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Sample records for balloon kyphoplasty performed

  1. Early clinical outcome and complications related to balloon kyphoplasty

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    Martin Bergmann

    2012-06-01

    urinary tract infection, and 2 patients died during hospitalization. Twenty-four patients (8.1% returned because of new pain events and 23 patients reported a new painful fracture. Balloon kyphoplasty is a save and effective procedure to treat patients with painful vertebral compression fractures. Rapid patient mobilization after kyphoplasty, as well as a prompt reintegration into the social environment, are possible. Compared to other surgical procedures, especially in patients with an average age of 75 years, balloon kyphoplasty seems to offer some advantages. However, the procedure still has a potential for serious complications and should be performed by well trained personnel.

  2. Combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance of balloon kyphoplasty versus fluoroscopy-only procedures

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    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Hericord, Olivier; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Service de Radiologie, Nice (France); Hovorka, Istvan [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Spine Surgery Department, Nice (France); Roux, Christian; Euller-Ziegler, Liana [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Rheumatology Department, Nice (France)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the performance of combined (computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic) guidance of balloon kyphoplasty in comparison to fluoroscopic guidance alone. Forty-one kyphoplasties were performed between January 2005 and March 2006 according to two different protocols. Study group 1 consisted of 20 consecutive patients with 20 balloon kyphoplasty procedures under dual guidance (CT scan and fluoroscopy) for osteoporotic or traumatic vertebral fractures. Study group 2 consisted of 21 consecutive patients in whom kyphoplasty was performed with fluoroscopy alone. Visualization of the pedicles, the final of the balloon position, and cement distribution were evaluated(1 - poor, 2 - intermediate, 3 - good). Combined use of CT and fluoroscopy (group 1) was superior in identifying the pedicles (100% versus 66.7%, p = 0.009) and balloon placement (100% versus 71.4%, p = 0.02) but not in monitoring of cement distribution within the vertebral body (100% versus 90.5%, p = 0.49). The difference between the two groups was more pronounced in the thoracic spine than in the lumbar spine. CT/fluoroscopic guidance of kyphoplasty combines safe CT-guided insertion of the osteointroducers and balloons as well as fluoroscopic real-time monitoring of polymethylmethacrylate injection. (orig.)

  3. Combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance of balloon kyphoplasty versus fluoroscopy-only procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the performance of combined (computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic) guidance of balloon kyphoplasty in comparison to fluoroscopic guidance alone. Forty-one kyphoplasties were performed between January 2005 and March 2006 according to two different protocols. Study group 1 consisted of 20 consecutive patients with 20 balloon kyphoplasty procedures under dual guidance (CT scan and fluoroscopy) for osteoporotic or traumatic vertebral fractures. Study group 2 consisted of 21 consecutive patients in whom kyphoplasty was performed with fluoroscopy alone. Visualization of the pedicles, the final of the balloon position, and cement distribution were evaluated(1 - poor, 2 - intermediate, 3 - good). Combined use of CT and fluoroscopy (group 1) was superior in identifying the pedicles (100% versus 66.7%, p = 0.009) and balloon placement (100% versus 71.4%, p = 0.02) but not in monitoring of cement distribution within the vertebral body (100% versus 90.5%, p = 0.49). The difference between the two groups was more pronounced in the thoracic spine than in the lumbar spine. CT/fluoroscopic guidance of kyphoplasty combines safe CT-guided insertion of the osteointroducers and balloons as well as fluoroscopic real-time monitoring of polymethylmethacrylate injection. (orig.)

  4. Venous air embolism in consecutive balloon kyphoplasties visualised on CT imaging

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    Tins, Bernhard J.; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Lalam, Radhesh; Haddaway, Mike [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    We noted a large amount of intravenous gas during balloon kyphoplasty on CT imaging. Formal assessment to understand the extent, possible causes and implications was undertaken. Ten consecutive cases of balloon kyphoplasty were performed under general anaesthesia in the prone position, on a single vertebral level using a two-step technique under combined fluoroscopic and CT guidance. CT of the affected vertebra was performed before, after, and intermittently during the procedure. In 2 cases delayed CT was carried out in the supine position. Gas was seen on CT imaging, but not on conventional fluoroscopy. The gas is most likely to be air introduced during the procedure and was seen in the epidural and paravertebral venous plexus, posterior intercostal veins, renal veins, IVC and azygos vein. The average measured volume of gas seen on the post-procedure CT imaging was 1.07 mL, range 0.16-3.97 mL. There was no correlation of the measured amount of gas to the procedure duration or location, the use of a curette or the injected cement volume. Delayed CT in the supine position no longer showed air in the local venous system. Balloon kyphoplasty is associated with the fluoroscopically invisible introduction of air into the vertebral and paravertebral veins and deep systemic veins and is likely to be much more extensive than identified on CT imaging. There is potential for serious air embolism in kyphoplasty and if there is a sudden deterioration in patient condition during the procedure the possibility of this complication needs to be considered. (orig.)

  5. Venous air embolism in consecutive balloon kyphoplasties visualised on CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We noted a large amount of intravenous gas during balloon kyphoplasty on CT imaging. Formal assessment to understand the extent, possible causes and implications was undertaken. Ten consecutive cases of balloon kyphoplasty were performed under general anaesthesia in the prone position, on a single vertebral level using a two-step technique under combined fluoroscopic and CT guidance. CT of the affected vertebra was performed before, after, and intermittently during the procedure. In 2 cases delayed CT was carried out in the supine position. Gas was seen on CT imaging, but not on conventional fluoroscopy. The gas is most likely to be air introduced during the procedure and was seen in the epidural and paravertebral venous plexus, posterior intercostal veins, renal veins, IVC and azygos vein. The average measured volume of gas seen on the post-procedure CT imaging was 1.07 mL, range 0.16-3.97 mL. There was no correlation of the measured amount of gas to the procedure duration or location, the use of a curette or the injected cement volume. Delayed CT in the supine position no longer showed air in the local venous system. Balloon kyphoplasty is associated with the fluoroscopically invisible introduction of air into the vertebral and paravertebral veins and deep systemic veins and is likely to be much more extensive than identified on CT imaging. There is potential for serious air embolism in kyphoplasty and if there is a sudden deterioration in patient condition during the procedure the possibility of this complication needs to be considered. (orig.)

  6. The preliminary study on a single balloon cross-medline expansion using unipedicular approach in kyphoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of kyphoplasty with single balloon cross-midline expansion using unipedicular approach for osteoporotic vertebral body compressive fracture (OVCF). Methods: Thirty six cases of painful OVCF were included in the study, with 61 vertebrae involved. Under X-ray fluoroscopy monitoring, kyphoplasty was performed using a unilateral, single, balloon via a unilateral transpedicular approach. A final balloon position was in the midline of the vertebral body with the balloon cross-midline expansions and bone cement filled. Clinical outcomes were determined by comparison of preoperative and postoperative VAS and ODI scores. Radiographic assessment included vertebral height restoration and correction of kyphosis. Follow-up was conducted for 6.0-12.0 months (mean 9.2 months). Results: Thirty-six consecutive patients with 61 vertebrae were successfully operated with an operative time of (37.4 ± 9.6) min per vertebra. All patients had significant pain relief and functional recovery within 96 h after the procedure with no surgery- and device-related complications. VAS score improved from (7.3 ± 1.0) preoperatively to (2.7 ± 0.8) postoperatively (t=19.53, P<0.01). ODI score was decreased from(71.1±10.9)% preoperatively to(26.6±6.4)% postoperatively(t=18.54, P<0.01). The average anterior body height loss was (14.3±2.8) mm before procedure and (10.0 ± 1.8) mm after procedure (t=14.68, P<0.01). The average middle body height loss was (10.2 ± 2.7) mm before procedure and (5.9±1.8) mm after procedure (t=16.44,P<0.01). The Cobb's angle was corrected from 23.4 degree ± 5.0 degree to 16.2 degree ± 2.8 degree (t=15.60,P<0.01). Some leakages of cement around the anterior margin of vertebra and inter-vertebral space were found in 2 patients, but there were no clinical symptoms. X-ray examination indicated there were no cement leakages in other vertebra. The pain relief and functional recovery were substantial and maintained to

  7. Preliminary experience with balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the technique and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty as a new treatment in patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study balloon kyphoplasty was performed in 34 consecutive patients (25 females, 9 males; mean age 75 years) with 56 painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures (from T6-L5), of which 22 showed a posterior wall involvement and -retropulsion on preoperative CT. The median duration of symptoms was 9.7 weeks. Symtomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with MRI, conventional radiographs and CT including bone-densitometry. Pre- and postoperative examinations (radiographs, CT) as well as Karnofsky and visual analogy pain scores (Visual Analog Scale=VAS) were documented and compared to evaluate the success of the procedure. Results: The median Karnofsky score improved from 40% (pre-) to 70% (post-treatment). Simultaneously, median pain scores (VAS) decreased from 64 (pre-) to 21 (post-treatment) (p<0.001). Perioperative morbidity included one transient L2 nerve root bruise. The procedure led to a partial restoration of the height of the vertebral body by reducing the median sagittal index from 11.5 to 5 . In none of our patients, the procedure led to worsening of the fracture-induced narrowing of the spinal canal. Clinically asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 10 cases, with leakage 4 times into the paraspinal space, 3 times into the spinal canal and 3 times into the disc space. Conclusion: Balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure. It is applicable even in fractures with posterior wall involvement since it is a low-pressure technique in contrast to vertebroplasty and restores vertebral body height partially. It results in immediate clinical improvement of mobility and pain relief. While short-term results are excellent, follow-up data have to be awaited for

