Bundle with 86% blockage rate and with local power peak in the ballooned area. The local power peak was produced by the local reduction the cross section of the internal heater bar inside of the fuel rods. In all three bundle configurations three different cooling water flow-rates were applied. The experimental results confirmed that a VVER bundle with even 86% blockage rate remains coolable after a LOCA event. The ballooned section creates some obstacles for the cooling water during reflood of the bundle, but this effect causes only a short delay in the cooling down of the hot fuel rods. Earlier tests on the coolability of ballooned bundles were performed only with Western type bundles with square fuel lattice. The present test series was the first confirmation of the coolability of VVER type bundles with triangular lattice. The accumulation of fuel pellet debris in the ballooned volume results in a local power peak, which leads to further slowing down of quench front. The first tests indicated that the effect of local power peak was less significant on the delay of cooling down than the effect of ballooning. (authors)

  18. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  19. Treatment of colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the word. Liver metastasis is the most common site of colorectal metastases. The prognosis of resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM was improved in the recent years with the consideration of chemotherapy and surgical resection as part of the multidisciplinary management of the disease; the current 5-year survival rates after resection of liver metastases are 25% to 40%. Resectable synchronous or metachronous liver metastases should be treated with perioperative chemotherapy based on three months of FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil [5FU], folinic acid [LV], and oxaliplatin chemotherapy before surgery and three months after surgery. In the case of primary surgery, pseudo-adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months, based on 5FU/LV, FOLFOX4, XELOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin or FOLFIRI (5FU/LV and irinotecan, should be indicated. In potentially resectable disease, primary chemotherapy based on more intensive regimens such as FOLFIRINOX (5FU/LV, irinotecan and oxaliplatin should be considered to enhance the chance of cure. The palliative chemotherapy based on FOLFIRI, or FOLFOX4/XELOX with or without targeted therapies, is the mainstay treatment of unresectable disease. This review would provide additional insight into the problem of optimal integration of chemotherapy and surgery in the management of CRLM.

  20. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  1. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each p...... with a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity. The genes and ESTs presented in this study encode new potential tumor markers as well as potential novel therapeutic targets for prevention or therapy of CRC.......Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  2. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net --- result of a ground inflation test of a 2,000 cubic-meter balloon ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Akita, Daisuke; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Shimadu, Shigeyuki; Goto, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    A light super-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m^{3} balloon. Beginning from a demonstration test of the net-balloon with a 10 m^{3} balloon in 2010, we have been polished the net-balloon through ground inflation tests and flight tests, including a flight test of a 3,000 m ^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon in 2012, and a flight test of a 10 m^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 2 kg rubber balloon in 2013, as reported in the last COSPAR. In 2014, we developed a 5,000 m^{3} balloon and performed a ground inflation test to find that the balloon burst from a lip panel for termination with a differential pressure of 425 Pa. It was due to a stress concentration at the edge of a thick tape attached along the termination mechanism. In 2015, we modified the balloon by adding tapes on the lip panel to avoid the stress concentration, and also shorten the net length to leave some margin of the film and performed a ground inflation test again to find the balloon showed asymmetrical deployment and burst from the edge of the net with a differential pressure of 348 Pa. We consider it is due to the margin of the film along the circumferential direction, and proposed a gore shape which circumference length is kept as determined by the pumpkin shape of the balloon but setting meridian length longer than that. We developed a 10 m^{3} balloon with the gore design to find that the balloon deployed symmetrically and showed the burst pressure of 10,000 Pa. In 2016, we are going to develop a 2,000 m^{3} balloon with the gore design and perform its ground inflation test. In this paper, we are going to report its result with the sequence of the development.

  3. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeholm P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter Ingeholm,1,2 Ismail Gögenur,1,3 Lene H Iversen1,4 1Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database, Copenhagen, 2Department of Pathology, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, 3Department of Surgery, Roskilde University Hospital, Roskilde, 4Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables: The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion: The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period

  4. Increased hepcidin expression in colorectal carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas G Ward; Keith Roberts; Matthew J Brookes; Howard Joy; Ashley Martin; Tariq Ismail; Robert Spychal; Tariq Iqbal; Chris Tselepis

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether the iron stores regulator hepcidin is implicated in colon cancer-associated anae-mia and whether it might have a role in colorectal car-cinogenesis.METHODS:Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and SELDI-TOF MS) was employed to measure hepcidin in urine collected from 56 patients with colorectal cancer.Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR was utilised to determine hepcidin mRNA expression in colorectal cancer tissue.Hepcidin cellular localisation was determined using im-munohistochemistry.RESULTS:We demonstrate that whilst urinary hepcidin expression was not correlated with anaemia it was posi-tively associated with increasing T-stage of colorectal cancer (P<0.05).Furthermore,we report that hepcidin mRNA is expressed in 34% of colorectal cancer tissue specimens and was correlated with ferroportin repres-sion.This was supported by hepcidin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer tissue.CONCLUSION:We demonstrate that systemic hepcidin expression is unlikely to be the cause of the systemic anaemia associated with colorectal cancer.However,we demonstrate for the first time that hepcidin is expressed by colorectal cancer tissue and that this may represent a novel oncogenic signalling mechanism.

  5. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer screening is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify ar

  6. Diet and colorectal cancer risk and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary and other lifestyle factors account for 20–45% of all colorectal cancer cases. Being overweight or obese, having a high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer, while a high intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables, foods containin

  7. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  8. Complexity Analysis of Balloon Drawing for Rooted Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Poon, Sheung-Hung; Fan, Jia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    In a balloon drawing of a tree, all the children under the same parent are placed on the circumference of the circle centered at their parent, and the radius of the circle centered at each node along any path from the root reflects the number of descendants associated with the node. Among various styles of tree drawings reported in the literature, the balloon drawing enjoys a desirable feature of displaying tree structures in a rather balanced fashion. For each internal node in a balloon drawing, the ray from the node to each of its children divides the wedge accommodating the subtree rooted at the child into two sub-wedges. Depending on whether the two sub-wedge angles are required to be identical or not, a balloon drawing can further be divided into two types: even sub-wedge and uneven sub-wedge types. In the most general case, for any internal node in the tree there are two dimensions of freedom that affect the quality of a balloon drawing: (1) altering the order in which the children of the node appear in...

  9. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of

  10. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  11. Restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ming-Hua Li; Ren-Jie Yang; Hui-Zhen Zhang; Zai-Xian Ding; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Ke-Zhong Shang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.METHODS: A total of 49 rats with esophageal stenosis were induced in 70 rats using 5 ml of 50 % sodium hydroxide solution and the double-balloon method, and an esophageal restenosis (RS) model was developed by esophageal stenosis using dilation of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon catheter. These 49 rats were divided into two groups: rats with benign esophageal stricture caused by chemical burn only (control group, n=21) and rats with their esophageal stricture treated with balloon catheter dilation (experimental group, n=28). Imaging analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses of esophageal stenosis and RS formation in the rats, respectively.RESULTS: Cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the esophageal mucosa layer, muscle layer, and the entire esophageal layers increased significantly in the experimental group compared with the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was expressed on the 5th day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month. Fibronectin (FN)was expressed on the 1st day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month.CONCLUSION: Expression of PCNA and FN plays an important role in RS after balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.

  12. Stratospheric balloons from Esrange - current and future capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, O.

    Stratospheric balloon operations have been carried out at the Swedish Space Corporation's rocket, balloon and satellite operations base Esrange since 1974; approximately 550 stratospheric balloons have been launched during this period. The facility, located in northern Sweden at 68 degrees north, is fully equipped with a large launch pad, payload and flight train preparation hangars, telemetry stations, recovery helicopters, and supporting infrastructure. Many of the scientific balloons launched are CNES missions. This paper will present the possibilities for scientific and technical balloon missions at high latitudes and with a vast landing area in northern Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The proximity to the Arctic polar vortex makes Esrange an ideal base for studies of for example the ozone destruction process in the Arctic. A new option proposed by the Swedish Space Corporation and NASA is to perform week-long missions from the south of Sweden to western Canada. A newly developed line-of-sight telemetry system, E-LINK, for high bit-rates (> 2 Mbps both downlink and uplink) and based on the Ethernet communication standard is also described.

  13. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Huth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients.  Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC. Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53 as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  14. Ideal ballooning modes, shear flow and the stable continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. B.

    2012-11-01

    There is a well-established theory of ballooning modes in a toroidal plasma. The cornerstone of this is a local eigenvalue λ on each magnetic surface—which also depends on the ballooning phase angle k. In stationary plasmas, λ(k) is required only near its maximum, but in rotating plasmas its average over k is required. Unfortunately in many cases λ(k) does not exist for some range of k, because the spectrum there contains only a stable continuum. This limits the application of the theory, and raises the important question of whether this ‘stable interval’ gives rise to significant damping. This question is re-examined using a new, simplified, model—which leads to the conclusion that there is no appreciable damping at small shear flow. In particular, therefore, a small shear flow should not affect ballooning mode stability boundaries.

  15. Ideal MHD Ballooning modes, shear flow and the stable continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, J B

    2012-01-01

    There is a well established theory of Ballooning modes in a toroidal plasma. The cornerstone of this is a local eigenvalue lambda on each magnetic surface - which also depends on the ballooning phase angle k. In stationary plasmas lambda(k) is required only near its maximum, but in rotating plasmas its average over k is required. Unfortunately in many case lambda(k) does not exist for some range of k, because the spectrum there contains only a stable continuum. This limits the application of the theory, and raises the important question of whether this "stable interval" gives rise to significant damping. This question is re-examined using a new, simplified, model - which leads to the conclusion that there is no appreciable damping at small shear flow. In particular, therefore, a small shear flow should not affect Ballooning mode stability boundaries.

  16. Tokamak resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning instability in the negative shear regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bing-Ren; Lin Jian-Long; Li Ji-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Improved confinement of tokamak plasma with central negative shear is checked against the resistive ballooning mode. In the negative shear regime, the plasma is always unstable for purely growing resistive ballooning mode. For a simplest tokamak equilibrium model, the s-α model, characteristics of this kind of instability are fully clarified by numerically solving the high n resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning eigen-equation. Dependences of the growth rate on the resistivity, the absolute shear value, the pressure gradient are scanned in detail. It is found that the growth rate is a monotonically increasing function of a while it is not sensitive to the changes of the shear s, the initial phase θ0 and the resistivity parameter εR.

  17. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  18. To sail the skies of Mars - Scientific ballooning on the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric J.; Burke, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons represent a novel approach to exploring the surface of Mars. One promising aerostat system incorporates a solar-powered balloon as a means of generating diurnally varying lift and so can 'hop' across the surface, obtaining detailed information at a large number of sites. Two important areas of research and testing are underway on solar balloon technology and balloon payload design. The solar balloon concept has been demonstrated on earth, but more work is needed on a 'flyable' version for Mars. Particular attention must be paid to radiation heat transfer and aerodynamic effects. A special 'snake' payload concept has been demonstrated that allows for balloon system traverses of the surface and provides a usable instrument platform. A balloon system of this type could obtain unique surface imaging and physical and chemical data. The flight of the balloon also provides in situ atmospheric boundary-layer and circulation measurements.

  19. Balloon vetebroplasty with calcium phosphate cement augmentation for direct restoration of traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, JJ; van Helden, WH; Oner, FC; Verbout, AJ; Dhert, WJA

    2002-01-01

    Study Design. A human cadaveric model was used to evaluate balloon vertebroplasty in traumatic vertebral fractures. Objectives. To assess the feasibility and safety of balloon vertebroplasty followed by calcium phosphate cement augmentation to prevent recurrent kyphosis. Summary of Background Data.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces adventitial thickening and collagen accumulation following balloon dilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierevogel, MJ; Velema, E; van der Meer, FJ; Nijhuis, MO; de Kleijn, DPV; Borst, C; Pasterkamp, G

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Constrictive arterial remodeling following balloon angioplasty has been related to adventitial collagen accumulation and subsequent thickening and can be prevented by matrix ructalloprotemase (MMP) inhibition. Following balloon dilation, we examined the effect of MMP inhibition on colla-e

  1. Evolution of NASA Scientific Ballooning and Particle Astrophysics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Vernon

    2017-01-01

    Particle astrophysics research has a history in ballooning that spans over 100 years, ever since Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays on a manned balloon in 1912. The NASA Particle Astrophysics Program currently covers the origin, acceleration and transport of Galactic cosmic rays, plus the Nature of Dark Matter and Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos. Progress in each of these topics has come from sophisticated instrumentation flown on Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for more than two decades. Super Pressure Balloons (SPB) and International Space Station (ISS) platforms are emerging opportunities that promise major steps forward for these and other objectives. NASA has continued development and qualification flights leading to SPB flights capable of supporting 1000 kg science instruments to 33 km for upwards of hundred day missions, with plans for increasing the altitude to 38 km. This goal is even more important now, in view of the Astro2010 Decadal Study recommendation that NASA should support Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flight development for studies of particle astrophysics, cosmology and indirect detection of dark matter. The mid-latitude test flight of an 18.8 MCF SPB launched from Wanaka, NZ in 2015 achieved 32 days of nearly constant altitude exposure, and an identical SPB launched from Wanaka in 2016 with a science payload flew for 46 days. Scientific ballooning as a vital infrastructure component for cosmic ray and general astrophysics investigations, including training for young scientists, graduate and undergraduate students, leading up to the 2020 Decadal Study and beyond, will be presented and discussed.

  2. Near Space Lab-Rat Experimentation using Stratospheric Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Devarajan, Anand; Pandit Manikrao Kulkarni, MR..; Ojha, Devendra; Korra, Sakram; Neerudu, Nagendra; Seng, Lim; Godi, Stalin Peter

    2016-07-01

    First ever balloon borne lab-rat experiment up to near space stratospheric altitude levels carried out at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hydeabad using zero pressure balloons for the purpose of validating the life support system. A series of two balloon experiments conducted under joint collaboration with IN.Genius, Singapore in the year 2015. In these experiments, three lab-rats sent to stratosphere in a pressurized capsule designed to reach an altitude of 30 km by keeping constant pressure, temperature and maintained at a precise rate of oxygen supply inside the capsule. The first experiment conducted on 1 ^{st} February, 2015 with a total suspended weight of 225 kg. During the balloon ascent stage at 18 km altitude, sensors inside the capsule reported drastic drop in internal pressure while oxygen and temperatures maintained at correct levels resulted in premature fligt termination at 20.1 km. All the three lab-rats recovered without life due to the collapse of their lungs caused by the depressurization inside the capsule. The second experiment conducted on 14th March, 2015 using a newly developed capsule with rectification of depressurization fault by using improved sealing gaskets and hermitically sealed connectors for sending lab-rats again to stratosphere comprising a total suspended load of 122.3 kg. The balloon flight was terminated after reaching 29.5 km in 110 minutes and succesfully recovered all the three lab-rats alive. This paper focuses on lessons learnt of the development of the life support system as an integral pressurized vessel, flight control instrumentation, flight simulation tests using thermo-vaccum chamber with pre-flight operations.

  3. Paclitaxel-coated balloons - Survey of preclinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, B; Kelsch, B; Cremers, B; Clever, Y P; Speck, U; Scheller, B

    2010-10-01

    Restenosis following interventions in the coronary or peripheral arteries develops over weeks to months. In coronary arteries the restenosis rate has been markedly reduced since the advent of drug-eluting stents. Non-stent-based methods for local drug delivery enable restenosis inhibition without the need for stent implantation, does not permanently change the structure of the vessel, are repeatable, and seems to be applicable where drug-eluting stents provide insufficient protection. Preclinical data indicate that short exposure of the vessel wall to a lipophilic inhibitor of cell proliferation is sufficient for preventing restenosis. Initial evidence to this effect emerged from an investigation of paclitaxel embedded in a matrix that enhances the solubility and release of the agent from the balloon coating as well as its transfer to the vessel wall. Further corroborating data from preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating a reduction in late lumen loss and lower restenosis rates led to the market introduction of a variety of paclitaxel-coated angioplasty balloons. The effectiveness of restenosis inhibition is not determined by the active agent alone. Other factors that are crucial for the effectiveness and safety of drug-coated angioplasty balloons are the formulation containing the agent and the coating technique. In this review we first outline the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons to then provide an overview of the preclinical results obtained with different paclitaxel-coated balloons and finally compare these with the outcome in patients. The article concludes with a short outlook on initial results with a zotarolimus-coated angioplasty balloon.

  4. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz

    2007-12-01

    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  5. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  6. Properties of nylon 12 balloons after thermal and liquid carbon dioxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Andrew J; Davé, Vipul

    2013-03-01

    Critical design attributes of angioplasty balloons include the following: tear resistance, high burst pressures, controlled compliance, and high fatigue. Balloons must have tear resistance and high burst pressures because a calcified stenosis can be hard and nominal pressures of up to 16 atm can be used to expand the balloon. The inflated balloon diameter must be a function of the inflation pressure, thus compliance is predictable and controlled. Reliable compliance is necessary to prevent damage to vessel walls, which may be caused by over-inflation. Balloons are often inflated multiple times in a clinical setting and they must be highly resistant to fatigue. These design attributes are dependent on the mechanical properties and polymer morphology of the balloon. The effects of residual stresses on shrinkage, crystallite orientation, balloon compliance, and mechanical properties were studied for angioplasty nylon 12 balloons. Residual stresses of these balloons were relieved by oven heat treatment and liquid CO2 exposure. Residual stresses were measured by quantifying shrinkage at 80 °C of excised balloon samples using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Shrinkage was lower after oven heat treatment and liquid CO2 exposure compared to the as-received balloons, in the axial and radial directions. As-received, oven heat treated, and liquid CO2-exposed balloon samples exhibited similar thermal properties (T(g), T(m), X(t)). Crystallite orientation was not observed in the balloon cylindrical body using X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy, which may be due to balloon fabrication conditions. Significant differences were not observed between the stress-strain curves, balloon compliance, and average burst pressures of the as-received, oven heat treated, and liquid CO2-exposed balloons.

  7. Emerging Stent and Balloon Technologies in the Femoropopliteal Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Pastromas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular procedures for the management of the superficial femoral (SFA and popliteal artery disease are increasingly common. Over the past decade, several stent technologies have been established which may offer new options for improved clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the current evidence for SFA and popliteal artery angioplasty and stenting, with a focus on randomized trials and registries of nitinol self-expanding stents, drug-eluting stents, dug-coated balloons, and covered stent-grafts. We also highlight the limitations of the currently available data and the future routes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD stent and balloon technology.

  8. AIAA Educator Academy: The Space Weather Balloon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmier, B.; Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based science and engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude balloon equipped with HD cameras.The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The payload is located using the GPS device. In April 2012, the Space Weather Balloon team conducted a prototype field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. To better assist teachers in implementing one or more of these Curriculum Modules, teacher workshops are held to give teachers a hands-on look at how this curriculum is used in the classroom. And, to provide further support, teachers are each

  9. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  10. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian

    2015-01-06

    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or reinversion is observed should be kept in mind.

  11. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Manzoor, S; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Togo, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  12. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  13. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  14. BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) versus Spatz Adjustable Balloon System (ABS): Our experience in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Aprea, Giovanni; Formisano, Cesare; Ruggiero, Simona; Quarto, Gennaro; Serra, Raffaele; Massa, Guido; Sivero, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    The BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) and the Spatz Adjustable Balloon System (ABS) are in fact recommended for weight reduction as a bridge to bariatric surgery. We retrospected studied patients with body mass index (BMI) and age ranges of 37-46 and 70-80 years, respectively, who had undergone BIB from January 2010 to July 2012 and prospected studied patients who had undergone Spatz balloon from July 2012 to August 2014. The aim of this study is to compare BIB and Spatz in terms of weight loss, complications, and maintenance of weight after removal. For both procedures, the median weight loss was 20 ± 3 kg, median BMI at the end of the therapy was 32 ± 2, and no severe complication occurred.

  15. Large bowel impaction by the BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) necessitating surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Y; Kirkpatrick, U J; Moody, A P; Wake, P N

    2000-05-01

    A case of large bowel impaction caused by migration of a BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) is presented. The literature is reviewed regarding both the use and the complications inherent in such balloon devices. This is the first reported case of an intragastric balloon impacted in the colon 9 months after insertion.

  16. Clinical management of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasen, Hans F A; Tomlinson, Ian; Castells, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary factors are involved in the development of a substantial proportion of all cases of colorectal cancer. Inherited forms of colorectal cancer are usually subdivided into polyposis syndromes characterized by the development of multiple colorectal polyps and nonpolyposis syndromes characterized by the development of few or no polyps. Timely identification of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes is vital because patient participation in early detection programmes prevents premature death due to cancer. Polyposis syndromes are fairly easy to recognize, but some patients might have characteristics that overlap with other clinically defined syndromes. Comprehensive analysis of the genes known to be associated with polyposis syndromes helps to establish the final diagnosis in these patients. Recognizing Lynch syndrome is more difficult than other polyposis syndromes owing to the absence of pathognomonic features. Most investigators therefore recommend performing systematic molecular analysis of all newly diagnosed colorectal cancer using immunohistochemical methods. The implementation in clinical practice of new high-throughput methods for molecular analysis might further increase the identification of individuals at risk of hereditary colorectal cancer. This Review describes the clinical management of the various hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes and demonstrates the advantage of using a classification based on the underlying gene defects.

  17. Knowledge of colorectal cancer among older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S P; Weinrich, M C; Boyd, M D; Johnson, E; Frank-Stromborg, M

    1992-10-01

    Cancer screening is a national health priority, especially for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. The researchers measured colorectal cancer knowledge among 211 older Americans. A quasiexperimental pretest-posttest two-by-two factorial design was used to test the effect of knowledge on participation in fecal occult blood screening. The American Cancer Society's colorectal cancer educational slide-tape presentation served as the basis for all of the educational programs. Hemoccult II kits were distributed at no cost to the participants. Descriptive statistics, chi 2, and logistic regressions were used to analyze data. One-half of the participants had incomes below the poverty level. Almost one-half the subjects in the study sample stated that they had not received any information about colorectal cancer within the past year. Caucasians had more knowledge of colorectal cancer than African Americans [F(1, 78) = 7.92, p < 0.01] and persons with higher income had more knowledge than persons with less income [F(2, 76) = 3.01, p = 0.05]. Subjects showed significant increases in colorectal cancer knowledge 6 days after the colorectal cancer education program [t(79) = 2.59, p = 0.01] and this increased knowledge was a predictor of participation in free fecal occult blood screening [chi 2(1, n = 164) = 5.34, p = 0.02].

  18. Hybrid Global Communication Architecture with Balloons and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Celeste, A.; Erb, B.

    2002-01-01

    Global space communication systems have been developed now for more than three decades, based mainly on geostationary satellites or almost equivalent systems such as the Molnya orbit concepts. The last decade of the twentieth century has seen the emergence of satellite constellations in low or medium Earth orbit, in order to improve accessibility in terms of visibility at higher latitudes and limited size or power requirement for ground equipment. However such systems are complex to operate, there are still many situations where connection may remain difficult to achieve, and commercial benefits are still to be proven. A new concept, using a network combination of geostationary relay satellites and high altitude stratospheric platforms may well overcome the inconveniences of both geostationary systems and satellite constellations to improve greatly global communication in the future. The emergence of enabling technologies developed in Japan and in several other countries will soon make it possible to fly helium balloons in the upper layers of the atmosphere, at altitudes of 20 km or more. At such an altitude, well above the meteorological disturbances and the jet-streams, the stratosphere enjoys a regular wind at moderate speeds ranging between 10 m/s and 30 m/s, depending on latitude and also on season. It is possible for balloons powered by electric engines to fly non- stop upstream of the wind in order to remain stationary above a particular location. Large balloons, with sizes up to 300 m in length, would be able to carry sub-satellite communication payloads, as well as observation apparatus and scientific equipment. The range of visibility for easy both-way communication between the balloon and operators or customers on the ground could be as large as 200 km in radius. Most current studies consider a combination of solar cells and storage batteries to power the balloons, but microwave beam wireless power transportation from the ground could be a very

  19. Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Ussui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micron scale via endoscopes. CLE has the potential to be a disruptive technology in that it can change the current algorithms that depend on biopsy to perform surveillance of high-risk conditions. Furthermore, it allows on-table decision making that has the potential to guide therapy in real time and reduce the need for repeated procedures. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. However, the imaging of living tissue allows more than just pragmatic convenience; it also allows imaging of living tissue such as active capillary circulation, cellular death, and vascular and endothelial translocation, thus extending beyond what is capable in traditional biopsy. Immediate potential applications of CLE are to guide biopsy sampling in Barrett's esophagus and inflammatory bowel disease surveillance, evaluation of colorectal polyps, and intraductal imaging of the pancreas and bile duct. Data on these applications is rapidly emerging, and more is needed to clearly demonstrate the optimal applications of CLE. In this paper, we will focus on the role of CLE as applied to colorectal polyps detected during colonoscopy.

  20. Scientific Ballooning Technologies Workshop STO-2 Thermal Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The heritage thermal model for the full STO-2 (Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory II), vehicle has been updated to model the CSBF (Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility) SIP-14 (Scientific Instrument Package) in detail. Analysis of this model has been performed for the Antarctica FY2017 launch season. Model temperature predictions are compared to previous results from STO-2 review documents.