  8. Preliminary experience with balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures; Ballon-Kyphoplastie zur Behandlung schmerzhafter osteoporotischer Wirbelkoerperfrakturen - Technik und erste Ergebnisse

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    Wilhelm, K.; Urbach. H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Stoffel, M; Ringel, F.; Rao, G.; Roesseler, L.; Meyer, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2003-12-01

    Purpose: To describe the technique and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty as a new treatment in patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study balloon kyphoplasty was performed in 34 consecutive patients (25 females, 9 males; mean age 75 years) with 56 painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures (from T6-L5), of which 22 showed a posterior wall involvement and -retropulsion on preoperative CT. The median duration of symptoms was 9.7 weeks. Symtomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with MRI, conventional radiographs and CT including bone-densitometry. Pre- and postoperative examinations (radiographs, CT) as well as Karnofsky and visual analogy pain scores (Visual Analog Scale=VAS) were documented and compared to evaluate the success of the procedure. Results: The median Karnofsky score improved from 40% (pre-) to 70% (post-treatment). Simultaneously, median pain scores (VAS) decreased from 64 (pre-) to 21 (post-treatment) (p<0.001). Perioperative morbidity included one transient L2 nerve root bruise. The procedure led to a partial restoration of the height of the vertebral body by reducing the median sagittal index from 11.5 to 5 . In none of our patients, the procedure led to worsening of the fracture-induced narrowing of the spinal canal. Clinically asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 10 cases, with leakage 4 times into the paraspinal space, 3 times into the spinal canal and 3 times into the disc space. Conclusion: Balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure. It is applicable even in fractures with posterior wall involvement since it is a low-pressure technique in contrast to vertebroplasty and restores vertebral body height partially. It results in immediate clinical improvement of mobility and pain relief. While short-term results are excellent, follow-up data have to be awaited for

  9. Balloon kyphoplasty for aged osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures using domestic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of painful osteoporosis vertebral compressive fractures using instruments made in China. Methods: 10 cases of painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures, involved 11 vertebrae. Under X-ray fluoroscopy monitoring, the inflatable balloon were inserted into the fractured vertebral body via transpedicular route bilaterally. The balloon was inflated with injected contrast agent to restore vertebral height and form a cavity within vertebral body. The cavity was then filled with bone cement in toothpaste state period. The postoperative symptoms and the radiographic findings of vertebral height recovery were observed. Results: Balloon kyphoplasty was successful in all 10 cases with dramatic pain relief within 48 hours after the procedure without clinical complications. The height restoration of vertebral body was satisfactory with correction of kyphosis up to 6 degree-24 degree. Leakage of a small quantity of bone cement occurred at only the anterior border of the vertebral body. Conclusions: Kyphoplasty using domestic instruments for painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures was effective and safe. (authors)

  10. Balloon kyphoplasty for aged osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures using instruments made in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluated the efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty in treatment of painful osteoporosis vertebral compressive fractures using instruments made in China. Methods: Sixteen cases of painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures, involved 19 vertebrae. Under X-ray fluoroscopy monitoring, the inflatable balloon were inserted into the fractured vertebral body via transpedieular route bilaterally. The balloon was inflated with injected contrast agent, restored vertebral height and formed a cavity within vertebral body. The cavity was than filled with bone cement in toothpaste period. The postoperative symptoms and the radiographic finding of vertebral height were observed. Results: Balloon kyphoplasty was successful in all 16 cases with dramatic pain relief within 48 hours after the procedure. No clinical complication was found. The posttreatment mean anterior and mid portion of the vertebral body heights were (10.7±3.5) mm and (5.4±2.7) mm respectively, while that of the pretreatment were (14.8±4.1) mm and (10.4±4.4) mm, respectively (t=3.96, 5.37; P<0.01). Before the procedure, the mean Kyphosis was (22.4±5.8) degree, after the procedure, the mean kyphosis was measured (12.1± 5.3) degree (t=5.93, P<0.01). Leakage of a small quantity of bone cement occurred at one level. Conclusion: kyphoplasty using instruments made in China for painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures was effective and safe. (authors)

  11. Optimal patient positioning for ligamentotaxis during balloon kyphoplasty of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cawley, D T

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty aims to restore vertebral height, correct angular deformity and stabilize the spine in the setting of vertebral compression fractures. The patient is positioned prone with supports under the iliac crests and upper thorax to allow gravity to extend the spine. In the treatment of lumbar fractures, we evaluated patient positioning with the contribution of hip extension to increase anterior ligamentotaxis, thus facilitating restoration of vertebral height. Our positioning technique created a mean anterior height increase from 72% to 78% of the average height of the cranial and caudal vertebrae (p=0.037). Balloon inflation did not significantly further increase anterior or posterior vertebral height, or Cobb angle.

  12. Treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty and Sky expander kyphoplasty on vertebral compression fracture: a Meta-analysis

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    Wei HE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty (Pkp and Sky expander kyphoplasty (Sky on vertebral compression fracture, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical application. Methods  The database of Ovid medline, PubMed, Web of science, EMbase and CNKI from Jan. 1995 to Oct. 2012 were retrieved with computer, and relevant journals were manually retrieved, for the collection of the literature of therapeutic studies on treatment of vertebral compression fracture with Pkp and Sky method. The literature collected was then selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and analyzed by Meta-analysis software RevMan 5.0.25. Results  A total of 4 papers were selected based on that criterion, including 146 cases of Pkp group and 83 cases of Sky group. Random effect model analysis showed no significant difference existed between the two groups regarding postoperative anterior height and column height of vertebral body, Cobb angle and pain relieve (SMD=0.50, 95%CI -0.27–1.27; SMD=0.33, 95%CI -0.11–0.77; SMD=0.46, 95%CI -0.74–1.66; SMD=-0.09, 95%CI -0.37–0.18. However, the subgroup analysis showed the effect of Sky was better than that of Pkp on restoring anterior height and column height of vertebral body and Cobb angle. Conclusion  No significant difference was found regarding the treatment effect between Pkp and Sky method in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, but the clinical effect of Sky was better because of fewer complications and lower medical cost.

  13. Prone position in balloon kyphoplasty leads to no secondary vertebral compression fractures in osteoporotic spine – a MRI study

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    Spalteholz, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures are the most common fractures in the elderly. Long lasting pain and deformity is responsible for consecutive impairment with markedly reduced life quality, increased morbidity and mortality. The beneficial effects of balloon kyphoplasty are verified in many studies. Subsequent fracture risk is not finally clarified, cement related risks and deformity related risks are discussed. There is less knowledge about the risk of bone marrow edema and new fractures during balloon kyphoplasty procedure. The goal of this study is to examine, if prone position during kyphoplasty is an independent risk factor for new fractures in the osteoporotic spine. Methods: Consecutive MRI study of 20 patients with fresh, non-traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures and balloon kyphoplasty treatment. MRI Scans of the thoracolumbar spine were obtained after surgery, before patients have been mobilized. Specific MRI changes like new bone marrow edema, signal intensity changes in adjacent and remote segments and new fractures were assessed by specialized neuro-radiologist. Results: 20 MR images were examined within 48 hours after balloon kyphoplasty procedure. 85% did not show bone marrow edema extent changes after kyphoplasty. We found minor increase of bone marrow edema within the augmented vertebral body in 3 cases. We did not find any new bone marrow edema and no new fractures in adjacent and remote segments after balloon kyphoplasty treatment.Conclusion: Prone position leads to no new bone marrow edema and no new fractures in the osteoporotic spine. Accordingly, prone position has no risk for adjacent level fractures in osteoporotic spines.

  14. Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intravertebral cleft

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    Bao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intravertebral cleft is a structural change in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF, which is the manifestation of ischemic vertebral osteonecrosis complicated with fracture nonunion and pseudoarthrosis and appears in the late stage of OVCF. Despite numerous studies on OVCF, few aim to evaluate the clinicoradiological characteristics and clinical significance of intravertebral cleft in OVCF. This study investigates clinicoradiological characteristics of intravertebral cleft in OVCF and the effect on the efficacy of percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty (PKP. Materials and Methods: PKP was performed on 139 OVCF patients without intravertebral cleft (group A and 44 OVCF patients with intravertebral cleft (group B. The frequency distribution of the affected vertebral body, bone cement infusion volume, imaging manifestation, leakage rate and type, preoperative and postoperative height of the affected vertebral body, visual analog scale (VAS and Oswestry disability index (ODI score were evaluated. Results: Significant differences were found in the frequency distribution of the affected vertebral body and bone cement leakage type between the two groups ( P 0.05 were not detected. In both groups, the postoperative height of the affected vertebral body was significantly improved ( P 0.05. Conclusion: Intravertebral cleft exhibits specific clinical and imaging as well as bone cement formation characteristics. PKP can effectively restore the affected vertebral body height, alleviate pain, and improve daily activity function of patients.

  15. The Use of Posterior Short Segment Screw Fixation and Balloon Kyphoplasty in the Surgical Treatment of Traumatic Vertebral Fracture: A Case Report

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    Sevim Ondul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatments for the fracture of the spine are frequently used in clinical practice. Posterior spine stabilization with transpedicular screw fixation is one of the surgical treatment methods in the surgical treatment of spinal fractures. A 48-year old male patient was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of the L1 compression fracture resulting from traumatic injury. Posterior transpedicular screws were placed at one level above and one level below of the fractured vertebrate. Anterior column of the fractured vertebrate was strengthened with balloon kyphoplasty application. The system was completed with the placement of transverse rods. Fusion with allograft was performed. According to the ASIA neurological grading system, the patient was assessed as Grade E. 10 cm skin and fascia incision was done. Operation time of about 70 minutes and blood loss was less than 100 cc. The patient was mobilized on the first day of surgery and was discharged from the hospital on the third day after the surgery. Short segment transpedicular fixation on the one level above and one level below of the fractured vertebrate together with balloon kyphoplasty on the corpus of the fractured vertebrate may be used as a minimally invasive surgical treatment in such kind of injuries. The advantages are short duration of hospital stay, less blood loss, providing early mobilization, and a reliable method for fixation and stabilization. In this article, a case with traumatic fracture that fixed and stabilized with short segment transpedicular screw placement and balloon kyphoplasty application was presented.

  16. Kyphoplasty with single balloon multiple expansions for multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of kyphoplasty with single balloon multiple expansions for multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures (OVCF). Methods: Thirty three cases of painful multi-level OVCF, involving 76 vertebrae were carried out the single inflatable balloon insertion multi- level fractured vertebral body and multiple expansions in one operation, alternatively under X-ray fluoroscopic monitoring; and in turn with vertebral height restored and bone cement filled. The postoperative symptoms and the radiographic findings of vertebral height were observed with follow up. Results: Operation was successful in all 33 cases with dramatic pain relief within 1 week after the procedure without clinical complications. VAS scoring of these patients decreased from (6.46 ± 1.40)to (1.65 ± 0.42); ODI scoring decreased from 71.38% to 22.92%. One balloon was expanded 3.3 times in average (2-6 times)for one operation, with the average expansion pressure as 171.2 psi(120-300 psi), and only one balloon ruptured during the 6th expansion. The loss heights of the anterior and mid portion of the vertebral body reduced from(14.43 ± 4.18) mm and(10.49 ± 3.70) mm preoperatively to(9.79 ± 3.64) mm and(5.52 ± 2.83) mm postoperatively. Cobb angle corrected averagely from(23.33 ± 6.33) degree preoperatively to (12.51 ± 4.32) degree postoperatively. No clinical complication occurred in all patients, leakage of a small quantity of bone cement occurred at anterior vertebral bodies in two cases but with no clinical symptoms. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty with single balloon multiple expansions for multi-level OVCF is clinically effective and with low cost for the patients. (authors)

  17. MDCT after balloon kyphoplasty: analysis of vertebral body architecture one year after treatment of osteoporotic fractures; MDCT nach Ballonkyphoplastie: Analyse der Wirbelkoerperarchitektur 1 Jahr nach Behandlung osteoporotischer Sinterungsfrakturen

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    Roehrl, B.; Dueber, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany); Sadick, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany); Brocker, K.; Voggenreiter, G.; Obertacke, U. [Zentrum fuer Orthopaedie und Traumatologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany); Brade, J. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Biometrie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the value of MDCT in the monitoring of vertebral body architecture after balloon kyphoplasty and observe morphological changes of the vertebral body. Material and methods: during a period of 26 months, 66 osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bodies were treated with percutanous balloon kyphoplasty. The height of the vertebral body, width of spinal space, sagittal indices, kyphosis und COBB angle, and cement leakage were evaluated by computed tomography before and after treatment and in a long-term follow up. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating quantitative constant parameters of descriptive key data. In addition, parametric and distribution-free procedures were performed for all questions. Results: after kyphoplasty, the treated vertebral bodies showed a significant gain in the height of the leading edge (0.15 cm; p < 0.0001) and in the central part of the vertebral body (0.17 cm; p < 0.0001). The height of the trailing edge did not change significantly. A corresponding gain in the sagittal index was found. The index remained stable during follow-up. Treated vertebral bodies as well as untreated references showed a comparable loss of height over the period of one year. The shape of the vertebral bodies remained stable. In comparison to these findings, treated vertebral bodies showed a reduced loss of height. A significant change in kyphosis und the COBB angle was noted. In total, pallacos leakage was detected in 71% of cases. Conclusion: MDCT is an accurate method for evaluating vertebral body architecture after treatment with balloon kyphoplasty. (orig.)

  18. Balloon kyphoplasty in malignant spinal fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Saz-Parkinson Zuleika

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fractures are a common source of morbidity in cancer patients. Balloon Kyphoplasty (BKP is a minimally invasive procedure designed to stabilize fractures and correct vertebral deformities. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of BKP for spinal fractures in cancer patients. Methods We searched several electronic databases up to September 2008 and the reference lists of relevant publications for studies reporting on BKP in patients with spinal fractures secondary to osteolytic metastasis and multiple myeloma. Outcomes sought included pain relief, functional capacity, quality of life, vertebral height, kyphotic angle and adverse events. Studies were assessed for methodological bias, and estimates of effect were calculated using a random-effects model. Potential reasons for heterogeneity were explored. Results The literature search revealed seven relevant studies published from 2003 to 2008, none of which were randomized trials. Analysis of those studies indicated that BKP resulted in less pain and better functional outcomes, and that these effects were maintained up to 2 years post-procedure. While BKP also improved early vertebral height loss and spinal deformity, these effects were not long-term. No serious procedure-related complications were described. Clinically asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 6% of all treated levels, and new vertebral fractures in 10% of patients. While there is a lack of studies comparing BKP to other interventions, some data suggested that BKP provided similar pain relief as vertebroplasty and a lower cement leakage rate. Conclusion It appears that there is level III evidence showing BKP is a well-tolerated, relatively safe and effective technique that provides early pain relief and improved functional outcomes in patients with painful neoplastic spinal fractures. BKP also provided long-term benefits in terms of pain and disability. However, the methodological

  19. Current concepts of percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: Evidence-based review

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    Ming-Kai Hsieh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral compression fractures constitute a major health care problem, not only because of their high incidence but also due to both direct and indirect consequences on health-related quality of life and health care expenditures. The mainstay of management for symptomatic vertebral compression fractures is targeted medical therapy, including analgesics, bed rest, external fixation, and rehabilitation. However, anti-inflammatory drugs and certain types of analgesics can be poorly tolerated by elderly patients, and surgical fixation often fails due to the poor quality of osteoporotic bone. Balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are two minimally invasive percutaneous surgical approaches that have recently been developed for the management of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature and conduct a meta-analysis to compare clinical outcomes of pain relief and function, radiographic outcomes of the restoration of anterior vertebral height and kyphotic angles, and subsequent complications associated with these two techniques.

  20. Balloon kyphoplasty: a view from points of technique and technique-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the technique and technique-related issues of percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). Methods: The study involved 69 vertebrae in 51 cases of painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures. Under X-ray fluoroscopy monitoring, the fractured vertebral bodies were treated by kyphonplasty with inflatable balloon. The preoperative and postoperative vertebral height and Cobb angle in radiography were measured and analyzed. Results: All patients tolerated the procedure well with dramatic pain relief within 72 hours after the procedure. No clinical complication was found. The loss heights of the anterior and mid portion of the vertebral body reduced from 15±4 mm and 11 ± 4 mm preoperatively to 10 ± 4 mm and 6 ± 3 mm postoperatively, respectively. Cobb angle corrected averagely from 22 degree ± 6 degree preoperatively to 12 degree ± 4 degree. There was significant difference between preoperative and postoperative measures (P<0.01). The mean vertebral height restoration rate was (71.50±14.16)%, the mean Cobb angle corrected degree was 9.85 degree ± 4.31 degree postoperatively. No cement leakage was found on X-ray, except mild cement leakage occurred in 2 cases without clinical presentation, one at the anterior vertebral edge and the other at the disc space. Conclusion: Bipedicular kyphoplasty with balloon was effective and safe for treating the painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures. The maneuver of transpedicular puncture, tamping of the inflated balloon and injection of bone cement are key to guarantee the safety and effectiveness of PKP. (authors)

  1. Bone cements for percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty: Current status and future developments

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    Zhiwei He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs have gradually evolved into a serious health care problem globally. In order to reduce the morbidity of OVCF patients and improve their life quality, two minimally invasive surgery procedures, vertebroplasty (VP and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP, have been developed. Both VP and BKP require the injection of bone cement into the vertebrae of patients to stabilize fractured vertebra. As such, bone cement as the filling material plays an essential role in the effectiveness of these treatments. In this review article, we summarize the bone cements that are currently available in the market and those still under development. Two major categories of bone cements, nondegradable acrylic bone cements (ABCs and degradable calcium phosphate cements (CPCs, are introduced in detail. We also provide our perspectives on the future development of bone cements for VP and BKP.