  1. Investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding : capsule endoscopy or double balloon enteroscopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, J.; Weersma, R. K.; Koornstra, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility to visualise the small bowel has dramatically improved with the introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE). CE and DBE have become standard practice in investigating suspected diseases of the small bowel. An important reason to perform small bowel inv

  2. Balloon dacryocystoplasty study in the management of adult epiphora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of dacryocystoplasty with balloon dilation in the treatment of acquired obstruction of the nasolacrimal system in adults. METHODS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty was performed in 52 eyes of 42 patients under general anaesthetic. A Teflon-coated guidewire was introduced through the canaliculus and manipulated through the nasolacrimal system and out of the nasal aperture. A 4 mm wide 3 cm coronary angioplasty balloon catheter was threaded over the guidewire in a retrograde fashion and dilated at the site of obstruction. RESULTS: There was complete obstruction in 30% of cases and partial obstruction in 70%. The most common site of obstruction was the nasolacrimal duct. The procedure was technically successful in 94% of cases. The overall re-obstruction rate was 29% within 1 year of the procedure. There was an anatomical failure rate of 17% for partial obstruction and 69% for complete obstruction within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty has a high recurrence rate. There may be a limited role for this procedure in partial obstructions. Further refinements of the procedure are necessary before it can be offered as a comparable alternative to a standard surgical dacryocystorhinostomy.

  3. 28. Critical pulmonary valve stenosis: Medical management beyond balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Phentolamine and/or Captopril have a therapeutic role in neonates with critical PVS who remain oxygen dependent after balloon dilation. Both medicationslead to vasodilatation of pulmonary and systemic vascularity. They facilitate inflowto the right ventricle. Right to left shunt across a PFO or/ ASD minimizesand saturation improves leading to a significantreduction in length of hospitalization.

  4. Latex micro-balloon pumping in centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Madou, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have emerged as point-of-care diagnostic tools. However, the unidirectional nature of the centrifugal force limits the available space for multi-step processes on a single microfluidic disc. To overcome this limitation, a passive pneumatic pumping method actuated at high rotational speeds has been previously proposed to pump liquid against the centrifugal force. In this paper, a novel micro-balloon pumping method that relies on elastic energy stored in a latex membrane is introduced. It operates at low rotational speeds and pumps a larger volume of liquid towards the centre of the disc. Two different micro-balloon pumping mechanisms have been designed to study the pump performance at a range of rotational frequencies from 0 to 1500 rpm. The behaviour of the micro-balloon pump on the centrifugal microfluidic platforms has been theoretically analysed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data show that the developed pumping method dramatically decreases the required rotational speed to pump liquid compared to the previously developed pneumatic pumping methods. It also shows that within a range of rotational speed, a desirable volume of liquid can be stored and pumped by adjusting the size of the micro-balloon.

  5. Balloon atrial septostomy under echocardiographic guide: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Meraji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure in pediatric cardiology. Nowadays, most patients in need of the procedure have acceptable outcomes after surgical repair. Thus, it is important to perform this procedure as safe as possible. By performing early arterial switch operation and prostaglandin infusion, the rate of balloon atrial septostomy has markedly decreased. However, not all centers performing early arterial switch repairs have abandoned atrial septostomy, even in patients who respond favorably to prostaglandin infusion.Case presentation: In total, eight 1- to 15-day old term neonates admitted in Shahid Rajaee Heart Center in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2011, with congenital heart diseases were scheduled for balloon atrial septostomy. In six cases the procedure was done exclusively under echocardiographic guidance and in two cases with the help of fluoroscopy. Success was defined as the creation of an atrial septal defect with a diameter equal to or more than 5 mm and ample mobility of its margins.Results: Male sex was predominant (87% and the mean age of the neonates was six days. The diagnosis in all cases was simple transposition of great arteries. The procedure was successful in all patients with any cardiovascular complication.Conclusion: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure that can be done safely and effectively under echocardiographic guidance. According to the feasibility of this technique it could be performed fast, safe and effective at bedside, avoiding patient transportation to hemodynamic laboratory or referral center.

  6. Using Hydrogen Balloons to Display Metal Ion Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, James H.

    2008-01-01

    We have optimized a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products. We report air quality measurements in a lecture hall immediately after the demonstration. While we recommend that this demonstration be done outdoors or in…

  7. Meshed-Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Yavrouian, Andre

    2003-01-01

    An improved, lightweight design has been proposed for super-pressure balloons used to carry scientific instruments at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Earth for times as long as 100 days. [A super-pressure balloon is one in which the pressure of the buoyant gas (typically, helium) is kept somewhat above ambient pressure in order to maintain approximately constant density and thereby regulate the altitude.] The proposed design, called "meshed pumpkin," incorporates the basic concept of the pumpkin design, which is so named because of its appearance. The pumpkin design entails less weight than does a spherical design, and the meshed-pumpkin design would reduce weight further. The basic idea of the meshed-pumpkin design is to reinforce the membrane of a pumpkin balloon by attaching a strong, lightweight fabric mesh to its outer surface. The reinforcement would make it possible to reduce the membrane mass to one-third or less of that of the basic pumpkin design while retaining sufficient strength to enable the balloon to remain at approximately constant altitude for months.

  8. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40...

  9. Complications of flow-directed balloon-tipped catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, F W; Husserl, F E

    1990-01-01

    Acute or short-term complications following the use of flow-directed balloon-tipped catheters are well recognized. Long-term sequelae are rarely reported. We report herein an early complication of pulmonary arterial rupture with infarction followed by the delayed development of a pulmonary arterial aneurysm.

  10. An automatic parachute release for high altitude scientific balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Chris

    NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility launches high altitude scientific research balloons at many locations around the world. Locations like Antarctica are flat for hundreds of miles and have nothing to snag a parachute consequently causing it to be more important to separate the parachute from the payload than in an area with vegetation and fences. Scientists are now building one of a kind payloads costing millions of dollars, taking five years or more to build, and are requesting multiple flights. In addition to that, the data gathering rate of many science payloads far exceeds the data downlink rate on over-the-horizon flights therefore making a recovery of at least the data hard drives a "minimum success requirement". The older mentality in ballooning; separating the parachute and payload from the balloon and getting it on the ground is more important than separating the parachute after the payload is on the ground has changed. It is now equally as important to separate the parachute from the gondola to prevent damage from dragging. Until now, commands had to be sent to separate the parachute from the gondola at approximately 60K ft, 30K ft, and 10K ft to use the Semi Automatic Parachute Release (SAPR), which is after the sometimes violent parachute opening shock. By using the Gondola controlled Automatic Parachute Release (GAPR) all commanding is done prior to termination, making the parachute release fully autonomous.

  11. The Micro-Instrumentation Package: A Solution to Lightweight Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Jill

    This paper discusses the design and testing of an over the horizon (OTH) light weight telemetry and termination system that can be used for small ballooning payloads. Currently, the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provides telemetry for the science payload by integrating one of two types of support packages. The type of support package integrated depends on whether the flight will stay in range of line of sight (LOS) or will exceed LOS requiring the use of over the horizon (OTH) telemetry. The weights of these systems range from 100 pounds to 350 pounds depending upon the use of redundant systems, equipment for high data rates, and batteries and/or solar panels for power requirements. These weight values are not as significant for larger payloads but can be crippling for smaller payloads. In addition, these support package systems are fairly expensive, placing a high importance on recovery. A lightweight and inexpensive telemetry system could be beneficial for various reasons. First, it would allow scientists to fly lightweight payloads on large balloons reaching even higher altitudes. Second, scientists could fly lightweight payloads on less expensive balloons such as meteorological balloons. Depending on the payload, these flights could be fairly inexpensive and even disposable. Third, a compact telemetry system on any balloon will free up more room for the science portion of the payload. In response, a compact telemetry/termination system called the Micro-Instrumentation Package (MIP) was developed. The MIP provides uplink and downlink communications, an interface to the science, housekeeping information including global positioning system (GPS) position, and relays. Instead of a power-hungry microprocessor, the MIP's central consists of a microcontroller. Microcontrollers are lower power, easily programmed, and can be purchased for less than ten dollars. For uplink and downlink telemetry, the MIP uses an LOS serial transceiver and an Iridium unit

  12. Angioplasty with drug coated balloons for the treatment of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Restenosis or re-occlusion after femoropopliteal angioplasty or stent implantation is the main limitation of endovascular treatment strategies for peripheral artery disease. Within the last years, balloon catheters with anti-proliferative drug coating on the balloon surface have shown to be associated with higher patency rates compared to plain balloon angioplasty. Thus, drug-coated balloons were gradually adopted in many interventional centres for the treatment of femoropopliteal obstructions. The current review summarises the existing evidence for drug-coated balloons in the infrainguinal vessels and their indication in special lesion cohorts.

  13. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.

    2015-12-01

    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  14. Circadian clock circuitry in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Papa, Gennaro; Piepoli, Ada

    2014-04-21

    Colorectal cancer is the most prevalent among digestive system cancers. Carcinogenesis relies on disrupted control of cellular processes, such as metabolism, proliferation, DNA damage recognition and repair, and apoptosis. Cell, tissue, organ and body physiology is characterized by periodic fluctuations driven by biological clocks operating through the clock gene machinery. Dysfunction of molecular clockworks and cellular oscillators is involved in tumorigenesis, and altered expression of clock genes has been found in cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that circadian disruption, that is, alteration of bodily temporal organization, is a cancer risk factor, and an increased incidence of colorectal neoplastic disease is reported in shift workers. In this review we describe the involvement of the circadian clock circuitry in colorectal carcinogenesis and the therapeutic strategies addressing temporal deregulation in colorectal cancer.

  15. Center for Herbal Research on Colorectal Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Herbs Program:Centers of Excellence for Research on CAM Description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of...

  16. An overview of laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Laparoscopic skills has been widely applied in colorectal surgery. The definition, indications and contraindications, the oncologic principles, port side recurrence, and the newer advances are reported in this article .

  17. Cutting balloon angioplasty vs. conventional balloon angioplasty in patients receiving intracoronary brachytherapy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Orford, James L; Lennon, Ryan; O'Neill, Jessica; Denktas, Ali E; Panetta, Carmelo J; Berger, Peter B; Holmes, David R

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) for the treatment of in-stent restenosis prior to intracoronary brachytherapy (ICB). Cutting balloon angioplasty may reduce the incidence of uncontrolled dissection requiring adjunctive stenting and may limit "melon seeding" and geographic miss in patients with in-stent restenosis who are subsequently treated with ICB. We performed a retrospective case-control analysis of 134 consecutive patients with in-stent restenosis who were treated with ICB preceded by either CBA or conventional balloon angioplasty. We identified 44 patients who underwent CBA and ICB, and 90 control patients who underwent conventional percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and ICB for the treatment of in-stent restenosis. Adjunctive coronary stenting was performed in 13 patients (29.5%) in the CBA/ICB group and 41 patients (45.6%; P 0.05). Despite sound theoretical reasons why CBA may be better than conventional balloon angioplasty for treatment of in-stent restenosis with ICB, and despite a reduction in the need for adjunctive coronary stenting, we were unable to identify differences in clinical outcome.

  18. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); F. Kiemeneij (Ferdinand); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); G.R. Heyndrickx (Guy); H.U. Emanuelsson (Hakan); J. Marco (Jean); V.M.G. Legrand (Victor); P.H. Materne (Phillipe); J.A. Belardi (Jorge); U. Sigwart (Ulrich); A. Colombo (Antonio); J-J. Goy (Jean-Jacques); P.A. van den Heuvel (Paul); J. Delcan; M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBalloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes as c

  19. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); F. Kiemeneij (Ferdinand); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); G.R. Heyndrickx (Guy); H.U. Emanuelsson (Hakan); J. Marco (Jean); V.M.G. Legrand (Victor); P.H. Materne (Phillipe); J.A. Belardi (Jorge); U. Sigwart (Ulrich); A. Colombo (Antonio); J-J. Goy (Jean-Jacques); P. van den Heuvel; J. Delcan; M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Balloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical o

  20. Use of Bevacizumab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zinser-Sierra, Juan W.; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Saúl; Villalobos-Valencia, Ricardo; Ramírez-Márquez, Marcelino

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and although associated mortality rates in South American countries are generally among the lowest in the world, they are on the rise. The prognosis of patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer has improved markedly over the last 12 years, increasing from 5 months with best supportive care to almost 2 years with combination chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. New prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been identified to g...

  1. Colorectal cancer: lifestyle and dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Corrêa Lima

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the most common tumor in the developed countries, and the number of new cases annualy is aproximately equal for men and women. Several environmental factors can interact in all steps of carcinogenesis. Lately the balance between genetic predisposition and these factors, including nutritional components and lifestyle behaviors, determines individual susceptibility to develop colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to revise the references about lifestyle include diet, physical exercise, tobacco smoking and use of alcohol, and the risk of colorectal cancer in databases published during 1994-2004. Dietary factors: According to the reports high intake of red meat, and particularly of processed meat and positive energetic balance (high intake of total fat and carbohydrate was associated with a moderate but significant increase in colorectal cancer risk. Convincing preventive factors include increase consumption of a wide variety of fruit and vegetable, particularly, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, a deep-yellow on tones, and fibre. Lifestyle: Physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. There is a probable synergic effect among physical inactivity, high energy intake and obesity and incidence of colorectal cancer. A growing body of evidence supports that avoidance overweight and the use of tobacco and alcohol is recommended to prevent colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Current data suggest that lifestyle modification including proper diet such as the ones rich in vegetable and poor in red meat and fat, regular physical activity and maintaining an appropriate body weight and avoiding the use of tobacco and alcohol may lead to reduce colorectal cancer risk.

  2. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  3. Impact of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation with different balloon volumes on cardiac performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Fasseas, Panayotis; Singh, Varinder P; McBride, Ruth; Orford, James L; Kussmaul, William G

    2002-10-01

    Intra-aortic balloon (IAB) counterpulsation can augment the cardiac output. However, the effect of different IAB volumes on cardiac performance has not been adequately evaluated in humans. Eighty-two patients (52 males [63%]; mean age, 65 +/- 12 years; mean body surface area [BSA], 1.8 +/- 0.2 m(2)) had IAB counterpulsation for cardiogenic shock, refractory angina, and preoperatively for high-risk cardiac surgery. Cardiac hemodynamics were prospectively studied during IAB with inflation volumes of 32 vs. 40 cc. Hemodynamic data collected included aortic pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, systemic and mixed venous oxygen saturations, and cardiac output (by Fick). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to obtain both velocity time integrals (VTIs) and the area of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). Left ventricular stroke volume was then calculated as LVOT area x VTI. Cardiac output (CO) determined by the Fick method and VTI did not differ significantly (P = NS) between the two inflation volumes (y = 0.002 + 0.97x). In a subgroup of 33 patients with BSA

  4. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  5. Using High Resolution Balloon Photography to Provide Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K.; Bauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    For site-scale projects, the Bureau of Reclamation has used low altitude balloon photogrammetry to obtain high-resolution photographs and detailed topographic information. These data are collected in a fraction of the time and effort it would take to obtain a similar level of detail using traditional methods. This is accomplished at a significantly reduced cost compared to flying LiDAR or aerial photography, which can be prohibitively expensive for small or medium scale projects. Low altitude balloon photogrammetry is a process where overlapping photographs and ground survey control points are input into a photogrammetry software program (AdamTechnology 3DM Analyst Mine Mapping Suite) to produce orthophotographs and digital terrain model (DTM) elevation points. To acquire the photos a digital camera is attached to an 8-foot diameter helium balloon. The balloon is tethered and flown above the location of interest. The camera is controlled remotely while a live image is transmitted to a receiver on the ground. Ground survey control is established by using GPS equipment to survey ground targets placed within the area to be photographed. There are limitations to the process. Data collection is very weather dependent; too much wind causes the balloon to be unstable. Site conditions also determine the feasibility: power lines, trees, and steep embankments can cause difficulties maneuvering the balloon. Although some of the photographs show the underwater portion of the channel; there is little agreement between GPS points and the processed DTM elevations in the channel. The balloon has been used to survey large woody debris (LWD) structures and channel morphology in the Middle Fork John Day River (central Oregon) and monitoring debris after the removal of Chiloquin Dam (Sprague River, southern Oregon). Seventeen LWD structures were installed on the Middle Fork John Day River near John Day, OR in 2007 and 2008 to provide aquatic habitat. Balloon photos were obtained in

  6. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il;

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...... take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective...... delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs....

  7. The Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) balloon project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Sharma, Tejaswita; Legere, Jason S.; Bancroft, Christopher M.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.; Wright, Alex M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a project to develop new medium-energy gamma-ray instrumentation by constructing and flying a balloon-borne Compton telescope using advanced scintillator materials combined with silicon photomultiplier readouts. There is a need in high-energy astronomy for a medium-energy gamma-ray mission covering the energy range from approximately 0.4 - 20 MeV to follow the success of the COMPTEL instrument on CGRO. We believe that directly building on the legacy of COMPTEL, using relatively robust, low-cost, off-the-shelf technologies, is the most promising path for such a mission. Fortunately, high-performance scintillators, such as Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), Cerium Bromide (CeBr3), and p-terphenyl, and compact readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), are already commercially available and capable of meeting this need. We have conducted two balloon flights of prototype instruments to test these technologies. The first, in 2011, demonstrated that a Compton telescope consisting of an liquid organic scintillator scattering layer and a LaBr3 calorimeter effectively rejects background under balloon-flight conditions, using time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The second, in 2014, showed that a telescope using an organic stilbene crystal scattering element and a LaBr3 calorimeter with SiPM readouts can achieve similar ToF performance. We are now constructing a much larger balloon instrument, an Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) with SiPM readout, with the goal of imaging the Crab Nebula at MeV energies in a one-day flight. We expect a 4σ detection up to 1 MeV in a single transit. We present calibration results of the first detector modules, and updated simulations of the balloon instrument sensitivity. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the energy, timing, and position resolution of this technology are sufficient to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the mediumenergy gamma-ray band, were it to be

  8. A Spreadsheet Simulation Tool for Terrestrial and Planetary Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquea, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    During the early stages of new balloon design and development, it is necessary to conduct many trade studies. These trade studies are required to determine the design space, and aid significantly in determining overall feasibility. Numerous point designs then need to be generated as details of payloads, materials, mission, and manufacturing are determined. To accomplish these numerous designs, transient models are both unnecessary and time intensive. A steady state model that uses appropriate design inputs to generate system-level descriptive parameters can be very flexible and fast. Just such a steady state model has been developed and has been used during both the MABS 2001 Mars balloon study and the Ultra Long Duration Balloon Project. Using Microsoft Excel's built-in iteration routine, a model was built. Separate sheets were used for performance, structural design, materials, and thermal analysis as well as input and output sheets. As can be seen from figure 1, the model takes basic performance requirements, weight estimates, design parameters, and environmental conditions and generates a system level balloon design. Figure 2 shows a sample output of the model. By changing the inputs and a few of the equations in the model, balloons on earth or other planets can be modeled. There are currently several variations of the model for terrestrial and Mars balloons, as well there are versions of the model that perform crude material design based on strength and weight requirements. To perform trade studies, the Visual Basic language built into Excel was used to create an automated matrix of designs. This trade study module allows a three dimensional trade surface to be generated by using a series of values for any two design variables. Once the fixed and variable inputs are defined, the model automatically steps through the input matrix and fills a spreadsheet with the resulting point designs. The proposed paper will describe the model in detail, including current

  9. CRCHD Launches National Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI CRCHD launches National Screen to Save Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative which aims to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among racially and ethnically diverse and rural communities.

  10. Dietary folate and APC mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Engeland, M. van; Lüchtenborg, M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with colorectal cancer risk and may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis through increased chromosome instability, gene mutations, and aberrant DNA methylation. Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated the associations between

  11. An analysis of the deployment of a pumpkin balloon at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Phillips, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    The design of large superpressure balloons has received significant attention in recent years due to the successful demonstration of various enabling technologies and materials. Of particular note is the "pumpkin" shaped balloon concept, which allows the stress in the envelope to be limited by the surface geometry. Unlike a sphere, where the radius used to determine the stress is determined by the volume of the balloon, the pumpkin utilizes a system of meridional tendons to react the loading in one direction, and form a number of lobes, which limit the stress in the circumferential direction. A suitable superpressure balloon has been designed using this technology which will carry 2 kg in the atmosphere of Mars. The deployment of this balloon is assumed to occur while falling on a decelerator suitably designed for the Mars atmosphere. The inflation is accomplished by a 10 kg system suspended at the nadir of the balloon. As the system falls toward the surface of the planet, helium gas is transferred into the balloon, forming a partially inflated system very similar to an ascending zero pressure balloon. This analysis incorporates the flow of the planetary gas around the inflating balloon which alters the pressure distribution and shape. As a result, stresses are seen to increase beyond the design values which will require the balloon to be redesigned to accommodate this type of dynamic deployment.

  12. Rak debelega črevesa in danke: Colorectal cancer:

    OpenAIRE

    Potrč, Stojan; Krebs, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in Europe and also the second most common cause of cancer death. In Slovenia, the incidence of colorectal cancer is high and is still increasing. The survival rate of our patients operated for colorectal cancer is improving and slowly approaches the survival rate of patients operated on the western world. There is still a problem of late diagnosis, usually when the disease is already disseminated. The approach to the treatment of colorect...

  13. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  14. Apical ballooning-like syndrome: Hypocalcemia? What else!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Accadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS, also known as Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy, is characterised by acute, transient and severe LV dysfunction, mimicking myocardial infarction; it occurs, in most cases, in the absence of obstructive coronary disease and is precipitated by severe emotional or physical stress, but many other potential triggers has been identi ed in the last years. Although the pathogenesis of ABS remains unclear, the most common mechanisms suggested are coronary vasospam and an exaggerated sympathetic activation associated to high levels of plasma cathecolamine leading to cardiotoxicity.We describe two cases of Apical Ballooning like Syndrome that were triggered by severe, acute hypocalcemia, without evidence of coronary vasospasm and with normal hematic level of cathecolamines.

  15. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  16. MIPAS Ozone Validation by Stratospheric Balloon and Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, U.; Blom, C. E.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chance, K.; Davies, J.; Goutail, F.; Kuttippurath, J.; McElroy, C. T.; Mencaraglia, F.; Oelhaf, H.; Petritoli, A.; Pirre, M.; Pommereau, J. P.; Ravegnani, F.; Renard, J. B.; Strong, K.

    2004-08-01

    A number of in situ and remote sensing techniques for the measurement of upper tropospheric and stratospheric O3 content was employed during dedicated experiments of the ESABC programme, aiming at the validation of the ENVISAT chemistry payload. In this paper, we will be focusing on the validation of MIPAS off-line products, by presenting the results of the intercomparison between MIPAS O3 vertical profiles and aircraft and balloon correlative measurements. First priority is given to the validation of processor v4.61 data, but individual results of 2002 and 2003 balloon observations are also compared with MIPAS O3 non operational data. Some general remarks are finally expressed, along with specific recommendation to fully exploit the available ESABC validation dataset

  17. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of colorectal cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for colorectal cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  18. Apical ballooning-like syndrome: Hypocalcemia? What else!

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Accadia; Marianna Abitabile; Salvatore Rumolo; Scotto di Uccio Fortunato; Luigi Irace; Andrea Tuccillo; Giuseppe Mercogliano; Bernardino Tuccillo

    2016-01-01

    Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), also known as Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy, is characterised by acute, transient and severe LV dysfunction, mimicking myocardial infarction; it occurs, in most cases, in the absence of obstructive coronary disease and is precipitated by severe emotional or physical stress, but many other potential triggers has been identi ed in the last years. Although the pathogenesis of ABS remains unclear, the most common mechanisms suggested are coronary vasospam an...

  19. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory Super Pressure Balloon Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Olinto, Angela; Adams, Jim; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB) mission will make the first fluorescence observations of high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers by looking down on the atmosphere from near space. A long duration flight of at least 50 nights launched from Wanaka NZ is planned for 2017. We describe completed instrument, and the planned mission. We acknowledge the support of NASA through grants NNX13AH53G and NNX13AH55G.

  20. Astronomical observations with the University College London balloon borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a telescope system which was developed for high altitude balloon astronomy are discussed. A drawing of the optical system of the telescope is provided. A sample of the signals recorded during one of the flights is included. The correlation between the infrared flux and the radio continuum flux is analyzed. A far infrared map of the radio and infrared peaks of selected stars is developed. The spectrum of the planet Saturn is plotted to show intensity as compared with wavenumber.

  1. Double-balloon enteroscopy in detecting small intestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Fa-chao; PAN De-shou; ZHOU Dian-yuan; XIAO Bing; JIANG Bo; WAN Tian-mo; GUO Yu; ZHOU Dan; WANG Li-hui; CHEN Jin-feng; XIE Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Digestive tract hemorrhage is a common disease of the digestive system, but about 0.4%-5% intestinal bleeding can not be detected with gastroscope or colonscope.1 Since the intestine is long, tortuous, far away from both ends of the digestive tract and unfixed in position, clinical diagnosis of the bleeding is relatively difficult. Yamamoto and Sugano2 reported the clinical application of double-balloon enteroscope at American DDW in 2003.