  2. Vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty versus conservative treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Lai, Kaun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Although the majority of available evidence suggests that vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty can relieve pain associated with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and improve function, some studies have suggested results are similar to those of placebo. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty with conservative treatment in patients with osteoporotic VCFs. Methods: Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched until January 31, 2015 using the keywords: vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, compression fracture, osteoporotic, and osteoporosis. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which patients with osteoporosis, and VCFs were treated with vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty or conservative management. Outcome measures were pain, function, and quality of life. Standardized differences in means were calculated as a measure of effect size. Main results: Ten RCTs were included. The total number of patients in the treatment and control groups was 626 and 628, respectively, the mean patient age ranged from 64 to 80 years, and the majority was female. Vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty was associated with greater pain relief (pooled standardized difference in means = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.374–1.266, P quality of life (pooled standardized difference in means = 1.545, 95% CI: 1.293–1.798, P quality of life is less clear. PMID:27495096

  3. Radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation versus traditional balloon kyphoplasty: radiographic and morphologic outcomes of an ex vivo biomechanical pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brian E Dalton,1 Andrew C Kohm,2 Larry E Miller,3,4 Jon E Block,4 Robert D Poser21Tri-State Neurological Surgeons, Erie, PA, 2DFINE, Inc, San Jose, CA, 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, 4The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: Traditional balloon kyphoplasty (BK is a common treatment for symptomatic vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare a novel vertebral augmentation technique, radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA, to BK for restoration of vertebral height, cavity creation, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA delivery and interdigitation into the surrounding trabeculae.Methods: This ex vivo biomechanical pilot study utilized 16 osteoporotic cadaveric vertebral bodies in a standardized fracture model to compare unipedicular RF-TVA (n = 8 to bipedicular BK (n = 8. Four specimens from each group were tested in loaded and unloaded conditions. All specimens were imaged, assessed for height restoration, and sectioned to observe PMMA distribution. A subset of specimens underwent computed tomography scanning to assess cavity creation and trabecular architecture prior to cement delivery.Results: Anterior height restoration was greater with RF-TVA (median: 84%, interquartile range: 62%–95% compared to BK (median: 69%, interquartile range: 60%–81%, although the difference did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.16. Anterior height restoration was numerically greater under loaded (median: 70% versus 66% and unloaded (median: 94% versus 77% conditions with RF-TVA versus BK. RF-TVA produced more discrete cavities and less native trabecular destruction compared to marked trabecular destruction observed with BK. RF-TVA consistently showed a well-identified focal area of PMMA with an extensive peripheral zone of PMMA interdigitation, providing mechanical interlock into the adjacent intact trabecular matrix. In contrast, BK yielded little evidence of PMMA interdigitation

  4. Kyphoplasty: Chances and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kyphoplasty provides a minimal-invasive surgical technique for the cement augmentation of vertebral bodies following osteoprotic compression fractures or malignant processes. Kyphoplasty has been developed as an advancement of vertebroplasty. Both procedures feature high-success rates in terms of reliable and lasting reduction of pain. Advantages of kyphoplasty over vertebroplasty are to be seen in the possibility of deformity correction as well as in a decreased risk of cement leakage, which represents the most important source for clinical complications. Long-term experiences with the effect of cementing vertebral bodies are sparse. Thus indications and possibilities have to be judged realistically. Conditions, which have to be considered before performing kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty include age of the patient, age of the fracture, degree of deformation and additional degenerative changes of the spine. This article summarizes the present research and literature as well as indications and contraindications and is thought to provide guidelines for the aforementioned decision-making processes.

  5. Kyphoplasty in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures - Guidelines and technical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Försth Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are a menace to the elderly generation causing diminished quality of life due to pain and deformity. At first, conservative treatment still is the method of choice. In case of resulting deformity, sintering and persistent pain vertebral cement augmentation techniques today are widely used. Open correction of resulting deformity by different types of osteotomies addresses sagittal balance, but has comparably high morbidity. Besides conventional vertebral cement augmentation techniques balloon kyphoplasty has become a popular tool to address painful thoracic and lumbar compression fractures. It showed improved pain reduction and lower complication rates compared to standard vertebroplasty. Interestingly the results of two placebo-controlled vertebroplasty studies question the value of cement augmentation, if compared to a sham operation. Even though there exists now favourable data for kyphoplasty from one randomised controlled trial, the absence of a sham group leaves the placebo effect unaddressed. Technically kyphoplasty can be performed with a transpedicular or extrapedicular access. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-cement should be favoured, since calcium phosphate cement showed inferior biomechanical properties and less effect on pain reduction especially in less stable burst fractures. Common complications of kyphoplasty are cement leakage and adjacent segment fractures. Rare complications are toxic PMMA-monomer reactions, cement embolisation, and infection.

  6. Clinical evaluation of percutaneous kyphoplasty in the treatment of fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate percutaneous kyphoplasty in the treatment of fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Thirty patients, aged 65 -81 years (mean 72 years), were enrolled in this prospective and consecutive Cohort study. All patients suffered from solitary fresh osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fracture (T8 -L4) without neurological dysfunction. Percutaneous kyphoplasty with balloon dilatation was performed and a follow-up of 12 months was made. Results: Significant improvement in kyphotic angle was obtained after the treatment, which was reduced from 12.5 degree before the surgery to 6.6 degree after the surgery. The visual analog scale concerning the back pain was also reduced from 8.2 before the surgery to 1.6 after the surgery. Conclusion: For the treatment of fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, percutaneous kyphoplasty can achieve excellent therapeutic results. (authors)

  7. Results of kyphoplasty in the minimally invasive treatment of vertebral metastasis

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    Carlos Fernando Pereira da Silva Herrero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of minimally invasive surgical treatment of vertebral metastases using the technique of kyphoplasty. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of patients with the diagnosis of spinal metastasis who underwent minimally invasive surgical treatment by filling the vertebral body with balloon kyphoplasty technique. Clinical evaluation included patient age at surgery, diagnosis of the tumor, biopsy results, data of the surgical procedure performed, visual pain scale (VAS and complications related to surgery. Radiological evaluation involved the study of radiographic procedures in the anteroposterior and lateral incidences, with the analysis of vertebral body kyphosis and the occurrence of extravasation of cement. RESULTS: 22 patients with spinal metastases who were treated by balloon kyphoplasty, 8 (36% males and 14 (64% females were studied. The average age was 56.05 years and the mean follow-up was 8.5 months. The mean preoperative VAS was 8.73, 1.73 in the initial postoperative period, and 1.92 in the late postoperative period. CONCLUSION: Kyphoplasty proved to be a safe and effective technique for symptomatic treatment of vertebral metastases.

  8. Extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff performing vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of doses to hands, legs and eyes are reported for operators in four different hospitals performing vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The results confirm that occupational doses can be high for interventional spine procedures. Extremity and eye lens doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters positioned on the ring fingers, wrists, legs and near the eyes of interventional radiologists and neurosurgeons, over a period of 15 months. Doses were generally larger on the left side for all positions monitored. The median dose to the left finger was 225 μSv per procedure, although a maximum of 7.3 mSv was found. The median dose to the right finger was 118 μSv, but with an even higher maximum of 7.7 mSv. A median left eye dose of 34 μSv (maximum 836 μSv) was found, while the legs received the lowest doses with a median of 13 μSv (maximum 332 μSv) to the left leg. Annual dose to the hand assessed by the cumulated doses almost reached the annual dose limit of 500 mSv, while annual dose to the eyes exceeded the eye lens dose limit of 20 mSv yr−1. Different x-ray systems and radiation protection measures were tested, like the use of lead gloves and glasses, tweezers, cement delivery systems and a magnetic navigation system. These measurements showed that doses can be significantly reduced. The use of lead glasses is strongly recommended for protection of the eyes. (paper)

  9. Extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff performing vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, L; Schoonjans, W; Schils, F; De Smedt, K; Vanhavere, F

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of doses to hands, legs and eyes are reported for operators in four different hospitals performing vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The results confirm that occupational doses can be high for interventional spine procedures. Extremity and eye lens doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters positioned on the ring fingers, wrists, legs and near the eyes of interventional radiologists and neurosurgeons, over a period of 15 months. Doses were generally larger on the left side for all positions monitored. The median dose to the left finger was 225 μSv per procedure, although a maximum of 7.3 mSv was found. The median dose to the right finger was 118 μSv, but with an even higher maximum of 7.7 mSv. A median left eye dose of 34 μSv (maximum 836 μSv) was found, while the legs received the lowest doses with a median of 13 μSv (maximum 332 μSv) to the left leg. Annual dose to the hand assessed by the cumulated doses almost reached the annual dose limit of 500 mSv, while annual dose to the eyes exceeded the eye lens dose limit of 20 mSv yr(-1). Different x-ray systems and radiation protection measures were tested, like the use of lead gloves and glasses, tweezers, cement delivery systems and a magnetic navigation system. These measurements showed that doses can be significantly reduced. The use of lead glasses is strongly recommended for protection of the eyes. PMID:23803582

  10. Epidural cement leakage through pedicle violation after balloon kyphoplasty causing paraparesis in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures - a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noh Won

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kyphoplasty is advantageous over vertebroplasty in terms of better kyphosis correction and diminished risk of cement extravasations. Literature described cement leakage causing neurological injury mainly after vertebroplasty procedure; only a few case reports show cement leakage with kyphoplasty without neurological injury or proper cause of leakage. We present a report two cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture treated with kyphoplasty and developed cement leakage causing significant neurological injury. In both cases CT scan was the diagnostic tool to identify cause of cement leakage. CT scan exhibited violation of medial pedicle wall causing cement leakage in the spinal canal. Both patients displayed clinical improvement after decompression surgery with or without instrumentation. Retrospectively looking at stored fluoroscopic images, we found that improper position of trocar in AP and lateral view simultaneously while taking entry caused pedicle wall violation. We suggest not to cross medial pedicle wall in AP image throughout the entire procedure and keeping the trocar in the center of pedicle in lateral image would be the most important precaution to prevent such complication. Our case reports adds the neurological complications with kyphoplasty procedure and suggested that along with other precautions described in the literature, entry with trocar along the entire procedure keeping the oval shape of pedicle in mind (under C-arm will probably help to prevent such complications.

  11. Performance of the EUSO-Balloon electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrillon, P.; Bacholle, S.; Bayer, J.; Blaksley, C.; Blin, S.; Cafagna, F.; Dagoret, S.; Fornaro, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Jung, A.; Karczmarczyk, J.; De La Taille, C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Osteria, G.; Park, I.; Perfetto, F.; Prévôt, G.; Prat, P.; Rabanal Reina, J.; Rojas, J.; Santiago, L.; Scotti, V.; Silva, H.; Szabelski, J.

    2016-01-01

    The 24th of August 2014, the EUSO-Balloon instrument went for a night flight for several hours, 40 km above Timmins (Canada) balloon launching site, concretizing the hard work of an important part of the JEM-EUSO collaboration started 3 years before. This instrument consists of a telescope made of two lenses and a complex electronic chain divided in two main sub-systems: the PDM (Photo Detector Module) and the DP (Data Processor). Each of them is made of several innovative elements developed and tested in a short time. This paper presents their performances before and during the flight.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of an injectable radiopaque polypropylene fumarate cement for kyphoplasty in a cadaveric osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choll; Mahar, Andrew; Perry, Andrew; Massie, Jennifer; Lu, Lichun; Currier, Brad; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    Vertebral compression fractures cause pain, deformity, and disability. Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) has shown promise as an injectable cement for bone defects but little is known about its performance for kyphoplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of PPF for kyphoplasty in simulated anterior compression fractures in cadaveric vertebral bodies. Thirty-one vertebral bodies (T9 to L4) from osteoporotic cadaveric spines were disarticulated, stripped of soft tissue and compressed on a materials testing machine to determine pretreatment strength and stiffness. All fractures were repaired with inflatable balloon tamps and either polymethylmethacrylate or PPF-30 (containing 30% barium sulfate by dry weight) cement and then retested. Strength restoration with PMMA and PPF-30 were 120% and 104%, respectively, of the pretreatment strengths. For stiffness, PMMA and PPF-30 restored vertebral bodies to 69% and 53%, respectively, of the initial values. There was no significant difference in treatment with either PMMA or PPF-30. The biopolymer PPF-30 exhibits mechanical properties similar to PMMA in a cadaveric kyphoplasty model. PPF biopolymer may be a suitable alternative for kyphoplasty. PMID:18046174

  13. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty; Perkutane Vertebroplastie und Kyphoplastie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, S.G. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Wilhelm, K.E. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    With percutaneous vertebroplasty, a minimal invasive method, bone cement is injected under radiological control into a vertebra. The technique was first applied for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas. Today, osteoporotic compression fractures and other vertebral pathologies that cause pain - foremost metastasis - are the main indications for PVP. Kyphoplasty (KP) is closely related to PVP; with this technique expandable balloons are introduced into a vertebra and the cavity is then filled with bone cement. Apart from pain treatment and stabilisation of the vertebra, the aim of the method is to restore and correct a local kyphosis. In this article the indications for both PVP and KP are discussed and the value of an interdisciplinary discussion that takes alternative therapeutic methods into account is stressed. Additionally, the technical aspects and the potential complications of the methods are explained. Finally, the therapeutic results of PVP and KP are reviewed in light of published results and our own experiences. (orig.)

  14. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  15. Development of a Novel Method for Intraoperative Radiotherapy During Kyphoplasty for Spinal Metastases (Kypho-IORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Frank, E-mail: frank.schneider@umm.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Greineck, Fabian; Clausen, Sven; Mai, Sabine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Obertacke, Udo [Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Reis, Tina; Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Approximately 30% of patients with cancer receive bone metastases, of which 50% are in the spine. Approximately 20% present with unstable lesions requiring surgical intervention, followed by fractionated radiotherapy over 2-4 weeks to prevent early regrowth. Because of the limited survival time of patients with metastatic cancer, novel treatment concepts shortening the overall treatment time or hospitalization are desirable. In this study, we established a novel approach for intraoperative radiotherapy during kyphoplasty (Kypho-IORT), a method that combines stabilizing surgery and radiotherapy within one visit, after estimating the percentage of eligible patients for this treatment. Methods and Materials: To estimate the percentage of eligible patients, 53 planning CTs (897 vertebrae) of patients with spinal metastases were evaluated. The number of infiltrated vertebrae were counted and classified in groups eligible or not eligible for Kypho-IORT. The Kypho-IORT was performed in a donated body during a standard balloon kyphoplasty using the INTRABEAM system and specially designed applicators. A single dose of 10 Gy (in 10 mm) was delivered over 4 min to the vertebra. This was verified using two ionization chambers and a Monte Carlo simulation. Results: The estimation of eligible patients resulted in 34% of the evaluated patients, and thus 34% of patients with instable spinal metastases are suitable for Kypho-IORT. This study shows also that, using the approach presented here, it is possible to perform an IORT during kyphoplasty with an additional 15 min operation time. The measurement in the donated body resulted in a maximum dose of 3.8 Gy in the spinal cord. However, the Monte Carlo depth dose simulation in bone tissue showed 68% less dose to the prescription depth. Conclusion: We present for the first time a system using an x-ray source that can be used for single-dose IORT during kyphoplasty. The described Kypho-IORT can decrease the overall treatment

  16. Development of a Novel Method for Intraoperative Radiotherapy During Kyphoplasty for Spinal Metastases (Kypho-IORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Approximately 30% of patients with cancer receive bone metastases, of which 50% are in the spine. Approximately 20% present with unstable lesions requiring surgical intervention, followed by fractionated radiotherapy over 2–4 weeks to prevent early regrowth. Because of the limited survival time of patients with metastatic cancer, novel treatment concepts shortening the overall treatment time or hospitalization are desirable. In this study, we established a novel approach for intraoperative radiotherapy during kyphoplasty (Kypho-IORT), a method that combines stabilizing surgery and radiotherapy within one visit, after estimating the percentage of eligible patients for this treatment. Methods and Materials: To estimate the percentage of eligible patients, 53 planning CTs (897 vertebrae) of patients with spinal metastases were evaluated. The number of infiltrated vertebrae were counted and classified in groups eligible or not eligible for Kypho-IORT. The Kypho-IORT was performed in a donated body during a standard balloon kyphoplasty using the INTRABEAM system and specially designed applicators. A single dose of 10 Gy (in 10 mm) was delivered over 4 min to the vertebra. This was verified using two ionization chambers and a Monte Carlo simulation. Results: The estimation of eligible patients resulted in 34% of the evaluated patients, and thus 34% of patients with instable spinal metastases are suitable for Kypho-IORT. This study shows also that, using the approach presented here, it is possible to perform an IORT during kyphoplasty with an additional 15 min operation time. The measurement in the donated body resulted in a maximum dose of 3.8 Gy in the spinal cord. However, the Monte Carlo depth dose simulation in bone tissue showed 68% less dose to the prescription depth. Conclusion: We present for the first time a system using an x-ray source that can be used for single-dose IORT during kyphoplasty. The described Kypho-IORT can decrease the overall

  17. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty - a case report on mulitple osteoporotic sintering of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schekelmann R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At St. Marien Hospital, 176 patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures were treated with balloon kyphoplasty (BKP from January 2007 to September 2009. The functional outcome was good and no relevant complications were encountered. Since September 2009, a further 41 patients with the same indication have been treated with the new procedure of radiofrequency (RF kyphoplasty (DFine. Operating times were markedly shorter and the extravasation of cement was reduced by two thirds. We encountered no complications or circulatory problems. The new procedure (RF kyphoplasty resulted in equally good functional results as did BKP, required less time in the operating room, and reduced the number of negative side effects.