  2. Balloon Kyphoplasty: An Effective Treatment for Kummell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pius

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of balloon kyphoplasty for treating Kummel disease accompanying severe osteoporosis. Methods Twelve patients with single-level Kummell disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis were enrolled in this investigation. After postural reduction for 1 or 2 days, balloon kyphoplasty was performed on the collapsed vertebrae. Clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed at 7 days, 1 month and 6 months after the procedure. Results Prior to kyphoplasty, the mean pain score (according to the visual analogue scale) was 8.0. Seven days after the procedure, this score improved to 2.5. Despite the significant improvement compared to preoperative value, the score increased to 4.0 at 6 months after the procedure. The mean preoperative vertebral height loss was 55.4%. Kyphoplasty reduced this loss to 31.6%, but it increased to 38.7% at 6 months after the procedure. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 22.4°±4.9° (before the procedure) to 10.1°±3.8° after surgery, However, the improved angle was not maintained 6 months after the procedure. The mean correction loss for the kyphotic deformity was 7.2° at 6 months after the procedure. Three out of 12 patients sustained adjacent fractures after balloon kyphoplasty within 6 months. Conclusion Although balloon kyphoplasty for treating Kummell disease is known to provide stabilization and pain relief, it may be associated with the development of adjacent fractures and aggravated kyphosis. PMID:27799987

  3. Prime time for drug eluting balloons in SFA interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, M

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease most commonly affects the femoropopliteal segment. Despite enormous improvements in device and treatment technology the long-term patency rate and clinical benefit of endovascular treatment in the respective vascular bed is not satisfying. Drug coated balloon technology as a treatment option in femoropopliteal disease has shown encouraging results in first-in-man trials, which have now been proven in large randomized controlled trials.

  4. NEW APPROACHES: A hot air balloon from dustbin liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nicholas

    1998-07-01

    This article describes how a simple hot air balloon, inflated by a hair dryer, can be made out of household bin liners and Sellotape. It can be used at sixth-form level as an application of the ideal gas equation, = constant, and is rather more exciting than heated pistons. It gives a taste of a simple engineering design process, although the students do have to be reasonably adept at geometry and algebra.

  5. A Sensitivity Analysis of fMRI Balloon Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2015-04-22

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows the mapping of the brain activation through measurements of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast. The characterization of the pathway from the input stimulus to the output BOLD signal requires the selection of an adequate hemodynamic model and the satisfaction of some specific conditions while conducting the experiment and calibrating the model. This paper, focuses on the identifiability of the Balloon hemodynamic model. By identifiability, we mean the ability to estimate accurately the model parameters given the input and the output measurement. Previous studies of the Balloon model have somehow added knowledge either by choosing prior distributions for the parameters, freezing some of them, or looking for the solution as a projection on a natural basis of some vector space. In these studies, the identification was generally assessed using event-related paradigms. This paper justifies the reasons behind the need of adding knowledge, choosing certain paradigms, and completing the few existing identifiability studies through a global sensitivity analysis of the Balloon model in the case of blocked design experiment.

  6. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  7. Balloon Cell Urethral Melanoma: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McComiskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour (0.2% of all melanomas that most commonly affects the meatus and distal urethra and is three times more common in women than men. Case. A 76-year-old lady presented with vaginal pain and discharge. On examination, a 4 cm mass was noted in the vagina and biopsy confirmed melanoma of a balloon type. Preoperative CT showed no distant metastases and an MRI scan of the pelvis demonstrated no associated lymphadenopathy. She underwent anterior exenterative surgery and vaginectomy also. Histology confirmed a urethral nodular malignant melanoma. Discussion. First-line treatment of melanoma is often surgical. Adjuvant treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy has also been reported. Even with aggressive management, malignant melanoma of the urogenital tract generally has a poor prognosis. Recurrence rates are high and the mean period between diagnosis and recurrence is 12.5 months. A 5-year survival rate of less than 20% has been reported in balloon cell melanomas along with nearly 20% developing local recurrence. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of balloon cell melanoma arising in the urethra. The presentation and surgical management has been described and a literature review provided.

  8. The balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS)

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, S; Tateyama, N; Yoshida, K; Ouchi, Y; Yamagami, T; Saitô, Y; Murakami, H; Kobayashi, T; Komori, Y; Kasahara, K; Yuda, T; Nishimura, J

    2000-01-01

    we describe a new detector system developed for high-altitude balloon flights to observe the cosmic-ray electrons above 10 GeV. The balloon borne electron telescope with Scintillating (BETS) fibers instrument is an imaging calorimeter which is capable of selecting electrons against the large background of protons. The calorimeter is composed of a sandwich of scintillating optical-fiber belts and lead plates with a combination of three plastic scintillators for the shower trigger. The total thickness of lead is 40 mm (~7.1 r.l.) and the number of fiber belts is nine. In each belt, alternating layers are oriented in orthogonal (x and y) directions. Two sets of an intensified CCD camera are adopted for read-out of the scintillating fibers in the x and y direction, respectively. The accelerator beam tests were carried out to study the performance of detector for electrons in 1996 and for protons in 1997 at CERN-SPS. The instrument was successfully flown aboard high-altitude balloon in 1997 and 1998. It is demonst...

  9. Precision Attitude Control for the BETTII Balloon-Borne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rinehart. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. Operating at wavelengths of 30-90 microns, BETTII will obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets at angular resolutions down to less than half an arcsecond, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This requires attitude control at a level ofless than a tenth of an arcsecond, a great challenge for a lightweight balloon-borne system. We have designed a precision attitude determination system to provide gondola attitude knowledge at a level of 2 milliarcseconds at rates up to 100Hz, with accurate absolute attitude determination at the half arcsecond level at rates of up to 10Hz. A mUlti-stage control system involving rigid body motion and tip-tilt-piston correction provides precision pointing stability to the level required for the far-infrared instrument to perform its spatial/spectral interferometry in an open-loop control. We present key aspects of the design of the attitude determination and control and its development status.

  10. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  11. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  12. The Liege-balloon program. [balloon-borne instruments for high-spectral resolution observations of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.

    1974-01-01

    The Liege-balloon program is intended to make high-spectral resolution observations of the sun in the near- and intermediate infrared regions not accessible from the ground. A description of the equipment, followed by a summary of the data obtained till now is presented. Except for ozone whose maximum of concentration lies near 25 Km altitude, the residual mass distribution of the other mentioned molecules decreases with altitude. This is a self-explanatory argument for carrying out spectroscopic observations from platforms transcending the densest layers of the earth's atmosphere. The Liege balloon equipment is primarily intended for very high-resolution solar observations from about 27-30 Km altitude, in all spectral regions between 1.5 and 15.0 microns, not accessible from the ground.

  13. Colorectal cancer, one entity or three

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ying LI; Mao-de LAI

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanism ofcolorectal carcinogenesis has been gaining momentum for some years on account of its high incidence and impact on the lives of individuals affected. Different genetic abnormalities have been found in colorectal cancers from different sites. For example, proximal colon cancer is usually related to the nucleotide instability pathway, as mi-crosatellite instability (MSI). However, distal colon cancer is usually associated with specific chromosomal instability (CIN). The development of cancer at the rectum, though similar to that at the colon, displays its own unique features. These differences might be partially attributed to different embryological development and physiological circumstances. Environmental factors such as diet and alcohol intake also differ in their role in the development of tumors in the three segments, proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. "Proximal shift" of colon cancer has been known for some time, and survival rates of colorectal cancer are higher when rectal cancers are excluded, both of which emphasize the three different segments of colorectal cancer and their different proper-ties. Meanwhile, colonic and rectal cancers are distinctive therapeutic entities. The concept of three entities of colorectal cancer may be important in designing clinical trails or therapeutic strategies. However, the dispute about the inconsistency of data con-ceming the site-specific mechanism of colorectal carcinoma does exist, and more evidence about molecular events of carcino-genesis and targeted therapy needs to be collected to definitely confirm the conception.

  14. PIK3CA in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gieri eCathomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PIK3CA, the catalytic subunit of PI3K, is mutated in many different tumours, including colorectal cancer. Mutations of PIK3CA have been reported in 10 – 20% of colorectal cancer, about 80% of mutations found in two hot spots in exon 9 and exon 20. In RAS wild-type colorectal cancers, PIK3CA mutations have been associated with a worse clinical outcome and with a negative prediction of a response to targeted therapy by anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, these findings have not been confirmed in all studies and subsequent more detailed analysis has revealed that these effects may be restricted to mutations in Exon 20. Finally, mutations in PIK3CA may be the long sought biomarker for successful adjuvant therapy with aspirin in patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, PIK3CA mutations appear to be a promising predictive biomarker; however, further data are needed to conclusively define the impact of somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene for the management of patients with colorectal cancer.

  15. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  16. Double Balloon Cervical Ripening Catheter for Control of Massive Hemorrhage in a Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Nabila; Reilly, James; Moretti, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy can be complicated by perfuse vaginal bleeding. Mechanical compression directed at tamponing the cervical vessels can control hemostasis. There are several types of balloon catheters that have been described for cervical compression. However use of a double balloon catheter is a novel approach for cervical tamponade, as one balloon is positioned below the external cervical os and the second balloon is situated above in the internal cervical os. This compresses the cervix from internal os to external os between the two balloons, forming a “cervical sandwich.” We describe this method of cervical tamponade using a silicone double balloon cervical ripening catheter that rapidly controlled hemorrhage in a patient that failed conservative management with methotrexate. PMID:28261511

  17. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  18. Vessel wall temperature estimation for novel short term thermal balloon angioplasty: study of thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Nakatani, Eriko; Futami, Hikaru; Ogawa, Yoshifumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Fukui, Masaru; Shimamura, Satoshi; Kawabata, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    We have been proposing novel thermal balloon angioplasty, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PT-DBA). PTDBA realized thermal injury and low pressure dilatation that can prevent restenosis in chronic phase. We aim to determine the most efficient heating condition suit to individual symptom with pre-operation thermal simulation. We analyzed the flow dynamics and heat convection inside the balloon, and investigated heat conduction of balloon film to establish the temperature estimation method among vessel wall. Compared with ex vivo temperature measurement experiment, we concluded that the factors need to be considered for the establishment would be the heat conduction of the flow inside PTDB, heat conduction at the balloon film, and contact thermal resistance between the balloon film and vessel wall.

  19. Early clinical outcome and complications related to balloon kyphoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bergmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly over the last two decades. The benefits of balloon kyphoplasty compared to conservative treatment remain controversial and are discussed in the literature. The complication rates of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are considered to be low. The focus of this study was the analysis of acute and clinically relevant complications related to this procedure. In our department, all patients treated between February 2002 and February 2011 with percutaneous cement augmentation (372 patients, 522 augmented vertebral bodies were prospectively recorded. Demographic data, comorbidities, fracture types, intraoperative data and all complications were documented. The pre- and postoperative pain-level and neurological status (Frankel-Score were evaluated. All patients underwent a standardized surgical procedure. Two hundred and ninety-seven patients were treated solely by balloon kyphoplasty; 216 females (72.7% and 81 males (27.3%. Average patient age was 76.21 years (±10.71, range 35-98 years. Average American Society Anestesiologists score was 3.02. According to the Orthopedic Trauma Association classification, there were 69 A 1.1 fractures, 177 A 1.2 fractures, 178 A 3.1.1 fractures and 3 A 3.1.3 fractures. Complications were divided into preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative events. There were 4 pre-operative complications: 3 patients experienced persistent pain after the procedure. In one case, the pedicles could not be visualized during the procedure and the surgery was terminated. One hundred and twenty-nine (40.06% of the patients showed intraoperative cement leaking outside the vertebras, one severe hypotension and tachycardia as reaction to the inflation of the balloons, and there was one cardiac arrest during surgery. Postoperative subcutaneous hematomas were observed in 3 cases, 13 patients developed a

  20. Five-millimeter balloon trocar site herniation: report of two cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin; Chuang, Linus; Hayes, Monica Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Trocar site herniation is a well-known potential complication of minimally invasive surgery. We present the cases of two herniations after use of 5-mm non-bladed balloon trocars. In both patients, surgical management was required, with no subsequent sequelae to date. The hernias were attributed to excessive fascial stretching and compression by the balloon. We recommend full-thickness closure of 5-mm ports if a balloon is used or if there was extensive intraoperative manipulation.

  1. Sinus Balloon Dilation as Treatment for Acute Sphenoid Sinusitis with Impaired Vision for a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of acute left sphenoid sinusitis with left impaired vision in a child. Balloon catheter dilatation (BCD of the sinus ostia is a new technique. It has been shown to be a minimally invasive technique to manage chronic sinusitis. However, this method is rarely used in the treatment of acute sinusitis. So far, we know of no reported cases of sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of this case, especially for children.

  2. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  4. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  5. Molecular pathogenesis ofsporadic colorectal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HidetsuguYamagishi; HajimeKuroda; YasuoImai; HideyukiHiraishi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that lead to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa to adenocarcinoma. Approximately 75% of CRCs are sporadic and occur in people without genetic predisposition or family history of CRC. During the past two decades, sporadic CRCs were classiifed into three major groups according to frequently altered/mutated genes. These genes have been identiifed by linkage analyses of cancer-prone families and by individual mutation analyses of candidate genes selected on the basis of functional data. In the ifrst half of this review, we describe the genetic pathways of sporadic CRCs and their clinicopathologic features. Recently, large-scale genome analyses have detected many infrequently mutated genes as well as a small number of frequently mutated genes. These infrequently mutated genes are likely described in a lim-ited number of pathways. Gene-oriented models of CRC progression are being replaced by pathway-oriented models. In the second half of this review, we summarize the present knowledge of this research ifeld and discuss its prospects.

  6. Peptide Vaccine Therapy in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yu Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths and the second most prevalent (after breast cancer in the western world. High metastatic relapse rates and severe side effects associated with the adjuvant treatment have urged oncologists and clinicians to find a novel, less toxic therapeutic strategy. Considering the limited success of the past clinical trials involving peptide vaccine therapy to treat colorectal cancer, it is necessary to revise our knowledge of the immune system and its potential use in tackling cancer. This review presents the efforts of the scientific community in the development of peptide vaccine therapy for colorectal cancer. We review recent clinical trials and the strategies for immunologic monitoring of responses to peptide vaccine therapy. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying the therapy and potential molecular targets in colon cancer.

  7. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  8. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  9. Relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokhan; Cipe; Ufuk; Oguz; Idiz; Deniz; Firat; Huseyin; Bektasoglu

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a complexand vast microbial community with up to 1011-1012 microorganisms colonizing the colon. The gut microbiota has a serious effect on homeostasis and pathogenesis through a number of mechanisms. In recent years, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and sporadic colorectal cancer has attracted much scientific interest. Mechanisms underlying colonic carcinogenesis include the conversion of procarcinogenic diet-related factors to carcinogens and the stimulation of procarcinogenic signaling pathways in luminal epithelial cells. Understanding each of these mechanisms will facilitate future studies, leading to the development of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the relationship between colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota.

  10. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  11. Mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Gen Zeng; Zhi-Xiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic techniques have been extensively used for the surgical management of colorectal cancer during the last two decades. Accumulating data have demonstrated that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncologic outcomes when compared with open surgery. However, some controversies regarding the oncologic quality of mini-invasive surgery for rectal cancer exist. Meanwhile, some progresses in colorectal surgery, such as robotic technology, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice specimen extraction, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, have been made in recent years. In this article, we review the published data and mainly focus on the current status and latest advances of mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer.

  12. Development of ultra-thin polyethylene balloons for high altitude research upto mesosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Suneel; Ojha, D K; Peter, G Stalin; Vasudevan, R; Anand, D; Kulkarni, P M; Reddy, V Anmi; Rao, T V; Sreenivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 microns for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000 grams rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenisation of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 microns for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere ...

  13. High-Altitude Ballooning Program at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, A; Safonova, M; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-01-01

    We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Recent advances in balloons as well as in electronics have made possible scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but to also explore phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts, using balloon-borne payloads. This paper discusses the results of three tethered balloon experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote and our plans for the future. We also describe the stages of payload development for these experiments.

  14. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  15. MicroRNA regulation network in colorectal cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jiao; Zhou; Shu; Zheng; Li-Feng; Sun; Lei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Metastasis is a major cause of colorectal cancer-related death. Mechanisms of metastasis remain largely obscure. MicroRNA is one of the most important epigenetic regulators by targeting mRNAs posttranscriptionally. Accumulated evidence has supported its significant role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Dissecting microRNAome potentially identifies specific microRNAs as biomarkers of colorectal cancer metastasis. Better understanding of the complex network of microRNAs in colorectal cancer metastasis provide new insights in the biological process of metastasis and in the potential targets for colorectal cancer therapies and for diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic colorectal cancer.

  16. [Colorectal adenomas: postpolypectomy surveillance strategies and chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2008-10-01

    Colorectal adenomas are the most fully characterized premalignant lesions in the development of colorectal cancer. Consequently, the identification and resolution of these lesions, as well as the follow-up of affected patients, are a priority in the prevention of this neoplasm. The studies presented in the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association 2008 show that the results of current surveillance strategies can be improved with a view to reducing the rate of interval neoplasia. Improvement of these results includes optimization of the endoscopic technique (colonic preparation, cecal intubation, withdrawal time, etc.) as well as the incorporation of new diagnostic methods and the possible administration of chemopreventive drugs.

  17. Updates in colorectal cancer stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the world most common malignant tumors, also is the main disease, which cause tumor-associated death. Surgery and chemotherapy are the most used treatment of CRC. Recent research reported that, cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered as the origin of tumor genesis, development, metastasis and recurrence in theory. At present, it has been proved that, CSCs existed in many tumors including CRC. In this review, we summary the identification of CSCs according to the cell surface markers, and the development of drugs that target colorectal cancer stem cells.

  18. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  19. Thromboembolic events associated with single balloon-, double balloon-, and stent-assisted coil embolization of asymptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms: evaluation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takigawa, Tomoji; Suzuki, Kensuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryotaro; Takano, Issei; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Akio [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Koshigaya, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The introduction of the balloon remodeling and stent-assisted technique has revolutionized the approach to coil embolization for wide-neck aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of thromboembolic events associated with single balloon-assisted, double balloon-assisted, and stent-assisted coil embolization for asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A retrospective review was undertaken by 119 patients undergoing coiling with an adjunctive technique for unruptured saccular aneurysms (64 single balloon, 12 double balloon, 43 stent assisted). All underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 24 h after the procedure. DWI showed hyperintense lesions in 48 (40 %) patients, and ten (21 %) of these patients incurred neurological deterioration (permanent, two; transient, eight). Hyperintense lesions were detected significantly more often in procedures with the double balloon-assisted technique (7/12, 58 %) than with the single balloon-assisted technique (16/64, 25 %, p = 0.05). Occurrence of new lesions was significantly higher with the use of stent-assisted technique (25/43, 58 %) than with the single balloon-assisted technique (p = 0.001). Symptomatic ischemic rates were similar between the three groups. The increased number of microcatheters was significantly related to the DWI abnormalities (two microcatheters, 15/63 (23.8 %); three microcatheters, 20/41 (48.8 %) (p = 0.008); four microcatheters, 12/15 (80 %) (p = 0.001)). Thromboembolic events detected on DWI related to coil embolization for unruptured aneurysms are relatively common, especially in association with the double balloon-assisted and stent-assisted techniques. Furthermore, the number of microcatheters is highly correlated with DWI abnormalities. The high rate of thromboembolic events suggests the need for evaluation of platelet reactivity and the addition or change of antiplatelet agents. (orig.)

  20. Influence of inflation pressure and balloon size on the development of intimal hyperplasia after balloon angioplasty. A study in the atherosclerotic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarembock, I J; LaVeau, P J; Sigal, S L; Timms, I; Sussman, J; Haudenschild, C; Ezekowitz, M D

    1989-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of balloon size and inflation pressure on acute and subsequent outcome following balloon angioplasty (BA), 70 New Zealand White rabbits with bilateral femoral atherosclerosis were assigned to four groups: group 1, oversized balloon, low inflation pressure (n = 35 vessels; balloon size, 3.0 mm/inflation pressure, 5 atm); group 2, oversized balloon, high inflation pressure (n = 36; 3.0 mm/10 atm); group 3, appropriate size, low inflation pressure (n = 17; 2.5 mm/5 atm); and group 4, appropriate size balloon, high inflation pressure (n = 19; 2.5 mm/10 atm). Angiograms were obtained before, 10 minutes after, and 28 days after BA and read by two blinded observers using electronic calipers. The in vivo balloon-to-vessel ratio was measured for each group. There were eight non-BA controls. Rabbits were sacrificed either immediately (n = 34) or at 28 days after BA (n = 36), with the femoral vessels pressure perfused for histologic and morphometric analysis. The latter was performed at 28 days only. Absolute angiographic diameters increased in all groups immediately after BA (p less than 0.01). Acute angiographic success, defined as greater than 20% increase in luminal diameter, was higher using high inflation pressure (group 2, 32/36 [89%] and group 4, 16/19 [84%] vs. group 1, 23/35 [66%] and group 3, 9/17 [53%]; p less than 0.05). A 3.0-mm balloon resulted in significant oversizing irrespective of inflation pressure (balloon-to-vessel ratio, 1.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 1, for the 2.5-mm balloon). Vessels exposed to high inflation pressure had a significantly higher incidence of mural thrombus, dissection (p less than 0.01), and medial necrosis versus low pressure (p less than 0.05). At 28 days, the rates of restenosis (defined as greater than 50% loss of initial gain) were 14/20 (70%), 11/16 (69%), 5/10 (50%), and 5/10 (50%) for groups 1 through 4 (p = NS; a trend in favor of the groups using an oversized balloon). There was an increase in the

  1. NuMED CHEATHAM-PLATINUM STENT AND BALLOON IN BALLOON DELIVERY CATHETER FOR TREATMENT OF NATIVE COARCTATION OF THE AORTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ COARCTATION of the aorta (CoA) is a congenital heart defect involving a narrowing of the aorta. The narrowed segment called coarctation is most likely to happen in the segment just after the aortic arch. The narrowing can be removed by surgery or sometimes by a nonsurgical balloon dilation. However, aortic coarctation may recur even after successful surgery or balloon dilation. Fortunately, coarctation can now be treated with nonsurgical balloon dilation associated with implanting a stent using cardiac catheterization. Herein we reported our experience in a 19-year-old boy with CoA who underwent successful covered Cheatham-Platinum (CP) stent implantation for the coarctation.

  2. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage.

  3. Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. J.; Lenschow, D. H.; Zimmerman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.

  4. BLAST: A balloon-borne, large-aperture, submillimetre telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Donald Victor

    BLAST is a balloon-borne large-aperture, submillimetre telescope, which makes large area (1--200 square degree) surveys of Galactic and extragalactic targets. Since BLAST observes in the stratosphere, it is able to make broad-band observations between 200 mum and 550 mum which are difficult or impossible to perform from the ground. BLAST has been designed to probe star formation both in the local Galaxy and in the high redshift (z = 1--4) universe. Because BLAST is flown on an unmanned stratospheric balloon platform, it has been designed to be able to operate autonomously, without needing operator intervention to perform its scientific goals. This thesis includes an overview of the design of the BLAST platform, with emphasis on the command and control systems used to operate the telescope. BLAST has been flown on two long-duration balloon flights. The first of these, from Esrange, Sweden in June of 2005, acquired ˜70 hours of primarily Galactic data. During the second flight, from Willy Field, Antarctica in December of 2006, BLAST acquired ˜225 hours of both Galactic and extragalactic data. Operational performance of the platform during these two flights is reviewed, with the goal of providing insight on how future flights can be improved. Reduction of the data acquired by these large-format bolometer arrays is a challenging procedure, and techniques developed for BLAST data reduction are reviewed. The ultimate goal of this reduction is the generation of high quality astronomical maps which can be used for subsequent portions of data analysis. This thesis treats, in detail, the iterative, maximum likelihood map maker developed for BLAST. Results of simulations performed on the map maker to characterise its ability to reconstruct astronomical signals are presented. Finally, astronomical maps produced by this map maker using real data acquired by BLAST are presented, with a discussion on non-physical map pathologies resulting from the data reduction pipeline and

  5. Cineangiographic findings and balloon catheter angioplasty of pulmonic valvular stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Yoon, Yong Soo; Kim, In One; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-08-15

    Transluminal balloon valvuloplasty was performed in the treatment of congenital pulmonic valvular stenosis in 55 children, aged 4 months to 15 years. The right ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient decreased significantly immediately after the procedure from 87.18 {+-} 56mmHg to 29.62 {+-} 26.48mmHg ({rho} < 0.001). Technical success rate was 98% (54/55 patients) and failed case (1 patient) was due to severe fibrous thickening of valve. Complication occurred in one case, that is tricuspid regurgitation (Grade II) due to suspected rupture of chordae tendinae. The degree of pulmonary conus dilatation was closely related with age than the pressure gradient.

  6. Pointing System for the Balloon-Borne Astronomical Payloads

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmal, K; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle, or in areal photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  7. Pointing system for the balloon-borne astronomical payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Kaipacheri; Sreejith, Aickara Gopinathan; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, Suresh; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 inertial measurement unit, and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle or in real photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  8. Computing Optimum Heights for Balloon-Borne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    ducting, a " radar hole" against other raytrace niodels (IREPS, could develop. Although the radar beam. EREPS) that are considered accurate. The may be...TD-1369, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, October 1985. ,quires, M.F., Caribbean Basin Radar Network Raytrace Study, USAPETAC/PR-91/005...IlI-AFETAC/PR-93IoO5 * AD-A286 832 COMPUTING OPTIMUM HEIGHTS for BALLOON-BORNE RADAR by Michael F. Squires IjxEA NOVEMBER 1993 DTIC QUAI’ii E’T" 2T

  9. Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude hydrofluoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, B.; Toon, G. C.; Blavier, J.-F.; Szeto, J. T.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric hydrofluoric acid (HF) have been made by the JPL MkIV interferometer during high-altitude balloon flights. Infrared solar absorption spectra were acquired near 35 deg N at altitudes between local tropopause and 38 km. Volume mixing ratio profiles of HF derived from 4 flights (1990-93), in conjunction with simultaneously observed N2O profiles, indicate an average rate of HF increase of (5.5 +/- 0.3)% per year, in agreement with time-dependent, two-dimensional model simulations (6% per year) and ATMOS measurements.