  18. Navigation techniques assisted kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic spinal compression fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Chang-tai; ZHAO Li-lian; ZHANG Qi-wei; WEN Liang-yuan; ZHANG Hua-chou

    2009-01-01

    @@ Percutaneous kyphon balloon kyphoplasty has achieved encouraging results in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures, both for correcting spinal deformities and relieving pain.1 Although kyphoplasty is a small invasion, the surgery itself has some defects such as more X-ray fluoroscopy time during the operation and accumulation of radiation dose causing harm to patients and operators, and the puncture is hard to achieve in a highly precise location.2 But those problems can be solved effectively with navigator guided puncture and kyphoplasty. The following is the summary of 38 cases treated successfully with the new puncture method in our hospital.

  19. Alternative analyses for handling incomplete follow-up in the intention-to-treat analysis: the randomized controlled trial of balloon kyphoplasty versus non-surgical care for vertebral compression fracture (FREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranstam Jonas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial participants may be temporarily absent or withdraw from trials, leading to missing data. In intention-to-treat (ITT analyses, several approaches are used for handling the missing information - complete case (CC analysis, mixed-effects model (MM analysis, last observation carried forward (LOCF and multiple imputation (MI. This report discusses the consequences of applying the CC, LOCF and MI for the ITT analysis of published data (analysed using the MM method from the Fracture Reduction Evaluation (FREE trial. Methods The FREE trial was a randomised, non-blinded study comparing balloon kyphoplasty with non-surgical care for the treatment of patients with acute painful vertebral fractures. Patients were randomised to treatment (1:1 ratio, and stratified for gender, fracture aetiology, use of bisphosphonates and use of systemic steroids at the time of enrolment. Six outcome measures - Short-form 36 physical component summary (SF-36 PCS scale, EuroQol 5-Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D, Roland-Morris Disability (RMD score, back pain, number of days with restricted activity in last 2 weeks, and number of days in bed in last 2 weeks - were analysed using four methods for dealing with missing data: CC, LOCF, MM and MI analyses. Results There were no missing data in baseline covariates values, and only a few missing baseline values in outcome variables. The overall missing-response level increased during follow-up (1 month: 14.5%; 24 months: 28%, corresponding to a mean of 19% missing data during the entire period. Overall patterns of missing response across time were similar for each treatment group. Almost half of all randomised patients were not available for a CC analysis, a maximum of 4% were not included in the LOCF analysis, and all randomised patients were included in the MM and MI analyses. Improved estimates of treatment effect were observed with LOCF, MM and MI compared with CC; only MM provided improved

  20. Kyphoplasty with single balloon inflation followed by cement filling for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures%单球囊扩张与骨水泥填充矫正骨质疏松性脊柱压缩骨折椎体后凸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钢; 金鹏; 刘训伟; 谢志勇; 李凡东; 易玉海; 张绪平; 郝润松

    2008-01-01

    .62±4.11)mm,矫正后平均分别丢失(10.38±4.23)mm和(6.45±4.04)mm.Cobb角由矫正前平均(21.15±6.33)°,矫正后为(11.64±4.33)°.结论: 临床结果证实骨水泥与宿主生物相容性好,发生渗漏时无特殊宿主不良反应.应用单球囊扩张并骨水泥填充矫正老年骨质疏松脊柱压缩骨折,可有效恢复椎体高度,缓解疼痛.%BACKGROUND: In kyphoplasty procedure, two balloons are inserted into the vertebral body and inflated simultaneously for height symmetric restoration of the vertebral body. However, the expensive cost of balloon of kyphoplasty limits the extensive development of this procedure in developing countries. In this study, we try to inflate single balloon with bilateral transpedicular routes alternatively to achieve vertebral body height balanced restoration and reduce operation expenditure. But biocompatibility of bone cement and effect of kyphoplasty still need further observation.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocompatibility of bone cement and the clinical efficacy of bipedicular kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures by inserting single inflatable balloon into injured vertebral body and filling bone cement in the cavity caused by inflating balloon via bipedicular approach.DESIGN: Controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Medical Imaging, General Hospital of Jinan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two patients (31 vertebral bodies) undergoing kyphoplasty with single balloon in Department of Medical Imaging, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from May 2004 to May 2005 were selected, including 5 males and 17 females aged 68-85 years. Patients with painful compression fractures caused by osteoporosis were enrolled, and confirmed by CT and MRI with complete vertebral posterior wall but no spine deformity. The informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and the experiment and treatment were approved by Ethics Committee. METHODS

  1. Sensor System for Super-Pressure Balloon Performance Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-duration balloon flights are an exciting new area of scientific ballooning, enabled by the development of large super-pressure balloons. As these balloons...

  2. Radiofrequency Kyphoplasty for the Treatment of Osteoporotic and Neoplastic Vertebral Body Fractures - Preliminary Experience and Clinical Results after 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgeti F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebroplasty and conventional kyphoplasty using a balloon or a stent are established methods for the treatment of painful osteoporotic or neoplastic vertebral compression fractures that are resistant to conservative medical treatment. Radiofrequency (RF kyphoplasty with ultra-high viscosity cement is an innovative method. It permits safe and effective treatment of painful osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures while preserving non-compromised cancellous bone.

  3. CT evaluation of local leakage of bone cement after percutaneous kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Jae; Choi, A. Lam; Yie, Mi-Yeon; Yoon, Ji Young; Jeon, Eui Yong; Koh, Sung Hye; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyung Ja (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June (Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Percutaneous injection of bone cement (acrylic cement) during percutaneous kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty can cause symptomatic or asymptomatic complications due to leakage, extravasation or vascular migration of cement. Purpose: To investigate and to compare the incidence and site of local leakage or complications of bone cement after percutaneous kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty using bone cement. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 473 cases of percutaneous kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Of the 473 cases, follow-up CT scans that covered the treated bones were available for 83 cases (59 kyphoplasty and 24 vertebroplasty). Results: The rate of local leakage of bone cement was 87.5% (21/24) for percutaneous vertebroplasty and 49.2% (29/59) for kyphoplasty. The most common site of local leakage was perivertebral soft tissue (n=8, 38.1%) for vertebroplasty. The most common site of local leakage was a perivertebral vein (n=7, 24.1%) for kyphoplasty. Two cases of pulmonary cement embolism developed: one case after kyphoplasty and one case after vertebroplasty. Conclusion: Local leakage of bone cement was more common for percutaneous vertebroplasty compared with kyphoplasty (P<0.005). The most common sites of local leakage were perivertebral soft tissue and perivertebral vein.

  4. Kypho-IORT - a novel approach of intraoperative radiotherapy during kyphoplasty for vertebral metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instable and painful vertebral metastases in patients with progressive visceral metastases present a common therapeutic dilemma. We developed a novel approach to deliver intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during kyphoplasty and report the first treated case. 60 year old patient with metastasizing breast cancer under chemotherapy presented with a newly diagnosed painful metastasis in the 12th thoracic vertebra. Under general anaesthesia, a bipedicular approach into the vertebra was chosen with insertion of specially designed metallic sleeves to guide the electron drift tube of the miniature X-ray generator (INTRABEAM, Carl Zeiss Surgical, Oberkochen, Germany). This was inserted with a novel sheet designed for this approach protecting the drift tube. A radiation dose of 8 Gy in 5 mm distance (50 kV X-rays) was delivered. The kyphoplasty balloons (KyphX, Kyphon Inc, Sunnyvale) were inflated after IORT and polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected. The whole procedure lasted less than 90 minutes. In conclusion, this novel, minimally invasive procedure can be performed in standard operating rooms and may become a valuable option for patients with vertebral metastases providing immediate stability and local control. A phase I/II study is under way to establish the optimal dose prescription

  5. Performance of latex balloons for optical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.; Walsh, A.; Peng, M.; Battista, J.

    2013-06-01

    Latex balloons filled with radiation sensitive hydrogels were evaluated as 3D dosimeters with optical computed tomography (CT) readout. Custom balloons, with less than 10 cm diameters, were made from latex sheets. Commercial, 13 cm diameter, clear balloons were investigated for larger volumes. Ferrous-xylenol orange and genipin gelatin gels selected for 1 and 30 Gy experiments, respectively. The thin stretched latex membrane allowed optical imaging to within 1 mm of the interior balloon edge. Reconstructed dose distributions demonstrated valid measurements to within 2 mm of the balloon surface. The rubber membrane provides a hybrid approach to deforming hydrogels. Uniform irradiation of a deformed gel resulted in a uniform dose being measured when scanned in the relaxed, initial balloon shape. The 13 cm diameter balloons were also effective and inexpensive vessels for hydrogels due to their high clarity, thinness and mechanical strength. Latex balloons represent an inexpensive method to obtain useful information from nearly the entire dosimeter volume.