  10. Background Measurements from Balloon-Borne CZT Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Johnathan A; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl; Parker, Brad; Barthelmy, Scott

    2002-01-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CZT detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10mm x 10mm x 5mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 $\\times$ 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman material. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE...

  11. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Sun, T. T.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less.

  12. Systemic treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Punt, C.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    For advanced colorectal cancer (ACC), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy has been the standard for some decades. Attempts have been made to improve its results by biochemical modulation and schedule modulation of 5-FU which, in combination with leucovorin (LV), has been regarded as standard ch

  13. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent effective against advanced colorectal cancer. Unlike with other platinum-based agents, the main side effect of oxaliplatin is polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy (OIPN) has a unique profile, which can be divided into acute and chronic...

  14. Gynecologic screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Mourits, MJE; Kleibeuker, JH; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective. In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a cumulative lifetime risk of 25-50% for endometrial cancer and 8-12% for ovarian cancer. Therefore, female members of HNPCC families are offered an annual gynecologic and transvagi

  15. Metalloproteinases and their regulators in colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Wobbes, T.; Strobbe, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MPs) such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and adamalysins (ADAMs and ADAMTS) are expressed in various stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), and some correlate with survival and prognosis. The MPs are regulated by various factors including EMMPRIN, TIMPs, and RECK. In additio

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves colorectal anastomotic healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. Boersema (Geesien); Z. Wu (Zhouqiao); L.F. Kroese; S. Vennix (Sandra); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne); J.W. van Neck (Han); K.H. Lam; G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J. Jeekel (Johannes); J.F. Lange (Johan F.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been found to improve the healing of poorly oxygenated tissues. This study aimed to investigate the influence of HBOT on the healing in ischemic colorectal anastomosis. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a treatment group

  17. Automated spectroscopic tissue classification in colorectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, R.M.; Alic, L.; Beets, G.L.; Breukink, S.O.; Wieringa, F.P.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    In colorectal surgery, detecting ureters and mesenteric arteries is of utmost importance to prevent iatrogenic injury and to facilitate intraoperative decision making. A tool enabling ureter- and artery-specific image enhancement within (and possibly through) surrounding adipose tissue would facilit

  18. Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Anthony; Collins, Andrew; Fuller, Zoë; Hillman, Kevin; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: administration & dosage;Anticarcinogenic Agents;Apoptosis;Brassicaceae;chemically induced;chemistry;Cell Division;Colorectal Neoplasms;drug effects;dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Evaluation;Food Handling;Glucosinolates;Glycoside Hydrolases;Humans;Hydrolases;Isothiocyanates;metabolism;methods;pharmacology;prevention & control;Research. Cruciferous vegetables have been studied extensively for their chemoprotective effects. Although they contain ma...

  19. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  20. Immunotherapy and immunoescape in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses a variety of interventions and techniques with the common goal of eliciting tumor cell destructive immune responses. Colorectal carcinoma often presents as metastatic disease that impedes curative surgery. Novel strategies such as active immunization with dendritic cells (DCs), gene transfer of cytokines into tumor cells or administration of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (such as anti-CD137 or anti-CTLA-4) have been assessed in preclinical studies and are at an early clinical development stage. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be combined in the treatment of some cases with colorectal cancer, with synergistic potentiation as a result of antigens cross-presented by dendritic cells and/or elimination of competitor or suppressive T lymphocyte populations (regulatory T-cells). However, genetic and epigenetic unstable carcinoma cells frequently evolve mechanisms of immunoevasion that are the result of either loss of antigen presentation, or an active expression of immunosuppressive substances. Some of these actively immunosuppressive mechanisms are inducible by cytokines that signify the arrival of an effector immune response. For example, induction of 2, 3 indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO) by IFNy in colorectal carcinoma cells. Combinational and balanced strategies fostering antigen presentation, T-cell costimulation and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms will probably take the stage in translational research in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma.

  1. Re-laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Riordan, J M

    2013-08-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has increasingly become the standard of care in the management of both benign and malignant colorectal disease. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopy in the management of complications following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

  2. Bakri balloon placement in the successful management of postpartum hemorrhage in a bicornuate uterus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In the management of postpartum hemorrhage, Bakri balloon placement is associated with success in the presence of a bicornuate uterus. Care should be taken to direct insertion of the balloon in the appropriate location.

  3. Angiographic risk factors of luminal narrowing after coronary balloon angioplasty using balloon measurements to reflect stretch and elastic recoil at the dilation site. The CARPORT Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); J. Vos (Jeroen); K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBecause many ongoing clinical restenosis prevention trials are using quantitative angiography to assess whether a drug is capable of reducing the amount of intimal hyperplasia, quantitative angiographic risk factors for angiographic luminal narrowing after balloon angioplasty were determ

  4. Angiographic risk factors of luminal narrowing after coronary balloon angioplasty using balloon measurements to reflect stretch and elastic recoil at the dilatation site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); J. Vos (Jeroen); K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Because many ongoing clinical restenosis prevention trials are using quantitative angiography to assess whether a drug is capable of reducing the amount of intimal hyperplasia, quantitative angiographic risk factors for angiographic luminal narrowing after balloon angioplasty

  5. The design and use of plastic balloons for stratospheric research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Balasubramanian

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "Plastic balloon flying has been developed at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research as a research technique which has a number of important applications in India: (a cosmic ray studies; (b air sampling in the stratosphere for fall-out measurements; (c meteorological investigations; (d astronomical observations; (e defence research. Comparatively little work has been done till now in these fields at equatorial latitudes, particularly at stratospheric altitudes. Large plastic balloons with volumes of the order of half a million cubic feet, and more, have been constructed by heat welding polyethylene sheeting 0.0015"" thick. With these balloons, successful level flights at altitudes of 110,000 ft. have been achieved; in some cases, individual loads weighing a hundred pounds have been carried up. The most serious problem encountered is the extremely low temperature(about-85DegreeC, of the tropopause at the equatorial latitudes; all known plastics for balloon manufacture become brittle at these low temperatures. To overcome this, dark fabrics have been employed so that the material is heated by solar radiation. The plastic sheeting employed is extruded in India to balloon specifications from chosen polymers. The low temperatures and the turbulent conditions that prevail in the atmosphere at low latitudes present problems in balloon flying which are different from those encountered at high latitudes present in balloon flying which are different from those encountered at high latitudes. The techniques employed, the design of the balloons, and their performance under these conditions are discussed."

  6. Effect of oxygen deficiency on response of CR-39 on board scientific balloons

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, M; Osawa, A; Saitô, T; Yamamoto, K; Hasebe, T; Nakamura, T; Sasaki, H; Yanagita, T; Aglietta, M; Vernetto, S; Castellina, A; Fulgione, W; Saavedra, O; Trinchero, G C

    1999-01-01

    We should be careful about the effect of oxygen deficiency on polymeric track detectors even at balloon altitude. Results of balloon experiments and calibration experiments in a vacuum chamber at different pressures show that the effect of oxygen deficiency becomes serious at a pressure below 10 hPa.

  7. Clinical study of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation: a novel procedure for common bileduct stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation for the removal of common bile duct stone.Methods Sixty-eight cases with common bile duct stone treated with percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation in our department from July2008 to April 20l1 were analyzed retrospectively.Record CA19-9,total bilirubin,

  8. Malignant lymphoma in the ileum diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Beppu; Nobuhiro Sato; Toshiki Kamano; Yasuo Hayashida; Sumio Watanabe; Taro Osada; Akihito Nagahara; Naoto Sakamoto; Tomoyoshi Shibuya; Masato Kawabe; Takeshi Terai; Toshifumi Ohkusa; Tatsuo Ogihara

    2007-01-01

    A 73-year old man presented with abdominal pain. A tumor with central ulceration was observed in the ileum using double-balloon enteroscopy. Histological findings of the biopsy specimens were consistent with malignant lymphoma. Double-balloon enteroscopy confirmed the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma tumor which was surgically resected. The patient is still in complete remission now.

  9. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...... of this retrospective study was to report outcomes after cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) of cephalic arch stenosis....

  10. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and ureteral strictures treated by simple high-pressure balloon dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Geertsen, U; Nielsen, H V

    1998-01-01

    years, success was achieved in only 25% of cases. There were no major complications. It was concluded that simple high-pressure balloon dilation is a safe and reasonably effective technique for the management of most ureteral strictures and congenital UPJO with symptom debut in adult life. Balloon...... dilation seems to have no place in the treatment of primary congenital UPJO in children....

  11. Astronomy from the Upper Stratosphere: Key Discoveries and New Opportunities from High Altitude Scientific Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissel, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Stratospheric balloons offer a near-space astronomy platform for a small fraction of the cost of an equivalent satellite. These balloons can lift scientific payloads of up to 6,000 lbs as high as 40 km above the Earth’s surface (above >99.5% of the atmosphere). In this presentation I will discuss the contribution that scientific balloon experiments have made to astronomy, from the early days when astronomers had to accompany their telescopes to the stratosphere, to the present era where automated payloads are in some cases able to achieve a pointing precision of better than an arcsecond. In particular, I will discuss the important contributions that balloon telescopes have made to our current understanding of the Universe through detailed measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background. I will also show how recent observations from sub-millimeter balloon telescopes such as BLAST and BLASTPol have been used to study both star formation and magnetic fields of nearby giant molecular clouds in unprecedented detail, and also to constrain models of interstellar dust composition. With improving ballooning technology, such as NASA’s new Super-Pressure Balloon program, we will soon have the capability for science flights of several months (rather than weeks) duration, thus beginning an exciting new era in balloon astronomy.

  12. Local drug-delivery balloon for proliferative occlusive in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Fabio Dell'Avvocata; Massimo Giordan

    2011-01-01

    Drug-coated balloon has been developed as an alternative to drug-eluting stents for in-stent restenosis but the performance of drug infusion balloon in such setting has not been previously described. We present a case of particularly aggressive in-stent restenosis after drug eluting stent implantation treated with a new kind of drug infusion balloon developed in order to overcome the impossibility to inflate regular drug-coated balloon for several dilatation.

  13. Six-Year Experience of a Nurse-Led Colorectal Cancer Follow-Up Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. To review the experience of a nurse-led colorectal cancer follow-up clinic in a tertiary referral colorectal cancer centre. Methodology. Data from the nurse-led colorectal cancer follow-up clinic in our unit was prospectively maintained in a colorectal cancer database. Data was analysed from January 1, 2006 until the December 31, 2011. Results. 1125 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and referred to our unit as a tertiary centre for specialised colorectal can...

  14. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas;

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  15. An analysis of the deployment of a pumpkin balloon on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J.; Phillips, M.

    The design of large superpressure balloons has received significant attention in recent years due to the successful demonstration of various enabling technologies and materials. Of particular note is the "pumpkin" shaped balloon concept, which allows the stress in the envelope to be limited by the surface geometry. Unlike a sphere, which produces stress resultants determined by the volume of the system, the pumpkin utilizes a system of meridional tendons to react the loading in one direction, and form a number of lobes, which limit the stress in the circumferential direction. The application of this technology to very large systems is currently being demonstrated by NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. However, this type of balloon has certain features that may be exploited to produce a system far more robust than a comparable sphere during deployment, inflation, and operation for long periods of time. When this concept is applied to a system designed to carry two kilograms in the atmosphere of Mars, the resulting balloon is small enough to alter the construction techniques and produce an envelope which is free of tucks and folds which may cause uncontrolled stress concentrations. A technique has been demonstrated where high strength tendons may be pretensioned prior to installation along the centerline of each gore. Since this position is the shortest distance between the apex and nadir of the balloon, the tendons will automatically resist the forces caused by deployment and inflation and thereby protect the thin film gas barrier from damage. A suitable balloon has been designed for this type of mission using five-micron Mylar Type C film for the gas barrier and P O braided cables for the meridionalB load carrying members. The deployment of this balloon is assumed to occur while falling on a decelerator suitably designed for the Mars atmosphere. The inflation is accomplished by a ten-kilogram system suspended at the nadir of the balloon. As the

  16. A case of asymptomatic fungal and bacterial colonization of an intragastric balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halil Coskun; Suleyman Bozkurt

    2009-01-01

    Intragastric balloon therapy, as a part of a multidisciplinary weight management program, is an effective short-term intervention for weight loss. Although the insertion procedure is easy and generally well tolerated by patients, a few complications can occur. We report here a heavy smoker with intragastric balloon insertion complicated by colonization with opportunistic organisms. The 27-year-old female, body mass index 35.5 kg/m2, had a BioEnterics. Intragastric Balloon inserted under conscious sedation without any perioperative complications. Six months later, when the standard removal time arrived, the balloon was seen to be covered with a necrotic white-gray material. Microbiological examination revealed Enterobacter cloacae and Candida species yeast colonies. We recommend that asymptomatic fungal and/or bacterial colonization should be considered among the complications of the intragastric balloon procedure, despite its rarity.

  17. Astrobiology Exploration Strategies for the Mars Polar Regions Using Balloon Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. A.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Farrell, W. M.; Gorevan, S.; Jones, J.; Mitrofanov, I.; Scott, J.

    2003-01-01

    Montgolfiere balloons can provide a unique near-surface platform for an extended traverse over the polar regions of Mars. During the polar summer, such solar powered balloons would remain in the constant sun of the polar summer and could remain airborne for many weeks or even months as the atmospheric circulation would drive the balloons around the polar region many times before the balloon would cross the terminator. Such a platform for scientific measurements could provide in situ sampling of the atmosphere for trace disequilibrium species that might be indicators of present geological or biological activity in this regon. It could furthermore provide high resolution imaging, deep electromagnetic (EM) sounding for subsurface stratigraphy and liquid water, and high spatial resolution neutron measurements of subsurface ice. Technologies for robust balloon deployment on entry and controlled encounters with the surface and near subsurface for sample acquisition in otherwise inaccessible regions are presently being studied and developed with support from NASA.

  18. Treatment of benign ureteral stricture by double J stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hua-liang; YE Lin-yang; LIN Mao-hu; YANG Yu; MIAO Rui; HU Xiao-juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Balloon dilatation angioplasty is a minimally invasive surgery for treating benign ureteral stricture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of placing double J (D-J) stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty in treating benign ureteral stricture.Methods A total of 42 patients (48 cases) with benign ureteral stricture (42 had benign ureteral stricture) were investigated by inserting dual D-J stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty. The control group contained 50 patients (57 cases) employing the conventional balloon angioplasty with a single D-J stent inserted for comparison.Results The overall effective rate of the treated and control groups was 87.8% (36/41) and 62.7% (32/51), respectively (P <0.05).Conclusion This new approach produces a better curative effect than the conventional balloon angioplasty with a single D-J stent insertion in treating benign ureteral stricture.

  19. Vascular Rupture Caused by a Molding Balloon during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Young; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo [Dept. of Radiology, Samsugn Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Wook; Kim, Dong Ik [Dept. of Surgery, Samsugn Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been accepted as an alternative to traditional open surgery in selected patients. Despite the minimally invasiveness of this treatment, several complications may occur during or after EVAR. Complications include endoleak, aortic dissection, distal embolism, or iatrogenic injury to the access artery. However, there are few reports on the vascular rupture caused by a molding balloon during EVAR. We report two cases of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by procedure-related aortic or iliac artery rupture by the molding balloon during EVAR. In our cases, we observed suddenly abrupt increase of the diameter of the endograft during balloon inflation, because we inflated the balloon rapidly. In conclusion, careful attention must be paid during inflation of the molding balloon to prevent vascular rupture.

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide in mylar balloons: influence of storage time, humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Alessandro; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W H; Boner, Atillio L; de Jongste, Johan C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mylar balloons are used to collect exhaled air for analysis of fractional nitric oxide concentration (FENO). AIM: We studied the effect of storage conditions on the stability of nitric oxide (NO) in mylar balloons. METHODS: Exhaled air samples and calibration gases were stored in mylar balloons at 4, 21 and 37 degrees C, with or without silica gel. NO was measured after 0, 6, 9, 24 and 48 h. Scheffe F-tests were used to compare NO values. RESULTS: NO remained stable in balloons for 9 h at all temperatures, without silica gel. NO increased between 9 and 48 h, but only with low initial FENO. Silica gel increased variability. CONCLUSIONS: FENO in mylar balloons is stable for at least 9 h. The storage temperature is not critical, but silica gel increases variability. PMID:12745548

  1. Percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression : experience in 40 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan M

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients of trigeminal neuralgia were treated with percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression. Symptoms had been present since six months to twenty years. The age ranged between 23 years and 73 years. All the patients had immediate relief from pain. Two had already undergone trigeminal cistern rhizolysis. One patient had foramen ovale stenosis. After the procedure, all the patients had mild to moderate degree of ipsilateral facial sensory loss which included buccal mucosa and anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. Facial dysaesthesia (anaesthesia dolorosa was seen in only one case, who had mild involvement lasting one week. Thirty patients had altered taste sensation, probably due to general somatic sensory loss. Five patients had herpes perioralis. In this study group, two patients had already undergone microvascular decompression. All the patients were followed for a period ranging from one to eighteen months. Balloon compression technique seems to be better than injection of alcohol, glycerol or radio frequency lesion. Recurrence of pain was noted in 3 patients after one year.

  2. Treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation: A forgotten tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization and dilation, urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy as well. Although treatment option depends on the type, length and aetiology of stricture, the choice can be influenced to varying degrees by the simplicity of the method, the preferences of the patient the available accoutrements and the patient health condition. Both urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy require anaesthesia and thus are not suitable for many elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients. On the other hand, dilations are easy to perform in every day clinical practice however they have been associated with iatrogenic urethral trauma. In contrast, balloon dilation under vision dilates by radial application of forces against the stricture, avoiding the potentially shearing forces associated with sequential rigid dilation. Since it reduces the possibility of an iatrogenic urethral trauma and the subsequent spongiofibrosis may lead into improved therapeutic outcomes. In this report we describe a technique for the treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation in elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients.

  3. Demonstration of a Balloon Borne Arc-second Pointer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, K.; Ward, P.

    Many designs for utilizing stratospheric balloons as low-cost platforms on which to conduct space science experiments have been proposed throughout the years A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which these vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target A significant number of scientists have sought the ability to point their instruments with jitter in the arc-second range This paper presents the design and analysis of a stratospheric balloon borne pointing system that is able to meet this requirement The test results of a demonstration prototype of the design with similar ability are also presented Discussion of a high fidelity controller simulation for design analysis is presented The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis A multiple controller scheme is utilized for coarse and fine pointing Coarse azimuth pointing is accomplished by an established pointing system with extensive flight history residing above the gondola structure A pitch-yaw gimbal mount is used for fine pointing providing orthogonal axes when nominally on target Fine pointing actuation is from direct drive dc motors eliminating backlash problems An analysis of friction nonlinearities and a demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided A unique bearing hub design is introduced that eliminates static friction from the system dynamics A control scheme involving linear

  4. Background Measurements from Balloon-Borne CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J A; Grindlay, J E; Bloser, P F; Stahle, C K; Parker, B; Barthelmy, S D; Jenkins, Johnathan A; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl; Parker, Brad; Barthelmy, Scott

    2002-01-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CZT detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10mm x 10mm x 5mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 $\\times$ 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman material. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40deg field-of-view collimator (comprisinga graded passive shield and plastic scintillator) used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previous detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental back...

  5. Global stability of the ballooning mode in a cylindrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    Ballooning disturbances in a finite-pressure plasma in a curvilinear magnetic field are described by the system of coupled equations for the Alfvén and slow magnetosonic modes. In contrast to most previous works that locally analyzed the stability of small-scale disturbances using the dispersion relationship, a global analysis outside a WKB approximation but within a simple cylindrical geometry, when magnetic field lines are circles with constant curvature, is performed in the present work. This model is relatively simple; nevertheless, it has the singularities necessary for the formation of the ballooning mode: field curvature and non-uniform thermal plasma pressure. If the disturbance finite radial extent is taken into account, the instability threshold increases as compared to a WKB approximation. The simplified model used in this work made it possible to consider the pattern of unstable disturbances at arbitrary values of the azimuthal wavenumber ( k y ). Azimuthally large-scale disturbances can also be unstable, although the increment increases with decreasing azimuthal scale and reaches saturation when the scales are of the order of the pressure nonuniformity dimension.

  6. Balloon sinuplasty: a new concept in the endoscopic nasal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Júnior, João Flávio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinus diseases affect millions of people annually. Clinical treatment is effective in most patients, but in case of failure of this therapy the functional endoscopic surgery is currently the treatment choice for surgical treatment. The objective of the functional endoscopic surgery is to increase the aeration and drainage of the involved paranasal sinuses, which allows for the adequate functioning of the nasal mucosa mucociliary clearance. However, this method still has some limitations, mainly because it removes the nasal mucosa and bone tissue, and it may lead to physiologic alterations of the nasosinusal mucosa and cicatricial fibrosis. Many of these patients could be benefited from less invasive methods, with larger nasal mucosa preservation. Since 2006, an even less invasive procedure was remarked in our specialty: the balloon dilatation of the paranasal sinus ostia. Objective: The objective of this article is to define the concept of sinuplasty, its action mechanism, and present the necessary material for the procedures performance; to describe the techniques with the equipment in a nasosinusal endoscopic surgery simulator model and review the current literature about the indications, complications, results, and follow-up of patients submitted to this procedure. Balloon sinuplasty is safe and appears to be effective in the improvement of the quality of life of patients not responsive to conventional clinical therapy. New applications and indications for this equipment should be described and researched.

  7. The response of superpressure balloons to gravity wave motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. A.; Hertzog, A.

    2014-04-01

    Superpressure balloons (SPB), which float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces, provide a unique way of measuring the properties of atmospheric gravity waves (GW) as a function of wave intrinsic frequency. Here we devise a quasi-analytic method of investigating the SPB response to GW motions. It is shown that the results agree well with more rigorous numerical simulations of balloon motions and provide a better understanding of the response of SPB to GW, especially at high frequencies. The methodology is applied to ascertain the accuracy of GW studies using 12 m diameter SPB deployed in the 2010 Concordiasi campaign in the Antarctic. In comparison with the situation in earlier campaigns, the vertical displacements of the SPB were measured directly using GPS. It is shown using a large number of Monte Carlo-type simulations with realistic instrumental noise that important wave parameters, such as momentum flux, phase speed and wavelengths, can be retrieved with good accuracy from SPB observations for intrinsic wave periods greater than ca. 10 min. The noise floor for momentum flux is estimated to be ca. 10-4 mPa.

  8. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  9. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  10. Linear Analysis of Drift Ballooning Modes in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, Varun; Kritz, Arnold; Rafiq, Tariq; Pankin, Alexei

    2012-10-01

    The H-mode pedestal structure depends on the linear stability of drift ballooning modes (DBMs) in many H-mode pedestal models. Integrated modeling that uses these pedestal models requires fast evaluation of linear stability of DBMs. Linear analysis of DBMs is also needed in the computations of effective diffusivities associated with anomalous transport that is driven by the DBMs in tokamak edge plasmas. In this study several numerical techniques of linear analysis of the DBMs are investigated. Differentiation matrix based spectral methods are used to compute the physical eigenvalues of the DBMs. The model for DBMs used here consists of six differential equations [T. Rafiq et al. Phys. Plasmas, 17, 082511, (2010)]. It is important to differentiate among non-physical (numerical) modes and physical modes. The determination of the number of eigenvalues is solved by a computation of the `nearest' and `ordinal' distances. The Finite Difference, Hermite and Sinc based differentiation matrices are used. It is shown that spectral collocation methods are more accurate than finite difference methods. The technique that has been developed for calculating eigenvalues is quite general and is relevant in the computation of other modes that utilize the ballooning mode formalism.

  11. Balloon UV Experiments for Astronomical and Atmospheric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Nirmal, K; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) window has been largely unexplored through balloons for astronomy. We discuss here the development of a compact near-UV spectrograph with ?ber optics input for balloon ights. It is a modi?ed Czerny-Turner system built using o?-the-shelf components. The system is portable and scalable to di?erent telescopes. The use of re ecting optics reduces the transmission loss in the UV. It employs an image-intensi?ed CMOS sensor, operating in photon counting mode, as the detector of choice. A lightweight pointing system developed for stable pointing to observe astronomical sources is also discussed, together with the methods to improve its accuracy, e.g. using the in-house build star sensor and others. Our primary scienti?c objectives include the observation of bright Solar System objects such as visible to eye comets, Moon and planets. Studies of planets can give us valuable information about the planetary aurorae, helping to model and compare atmospheres of other planets and the Earth. The other ma...

  12. Two cases of apical ballooning syndrome masking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A; Hurst, R Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  13. The Use of Zylon Fibers in ULDB Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M.; Seely, L.; McLaughlin, J.

    Early in the development of the ULDB balloon, Zylon (PBO) was selected as the tendon material due to its favorable stress-strain properties. It is a next generation super fiber whose strength and modulus are almost double those of the p-Aramid fibers. In addition there are two versions of the Zylon, As Spun (AS) and High Modulus (HM). Data will be presented on why the HM was chosen. Early in the development process, it was learned that this material exhibited an unusual sensitivity to degradation by ambient light. This is in addition to the expected sensitivity to UV radiation (Ultraviolet). The fiber manufacturer reported all of these properties in their literature. Due to the operating environment of the ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) it is necessary to protect the tendons from both visible and UV radiation. Methods to protect the tendons will be discussed. In addition, information on the long term exposure of the braided tendon over a thirty-six month period in a controlled manufacturing plant will be provided.