  6. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Can Restore Normal Spine Mechanics following Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral fractures often lead to pain and disability. They can be successfully treated, and possibly prevented, by injecting cement into the vertebral body, a procedure known as vertebroplasty. Kyphoplasty is similar, except that an inflatable balloon is used to restore vertebral body height before cement is injected. These techniques are growing rapidly in popularity, and a great deal of recent research, reviewed in this paper, has examined their ability to restore normal mechanical function to fractured vertebrae. Fracture reduces the height and stiffness of a vertebral body, causing the spine to assume a kyphotic deformity, and transferring load bearing to the neural arch. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are equally able to restore vertebral stiffness, and restore load sharing towards normal values, although kyphoplasty is better at restoring vertebral body height. Future research should optimise these techniques to individual patients in order to maximise their beneficial effects, while minimising the problems of cement leakage and adjacent level fracture.

  7. Performance research of filter in radon measurement with balloon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Filter membrane is an important part of the balloon emanometer. The membrane of high filtration efficiency but little self-absorption can not only improve the sampling rate, but also reduce the measurement error effectively. Purpose: The experiment aims to compare the performance of three different filter membrane materials. Methods: Based on the radon and its progeny collecting physical processes on the membrane, we deduced the collection of radon in filters and its decay variation with time. Through the experiment, the filtration efficiency and self-absorption factor of the three different membranes have been tested. Results: When the thickness is almost the same, the filtration efficiency of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter and nylon filter is higher than that of commonly used glass fiber filter and its self-absorption is better than that of glass fiber membrane. The air resistance of PTFE filter is the best. It can effectively improve the performance by increasing thickness of the glass fiber filter membrane. Conclusion: This is not only a good reference for the selection of filter membrane in radon measurement with balloon method, but also applicable to radon-measuring devices with other methods. (authors)

  8. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty: a new method for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licht AW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 148 patients with 205 vertebral fractures were treated with the balloon kyphoplasty system of Medtronic Company at the Asklepios Südpfalzkliniken in Kandel. The outcome of the procedure was favourable. During this period, cement leakages were observed in 27 % of cases, and a pulmonary embolism requiring intervention occurred in one case. Since February 2009, 21 patients with 26 vertebral fractures have been manutreated by the new radiofrequency kyphoplasty procedure of DFine Company. Very good clinical results have been obtained with this method.

  9. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in osteoporotic fractures of vertebral bodies - a prospective 1-year follow-up analysis; Vertebroplastie und Kyphoplastie bei osteoporotischen Wirbelkoerperfrakturen - Eine prospektive Analyse der Einjahresergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugmacher, R.; Kandziora, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schleicher, P.; Scholz, M.; Schnake, K.; Haas, N.; Khodadadyan-Klostermann, C. [Charite - Centrum fuer Muskuloskeletale Chirurgie, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Purpose: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty offer two minimally invasive operative stabilization procedures for vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether both procedures are able to reduce pain and to preserve postoperative vertebral height during a 1-year follow up. Materials and methods: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were treated in 42 cases, 20 patients (15 female, 5 male) underwent vertebroplasty, 22 patients (14 female, 8 male) underwent kyphoplasty. 32 vertebral fractures were treated with vertebroplasty and 35 vertebral fractures were treated with kyphoplasty. Symptomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with conventional radiographs, CT or/and MRI. During the follow up reduction of pain was determined. Radiographic scans were performed pre- and postoperatively and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The vertebral height and endplate angles were measured to assess the restoration of the sagittal alignment. The effects on pain symptoms were measured on a self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry score was documented. Results: The median pain scores (VAS) decreased significantly for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty from pre- to post-treatment, as did the Oswestry score (p<0.05). No significant differences could be found between both groups for the median pain score (VAS) and the Oswestry score. Kyphoplasty led to a significant restoration of the vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis (p<0.05). During the 1-year follow up operation techniques were able to stabilize the height of the vertebral body. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are effective minimally invasive procedures for the stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral fractures leading to a statistically significant reduction in pain. Kyphoplasty restores significantly vertebral body height in fresh fractures. The restoration of vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis may have an influence on the long

  10. A novel approach for biomechanical spine analysis: Mechanical response of vertebral bone augmentation by kyphoplasty to stabilise thoracolumbar burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaneau, A; Vendeuvre, T; Saget, M; Doumalin, P; Dupré, J C; Brémand, F; Hesser, F; Couvertier, M; Brèque, C; Maxy, P; Roulaud, M; Monlezun, O; Rigoard, P

    2016-06-01

    Kyphoplasty has been shown as a well-established technique for spinal injuries. This technique allows a vertebral bone augmentation with a reduction of morbidity and does not involve any adjacent segment immobilisation. There is a lack of biomechanical information resulting in major gaps of knowledge such as: the evaluation of the "quality" of stabilisation provided by kyphoplasty as a standalone procedure in case of unstable fracture. Our objective is to analyse biomechanical response of spine segments stabilised by Kyphoplasty and PMMA cement after experiencing burst fractures. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric spine specimens constituted by five vertebra (T11-L3) and four disks were tested. A specific loading setup has been developed to impose pure moments corresponding to loadings of flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Tests were performed on each specimen in an intact state and post kyphoplasty following a burst fracture. Strain measurements and motion variations of spinal unit are measured by a 3D optical method. Strain measurements on vertebral bodies after kyphoplasty shows a great primary stabilisation. Comparisons of mobility and angles variations between the intact and post kyphoplasty states do not highlight significant difference. Percutaneous kyphoplasty offers a good primary stability in case of burst fracture. Kinematics analysis during physiological movements shows that this stabilisation solution preserve disk mobility in each adjacent spinal unit. PMID:26896762

  11. Kyphoplasty - Vertebroplasty. A critical assessment; Kyphoplastie - Vertebroplastie. Eine kritische Standortbestimmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperk, C. [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Osteologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Painful vertebral compression fractures. Analgesia. Osteoplastic procedures, such as kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Anamnestic and radiological associations of clinical complaints with the radiomorphological findings of vertebral compression fractures are required for an adequate consideration to assess whether an osteoplastic procedure should be carried out. A computed tomography (CT) scan allows a reliable judgement whether an osteoplastic procedure is technically feasible and promising to improve the local vertebral fracture-associated pain. Prospective controlled trials have demonstrated a satisfactory improvement of back pain associated with vertebral fractures and parameters of quality of life by osteoplastic interventions. No prospective, truly sham-controlled blind trials are currently available which demonstrate an advantage of osteoplastic interventions compared to standard pain treatment; however, the currently published prospective controlled trials show a satisfactory pain reduction by osteoplastic interventions, such as kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Painful vertebral fractures and progressive loss of vertebral height of compression fractures should be evaluated in an interdisciplinary team consisting of radiologists, spinal surgeons and internists to assess whether an osteoplastic procedure is technically feasible and promising to improve local pain and immobility associated with vertebral fractures. (orig.) [German] Schmerzhafte Wirbelkoerpersinterungsfraktur. Schmerztherapie. Osteoplastische Verfahren wie die Kyphoplastie und die Vertebroplastie. Anamnestische und bildgebende (moeglichst CT) Assoziation der klinischen Beschwerden (Hauptschmerzbereich) mit dem radiologischen Befund eines eingebrochenen Wirbelkoerpers. Das CT gestattet am zuverlaessigsten eine Beurteilung der technischen Durchfuehrbarkeit eines osteoplastischen Verfahrens bei einer Wirbelkoerpersinterungsfraktur. Kontrollierte prospektive Studien belegen die schmerzreduzierende

  12. CONTROVERSIES ON VERTEBROPLASTY AND KYPHOPLASTY FOR VERTEBRAL COMPRESSION FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Roberto Teles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are widely used for osteoporotic and cancer-related vertebral compression fractures refractory to medical treatment. Many aspects of these procedures have been extensively discussed in the literature during the last few years. In this article, we perform a critical appraisal of current evidence on effectiveness and ongoing controversies regarding surgical technique, indications and contraindications, clinical outcomes and potential complications of these procedures.

  13. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  14. Primary pyogenic spondylitis following kyphoplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyse Thomas J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Only ten cases of primary pyogenic spondylitis following vertebroplasty have been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first reported case of primary pyogenic spondylitis and spondylodiscitis caused by kyphoplasty. Case presentation A 72-year old Caucasian man with an osteoporotic compression fracture of the first lumbar vertebra after kyphoplasty developed sensory incomplete paraplegia below the first lumbar vertebra. This was caused by myelon compression following pyogenic spondylitis with a psoas abscess. Computed tomography guided aspiration of the abscess cavity yielded group C Streptococcus. The psoas abscess was percutaneously drained and laminectomy and posterior instrumentation with an internal fixator from the eleventh thoracic vertebra to the fourth lumbar vertebra was performed. In a second operation, corpectomy of the first lumbar vertebra with cement removal and fusion from the twelfth thoracic vertebra to the second lumbar vertebra with a titanium cage was performed. Six weeks postoperatively, the patient was pain free with no neurologic deficits or signs of infection. Conclusion Pyogenic spondylitis is an extremely rare complication after kyphoplasty. When these patients develop recurrent back pain postoperatively, the diagnosis of pyogenic spondylitis must be considered.