  14. Balloon-borne CALET prototype payload (bCALET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Akaike, Yosui; Nakai, Mikio; Aiba, Toshihide; Kai, Yuuichirou; Tamura, Tadahisa; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Saito, Yoshitaka; Fuke, Hideyuki; Kawada, Jiro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Marrocchesi, Pier Simone; Kim, Meyoung; Bigongiari, Gabriele

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) payload will be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). We have been developing a balloon borne payload to evaluate the performance of CALET by carring out precursor flights for the electron observation in 1-1000 GeV. The first flight of bCALET was done in 2006, and the enhanced version, bCALET-2, was successfully flown in 2009. In this paper, we describe the bCALET-3 payload which is composed of Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC) and Silicon pixel Array (SIA). IMC has an area of 320mm × 320mm, and is consisted 8 x-y layers of scintillating fiber belts inserted below tungsten plates for a fine imaging of shower particles. TASC is constructed by 6 layers of BGO scintillator blocks with an area of 300mm × 300mm, for measuring the total energy deposit of incoming shower particles. SIA owns to measure the charge number of incoming particle. Each component has very similar function with CALET with about half the area of CALET. We are planning to carry out the balloon experiment by bCALET-3 in November, 2010 for the test of the CALET capability of observing the electrons.

  15. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is thought to result from incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboemboli that undergo organisation into fibrous tissue within pulmonary arterial branches, filling pulmonary arterial lumina with collagenous obstructions. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA in CTEPH centres, which has low post-operative mortality and good long-term survival. For patients ineligible for PEA or who have recurrent or persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery, medical treatment with riociguat is beneficial. In addition, percutaneous balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is an emerging option, and promises haemodynamic and functional benefits for inoperable patients. In contrast to conventional angioplasty, BPA with undersized balloons over guide wires exclusively breaks intraluminal webs and bands, without dissecting medial vessel layers, and repeat sessions are generally required. Observational studies report that BPA improves haemodynamics, symptoms and functional capacity in patients with CTEPH, but controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Complications include haemoptysis, wire injury, vessel dissection, vessel rupture, reperfusion pulmonary oedema, pulmonary parenchymal bleeding and haemorrhagic pleural effusions. This review summarises the available evidence for BPA, patient selection, recent technical refinements and periprocedural imaging, and discusses the potential future role of BPA in the management of CTEPH.

  16. Computed Tomography During Experimental Balloon Dilatation For Calcific Aortic Stenosis. A Look into the Mechanism of Valvuloplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. di Mario (Carlo); L.C.P. van Veen; DE BAAT, L. (LEEN); C.E. Essed; K.J. Beatt (Kevin); O. Leborgne; SERRUYS, P.W. (PATRICK W.)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThin‐slice contiguous computed tomographic scanning was performed in four postmortem hearts with calcific aortic valve stenosis (mean weight: 583 ± 78 g; mean age: 65 ± 10 years) before, during, and after balloon valvuloplasty. Balloons of increasing diameter (15–19 mm single balloons, a

  17. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  18. Finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamic analysis of the ballooning modes in tokamaks*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hai-Bin; Wang Ai-Ke; Peng Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of finite Larmor radius(FLR)on high n ballooning modes is studied on the basis of FLR magnetohydrodynamic(FLR-MHD)theory.A linear FLR ballooning mode equation is derived in an '(s)-α' type equilibrium of circular-flux-surfaces,which is reduced to the ideal ballooning mode equation when the FLR effect is neglected.The present model reproduces some basic features of FLR effects on ballooning mode obtained previously by kinetic ballooning mode theories.That is,the FLR introduces a real frequency into ballooning mode and has a stabilising effect on ballooning modes(e.g.,in the case of high magnetic shear(s)≥ 0.8).In particular,some new properties of FLR effects on ballooning mode are discovered in the present research.Here it is found that in a high magnetic shear region((s)≥0.8)the critical pressure gradient(αc1,FLR)of ballooning mode is larger than the ideal one(αc,IMHD)and becomes larger and larger with the increase of FLR parameter b0.However,in a low magnetic shear region,the FLR ballooning mode is more unstable than the ideal one,and the αc,FLR is much lower than the αc,IMHD.Moreover,the present results indicate that there exist some new weaker instabilities near the second stability boundary(obtained from ideal MHD theory),which means that the second stable region becomes narrow.

  19. Safety and effectiveness of gastric balloons associated with hypocaloric diet for the treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: intragastric balloons provide early satiety and thereby induce short-term weight loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and short and medium-term effectiveness of gastric balloons associated to hypocaloric diet in obesity. Material and methods: from May 2004 to June 2011 91 obese patients, body mass index [BMI] 45.2 ± 7.2 kg/m² were prospectively followed after endoscopic implantation of a gastric balloon associated to restricted diet. Successful therapy was defined as percent loss of total weight (%LTW ≥ 5% at six months after balloon placement and 6 and 12 months after their withdrawal. All analyses followed intention-to treat principles considering significant p-values < 0.05. Results: we placed 73 fluid-filled balloons (80.2% and 18 air-filled ones (19.8%. Compared to baseline values, at 6-month 73.7% subjects succeeded, showing significant reductions in weight (13.3 ± 8.8 kg, BMI (5 ± 3.4 kg/m² (p < 0.0001, with% LTW 11 ± 7%. Six and twelve months after retrieval 45.1% and 28.6% patients reached% LTW ≥ 5%. Short-term and medium-term effectiveness was negatively associated to obesity in first-grade relatives (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04. Higher weight loss 6 months after balloon placement independently predicted medium-term effectiveness (p = 0.0001. Mortality was absent but there were two spontaneous deflations of air-filled balloons and severe withdrawal difficulties in 8 patients, leading to surgery in one case. Retrieval complications associated to air-filled balloons (p = 0.0005. Conclusions: in obesity, effectiveness of gastric balloons associated to hypocaloric diet decreases over time. Complications occurred mainly in the retrieval endoscopic procedure and related to air-filled balloons.

  20. Dose rate in intravascular radionuclide therapy using Re-188 coated balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, M. Y.; Kim, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Restenosis is the major drawback problem after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In order to reduce the restenosis, radionuclide therapy has been used, and these day balloon coating method with radionuclide is investigating to effective therapy. We intend to calculate the activity by Monte Carlo method, which is needed in the investigation of coated balloon using Re-188. We used EGSnrc code system to calculate this activity. Balloons were assumed be a length of 20 mm or 30 mm and to have a central catheter of diameter 0.5 mm. The surface of balloon is coated with 0.01 mm depth Re-188 using poly urethan. We calculated dose distribution as radial distance from the surface of balloon. And we calculate how much activities are needed to irradiate 18Gy at the 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm distance from balloon surface during 3 minutes. As results it is needed 19.3 mCi and 33.6 mCi relatively for each 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm in the 20 mm balloon. It is need 27.8 mCi and 48.3 mCi in the 30 mm balloon. Recent report for Ho-166 using EGS4 suggests 13.04 mCi at 0.5 mm distance in the 20 mm balloon. This value is lower than our result for Re-188 for the same size balloon. It is considered to be a systemic difference between two simulation codes ({approx}10%)

  1. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008.

  2. Mandibular osteomas in sporadic colorectal carcinoma. A genetic marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, J O; Rasmussen, M S; Videbaek, H;

    1993-01-01

    Pantomography of the mandible was performed in 98 patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Twenty-eight patients (29%) had osteomas versus 5% in a control group (P osteomas are found in most patients with the premalignant dominant syndrome familial adenomatous...... polyposis. Sporadic colorectal cancer examinations of married couples have shown that diet has only a moderate influence on the development of colorectal cancer, whereas pedigree studies indicate a genetic component. On this basis we conclude that mandibular osteomas are probably genetic markers...

  3. Nurses' attitudes towards the sexuality of colorectal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Justham, D

    This article reviews the literature on nurses' attitudes towards sexuality and highlights a range of studies carried out on functional outcomes following colorectal surgery. The article provides nurses with an insight into colorectal cancer, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in men and women following colorectal surgery and the importance of addressing the various aspects of sexuality in a sensitive manner to provide patients with holistic care.

  4. The prevalence of human papillomavirus in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Louise; Thomsen, Louise T; Olesen, Tina Bech;

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association....

  5. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50(CA50)expression in colorectal carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa.Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa,cancer distant mucosa,cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa,and there were significant differences among them(P<0.05).The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the deg...

  6. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  7. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Anterolateral Left Ventricular Ballooning, a Variant of Classic Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zbinden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome is characterized by transient akinesis of the left ventricular apex with basal wall hyperkinesis; this is also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. There are three distinct contractile LV patterns described in the literature: apical, midventricular, and basal ballooning. The apical ballooning pattern is the most frequent pattern. We describe the case of a transient anterolateral left ventricular ballooning fulfilling the definition of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy except for the contractile LV pattern. The diagnosis was supported by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by the fact that the anterolateral ballooning resolved completely after 6 weeks.

  8. The use of a cutting balloon in contemporary reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (reverse CART) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Okada, Hisayuki; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-07-11

    The key concept of reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking (CART) technique is retrograde puncture with a tapered wire to an antegrade balloon (contemporary reverse CART) or new connections between the antegrade and retrograde subintimal space (classical reverse CART). In our case, a 75-year-old man with severe chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery, reverse CART with conventional balloons could not be accomplished. Externalization wiring was completed by contemporary reverse CART using a cutting balloon as an antegrade balloon to improve the fenestration force of the retrograde guidewire. Thus, the use of a cutting balloon for contemporary reverse CART might be promising.

  9. Basic development of a small balloon-mounted telemetry and its operation system by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Kono, Hiroki

    In Japan, the high altitude balloon for scientific observation has been continuously launched by JAXA. The balloon has a possibility to reach 50 km altitude without tight environmental condition for onboard equipments, operating with a cost lower than sounding rockets, however, development of the large-scale scientific observation balloons by university laboratories is still difficult. Being coupled with recent improvement of semiconductor sensors, laboratory-basis balloon experiments using small weather balloons has been becoming easily in these years. Owing to an advantage of wide land fields in continental regions, the launch of such small balloons has become to be carried out many times especially in continental countries (e.g. Near Space Ventures, Inc., 2013). Although the balloon is very small as its diameter of 6 feet, excluding its extra buoyancy and the weight of the balloon itself, it is expected that about 2 kg loading capacity is remained for payloads to send it up to about 35 km altitude. However, operation of such balloons in Japan is not in general because precise prediction of a landing area of the payload is difficult, thus high-risk situation for balloon releases is remained. In this study, we aim to achieve practical engineering experiments of weather balloons in Japan to be used for scientific observation within university laboratory level as an educational context. Here we report an approach of developing many devices for a small tethered balloon currently in progress. We evaluated an accuracy of altitude measurement by using a laboratory developed altitude data logger system that consists of a GPS-module and a barometric altimeter. Diameter of the balloon was about 1.4 m. Being fulfilled with about 1440 L helium, it produced buoyancy of about 15.7 N. Taking into account of total weight including the mooring equipments, available payload mass becomes to be about 1100 g. Applying an advantage of a 3D printer of FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling

  10. Balloon Study of the Global Circuit: Spatial Coherence and Correlation with Lightning Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Reddell, B.; Kadokura, A.; Yamagishi, H.; Sato, N.; Ejiri, M.; Hirosawa, H.; Yamagami, T.; Torii, S.; Tohyama, F.; Nakagawa, M.; Okada, T.

    2004-12-01

    The second campaign of the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) experiment (2nd-PPB) was carried out at Syowa Station in Antarctica during 2002-2003. This paper will present the global circuit results from the 2nd-PPB experiment. In that experiment, three balloons were launched for the purpose of upper atmosphere physics observation (3 balloons). Payloads of these 3 flights were identical with each other, and were launched as close together in time as allowed by weather conditions to constitute a cluster of balloons during their flights. Such a ``Balloon Cluster'' is suitable to observe temporal evolution and spatial distribution of phenomena in the ionospheric regions and boundaries that the balloons traversed during their circumpolar trajectory. More than 20 days of simultaneous fair weather 3-axis electric field and stratospheric conductivity data were obtained at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from sub-auroral to the polar cap. Balloon separation varied from ˜60 to ˜500 km. This paper will present the global circuit observations with emphasis on the times of apparent spatial variation in the vertical fair weather field. This paper will also present stratospheric conductivity observations with emphasis on the temporal and spatial variations that were observed. Finally, the inferred current density will be compared with data from the WWLL (TOGA) lightning monitor experiment.

  11. Utility of a scoring balloon for a severely calcified lesion: bench test and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Yoshiaki; Saito, Naritatsu; Watanabe, Shin; Bao, Bingyuan; Yamamoto, Erika; Watanabe, Hiroki; Higami, Hirooki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Ueno, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a scoring balloon catheter in expanding a circumferentially calcified lesion compared to a conventional balloon catheter using an in vitro experiment setting and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this ability using a finite element analysis. True efficacy of the scoring device and the underlying mechanisms for heavily calcified coronary lesions are unclear. We employed a Scoreflex scoring balloon catheter (OrbusNeich, Hong Kong, China). The ability of Scoreflex to dilate a calcified lesion was compared with a conventional balloon catheter using 3 different sized calcium tubes. The thickness of the calcium tubes were 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 mm. The primary endpoints were the successful induction of cracks in the calcium tubes and the inflation pressures required for inducing cracks. The inflation pressure required for cracking the calcium tubes were consistently lower with Scoreflex (p finite element analysis revealed that the first principal stress applied to the calcified plaque was higher by at least threefold when applying the balloon catheter with scoring elements. A scoring balloon catheter can expand a calcified lesion with lower pressure than that of a conventional balloon. The finite element analysis revealed that the concentration of the stress observed in the outside of the calcified plaque just opposite to the scoring element is the underlying mechanism of the increased ability of Scoreflex to dilate the calcified lesion.

  12. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  13. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... Patient Registry, the Danish Pathology Registry, and the primary CT evaluation. Inter-reader agreement was calculated by Kappa statistics, and associations between variables and malignancy of pulmonary nodules were analyzed with χ (2) and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable logistic regression...

  14. Current treatment for colorectal liver metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos P Misiakos; Nikolaos P Karidis; Gregoryr Kouraklis

    2011-01-01

    Surgical resection offers the best opportunity for survival in patients with colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver, with five-year survival rates up to 58% in selected cases. However, only a minority are resectable at the time of diagnosis. Continuous research in this field aims at increasing the percentage of patients eligible for resection, refining the indications and contraindications for surgery , and improving overall survival. The use of surgical innovations, such as staged resection, portal vein embolization, and repeat resection has allowed higher resection rates in patients with bilobar disease. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy allows up to 38% of patients previously considered unresectable to be significantly downstaged and eligible for hepatic resection. Ablative techniques have gained wide acceptance as an adjunct to surgical resection and in the management of patients who are not surgical candidates. Curent management of colorectal liver metastases requires a multidisciplinary approach, which should be individu alized in each case.

  15. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance......BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  16. Colorectal carcinogenesis-update and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    . The major genetic pathways of CRC are the Chromosome Instability Pathway representing the pathway of sporadic CRC through the K-ras, APC, and P53 mutations, and the Microsatellite Instability Pathway representing the pathway of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer through mutations in mismatch repair genes......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very common malignancy in the Western World and despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and screening, it is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths in this part of the world. Numerous factors are found important in the development of CRC including colonocyte....... To identify early cancers, screening programs have been initiated, and the leading strategy has been the use of faecal occult blood testing followed by colonoscopy in positive cases. Regarding the treatment of colorectal cancer, significant advances have been made in the recent decade. The molecular targets...

  17. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.stassi@unipa.it [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  18. NASA balloon: Aircraft ranging, data and voice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishna, S.; Hamby, C.; Reed, D.

    1972-01-01

    A series of tests to evaluate, at L-band, the ranging, voice, and data communications concepts proposed for the air traffic control experiment of the Applications Technology Satellite-F are described. The ground station facilities, balloon platforms and the aircraft were supplied by the European Space Research Organization. One ground simulation and two aircraft flights at low elevation angles were conducted. Even under high interference conditions good performance was obtained for both voice communications and side tone ranging. High bit errors occurred in the data channels resulting in false commands. As a result of the experience gained in operating the equipment in an aircraft environment several recommendations were made for improving the equipment performance.

  19. Absence of Bacteria on Coronary Angioplasty Balloons from Unselected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Nilsson, Martin; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic, bacterially-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, which may result in transient bacteremia and a systemic inflammatory response. Periodontitis is associated with coronary artery disease independently of established cardiovascular risk factors......, and translocation of bacteria from the oral cavity to the coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. Very few studies have used angioplasty balloons for in vivo sampling from diseased coronary arteries, and with varying results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess...... patients with stable angina, unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n = 15 in each group) were collected and analyzed using a PCR assay with high sensitivity and specificity for 16S rRNA genes of the oral microbiome. Despite elimination of extraction...

  20. Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael T.; Blackmore, Lars; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto; Newman, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new algorithm for probabilistic motion planning in arbitrary, uncertain vector fields, with emphasis on high-level planning for Montgolfiere balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude--and what horizontal actuation, if any is available on the vehicle--to use to reach a goal location in the fastest expected time. The winds can vary greatly at different altitudes and are strong relative to any feasible horizontal actuation, so the incorporation of the winds is critical for guidance plans. This paper focuses on how to integrate the uncertainty of the wind field into the wind model and how to reach a goal location through the uncertain wind field, using a Markov decision process (MDP). The resulting probabilistic solutions enable more robust guidance plans and more thorough analysis of potential paths than existing methods.

  1. Audit of radiation dose during balloon mitral valvuloplasty procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Chandy, Sunil [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Peace, B S Timothy [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); George, Paul [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); John, Bobby [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Pati, Purendra [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India)

    2006-12-15

    Radiation doses to patients during cardiological procedures are of concern in the present day scenario. This study was intended to audit the radiation dose imparted to patients during the balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) procedure. Thirty seven patients who underwent the BMV procedure performed using two dedicated cardiovascular machines were included in the study. The radiation doses imparted to patients were measured using a dose area product (DAP) meter. The mean DAP value for patients who underwent the BMV procedure from one machine was 19.16 Gy cm{sup 2} and from the other was 21.19 Gy cm{sup 2}. Optimisation of exposure parameters and radiation doses was possible for one machine with the use of appropriate copper filters and optimised exposure parameters, and the mean DAP value after optimisation was 9.36 Gy cm{sup 2}.

  2. Long distance cell communication using spherical tether balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Rajagopalan, Vasudevan; Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Mehrotra, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Pawaskar, M.; Subba Rao Jonnalagadda, Venkata; Buduru, Suneelkumar; Kulkarni, P. M.

    A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted for long-range cell communication for rural tele-phony and internet. We designed and fabricated a spherical tether balloon to carry the con-ventional micro base transceiver station (BTS) along with three slotted antenna to cover 2-pi radius. AC power and optical fiber were anchored along with the tether line. A special fre-quency license was obtained from Wireless Planning Commission (WPC) wing of Department of Telecommunication (DoT), India for the period of experiment so as not to affect the opera-tional networks. The experiments were carried out for different BTS heights up to 500 meter. Signal measurement both in data mode and voice quality were done in different quadrant using mobile vans. This paper describes the methodology (under patenting) and utility of technique for operational application.

  3. SPIDER: A Balloon-borne Large-scale CMB Polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Crill, B P; Battistelli, E S; Benton, S; Bihary, R; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Brevik, J; Bryan, S; Contaldi, C R; Dore, O; Farhang, M; Fissel, L; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hilton, G; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K; Jones, W C; Kuo, C L; Lange, A E; Lawrie, C; MacTavish, C J; Martin, T G; Mason, P; Montroy, T E; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Riley, D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Turner, A; Viero, M; Wiebe, D

    2008-01-01

    Spider is a balloon-borne experiment that will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background over a large fraction of a sky at 1 degree resolution. Six monochromatic refracting millimeter-wave telescopes with large arrays of antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometers will provide system sensitivities of 4.2 and 3.1 micro K_cmb rt s at 100 and 150 GHz, respectively. A rotating half-wave plate will modulate the polarization sensitivity of each telescope, controlling systematics. Bolometer arrays operating at 225 GHz and 275 GHz will allow removal of polarized galactic foregrounds. In a 2-6 day first flight from Alice Springs, Australia in 2010, Spider will map 50% of the sky to a depth necessary to improve our knowledge of the reionization optical depth by a large factor.

  4. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P.W.; /Hawaii U.; Allison, P.; /Hawaii U.; Barwick, S.W.; /UC, Irvine; Beatty, J.J.; /Ohio State U.; Besson, D.Z.; /Kansas U.; Binns, W.R.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Chen, C.; /SLAC; Chen, P.; /SLAC; Clem, J.M.; /Delaware U.; Connolly, A.; /University Coll. London; Dowkontt, P.F.; /Washington U., St. Louis; DuVernois, M.A.; /Minnesota U.; Field, R.C.; /SLAC; Goldstein, D.; /UC, Irvine; Goodhue, A.; /UCLA; Hast, C.; /SLAC; Hebert, C.L.; /Hawaii U.; Hoover, S.; /UCLA; Israel, M.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Kowalski, J.; /Hawaii U.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  5. Investigation of source position uncertainties & balloon deformation in MammoSite brachytherapy on treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaleh, S; Bezak, E

    2010-03-01

    The MammoSite breast high dose rate brachytherapy is used in treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The tumour bed volume is irradiated with high dose per fraction in a relatively small number of fractions. Uncertainties in the source positioning and MammoSite balloon deformation will alter the prescribed dose within the treated volume. They may also expose the normal tissues in balloon proximity to excessive dose. The purpose of this work is to explore the impact of these two uncertainties on the MammoSite dose distribution in the breast using dose volume histograms and Monte Carlo simulations. The Lyman-Kutcher and relative seriality models were employed to estimate the normal tissues complications associated with the MammoSite dose distributions. The tumour control probability was calculated using the Poisson model. This study gives low probabilities for developing heart and lung complications. The probability of complications of the skin and normal breast tissues depends on the location of the source inside the balloon and the volume receiving high dose. Incorrect source position and balloon deformation had significant effect on the prescribed dose within the treated volume. A 4 mm balloon deformation resulted in reduction of the tumour control probability by 24%. Monte Carlo calculations using EGSnrc showed that a deviation of the source by 1 mm caused approximately 7% dose reduction in the treated target volume at 1 cm from the balloon surface. In conclusion, accurate positioning of the (192)Ir source at the balloon centre and minimal balloon deformation are critical for proper dose delivery with the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. On the basis of this study, we suggest that the MammoSite treatment protocols should allow for a balloon deformation of < or = 2 mm and a maximum source deviation of < or = 1 mm.

  6. Clinical Usefulness of Bakri Balloon Tamponade in the Treatment of Massive Postpartum Uterine Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Sayori; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nagata, Tomomi; Hiwatashi, Sayuri; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Yokomine, Daisaku; Orita, Yuji; Oki, Toshimichi; Yoshinaga, Mitsuhiro; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine globe-shaped metreurynter tamponade has been used for some time to treat massive postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). More recently, the Bakri balloon has come into use to treat PPH. It is made of silicon, possesses a drainage lumen, and has a sausage-like spindle shape. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of Bakri balloon tamponade for massive PPH. Subjects in the present study comprised 5 patients with uterine atony, 3 with placenta previa, and 2 with low-lying placenta. All patients exhibited massive PPH and resistance to conventional hemostatic managements. Bakri balloon tamponade was appliedto these 10 patients. The mean amounts of uterine bleeding (average ± SD) before and after Bakri insertion were2,732 ± 1,397 mL and 380 ± 376 mL, respectively. The median (third-first quartile ranges) volume of salineinflating the balloon was 200 mL (300-150 mL). The median (third-first quartile ranges) indwelling duration of Bakri balloon was 24 hours (24-11 hrs). The overall success rate of Bakri balloon tamponade was 90% (9/10).There were no cases of slipping out or complications regarding balloon placement. Our findings suggest that Bakri balloon tamponade may be applied to the treatment of massive PPH in uterine atony and placenta previa.The Bakri balloon appears to have the following merits: (1) easy insertion into the uterine cavity and low rate of slipping out, (2) proper conformability to the hemorrhagic area due to its spindle shape, (3) ability to monitor blood loss through the drainage lumen even after insertion.

  7. Static and quasi-static analysis of lobed-pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki

    The present study is motivated by the need to improve design methodology for super pressure balloon with 3D gore design concept, currently being developed at the Scientific Balloon Center of ISAS/JAXA. The distinctive feature of the 3-D gore design is that the balloon film has excess materials not only in the circumferential direction but also in the meridional direction; the meridional excess is gained by attaching the film boundaries to the corresponding tendons of a shorter length with a controlled shortening rate. The resulting balloon shape is a pumpkin-like shape with large bulges formed between adjacent tendons. The balloon film, when fully inflated, develops wrinkles in the circumferential direction over its entire region, so that the stresses in the film are limited to a small amount of uniaxial tension in the circumferential direction while the high meridional loads are carried by re-enforced tendons. Naturally, the amount of wrinkling in the film is dominated by the shortening rate between the film boundaries and the tendon curve. In the 3-D gore design, as a consequence, the shortening rate becomes a fundamental design parameter along with the geometric parameters of the gore. In view of this, we have carried out a series of numerical study of the lobed-pumpkin balloon with varying gore geometry as well as with varying shortening rate. The numerical simula-tions were carried out with a nonlinear finite element code incorporating the wrinkling effect. Numerical results show that there is a threshold value for the shortening rate beyond which the stresses in the balloon film increases disproportionately. We have also carried out quasi-static simulations of the inflation process of the lobed-pumpkin balloon, and have obtained asymmetric deformations when the balloon films are in uniaxial tension state.

  8. Microbiota disbiosis is associated with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-01-01

    The dysbiosis of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The present study was designed to investigate the gut microbiota distribution features in CRC patients. We performed pyrosequencing based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to investigate microbiota of the cancerous tissue and adjacent non-cancerous normal tissue in proximal and distal CRC samples. The results revealed that the microbial structures of the CRC patients and healthy individual...

  9. APC and chromosome instability in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Cabrera

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a common disease that can be sporadic or familial. An inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC suppressor gene is found in over 80% of colorectal tumors, this being an early alteration in the development of adenomatous polyps. APC function is not only critical for tumor initiation and progression, and chromosome instability (CIN is another characteristic dependent at least partly on APC mutations.

  10. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before...... the rectal surgery to clean the rectum and facilitate the manipulation for the mechanical anastomosis is used for many surgeons. This is analysed separately...

  11. Metalloproteinases and their regulators in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jagt, Michel F P; Wobbes, Theo; Strobbe, Luc J A; Sweep, Fred C G J; Span, Paul N

    2010-03-01

    Metalloproteinases (MPs) such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and adamalysins (ADAMs and ADAMTS) are expressed in various stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), and some correlate with survival and prognosis. The MPs are regulated by various factors including EMMPRIN, TIMPs, and RECK. In addition, micro-RNAs are found to be relevant for both MP expression levels and CRC prognostication. Both MPs and their regulators could be potential targets for intervention and therapy in CRC.

  12. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (≥5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  13. Pathologic research update of colorectal neuroendocrine tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) originate from neuroendocrine cells in the intestinal tract, and represent a small area within oncology, but one which has provided increasing new data during the past years. Although the World Health Organization has determined clinical and histological features to predict prognosis for such tumors, they may not be valid on an individual basis. We aim to give an overview of the recent findings with regard to pathology, molecular genetics and diagnosis of NETs.

  14. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the r...... the rectal surgery to clean the rectum and facilitate the manipulation for the mechanical anastomosis is used for many surgeons. This is analysed separately...

  15. Measurement of polar stratospheric NO2 from the 23rd and 24th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) balloon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, K.; Iwagami, N.; Ogawa, T.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the Japanese activities of MAP in the Antarctica, balloon-borne measurements of the stratospheric NO2 profile were planned and carried out by the JARE 23rd and 24th wintering parties. Few results have been reported so far as the stratospheric NO2 profile at high latitude. There were no reported balloon measurements carried out in the Southern Hemisphere. Profiles are presented for the first balloon-borne measurement of the stratospheric NO2 in the Antarctica. Three balloons named JA21, JA25 and JA26 were launched from Syowa Station (69 deg S, 35.6 deg E) using 5000 cu. cm plastic balloons. JA21 balloon was launched on November 24, 1982, and JA25 and JA26 balloons on November 12 and 20, 1983, respectively.

  16. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2015-04-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozonesonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analysed using the Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth further developing the instrument and launching it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  17. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  18. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  19. Background measurements from balloon-born imaging CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jonathan A.; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl M.; Parker, Bradford H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.

    2003-03-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CdZnTe (CZT) detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 × 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman CZT. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40o field-of-view collimator used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previosu detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental background component in flight, it was possible to measure and subtract this component from the spectra. The resulting IMARAD detector background spectrum reaches ~5×10-3 counts cm-2s-1keV-1 at 100 keV and has a power-law index of ~2 at hgih energies. The eV Products detector has a similar spectrum, although there is more uncertainty in the enregy scale because of calibration complications.

  20. Radiofrequency balloon angioplasty. Rationale and proof of principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.J.; Lee, B.I.; Waller, B.F.; Barry, K.J.; Kaplan, J.; Connolly, R.; Dreesen, R.G.; Nardella, P.

    1988-11-01

    Post-angioplasty restenosis (PARS) in atherosclerotic lesions of medium and small arteries occurs in about one-third of cases in the first year following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (early PARS). PARS includes acute spasm, dissection with reclosure, elastic recoil, fibrocellular proliferative response, and progressive atheromatous disease. Fibrocellular proliferation (possibly initiated by platelet derived growth factor) is felt to be culpable in many cases of early PARS (months). Pharmacologic regimens, stents, and thermal welding of the intimal-medial cracks of PTA are among the interventions being developed to deal with PARS. Radiofrequency (RF) current as a source of thermal energy may be useful in combination with balloon angioplasty to reduce PARS. Ideally, this combination would (1) weld intimal-medial cracks of PTA; (2) mold plaque and normal vessel to increase lumen diameters without creating intimal-medial cracks; and (3) destroy medial smooth muscle cells and multipotential cells (cellular substrate of PARS). Canine in vivo studies have established the feasibility of RF-mediated vascular tissue welding. Human aortic specimens (N = 28) were manually dissected into intima-media and media-adventitia layers. Bipolar RF energy (650 KHz, total 300 J) and mechanical pressure (1 atm) (experimental group, N = 24) or mechanical pressure alone (control group, N = 4) were applied to the reapposed specimen layers in a special chamber. The chamber was modified with a bipolar electrode designed to reproduce that planned for an RF balloon angioplasty catheter. Welding was demonstrated in normal and atherosclerotic treated specimens (23/24 or 96%) but not controls (0/4).

  1. CNES super pressure balloons upgrade for Strateole-2 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venel, Stephanie; Cocquerez, Philippe; Hertzog, Albert

    2016-07-01

    The French Space Agency, CNES, has developed, since about twelve years ago, super pressure balloons (SPB) that float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces in the lowermost stratosphere, carrying 40 to 50 kg payloads, during typically three months. These SPB have been successfully deployed in flotilla of about 20 balloons for different scientific campaigns all over the world in different configuration sizes from 8,5 to 12 m diameter, mainly to document the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere, to study gravity waves, and to provide in-situ atmospheric profiles thanks to the NCAR driftsonde payload. The SPB housekeeping gondola used from 2005 to 2011 now needs to be upgraded in order to increase the flights' safety and to improve its performance with up to date equipment's. The control center will also be redesigned. These modifications take into account the experience acquired during the last SPB campaigns, mainly during CONCORDIASI, with 19 flights over Antarctica from September 2010 to January 2011. After a successful preliminary design review, the project is now conducting the detailed conception phase. This new system is developed for STRATEOLE-2, a project dedicated to the coupling processes between the troposphere and the stratosphere in the deep tropics, using several types of instruments, both for in situ and remote measurements in the atmosphere. STRATEOLE -2 includes two measurement campaigns, three years spaced to study the quasi biennial oscillation. Since the scientific payloads are fully self-standing, some technical solutions will be common with the CNES housekeeping gondola, such as the renewable power system. This paper will describe the STRATEOLE-2 project and the developments in progress for the SPB system upgrade.

  2. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RER+ COLORECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ning; DING Yan-Qing; XU LI; Qiu Hong-ming

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Replication errors (RER) is related to initiation and development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC).To investigate the different biological behavior of RER+ and RER- CRC. Methods: Silver staining PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods were used to detect microsatellite instability (MSI) at 4 loci on chromosome 2, 5, 17 in paraffin-embedded specimens of 60 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and their paired normal tissue.RER+ was scored if 2 or more loci behaved as gaining extra bands. Results: The results showed that RER+ was found in 19/60 CRC, among which 7 cases had a family history.According to the criteria of Amsterdam, 4 were diagnosed as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), and of which 3 cases were RER+. The ratio RER+ in HNPCC (75%) was significantly higher than that among sporadic CRC (28.5%). Most of the RER+ CRC have the feature of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (P<0.01), the tendency to involve the right side of the colon (P<0.05), a higher proportion with a family history (P<0.05), Duckes' A and B stage (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that RER+ is a relatively common molecular event in CRC.There are different clinico-pathological features and behavior between RER+ and RER- CPC.

  3. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  4. Colorectal cancer risk in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    There is recognized increased risk for colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis. There also appears to be an increased rate of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease, including both colon and small bowel sites. In Crohn's disease, evidence suggests that detection of colorectal cancer may be delayed with a worse progno sis. Some risk factors for cancer in Crohn's disease include the extent of inflammatory change within the colon and the presence of bypassed or excluded segments, inclu ding rectal "stump" cancer. In addition, the risk for other types of intestinal neoplasms may be increased in Crohn's disease, including lymphoma and carcinoid tumors. Earlier detection of colorectal cancer based on colonoscopy scre ening and surveillance may be achieved but, to date, this has not translated into a positive survival benefit. Moreo ver, newer staining methods and evolving micro-endos copic techniques show promise, but have not significantly altered management. Future research should focus on development of molecular or other bio-markers that might predict future dysplasia or cancer development in Crohn's disease.

  5. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monica; Millan; Sandra; Merino; Aleidis; Caro; Francesc; Feliu; Jordi; Escuder; Tani; Francesch

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approxi-mately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients(> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are underrepresented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population.

  6. Implications of preoperative hypoalbuminemia in colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Truong; Mark H Hanna; Zhobin Moghadamyeghaneh; Michael J Stamos

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin has traditionally been used as a quantitative measure of a patient’s nutritional status because of its availability and low cost. While malnutrition has a clear definition within both the American and European Societies for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines, individual surgeons often determine nutritional status anecdotally. Preoperative albumin level has been shown to be the best predictor of mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Specifically in colorectal surgical patients, hypoalbuminemia significantly increases the length of hospital stay, rates of surgical site infections, enterocutaneous fistula risk, and deep vein thrombosis formation. The delay of surgical procedures to allow for preoperative correction of albumin levels in hypoalbuminemic patients has been shown to improve the morbidity and mortality in patients with severe nutritional risk. The importance of preoperative albumin levels and the patient’s chronic inflammatory state on the postoperative morbidity and mortality has led to the development of a variety of surgical scoring systems to predict outcomes efficiently. This review attempts to provide a systematic overview of albumin and its role and implications in colorectal surgery.

  7. Current diffusive ballooning mode in a Tokamak with a noncircular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1997-02-01

    The eigenvalue equation for the current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks is derived taking the geometrical effects, i.e., triangularity and ellipticity into account. The stability boundary is obtained in the strong ballooning limit. It is found that the ellipticity plays an important role on the stability of the current diffusive ballooning mode. On the other hand, the effect of the stabilization by the triangularity appears indirectly through the magnetic well term. The geometrical effect on the transport coefficient is also discussed. (author)

  8. Balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries in the multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Stensballe, Jakob; Albrechtsen, Charlotte K;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate our experience with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as a part of a multidisciplinary algorithm for the management of placenta percreta. Design. Consecutive case series. Setting. Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Sample....... Prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as part of a multidisciplinary algorithm allowed for a safe management of all cases in our consecutive series of 17 women with placenta percreta. However, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significant. We have therefore...... decided to modify our multidisciplinary algorithm to include balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries rather than the internal iliac arteries....

  9. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  10. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, acromegaly, and colorectal neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, M; Cats, A; Maliakkal, BJ; Kinzie, JL; Maliakkal, R; Dullaart, RPF; Luk, GD

    1997-01-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and acromegaly are two hypersecretory states in which colorectal neoplasia has been described, but the incidence in the former condition may not be increased. We describe four patients with colorectal neoplasia associated with the ZES and review other published cases

  11. Correlation between expression and differentiation of endocan in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuo; Su-Mei Zhang; Ruo-Lei Hu; Hua-Qing Zhu; Qing Zhou; Shu-Yu Gui; Qiang Wu; Yuan Wang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression frequency of endocan in colorectal cancer and analyze the relationship between endocan expression and clinical parameters and to study the role of endocan in colorectal carcinogenesis.METHODS: Expression of endocan in 72 tumor tissue samples of colorectal cancer as well as in 27 normal mucous membrane tissue samples was analyzed using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray, Western blot and reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: The expression of endocan was higher in normal colon and rectum tissue samples than in cancerous tissue samples (mRNA = 92.6%, protein= 36%), and was lower in colorectal cancer tissuesamples (mRNA = 70.4%, protein = 36.1%). No correlation was found between staining intensity and clinical parameters such as sex, age, tumor size and TNM stage. However, the expression of endocan was positively correlated with the tissue differentiation in colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION: The expression of endocan is down-regulated in colorectal cancer and is positively correlated with the tissue differentiation in colorectal cancer, suggesting that the expression of endocan is associated with development and differentiation of colorectal cancer.

  12. Urinary nucleosides as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fang Zheng; Jun Yang; Xin-Jie Zhao; Bo Feng; Hong-Wei Kong; Ying-Jie Chen; Shen Lv; Min-Hua Zheng; Guo-Wang Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method.RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%).Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke's stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32)and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer.

  13. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These resul

  14. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...... of colorectal cancer....

  15. Intake of dietary folate vitamers and risk of colorectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Several studies have reported inverse associations between folate intake and colorectal carcinoma risk. Few were prospective studies and none evaluated the association between the intake of individual folate vitamers and colorectal carcinoma risk. METHODS. The aim of the current study wa

  16. Quality of life after surgical treatment of colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhoff, B S; Krabbe, P F M; Peerenboom, L; Wobbes, T; Ruers, T J M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The surgical approach to colorectal liver metastases is becoming increasingly aggressive. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with colorectal liver metastases. METHODS: HRQoL data from 97 patients w

  17. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  18. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  19. Social inequality in breast, lung and colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether family factors shared by siblings explained the association between education and risk of lung, colorectal and breast cancer.......To examine whether family factors shared by siblings explained the association between education and risk of lung, colorectal and breast cancer....

  20. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-hua Ma; Kang Wang; Wei-hua Shang; Si-guang Li; Mao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) expression in colorectal carcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa. Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa, cancer distant mucosa, cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa, and there were significant differences among them (P<0.05). The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the degree of differentiation, Duke's stage and lymphatic metastases (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of CA50 can be used as a valuable index in evaluating the biological characteristics and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.

  1. Demonstrating Classical Conditioning in Introductory Psychology: Needles Do Not Always Make Balloons Pop!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoy, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching classical conditioning to an introductory psychology class which involves demonstrating the conditioned response that occurs when a needle pierces, but does not pop, a balloon. (GEA)

  2. Optical coherence tomography layer thickness characterization of a mock artery during angioplasty balloon deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Boulet, Benoît; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to study the deformation of a mock artery in an angioplasty simulation setup. An OCT probe integrated in a balloon catheter provides intraluminal real-time images during balloon inflation. Swept-source OCT is used for imaging. A 4 mm semi-compliant polyurethane balloon is used for experiments. The balloon is inflated inside a custom-built multi-layer artery phantom. The phantom has three layers to mock artery layers, namely, intima, media and adventitia. Semi-automatic segmentation of phantom layers is performed to provide a detailed assessment of the phantom deformation at various inflation pressures. Characterization of luminal diameter and thickness of different layers of the mock artery is provided for various inflation pressures.

  3. EUSO-BALLOON a pathfinder for detecting UHECR's from the edge of space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EUSO-Balloon has been conceived as a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, to perform an end-to-end test of the subsystems and components, and to prove the global detection chain while improving our knowledge of the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. Through a series of stratospheric balloon flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-BALLOON will serve as an evolutive test-bench for all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers from above, marking a key milestone in the development of UHECR science, and paving the way for any future large scale, space-based UHECR observatory.

  4. Balloon-Borne, High-Energy Astrophysics: Experiences from the 1960s to the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2008-01-01

    Observational high-energy astrophysics in the hard-x-ray and gamma-ray regions owes its development and initial successes to the balloon-borne development of detector systems, as well as pioneering observations, primarily in the timeframe from the 1960s to the 1990s. I will describe some of the first observations made by the Rice University balloon group in the 1960s, including the impetus for these observations. The appearance of SN 1987a led to several balloon-flight campaigns, sponsored by NASA, from Alice Springs, Australia in 1987 and 1988. During the 1980s, prototypes of instruments for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory were flown on many balloon flights, which greatly enhanced the success of that mission.

  5. Novel Ultralow-Weight Metal Rubber Sensor System for Ultra Long-Duration Scientific Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to develop an innovative, ultralow mass density, and non-intrusive sensor system for ultra long duration balloons that will operate in the most...

  6. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-altitude balloon flights are an inexpensive method used to lift payloads to high altitudes. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations permit payloads...

  7. Integrating BalloonSAT and Atmospheric Dynamic Concepts into the Secondary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B. N.; Kennon, J. T.; Roberts, E.

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas BalloonSAT is an educational outreach and scientific research program that is part of Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, AR. The following is a unit of instruction to incorporate BalloonSAT measurements into secondary science classes. Students interpret graphs and identify several atmospheric trends and properties of a typical balloon flight. Students engage critical thinking skills in developing and answering their own questions relevant to the BalloonSAT program. Prerequisite concepts students should know are how to interpret graphs and unit conversions. Students should have a basic understanding of gravity, units of temperature and distance, and error in measurements. The unit is designed for one week after end-of-course exams and before the end of school. The unit may take two to five 50-minute periods, depending on how many activities are completed.

  8. Ruptured high flow gastric varices with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration during temporary balloon occlusion of a hepatic artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motoki Nakai; Morio Sato; Hirohiko Tanihata; Tetsuo Sonomura; Shinya Sahara; Nobuyuki Kawai; Masashi Kimura; Masaki Terada

    2006-01-01

    A patient presented with hematemesis due to gastric variceal bleeding with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed gastric varices and hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombi in the right portal vein. Angiography and angio-CT revealed a marked intratumoral arterioportal shunt accompanied with reflux into the main portal vein and gastric varices. Balloon-occluded retrograde venography from the gastro-renal shunt showed no visualization of gastric varices due to rapid blood flow through the intratumoral arterioportal shunt. The hepatic artery was temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter to reduce the blood flow through the arterioportal shunt, and then concurrent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) was achieved. Vital signs stabilized immediately thereafter, and contrast-enhanced CT revealed thrombosed gastric varices. Worsening of hepatic function was not recognized. BRTO combined with temporary occlusion of the hepatic artery is a feasible interventional procedure for ruptured high flow gastric varices with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt.

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal screening of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; van Ballegooijen, M; Buskens, E; Kleibeuker, JK; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; Menko, FH; Khan, PM

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. It has been estimated that the prevalence of carriers of a mutated mismatch repair (MMR) gene among the general population in Western countries is between 5 and 50 per 10,000. These carriers have a risk of >85% of developing colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and therefore need careful follow-up

  10. Expression of glutamine synthetase in balloon cells: a basis of their antiepileptic role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Barba, Carmen; Giordano, Flavio; Baroni, Gianna; Genitori, Lorenzo; Guerrini, Renzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase is an enzyme involved in the clearance of glutamate, the most potent excitatory neurotransmitter. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of glutamine synthetase in neocortical samples from 5 children who underwent surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy and a histological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia IIb. In all cases, balloon cells, but not dysmorphic neurons, were immunopositive for glutamine synthetase. This finding suggests that balloon cells can be involved in the neutralization of glutamate and play a protective anti-seizure role.

  11. Variceal bleeding from ileum identified and treated by single balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Traina; Ilaria Tarantino; Luca Barresi; Filippo Mocciaro

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acute uncontrolled gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with liver cirrhosis. The upper and lower endoscopy were negative for bleeding lesions. We decided to perform the examination of the small bowel using single-balloon enteroscopy. The lower enteroscopy revealed signs of bleeding from varices of the ileum. In this report, we showed that the injection of a sclerosant solution can be accomplished using a freehand technique via the single balloon enteroscopy.

  12. Balloon-assisted guide catheter positioning to overcome extreme cervical carotid tortuosity: technique and case experience

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Lissa; Fiorella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and significance We describe a method by which to efficiently and atraumatically achieve distal positioning of a flexible guiding catheter beyond extreme cervical tortuosity using a hypercompliant temporary occlusion balloon. Methods A retrospective review of a prospective neuroendovascular database was used to identify cases in which a hypercompliant balloon catheter (Hyperform or Hyperglide, ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA; Scepter or Scepter XC, Alisa Viejo, California, US...

  13. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  14. Identification of cerebral response to balloon distention of the bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi; Suyama; Yoshihiro; Kubokawa; Yuuji; Matsumura; Koichi; Inami; Sumio; Watanabe; Eiji; Kirino

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To identify the brain loci that process human biliary sensation. METHODS: In 6 patients (age range: 42-74 years; 4 men), who underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), the distal biliary tract was stimulated by repeatedly inflating the balloon of the PTBD catheter so that it reached volumes that produced a definite painless sensation. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the cortical response to biliary sensation was examined. RESULTS: Biliary balloon stimulation elicit...

  15. Balloon-guided navigation technique to perform stenting in an acutely angled anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The complex anatomic features of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms represent an endovascular challenge. Compliant balloons and microstents are frequently required to achieve aneurysm occlusion. When the angle between the A1 and A2 segments is acute, microcatheter navigation is hazardous, and may be difficult or sometimes impossible with standard techniques. We present our technique using a support balloon to facilitate guidewire engagement and navigation of A2, and to assist with microcatheterization in this unfavorable vascular anatomy.

  16. Current-diffusive ballooning mode in low shear and negative shear regions of tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the current-diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks with high toroidal mode number is analyzed in the region of second stability against the ideal magnetohydrodynamic mode. It is found that the growth rate of the current-diffusive ballooning mode is decreased upon the reduction of the geodesic curvature driving force. The reduction of thermal conductivity in the limit of very weak shear or negative shear in comparison with standard shear is also shown. (author).

  17. Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment of Very Late Stent Thrombosis Due to Complicated Neoatherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Rivero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We describe the treatment of a patient presenting with very-late stent thrombosis with the use of a drug-coated balloon. In this patient, optical coherence tomography disclosed that ruptured and complicated neoatherosclerosis was the underlying substrate responsible for the episode of very-late stent thrombosis. The potential use of drug-coated balloons in this unique scenario is discussed. PMID:27409130

  18. Turbulence fluxes and variances measured with a sonic anemometer mounted on a tethered balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Canut, Guylaine; Couvreux, Fleur; Lothon, Marie; Legain, Dominique; Piguet, Bruno; Lampert, Astrid; Maurel, William; Moulin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first deployment in field campaigns of a balloon-borne turbulence probe, developed with a sonic anemometer and an inertial motion sensor suspended below a tethered balloon. This system measures temperature and horizontal and vertical wind at high frequency and allows the estimation of heat and momentum fluxes as well as turbulent kinetic energy in the lower part of the boundary layer. The system was validated during three field experiments with differ...

  19. Drug-eluting balloon catheters for lower limb peripheral arterial disease: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Barkat,1 Francesco Torella,1 George A Antoniou2 1Liverpool Vascular and Endovascular Service, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, 2Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, The Royal Oldham Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK Abstract: A significant proportion of patients with severe lower limb peripheral arterial disease require revascularization. Over the past decade, an endovascular-first approach even for complex disease has gained widespread use among vascular specialists. An important limitation of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or stenting remains the occurrence of restenosis. Drug-coated balloons have emerged as an exciting technology developed to overcome the limitations of standard balloon angioplasty and stenting. Drug-eluting devices inhibit neointimal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells with the potential of preventing restenosis. This review provides a synopsis of the up-to-date evidence on the role of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of lower limb peripheral arterial disease. Bibliographic searches were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Eleven randomized clinical trials, two systematic reviews, and a published registry providing the best available evidence were identified. Current evidence suggests that angioplasty with drug-coated balloon is reliable, safe, and efficient in increasing patency rates and reducing target lesion revascularization and restenosis. However, it remains unknown whether these improved results can translate into beneficial clinical outcomes, as current randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a significant benefit in limb salvage and mortality. Further randomized trials focusing on clinical and functional outcomes of drug-eluting balloons and on cost versus clinical benefit are required. Keywords: drug-eluting balloon, drug-coated balloon, angioplasty, peripheral arterial

  20. Limited endoscopic sphincterotomy plus large balloon dilation for choledocholithiasis with periampullary diverticula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung; Wook; Kim; Dae; Hwan; Kang; Cheol; Woong; Choi; Jong; Hwan; Park; Jin; Ho; Lee; Min; Dae; Kim; Il; Doo; Kim; Ki; Tae; Yoon; Mong; Cho; Ung; Bae; Jeon; Suk; Kim; Chang; Won; Kim; Jun; Woo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus large balloon dilation (LBD) for removing choledocholithiasis in patients with periampullary diverticula (PAD). METHODS: A total of 139 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones were treated with LBD (10-20 mm balloon diameter) after limited EST. Of this total, 73 patients had PAD and 66 patients did not have PAD (controls). The results of stone removal and complications were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS...

  1. Comparative study of proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and a balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Gasset, G.; Planel, H. (Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse-Purpan (France))

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlesness in the biological responses are discussed.

  2. FIREBALL: the Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon: overview and first science flight results

    OpenAIRE

    Milliard, Bruno; Martin, D. Christopher; Schiminovich, David; Evrard, Jean; Matuszewski, Matt; Rahman, Shahinur; Tuttle, Sarah; McLean, Ryan; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Mirc, Frederi; Grange, Robert; Chave, Robert

    2010-01-01

    FIREBALL (the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon) is a balloon-borne 1m telescope coupled to an ultraviolet fiber-fed spectrograph. FIREBALL is designed to study the faint and diffuse emission of the intergalactic medium, until now detected primarily in absorption. FIREBALL is a path finding mission to test new technology and make new constraints on the temperature and density of this gas. We report on the first successful science flight of FIREBALL, in June 2009, which proved ev...

  3. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ~30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study in the orographically unperturbed mid-latitude middle troposphere.

  4. Environmental effects of the US Antarctic Program`s use of balloons in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCold, L.N.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Blasing, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The USAP uses balloons in Antarctica to conduct scientific research, to facilitate safe air transport, and to provide data for global weather predictions. However, there is the possibility that balloons or their payloads may adversely affect Antarctic fauna or flora. The purpose of this study is to provide background information upon which the USAP may draw when complying with its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Madrid Protocol.

  5. Balloon-expandable covered stent therapy of complex endovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Heath; Lesar, Christopher; Erdoes, Luke; Sprouse, Richard; Myers, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate our hypotheses that balloon-expandable covered stents display acceptable function over longitudinal follow-up in patients with complex vascular pathology and provide a suitable alternative for the treatment of recurrent in-stent restenosis. All stents were Atrium iCast, which is a balloon-mounted, polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent with a 6F/7F delivery system. A retrospective review was performed of 49 patients with 66 stented lesions. Data were analyzed with life tables and t-tests. The most commonly treated vessels were the iliac (61%) and renal (24%) arteries. Indications for covered stent placement were unstable atheromatous lesions (50%), recurrent in-stent restenosis (24%), aneurysm (8%), aortic bifurcation reconstruction (7.5%), dissection (4.5%), endovascular aneurysm repair-related (4.5%), and stent fracture (1.5%). Patency was assessed by angiogram or duplex ultrasonography. The primary end point was patency and secondary end points were technical success and access-site complications. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1.5-25). The technical success rate was 97%. Unsuccessful outcomes were due to deployment error (n=1) and stent malpositioning (n=1). The cohort (n=64) 6- and 12-month primary patency rates were 96% and 84%, respectively. Twelve-month assisted primary patency was 98%. Iliac artery stents (n=38) had a primary patency of 97% at 6 months and 84% at 12 months with an assisted primary patency of 100% at 12 months. Renal artery stents (n=16) had a primary patency of 92% at 6 months and 72% at 12 months with an assisted primary patency of 92% at 6 and 12 months. Stents placed for recurrent in-stent restenosis (n=16) had a primary patency of 85%, assisted primary patency of 93%, and a 15% restenosis rate at 12 months. Specifically, stents placed for renal artery recurrent in-stent restenosis (n=10) had a primary patency of 73%, assisted primary patency of 82%, and a restenosis rate of 27%. The

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy using an intraductal anchoring balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour A Parsi; Tyler Stevens; John J Vargo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To report our experience using a recently introduced anchoring balloon for diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPOC).METHODS:Consecutive patients referred for diagnostic or therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy were evaluated in a prospective cohort study.The patients underwent DPOC using an intraductal anchoring balloon,which was recently introduced to allow consistent access to the biliary tree with an ultraslim upper endoscope.The device was later voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer.RESULTS:Fourteen patients underwent DPOC using the anchoring balloon.Biliary access with an ultraslim upper endoscope was accomplished in all 14 patients.In 12 (86%) patients,ductal access required sphincteroplasty with a 10-mm dilating balloon.Intraductal placement of the ultraslim upper endoscope allowed satisfactory visualization of the biliary mucosa to the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts in 13 of 14 patients (93%).Therapeutic interventions by DPOC were successfully completed in all five attempted cases (intraductal biopsy in one and DPOC guided laser lithotripsy in four).Adverse events occurred in a patient on immunosuppressive therapy who developed an intrahepatic biloma at the site of the anchoring balloon.This required hospitalization and antibiotics.Repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 8 wk after the index procedure showed resolution of the biloma.CONCLUSION:Use of this anchoring balloon allowed consistent access to the biliary tree for performance of diagnostic and therapeutic DPOC distal to the biliary bifurcation.

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Balloon Dilation for Acquired Subglottic Stenosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Filiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Balloon dilation laryngoplasty has been suggested as an alternative treatment to open surgical treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children. We describe long-term outcomes of balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis in children. Methods. The medical charts of children who had balloon dilation for subglottic stenosis secondary to intubation were reviewed. Data included demographics, relevant history and physical examination, diagnostic workup, and management. Outcomes of balloon dilation were assessed based on improvement in preoperative symptoms, grading of stenosis, complications, and need for additional procedures. Results. Three children (2 male, 1 female, age range: 14 weeks–1 year underwent balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis. Patients presented with stridor and increased work of breathing. Duration of intubation ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. Patients became symptomatic 5 days to 6 weeks after extubation. Grade of subglottic stenosis was II in 2 patients and III in one. Subglottic stenosis patients had 2-3 dilations within 2–10 weeks. All patients were asymptomatic during 14–21-month follow-up. Conclusions. Serial balloon dilation was safe and successful method to manage acquired subglottic stenosis in this group of children. No recurrence was noted in a follow-up more than a year after resolution of symptoms.

  8. Long-term outcomes of balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Aliye; Ulualp, Seckin O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Balloon dilation laryngoplasty has been suggested as an alternative treatment to open surgical treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children. We describe long-term outcomes of balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis in children. Methods. The medical charts of children who had balloon dilation for subglottic stenosis secondary to intubation were reviewed. Data included demographics, relevant history and physical examination, diagnostic workup, and management. Outcomes of balloon dilation were assessed based on improvement in preoperative symptoms, grading of stenosis, complications, and need for additional procedures. Results. Three children (2 male, 1 female, age range: 14 weeks-1 year) underwent balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis. Patients presented with stridor and increased work of breathing. Duration of intubation ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. Patients became symptomatic 5 days to 6 weeks after extubation. Grade of subglottic stenosis was II in 2 patients and III in one. Subglottic stenosis patients had 2-3 dilations within 2-10 weeks. All patients were asymptomatic during 14-21-month follow-up. Conclusions. Serial balloon dilation was safe and successful method to manage acquired subglottic stenosis in this group of children. No recurrence was noted in a follow-up more than a year after resolution of symptoms.

  9. Integrating Balloon and Satellite Operation Data Centers for Technology Readiness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello-Francisco, Fátima; Fernandes, Jose Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric balloon-borne experiments have been one of the most effective ways to validate innovative space technology, taking the advantage of reduced development cycles and low cost in launching and operation. In Brazil, the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has balloon and satellite ground infrastructures since the 1970´s and the 1990´s, respectively. In the recent past, a strategic approach was adopted on the modernization of balloon ground operation facilities for supporting the protoMIRAX experiment, an X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The strategic target was to reuse the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software framework developed to control and monitor INPÉs satellites, for balloon operation. This paper presents the results of that effort and the new ongoing project, a computer-based framework named I2Bso, which strategic target is to Integrate INPÉs Balloon and Satellite Operation data centers. The I2Bso major purpose is to support the continuous assessment of an innovative technology after different qualification flights either on board balloons or satellites in order to acquire growing evidence for the technology maturity.

  10. Drug-eluting balloon catheters for lower limb peripheral arterial disease: the evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkat, Mohamed; Torella, Francesco; Antoniou, George A

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with severe lower limb peripheral arterial disease require revascularization. Over the past decade, an endovascular-first approach even for complex disease has gained widespread use among vascular specialists. An important limitation of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or stenting remains the occurrence of restenosis. Drug-coated balloons have emerged as an exciting technology developed to overcome the limitations of standard balloon angioplasty and stenting. Drug-eluting devices inhibit neointimal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells with the potential of preventing restenosis. This review provides a synopsis of the up-to-date evidence on the role of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of lower limb peripheral arterial disease. Bibliographic searches were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Eleven randomized clinical trials, two systematic reviews, and a published registry providing the best available evidence were identified. Current evidence suggests that angioplasty with drug-coated balloon is reliable, safe, and efficient in increasing patency rates and reducing target lesion revascularization and restenosis. However, it remains unknown whether these improved results can translate into beneficial clinical outcomes, as current randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a significant benefit in limb salvage and mortality. Further randomized trials focusing on clinical and functional outcomes of drug-eluting balloons and on cost versus clinical benefit are required. PMID:27274265

  11. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  12. "ASSESSMENT OF BALLOON VALVULOPLASTY IN COMPARISON WITH SURGICAL VALVOTOMY FOR CONGENITAL AORTIC STENOSIS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Akbari Asbagh A. Shahmohammadi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Soon after successful results of balloon valvuloplasty in treatment of congenital pulmonary stenosis, use of this technique for relief of congenital aortic stenosis (AS was attempted in different parts of the world. With the purpose of assessment the value of valvuloplasty in comparison with surgical valvotomy in relief of congenital AS, we retrospectively studied 115 patients with valvar AS, 48 of whom underwent balloon valvuloplasty (mean age 9.63 years, and 67 subjected to surgical aortic valvotomy (mean age 10.32 years, in a six year period from 1991 to 1997 at Rajaie heart hospital. Comparison of balloon valvuloplasty with surgical valvotomy revealed that reduction in the mean pressure gradient in balloon valvuloplasty group was greater than those subjected to surgical valvotomy (73.54 vs. 45.03 mmHg, P < 0.0001. Decreased incidence of aortic insufficiency and mortality in balloon valvuloplasty in comparison with surgical valvotomy are other notable points in this study. Although it is difficult to compare the results of the two procedures and determine their different indications, our successful experience with balloon valvuloplasty for congenital AS and the safety of this procedure encourage us to use this technique for the patients with congenital AS more than ever. These results must be supported by future studies.

  13. [A new balloon-expandable plastic endoprosthesis. Initial report of experience with the malleable thermostent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A

    1990-07-01

    A new system of balloon-expandable stents for different purposes is presented. A special plastic material that can be shaped by a hot balloon technique or other internal or external heating modalities has been developed. The plastic material - a distant derivative of polyurethane - is caprolactone, which is soft from 52 degrees C to 70 degrees C. Using balloon techniques, the "thermo-stent" can be modeled to suit the form of the vessels, the bile ducts or the bronchial tree, as required. The balloon can be heated simply by means of a warm NaCl solution, electric matter in the balloon itself or microwaves. The plastic material can even be heated directly, which is especially beneficial if the stent needs to be thicker, e.g. in the bronchial tree, by an electric network within the plastic material, which heats the material to the necessary temperature by electric current. When the balloon is cooled after the dilatation the new form, the plastic has been modeled to is maintained exactly. The advantages of this thermo-stent will be the perfect adaptation to every individual situation in the intraluminal vessels, the bile ducts, and even the bronchi. The problems encountered hitherto with conventional metallic stents, e.g. high thrombogenicity, risk of metal intoxication or metallic rupture of filaments, have not be seen so far in animal experiments.

  14. Significant skin burns may occur with the use of a water balloon in HIFU treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert; Collin, Jamie; Wu, Feng; Coussios, Constantin; Leslie, Tom; Cranston, David

    2012-10-01

    HIFU is a minimally-invasive therapy suitable for treating selected intra-abdominal tumors. Treatment is safe although skin burns may occur due to pre-focal heating. HIFU treatment of a renal transplant tumor located in the left lower abdomen was undertaken in our centre. Treatment was performed prone, requiring displacement of the abdominal wall away from the treatment field using a water balloon, constructed of natural rubber latex and filled with degassed water. Intra-operatively, ultrasound imaging and physical examination of the skin directly over the focal region was normal. Immediately post-operative, a full-thickness skin burn was evident at the periphery of the balloon location, outside the expected HIFU path. Three possibilities may account for this complication. Firstly, the water balloon may have acted as a lens, focusing the HIFU to a neo-focus off axis. Secondly, air bubbles may have been entrapped between the balloon and the skin, causing heating at the interface. Finally, heating of the isolated water within the balloon may have been sufficient to cause burning. In this case, the placement of a water balloon caused a significant skin burn. Care should be taken in their use as burns, situated off axis, may occur even if the overlying skin appears normal.

  15. Status of balloon production for KamLAND-Zen 800 kg phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, S.

    2017-02-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν 2 β) search with 136Xe, based on the large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. KamLAND-Zen includes 16.5 m3 xenon loaded liquid scintillator in a 3.16 m diameter nylon balloon (inner-balloon) with 25 μm wall thickness. KamLAND-Zen 400 (383 kg 136Xe used) released a lower limit on the 0 ν 2 β half-life of 136Xe. However, the sensitivity is limited by the contamination of radioactive backgrounds from the inner-balloon. Then, we planned KamLAND-Zen 800, upgrading the detector with a new inner-balloon of 3.84 m diameter with 800 kg 136Xe and 31.4 m3 liquid scintillator. We present the current status of KamLAND-Zen, the new mini-balloon construction and methods to avoid background contaminations. In addition, the development of a scintillating balloon for future upgrades in order to remove the radioactive decay chain daughter nuclei bismuth is also introduced.

  16. Dosimetry of charged and neutral particles onboard a stratospheric balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönsdorf, Esther Miriam; Burmeister, Soenke; Heber, Bernd; Benton, Eric; Berger, Thomas

    The interaction of the primary galactic cosmic rays with constituents of the atmosphere leads to a complex secondary radiation field at high altitudes. Of special interest for aviation and thereby also for radiation protection is the height up to 30 km where the radiation field consists of charged and neutral particles. For the determination of the dose rates up to this altitude in the Earth's atmosphere a stratopheric balloon flight will be performed in central Oklahoma which has a cutoff rigidity of about 4 GV. Onboard there will be two different active radiation detector systems to measure the dose of charged and neutral particles in the stratosphere. The first one is a silicon telescope which consists of two 2 cm2 silicon PIN-photodiodes used as semiconductor detectors. This instrument will mainly be used to measure the charged component of the radiation field due to the fact that the silicon detectors have a rather low efficiency for the detection of neutrons and gammas with energies higher than 60 keV. The second instrument is a so called phoswich detector. It is composed of two dissimilar scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a common photomultiplier tube. For this experimental setup a combination of a fast plastic scintillator BC412 and a slow inorganic scintillator CsI(Na) is used. The pulses from the two scintillators will be separated by applying pulse shape analysis. These two different scintillator materials have been chosen because BC412 is hydrogen rich and thus the cross section for fast neutrons is relatively high and CsI(Na) has a high cross section for gamma radiation. The objective of the phoswich detector is to distinguish between gammas and neutrons but it is also possible to measure charged particles with this setup. The aim of the balloon flight is to determine the dose measured with these two different instruments and in particular to differentiate between the dose induced by charged particles and by the different neutral

  17. Epigenetics in diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aga Syed Sameer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a third most common epithelial carcinoma. CRC is known to develop from the early precancerous lesion to full blown malignancy via definite phases due to cumulative mutations and aberrant methylation of number of genes. The use of serum biomarkers that is non-invasive to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons will prove to be an important tool to improve the early diagnosis of CRC. This will serve as the boon to the clinical management of the disease.

  18. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Luca

    2011-06-01

    The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described.

  19. Towards a multiscale model of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingeborg MM van Leeuwen; Carina M Edwards; Mohammad Ilyas; Helen M Byrne

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the best characterised cancers, with extensive data documenting the sequential gene mutations that underlie its development.Complementary datasets are also being generated describing changes in protein and RNA expression,tumour biology and clinical outcome. Both the quantity and the variety of information are inexorably increasing and there is now an accompanying need to integrate these highly disparate datasets. In this article we aim to explain why we believe that mathematical modelling represents a natural tool or language with which to integrate these data and, in so doing, to provide insight into CRC.

  20. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; E; Norton; Kirsten; A; Ward-Hartstonge; Edward; S; Taylor; Roslyn; A; Kemp

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, par-ticularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship betweencancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment.

  1. Pharmacogenomics of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Nicola; Vincenzi, Bruno; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Loupakis, Fotious; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Russo, Antonio; Scartozzi, Mario; Giampieri, Riccardo; Cascinu, Stefano; Lorusso, Vito; Tonini, Giuseppe; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    Cetuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie its effectiveness, as well as the primary and secondary resistance mechanisms, have led to important developments in the understanding of cetuximab biology. In light of knowledge gained from recent trials, the efficacy of cetuximab has been clearly demonstrated to depend upon RAS mutational status, moreover cetuximab should only be used in a subset of patients who may benefit. In this article, we critically review clinical and pharmacogenetic issues of cetuximab, focusing on the cost-effectiveness involved with the use of the drug.

  2. Colorectal cancer prognosis twenty years later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Cristina; Sarasqueta; Elisabeth; Hijona; Lander; Hijona; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Jose; Luis; Elorza; Jose; I; Asensio; Santiago; Larburu; José; M; Enríquez-Navascués; Rodrigo; Jover; Francesc; Balaguer; Xavier; Llor; Xavier; Bessa; Montserrat; Andreu; Artemio; Paya; Antoni; Castells; Gastrointestinal; Oncology; Group; of; the; Spanish; Gastroenterological; Association

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate changes in colorectal cancer(CRC) survival over the last 20 years.METHODS:We compared two groups of consecutive CRC patients that were prospectively recruited:Group Ⅰincluded 1990 patients diagnosed between 1980 and 1994.GroupⅡincluded 871 patients diagnosed in 2001.RESULTS:The average follow up time was 21 mo(1-229)for GroupⅠand 50 mo(1-73.4)for GroupⅡ.Overall median survival was significantly longer in Group Ⅱthan in GroupⅠ(73 mo vs 25 mo,P<0.001)and the difference was significant for all ...

  3. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L;

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... and lymph node metastases were analyzed. Cytogenetic similarities between the primary and secondary lesions were found in all 5 cases, indicating that many of the chromosomal aberrations presumably occurred before disease spreading took place. Compared with the primaries, the metastases appeared to exhibit...

  4. EBEX: A balloon-borne CMB polarization experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Ade, Peter; Aubin, Françcois; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grain, Julien; Grainger, William; Hanany, Shaul; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Meng, Xiaofan; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Pascale, Enzo; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Stivoli, Federico; Stompor, Radek; Tran, Huan; Tristram, Matthieu; Tucker, Gregory S; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations will be made using 1432 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric detectors read out with frequency multiplexed SQuIDs. EBEX will observe in three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, with 768, 384, and 280 detectors in each band, respectively. This broad frequency coverage is designed to provide valuable information about polarized foreground signals from dust. The polarized sky signals will be modulated with an achromatic half wave plate (AHWP) rotating on a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and analyzed with a fixed wire grid polarizer. EBEX will observe a patch covering ~1% of the sky with 8' resolution, allowing for observation of the angular power spectrum from \\ell = 20 to 1000. This will allow EBEX to search for both the primordial B-mode signal predicted by inflation and the anticipated lensing B-mode signal. Calculations to predict EBEX constrain...

  5. Proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia in balloon-borne experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Rousseille, R.; Planel, H.

    1982-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effect of cosmic radiation, at a balloon-flight ceiling of about 36,500 m (120,000 ft) on single-cell organism proliferation. Paramecium tetraurelia were placed in air-tight containers and maintained at 25 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C. Cellular growth was determined by cell count, either after recovery or during the flight, by means of an automatic fixation device. Dosimetry was performed by a tissue equivalent proportional counter and was of about 0.5 mrad/h. Flight ceiling duration ranged from 48 min - 22 h. A secondary stimulating effect of growth rate, preceded by a temporary decrease, was observed after recovery. Because of the high bacterial concentration in the trans-Mediterranean flight culture medium, the temporary drop of the growth rate, due to the radiolysis products, disappears. Researchers consider that the stimulating effect can be the result of enzymatic intracellular scavenging of radiolysis products generated in the cell.

  6. Understanding cosmic rays with Balloon and Space Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozza, P., E-mail: piergiorgio.picozza@roma2.infn.it [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Physics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Di Felice, V. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Measurements of cosmic rays provide important information on their sources and on the mechanisms of acceleration and propagation of cosmic particles through the Galaxy. Positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays are also the major candidates for searching signals from annihilation of dark matter and contributions from other exotic sources as nearby pulsars. Many balloon-borne experiments have been performed since the sixties, obtaining important results that strongly suggested the realization of the PAMELA and Fermi satellite missions, the latter mainly for gamma rays, and AMS-02 on the ISS. The precision of the measurements and the high statistics highlighted unexpected features in the cosmic particle energy spectra that are setting strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter and are contributing to change our basic vision of their origin and propagation. The continuous particle detection in space experiments is allowing a constant monitoring of the solar activity and detailed study of the solar modulation for a long period, giving important improvements to the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms.

  7. Particle and thermal transport due to drift resistive ballooning modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, T.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2009-11-01

    The ion-temperature-gradient and trapped electron modes are primary candidates for producing the turbulence that drives anomalous transport in the core of magnetically confined plasmas. The situation at the edge is different. Since the edge plasma is influenced strongly by collisions, it is expected that resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) are an important driver of turbulence in the edge region. In this work, a new advanced RBM model [1] is tested as a function of plasma parameters. In this model, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used together with a quasi-linear mixing length estimate to determine fluxes and diffusivities. Particle and thermal transport coefficients are investigated in systematic scans over plasma density, density gradient, electron and ion temperature gradients, magnetic q, collisions, magnetic shear, finite Larmor radius effects, and pressure gradient. In the low temperature plasma region, it is found that RBM diffusivities increase with increasing density gradient, magnetic q, and collisionality.[4pt] [1] T. Rafiq, et al, poster at this APS meeting

  8. Right ventricular function before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, W; Brinkies, C; Illert, S; Teupe, C; Kneissl, G D; Schräder, R

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricular performance in patients with mitral stenosis and its modification by balloon valvuloplasty. Right ventricular volumes of 24 patients with postrheumatic mitral stenosis were determined by thermodilution 1 or 2 days before and 1 or 2 days after valvuloplasty. Right ventricular ejection fraction at rest was 43 (36-47)% (median and interquartile range). Right ventricular end-diastolic volume was 100 (86-119) ml/m2. Supine bicycle exercise (50 Watt) reduced right ventricular ejection fraction to 30 (29-37)% (P volume to 124 (112-141) ml/m2 (P improvement of right ventricular ejection fraction correlated inversely with the value of this parameter before valvuloplasty (r = -0.88, P volume (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). The right ventricular function curve, disturbed before commissurotomy, was reestablished by the procedure. In conclusion, at the here investigated stage of mitral stenosis right ventricular function is reversibly impaired. This is predominantly caused by the hemodynamic consequences of the valvular defect and not by an impairment of right ventricular myocardial function.

  9. Pointing control for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Shariff, Jamil A; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven J; Bock, Jamie J; Bond, J Richard; Bryan, Sean A; Chiang, H Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo R; Crill, Brendan P; Doré, Olivier P; Farhang, Marzieh; Filippini, Jeffrey P; Fissel, Laura M; Fraisse, Aurelien A; Gambrel, Anne E; Gandilo, Natalie N; Golwala, Sunil R; Gudmundsson, Jon E; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene C; Holmes, Warren A; Hristov, Viktor V; Irwin, Kent D; Jones, William C; Kermish, Zigmund D; Kuo, Chao-Lin; MacTavish, Carolyn J; Mason, Peter V; Megerian, Krikor G; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Morford, Tracy A; Nagy, Johanna M; Netterfield, C Barth; O'Brient, Roger; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Reintsema, Carl D; Ruhl, John E; Runyan, Marcus C; Soler, Juan D; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Rebecca S; Turner, Anthony D; Weber, Alexis C; Wiebe, Donald V; Young, Edward Y

    2014-01-01

    We present the technology and control methods developed for the pointing system of the SPIDER experiment. SPIDER is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to detect the imprint of primordial gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. We describe the two main components of the telescope's azimuth drive: the reaction wheel and the motorized pivot. A 13 kHz PI control loop runs on a digital signal processor, with feedback from fibre optic rate gyroscopes. This system can control azimuthal speed with < 0.02 deg/s RMS error. To control elevation, SPIDER uses stepper-motor-driven linear actuators to rotate the cryostat, which houses the optical instruments, relative to the outer frame. With the velocity in each axis controlled in this way, higher-level control loops on the onboard flight computers can implement the pointing and scanning observation modes required for the experiment. We have accomplished the non-trivial task of scanning a 5000 lb payload sinusoidally in az...

  10. CdZnTe Background Measurement at Balloon Altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Narita, T; Harrison, F

    1998-01-01

    We report results of an experiment conducted in May 1997 to measure CdZnTe background and background reduction schemes in space flight conditions similar to those of proposed hard X-ray astrophysics missions. A 1 cm^2 CdZnTe detector was placed adjacent to a thick BGO anticoincidence shield and flown piggybacked onto the EXITE2 scientific balloon payload. The planar shield was designed to veto background countsproduced by local gamma-ray production in passive material and neutron interactions in the detector. The CdZnTe and BGO were partially surrounded by a Pb-Sn-Cu shield to approximate the grammage of an X-ray collimator, although the field of view was still ~2 pi sr. At an altitude of 127000 feet we find a reduction in background by a factor of 6 at 100 keV. The non-vetoed background is 9 X 10^{-4} cts /cm^2-sec-keV at 100 keV, about a factor of 2 higher than that of the collimated (4.5 deg FWHM) EXITE2 phoswich detector. We compare our recorded spectrum with that expected from simulations using GEANT and...

  11. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, E; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Marsden, G; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Mauskopf, P; Netterfield, C B; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Wiebe, D V

    2007-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 micron. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 micron. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~<5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. Since a test-flight in ...

  12. Expression of Obesity Hormone Leptin in Human Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-chun Cong; Xian-wei Dai; Ming-yang Shen; Jun-jiang Wang; Chun-sheng Chen; Hong Zhang; Lei Qiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The obesity hormone, leptin, has been found to participate in the development and proliferation of normal and malignant tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of leptin in human colorectal cancer.Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured via ABC-ELLSA in 30 colorectal cancers and 24 normal controls. Leptin concentration in colorectal cancer was analyzed in terms of selected clinicopathological features and some oncogenes.Results: The mean concentration of leptin was significantly higher for colorectal cancers(3.54±1.46 ng/ml) than normal controls(2.27±0.99 ng/ml), no gender difference was observed in this study. Leptin expression in poorly differentiated tumors was obviously lower than those in moderately and well differentiated tumors. There were no statistically significant correlations between leptin and the serum CEA and CA199 in colorectal cancers (P>0.05), and between leptin and the expressions of K-RAS, P53, APC, DCC genes in tumor tissues (P>0.05).Conclusion: Leptin is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer, which is related to the differentiation degrees of the tumor. There is no correlation between leptin expression and chages of oncogenes in colorectal cancers.

  13. Role of colonic microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borges-Canha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The human colonic mucosa is populated by a wide range of microorganisms, usually in a symbiotic relation with the host. Sometimes this balance is lost and a state of dysbiosis arises, exposing the colon to different metabolic and inflammatory stimuli (according to the microbiota's changing profile. Recent findings lead to hypothesize that this unbalance may create a subclinical pro-inflammatory state that increases DNA mutations and, therefore, colorectal carcinogenesis. In this article we aim to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding colonic microbiota and its role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Systematic review of PubMed searching results for original articles studying microbiota and colorectal cancer until November 2014. Results: Thirty-one original articles studied the role of colon microbiota in colorectal carcinoma including both human and animal studies. Different and heterogeneous methods were used and different bacteria were considered. Nevertheless, some bacteria are consistently augmented (such as Fusobacteria, Alistipes, Porphyromonadaceae, Coriobacteridae, Staphylococcaceae, Akkermansia spp. and Methanobacteriales, while other are constantly diminished in colorectal cancer (such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium spp., Roseburia, and Treponema. Moreover, bacteria metabolites amino acids are increased and butyrate is decreased throughout colonic carcinogenesis. Conclusion: Conclusive evidence shows that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with microbial dysbiosis. This information may be used to create new prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer.

  14. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: lifestyle, nutrition, exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have provided a vast amount of literature related to the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Large international variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and the prominent increases in the incidence of colorectal cancer in groups that migrated from low- to high-incidence areas provided important evidence that lifestyle factors influence the development of this malignancy. Moreover, there is convincing evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that dietary intake is an important etiological factor in colorectal neoplasia. Although the precise mechanisms have not been clarified, several lifestyle factors are likely to have a major impact on colorectal cancer development. Physical inactivity and to a lesser extent, excess body weight, are consistent risk factors for colon cancer. Exposure to tobacco products early in life is associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Diet and nutritional factors are also clearly important. Diets high in red and processed meat increase risk. Excess alcohol consumption, probably in combination with a diet low in some micronutrients such as folate and methionine, appear to increase risk. There is also recent evidence supporting a protective effect of calcium and vitamin D in the etiology of colorectal neoplasia. The relationship between intake of dietary fiber and risk of colon cancer has been studied for three decades but the results are still inconclusive. However, some micronutrients or phytochemicals in fiber-rich foods may be important; folic acid is one such micronutrient that has been shown to protect against the development of colorectal neoplasia and is currently being studied in intervention trials of adenoma recurrence. The overwhelming evidence indicates that primary prevention of colon cancer is feasible. Continued focus on primary prevention of colorectal cancer, in combination with efforts aimed at screening and surveillance, will be vital in

  15. Development of a Federally Funded Demonstration Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Royalty, MS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among U.S. adults. In 2004, treatment costs for colorectal cancer were $8.4 billion.There is substantial evidence that colorectal cancer incidence and mortality are reduced with regular screening. The natural history of this disease is also well described: most colorectal cancers develop slowly from preexisting polyps. This slow development provides an opportunity to intervene with screening tests, which can either prevent colorectal cancer through the removal of polyps or detect it at an early stage. However, much less is known about how best to implement an effective colorectal cancer screening program. Screening rates are low, and uninsured persons, low-income persons, and persons who have not visited a physician within a year are least likely to be screened.Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has 15 years of experience supporting the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program for the underserved population, a similar national program for colorectal cancer is not in place. To explore the feasibility of implementing a national program for the underserved U.S. population and to learn which settings and which program models are most viable and cost-effective, CDC began a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration program in 2005.This article describes briefly this demonstration program and the process CDC used to design it and to select program sites. The multiple-methods evaluation now under way to assess the program’s feasibility and describe key outcomes is also detailed. Evaluation results will be used to inform future activities related to organized screening for colorectal cancer.

  16. [Overview of current modalities of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlíková, Ivana Mikoviny; Vítek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    There are one-step and two-steps programs for colorectal cancer screening. The aim of all screening examinations is to detect early stage of the disease in asymptomatic patient. The aim of this article is actual review of current screening modalities such as fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoideoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, blood-based tests and stool DNA tests. Colonoscopy still remains the gold standard for detection of colorectal neoplasias. In majority of countries worldwide programs for colorectal cancer screening are based on immunochemical fecal occult blood test followed by colonoscopy when positive.

  17. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P;

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI...... of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated...

  18. Application of new balloon catheters in the treatment of congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszer, Roland; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Smerdziński, Sebastian; Chodór, Beata; Białkowski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Balloon angioplasty (BAP) and aortic or pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (BAV, BPV) are well-established treatment options in congenital heart defects. Recently, significant technological progress has been made and new catheters have been implemented in clinical practice. Aim To analyze the results of BAP, BAV and BPV with the new balloon catheter Valver and its second generation Valver II, which the company Balton (Poland) launched and developed. These catheters have not been clinically evaluated yet. Material and methods We performed 64 interventions with Valver I and Valver II. With Valver I the following procedures were performed: 17 BPV (including 9 in tetralogy of Fallot – TOF), 10 BAV and 27 BAP in coarctations of the aorta (CoA) – including 9 native and 18 after surgery. With Valver II ten interventions were done – 3 BPV, 2 pulmonary supravalvular BAP (after switch operations), 2 BAP of recoarctations and 3 other BAP. Age of the patients ranged from a few days to 40 years. Results All procedures were completed successfully, without rupture of any balloon catheters. The pressure gradient drop was statistically significant in all groups: BPV in isolated pulmonary valvular stenosis 28.1 mm Hg (mean), BPV in TOF 18.7 mm Hg, BAV 32.8 mm Hg, BAP in native CoA 15.4 mm Hg and in recoarctations 18.6 mm Hg. In 3 cases during rapid deflation of Valver I, wrinkles of the balloons made it impossible to insert the whole balloon into the vascular sheath (all were removed surgically from the groin). No such complication occured with Valver II. Conclusions Valver balloon catheters are an effective treatment modality in different valvular and vascular stenoses. PMID:27625686

  19. KRAS mutation testing in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Tan; Xiang Du

    2012-01-01

    The KRAS oncogene is mutated in approximately 35%-45% of colorectal cancers,and KRAS mutational status testing has been highlighted in recent years.The most frequent mutations in this gene,point substitutions in codons 12 and 13,were validated as negative predictors of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies.Therefore,determining the KRAS mutational status of tumor samples has become an essential tool for managing patients with colorectal cancers.Currently,a variety of detection methods have been established to analyze the mutation status in the key regions of the KRAS gene; however,several challenges remain related to standardized and uniform testing,including the selection of tumor samples,tumor sample processing and optimal testing methods.Moreover,new testing strategies,in combination with the mutation analysis of BRAF,PIK3CA and loss of PTEN proposed by many researchers and pathologists,should be promoted.In addition,we recommend that microsatellite instability,a prognostic factor,be added to the abovementioned concomitant analysis.This review provides an overview of KRAS biology and the recent advances in KRAS mutation testing.This review also addresses other aspects of status testing for determining the appropriate treatment and offers insight into the potential drawbacks of mutational testing.

  20. Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Marchesi

    Full Text Available Multiple factors drive the progression from healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinomas and accumulating evidence associates intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a first high-resolution map of colonic dysbiosis that is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. To this purpose, the microbiomes colonizing colon tumor tissue and adjacent non-malignant mucosa were compared by deep rRNA sequencing. The results revealed striking differences in microbial colonization patterns between these two sites. Although inter-individual colonization in CRC patients was variable, tumors consistently formed a niche for Coriobacteria and other proposed probiotic bacterial species, while potentially pathogenic Enterobacteria were underrepresented in tumor tissue. As the intestinal microbiota is generally stable during adult life, these findings suggest that CRC-associated physiological and metabolic changes recruit tumor-foraging commensal-like bacteria. These microbes thus have an apparent competitive advantage in the tumor microenvironment and thereby seem to replace pathogenic bacteria that may be implicated in CRC etiology. This first glimpse of the CRC microbiome provides an important step towards full understanding of the dynamic interplay between intestinal microbial ecology and sporadic CRC, which may provide important leads towards novel microbiome-related diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

  1. Enhanced recovery for non-colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gravante Gianpiero; Elmussareh Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the advent of programs for enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) has led to modifications of long-standing and well-established perioperative treatments. These programs are used to target factors that have been shown to delay postoperative recovery (pain, gut dysfunction, immobility) and combine a series of interventions to reduce perioperative stress and organ dysfunction. With due differences, the programs of enhanced recovery are generally based on the preoperative amelioration of the patient's clinical conditions with whom they present for the operation, on the intraoperative and postoperative avoidance of medications that could slow the resumption of physiological activities, and on the promotion of positive habits in the early postoperative period. Most of the studies were conducted on elective patients undergoing colorectal procedures (either laparotomic or laparoscopic surgery). Results showed that ERAS protocols significantly improved the lung function and reduced the time to resumption of oral diet, mobilization and passage of stool, hospital stay and return to normal activities. ERAS' acceptance is spreading quickly among major centers, as well as district hospitals. With this in mind, is there also a role for ERAS in non-colorectal operations?

  2. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  3. Single incision laparoscopic colorectal resection: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A prospective case series of single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal resections for malignancy using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (seven men and four women with colonic or rectal pathology underwent single incision multiport laparoscopic colectomy/rectal resection from July till December 2010. Four trocars were placed in a single transumblical incision. The bowel was mobilized laparoscopically and vessels controlled intracorporeally with either intra or extracorporeal anastomosis. Results: Three patients had carcinoma in the caecum, one in the hepatic flexure, two in the rectosigmoid, one in the descending colon, two in the rectum and two had ulcerative pancolitis (one with high grade dysplasia and another with carcinoma rectum. There was no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. The median age was 52 years (range 24-78 years. The average operating time was 130 min (range 90-210 min. The average incision length was 3.2 cm (2.5-4.0 cm. There were no postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 4.5 days (range 3-8 days. Histopathology showed adequate proximal and distal resection margins with an average lymph node yield of 25 nodes (range 16-30 nodes. Conclusion: Single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy is feasible without extra cost or specialized ports/instrumentation. It does not compromise the oncological radicality of resection. Short-term results are encouraging. Long-term results are awaited.

  4. Colorectal Polyposis and Immune-Based Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Jacobson-Brown

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The progression from precancerous (adenomatous colon polyps to malignant colorectal cancer involves the complex actions of various cytokines on T cell proliferation, cell-cell adhesion, apoptosis and host immunity. A broad spectrum of new treatments, including innovative molecular therapies such as gene therapy and treatment with cytokines, is under experimental and preclinical investigation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have traditionally been used as inflammation-reducing agents in cases of colon adenoma. Currently, adjuvant immunotherapies such as recombinant gene therapy and antibody-cytokine fusion proteins are assuming a more significant role in the management of colorectal neoplasia. Furthermore, advances in antitumour necrosis factor antibodies for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may have potential as chemoprotective agents for the treatment of colon polyposis. The present review aims to discuss the immunological mechanisms underlying colon tumour progression and the molecular and immune-based therapies that are leading to new methods of prognosis and treatment.

  5. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  6. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposissyndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fábio Guilherme Campos; Marleny Novaes Figueiredo; Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidityand mortality around the world, and approximately 5%of them develop in a context of inherited mutationsleading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes.Recognition and characterization of thesepatients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basisof CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized bythe predominant histological structure found within thepolyps. The aim of the present paper is to review themost important clinical features of the HamartomatousPolyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disordersformed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposissyndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome(Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes).A literature search was performed in order to retrievethe most recent and important papers (articles,reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regardingthe studied subject. We searched for terms such as"hamartomatous polyposis syndromes", "Peutz-Jegherssyndrome", "juvenile polyposis syndrome", "juvenilepolyp", and "PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome"(Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). Thepresent article reports the wide spectrum of diseaseseverity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a specialfocus on their potential to develop colorectal and otherneoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectalcancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers andPTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%,39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regardingcancer surveillance recommendations is also presented.

  7. Sodium ferulate inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in rat balloon injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline for 7 days before sacrificed. RESULTS: In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total β-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2α and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. CONCLUSION: Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs.

  8. Double balloon enteroscopy in the old: Experience from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong He; Bing Xiao; Ya-Li Zhang; Bo Jiang; Yang Bai; Fa-Chao Zhi; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Dong Li; Ya-Dong Wang; Tian-Mo Wan; Zhen-Yu Chen; De-Shou Pan; Jian-Qun Cai; Si-De Liu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety,efficacy and management of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) carried out in those aged individuals with suspicious small intestine diseases.METHODS:DBE is a wonderful invention of the past decade and is widely used as an examination tool for the gastrointestinal tract.From January 2003 to July 2011,data from patients who were ≥ 65 years old and underwent DBE examination in the Nanfang Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis.RESULTS:Fifty-nine individuals were found and subsequently analyzed.The mean age was 69.63 ± 3.89 years (range 65-84),34 were males.Indications for DBE were melena/hematochezia (36 cases),abdominal pain (15 cases),diarrhea (3 cases),stool change (1 case),weight loss (1 case),vomiting (2 cases),and de bilitation (1 case).The average duration of symptoms was 33.34 ± 64.24 mo.Twenty-seven patients suffered from age-related diseases.Severe complications were not found during and after DBE.Comparison between systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after DBE was statistically significant (mean ± SD,P < 0.01,P < 0.05,respectively).Small bowel pathologies were found by DBE in 35 patients,definite diagnoses were made in 31 cases,and detection rate and diagnostic yield for DBE were 68.6% and 60.8%,respectively.CONCLUSION:DBE is a safe and effective method for gastrointestinal examination in the aged population.Aging alone is not a risk factor for elderly patients with suspicious gastrointestinal diseases and thorough preparation prior to the DBE procedure should be made for individuals with multiple diseases especially cardiopulmonary disorders.

  9. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  10. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects

  11. CATHEPSIN B EXPRESSION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH MICROVESSEL DENSITY AND BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF COLORECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娅兰; 林晓

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cathepsin B(CB) expression in colorectal carcinoma and its relationship with microvessel density (MVD) and biological behavior. Methods: CB and MVD were detected by immunohistochemistry in 47 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Results: The expression of CB in mucinous colorectal carcinoma was significantly higher than that in no-mucinous colorectal carcinoma. There was significant difference (P<0.05). The MVD in group with positive CB was stronger than that in group with negative CB. There was also significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that CB expression has correlation with MVD, invasion and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma, especially in mucinous colorectal carcinoma.

  12. Formation and evolution of flapping and ballooning waves in magnetospheric plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Z. G.; Hirose, A.

    2016-05-01

    By adopting Lembége & Pellat's 2D plasma-sheet model, we investigate the flankward flapping motion and Sunward ballooning propagation driven by an external source (e.g., magnetic reconnection) produced initially at the sheet center. Within the ideal MHD framework, we adopt the WKB approximation to obtain the Taylor-Goldstein equation of magnetic perturbations. Fourier spectral method and Runge-Kutta method are employed in numerical simulations, respectively, under the flapping and ballooning conditions. Studies expose that the magnetic shears in the sheet are responsible for the flapping waves, while the magnetic curvature and the plasma gradient are responsible for the ballooning waves. In addition, the flapping motion has three phases in its temporal development: fast damping phase, slow recovery phase, and quasi-stabilized phase; it is also characterized by two patterns in space: propagating wave pattern and standing wave pattern. Moreover, the ballooning modes are gradually damped toward the Earth, with a wavelength in a scale size of magnetic curvature or plasma inhomogeneity, only 1-7% of the flapping one; the envelops of the ballooning waves are similar to that of the observed bursty bulk flows moving toward the Earth.

  13. Parallel wire balloon angioplasty for undilatable venous stenosis in hemodialysis fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Beom; You, Jin Jong; Cho, Jae Min [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of the parallel wire balloon angioplasty technique for treating dysfunctional hemdialysis fistula with rigid stenosis, and this type of lesion was resistant to conventional angioplasty. Between March 2002 and August 2003, we included 6 patients (mean age: 59, males: 2, females: 4) who were treated via parallel the wire balloon angioplasty technique and their hemodialysis fistula has stenoses that were resistant to conventional angioplasty. We performed conventional angioplasty in all patients, but we failed to achieve sufficient dilatation. In the cases of highly resistant stenosis, an additional 0.016 inch wire was inserted into the 7 F vascular sheath. During angioplasty, a 0.016 inch guide wire was inserted between the balloon and the stenosis and then it was pushed to and fro until the balloon indentation disappeared. After the procedure, we performed angiography to identify the residual stenosis and the procedure-related complications. The undilatable stenoses in 5 patients were successfully resolved without complications via the parallel wire angioplasty technique. In one patient, indentation of balloon was not resolved, but the residual stenosis was both minimal and hemodynamically insignificant. The parallel wire angioplasty technique seems to be a feasible and cost-effective method for treating a dysfunctional hemodialysis fistula with undilatable and rigid stenosis.

  14. Balloon Measurements of Electric Fields in Thunderstorms: A Modern Version of Benjamin Franklin's Kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2006-12-01

    One of Benjamin Franklin's most famous experiments was the kite experiment, which showed that thunderstorms are electrically charged. It is not as commonly noted that the kite experiment was also one of the the first attempts to make an in situ measurement of any storm parameter. Franklin realized the importance of making measurements close to and within storms, and this realization has been shared by later atomspheric scientists. In this presentation we focus on a modern version of Franklin's kite--instrumented balloons--used for in situ measurements of electric field and other storm parameters. In particular, most of our knowledge of the charge structure inside thunderstorms is based on balloon soundings of electric field. Balloon measurements of storm electricity began with the work of Simpson and colleagues in the 1930's and 1940's. The next major instrumentation advances were made by Winn and colleagues in the 1970's and 1980's. Today's instruments are digital versions of the Winn design. We review the main instrument techniques that have allowed balloons to be the worthy successors to kites. We also discuss some of the key advances in our understanding of thunderstorm electrification made with in situ balloon-borne instruments.

  15. Approaching the knee -- balloon-borne observations of cosmic ray composition

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, M L

    2005-01-01

    Below the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum, balloon and spacecraft experiments offer the capability of direct composition and energy measurements on the primary particles. A major difficulty is obtaining enough exposure to extend the range of direct measurements sufficiently high in energy to permit overlap with ground-based observations. Presently, balloon and space measurements extend only up to ~100 TeV, well below the range of ground-based experiments. The prospect of Ultra-Long Duration Balloon missions offers the promise of multiple long flights that can build up exposure. The status of balloon measurements to measure the high energy proton and nuclear composition and spectrum is reviewed, and the statistical considerations involved in searching for a steepening in the spectrum are discussed. Given the very steeply falling spectrum, it appears unlikely that balloon experiments will be able to extend the range of direct measurements beyond 1000 TeV any time in the near future. Especially given the recent ...

  16. Assessment of risk of carotid occlusion with balloon Matas testing and dynamic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Tomoaki; Okuno, Takashi; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Nakai, Ekini; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Hayashi, Seiji; Komai, Norihiko.

    1988-02-01

    Temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery with a balloon catheter (balloon Matas test) and simultaneous dynamic computed tomographic scanning (DCT) were performed in four patients with intracranial aneurysms to determine their tolerance for permanent carotid occlusion. Five DCT parameters were evaluated: appearance time, peak time, peak height fitting, first effective moment, and transit time. The patients were characterized into three types: type I (2 patients) - lack of neurological deficit during the balloon Matas test and equally preserved cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the two hemispheres on DCT during carotid occlusion, type II (one patient) - a decreased CBF on the occluded side on DCT despite the lack of neurological deficit; type III (one patient) - neurological signs, such as disturbance of consciousness, aphasia, and right hemiparesis occuring immediately after the start of the balloon Matas test, and a decreased CBF in the region of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries on the occluded side. In the type III patient, occlusion of the internal carotid artery is contraindicated unless an EC-IC bypass procedure that can rapidly provide a large supply of blood is performed. It can be concluded that the balloon Matas/DCT method offers a reliable means of predicting the risk of carotid ligation. (Namekawa, K.).

  17. Status of the Balloon-Borne X-ray Polarimetry Mission X-Calibur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, Henric; Kislat, Fabian; Stuchlik, David; Okajima, Takashi; de Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2016-04-01

    We report on the status of the balloon borne hard X-ray polairmetry mission X-Calibur. The missions combines a focussing hard X-ray mirror from the InFOCuS collaboration with a scattering polarimeter and the WASP (Wallops Arc Second Pointer) pointing system. The mission is scheduled for a conventonal ~1 day balloon flight in Fall 2016 and a long duration (~30 day) balloon flight from McMurdo (Ross Island) in 2018/2019. X-Calibur will allow us to measure ~5% polarization fractions for strong sources with a Crab-like enegry spectra and fluxes. The science targets of the first balloon flights will include the stellar mass black holes GRS 1915+105 and Cyg X-1, Her X-1, Sco X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. The long duration balloon flight will target several X-ray binaries and the extragalactic mass accreting supermassive black hole Cen A. In this contribution we give an update on the status of the mission, and the expected science return.

  18. Combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance of balloon kyphoplasty versus fluoroscopy-only procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Hericord, Olivier; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Service de Radiologie, Nice (France); Hovorka, Istvan [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Spine Surgery Department, Nice (France); Roux, Christian; Euller-Ziegler, Liana [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Rheumatology Department, Nice (France)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the performance of combined (computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic) guidance of balloon kyphoplasty in comparison to fluoroscopic guidance alone. Forty-one kyphoplasties were performed between January 2005 and March 2006 according to two different protocols. Study group 1 consisted of 20 consecutive patients with 20 balloon kyphoplasty procedures under dual guidance (CT scan and fluoroscopy) for osteoporotic or traumatic vertebral fractures. Study group 2 consisted of 21 consecutive patients in whom kyphoplasty was performed with fluoroscopy alone. Visualization of the pedicles, the final of the balloon position, and cement distribution were evaluated(1 - poor, 2 - intermediate, 3 - good). Combined use of CT and fluoroscopy (group 1) was superior in identifying the pedicles (100% versus 66.7%, p = 0.009) and balloon placement (100% versus 71.4%, p = 0.02) but not in monitoring of cement distribution within the vertebral body (100% versus 90.5%, p = 0.49). The difference between the two groups was more pronounced in the thoracic spine than in the lumbar spine. CT/fluoroscopic guidance of kyphoplasty combines safe CT-guided insertion of the osteointroducers and balloons as well as fluoroscopic real-time monitoring of polymethylmethacrylate injection. (orig.)

  19. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to treat a maxillary sinus cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianxin; Chen, Junming; Wang, Yuejian

    2016-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effect of balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope in the treatment of a maxillary sinus cyst. The clinical data of 14 cases (19 maxillary sinuses) with balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to remove sinus cysts (balloon group) and 16 cases (23 maxillary sinuses) with conventional nasal endoscopic sinus surgery to remove sinus cysts (conventional group) were analyzed. All cases have completed the preoperative and postoperative SNOT-20, nasal endoscopy and coronal sinus CT scan. Lund-Kennedy endoscopic and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were recorded. All patients were followed up for 24 weeks after the operation. The SNOT-20 scores, Lund-Kennedy endoscopic and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were lower in the balloon group than that in the control group. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope can effectively preserve the function and structures of the nasal cavity and sinus, making it a good choice in the treatment of a retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

  20. Femorofemoral grafts for lower limb ischemia caused by intra-aortic balloon pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedell, M L; Alpert, J; Parsonnet, V; Brief, D K; Brener, B J; Goldenkranz, R J; Nozick, J

    1987-01-01

    From January 1975 to December 1985, 1454 patients had an intra-aortic balloon inserted for cardiac assistance. Eighty balloon-dependent patients had severe limb ischemia and required a femorofemoral graft (FFG) (5% of the total group of patients). Twenty-nine of the 80 patients with grafts (or 36%) left the hospital and 28 were followed up for an average of 40 months to determine late complications associated with the crossover grafts. All grafts remained patent. The 28 patients were classified into five groups according to the degree and type of lower limb ischemia. Group I consisted of 13 asymptomatic patients (46%); group II had four (14%) patients with mild claudication caused by preexisting peripheral arteriosclerosis; group III comprised four patients (14%) without preexisting disease but claudication subsequent to the FFG; group IV had five patients with irreversible ischemic sequelae before grafting ending in amputation, foot drop, or persistent paresthesia; and group V consisted of two patients with graft infection (7%). The perioperative mortality rate of the balloon-dependent patients with an FFG (64%) reflects the gravity of the cardiac condition. Placement of an FFG to relieve limb ischemia in these patients is followed by few immediate or late complications in the survivors and any persistent limb changes were related to the prolonged ischemia present before revascularization. Our data suggest that in balloon-dependent patients with limb-threatening ischemia, aggressive use of the FFG is limb-saving, durable, and allows continuation of balloon support.