  15. Treatment of acute thoracolumbar burst fractures with kyphoplasty and short pedicle screw fixation: Transpedicular intracorporeal grafting with calcium phosphate: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovessis Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the surgical treatment of thoracolumbar fractures, the major problem after posterior correction and transpedicular instrumentation is failure to support the anterior spinal column, leading to loss of correction and instrumentation failure with associated complaints. We conducted this prospective study to evaluate the outcome of the treatment of acute thoracolumbar burst fractures by transpedicular balloon kyphoplasty, grafting with calcium phosphate cement and short pedicle screw fixation plus fusion. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three consecutive patients of thoracolumbar (T 9 to L 4 burst fracture with or without neurologic deficit with an average age of 43 years, were included in this prospective study. Twenty-one from the 23 patients had single burst fracture while the remaining two patients had a burst fracture and additionally an adjacent A1-type fracture. On admission six (26% out of 23 patients had neurological deficit (five incomplete, one complete. Bilateral transpedicular balloon kyphoplasty with liquid calcium phosphate to reduce segmental kyphosis and restore vertebral body height and short (three vertebrae pedicle screw instrumentation with posterolateral fusion was performed. Gardner kyphosis angle, anterior and posterior vertebral body height ratio and spinal canal encroachment were calculated pre- to postoperatively. Results : All 23 patients were operated within two days after admission and were followed for at least 12 months after index surgery. Operating time and blood loss averaged 45 min and 60 cc respectively. The five patients with incomplete neurological lesions improved by at least one ASIA grade, while no neurological deterioration was observed in any case. The VAS and SF-36 (Role physical and Bodily pain domains were significantly improved postoperatively. Overall sagittal alignment was improved from an average preoperative 16° to one degree kyphosis at final follow-up observation. The anterior

  16. Radiofrequency Kyphoplasty - An Innovative Method of Treating Osteoporotic Vertebral Body Compression Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drees P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral body fractures are encountered increasingly often. Cement augmentation using vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty are standardised and established procedures. However, the optimal cement viscosity at the time of cement augmentation has not yet been satisfactory resolved for either method. In other words, the time point of cement application is left to the surgeon’s subjective estimation. Early application of cement may cause cement leakage whereas late application may cause incomplete filling of the vertebral body. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty is a recently developed augmentation system that enables the surgeon to exert control when creating the cavity, as well as aids him in the placement and application of cement. Cement is applied by remote control and thus uniformly retains its properties. The method is presented in the following.

  17. A high performance anticoincidence rejection system for balloon borne MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supernova SN1987A have been observed in the range of hard X-rays (15 / 180 KeV) and high energy γ-rays (50 / 500 MeV) with a payload launched from the balloon facility of Alice Springs (Australia) during April 1987 and 1988. The low energy detector based on a MWPC had a sensitive area of 500 cm/sup 2/. In the second flight a complete plastic shield was added for the first time to the Multiwire Proportional Counter (MWPC). In this way, switching on the active shield, the background counting rate dropped from 4.2 to 2.8 x 10/sup -4/ ct/cm/sup 2/ s keV with no change in the dead time of the counter. This clearly demonstrates the advantage of the use of a multitechnique rejection system for this kind of gaseous detectors

  18. Thermal design and performance of the balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry BLASTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, J D; Angilè, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Mroczkowski, A; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Thomas, N E; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the thermal model of the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). This instrument was successfully flown in two circumpolar flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. During these two flights, BLASTPol obtained unprecedented information about the magnetic field in molecular clouds through the measurement of the polarized thermal emission of interstellar dust grains. The thermal design of the experiment addresses the stability and control of the payload necessary for this kind of measurement. We describe the thermal modeling of the payload including the sun-shielding strategy. We present the in-flight thermal performance of the instrument and compare the predictions of the model with the temperatures registered during the flight. We describe the difficulties of modeling the thermal behavior of the balloon-borne platform and establish landmarks that can be used in the design of future balloon-borne instruments.

  19. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rester, A.C.; Coldwell, R.L. (Institute for Astrophysics and Planetary Exploration, Univ. of Florida, Alachua, FL (US)); Trombka, J.I. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center); Starr, R. (Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Physics); Eichhorn, G. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA)); Lasche, G.P. (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (USA))(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The GRAD gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a high-altitude balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988 where it was used to make observations of Supernova 1987a. The performance of the bismuth germinate active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined.

  20. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRAD gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a high-altitude balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988 where it was used to make observations of Supernova 1987a. The performance of the bismuth germinate active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined

  1. Current unsolved problems of percutaneous kyphoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous kyphoplasty(PKP)as an interventional radiologic technique to treat pain caused by compression fracture of vertebral body has been lasted for near ten years. During last decade, some good clinical results and also unfavorable complications had been presented, however, there are still some problems remained to be solved, such as restoration of vertebral height, cement extravasation, including occurrence of subsequent adjacent vertebral fracture; due to lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT). This article comprehended all the recent pertinent literature concerning the forementioned problems of percutaneous kyphoplasty as adjunct for clinical application. (authors)

  2. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in osteoporotic fractures of vertebral bodies - a prospective 1-year follow-up analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty offer two minimally invasive operative stabilization procedures for vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether both procedures are able to reduce pain and to preserve postoperative vertebral height during a 1-year follow up. Materials and methods: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were treated in 42 cases, 20 patients (15 female, 5 male) underwent vertebroplasty, 22 patients (14 female, 8 male) underwent kyphoplasty. 32 vertebral fractures were treated with vertebroplasty and 35 vertebral fractures were treated with kyphoplasty. Symptomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with conventional radiographs, CT or/and MRI. During the follow up reduction of pain was determined. Radiographic scans were performed pre- and postoperatively and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The vertebral height and endplate angles were measured to assess the restoration of the sagittal alignment. The effects on pain symptoms were measured on a self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry score was documented. Results: The median pain scores (VAS) decreased significantly for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty from pre- to post-treatment, as did the Oswestry score (p<0.05). No significant differences could be found between both groups for the median pain score (VAS) and the Oswestry score. Kyphoplasty led to a significant restoration of the vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis (p<0.05). During the 1-year follow up operation techniques were able to stabilize the height of the vertebral body. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are effective minimally invasive procedures for the stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral fractures leading to a statistically significant reduction in pain. Kyphoplasty restores significantly vertebral body height in fresh fractures. The restoration of vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis may have an influence on the long

  3. Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... significant complications involving cement leakage following vertebroplasty. Some stud- ies suggest vertebral body height restoration has been ... physi- cal role, vitality, and bodily pain. Other stud- 10 ies also cite significant improvement in qual- ...

  4. Analysis of the latrogenic factors on kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the iatrogenic factors affecting effect of kyphoplasty (KP). Methods: Percutaneous bilateral transpedicular KP with single balloon was performed in 38 patients with only painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF). There were respectively 23 patients and 15 patients in standard surgery (SS) and nonstandard surgery (NSS) groups. MRI displayed low signal in T1WI and high signal in T2WI and STIR. Pain scores,vertebral body heights, Cobb's angles and cement leakages were measured for all patients. Results: All patients experienced dramatic pain relief or disappearance after the procedures. In SS group and in NSS group, the main pain score (VAS) decreased from 8.8 ± 0.9 and 8.6 ± 0.6 preoperatively to 2.6 ± 1.3 and 3.3 ± 1.5 postoperatively (P>0.05). The vertebral body height restoration was (54.8 ± 32.6)% and (46.5 ± 31.9)% on the anterior border, (61.2 ± 22.4)% and (60.1 ± 27.6)% in the middle potion, the sagittal alignment was improved significantly, as the average correction of the Cobb's angle reached 14.9 degree (0 degree ∼ 37 degree) and 7.6 degree (0 degree ∼ 27 degree). The rate of cement leakage was 8.7% and 33.3% in veins and soft tissues, around body, intervertebrally (P<0.05). The average volume of cement in one vertebral body was (4.65 ±1.32) (1.8 ∼ 8.0) ml and (5.45 ± 1.53) (1.5 ∼ 8.5) ml. Conclusion: It is significantly effective to the effect of KP for the surgical technique. It is important to increase the surgical security and clinical outcome for the standard surgical technique and normal professional training. (authors)

  5. Preliminary clinical outcomes of percutaneous kyphoplasty with Sky-bone expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhao-min; KUANG Guan-ming; DONG Zhi-yong; K.M.C. Cheung; William W. Lu; LI Fo-bao

    2007-01-01

    Background Percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) using balloon expander has been proved to be effective in the treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures. Recently, Sky-bone expander, an alternative bone expander for PKP has been developed. The purpose of this study was to show our preliminary clinical outcomes of PKP with Sky-bone expander.Methods PKP with Sky-bone expander was performed in 25 patients (30 vertebrae). The operation time, bleeding volume, cement volume injected were recorded. The pain and functional activities of the patients before and after the operation were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The cement distribution in the vertebrae, vertebral height restoration, and kyphosis correction after the procedure were evaluated by radiography. The pre- and post-operative absolute values of the vertebral height and kyphotic angle were compared by paired-sample t test. All the patients were followed up by telephone or clinic consulting after being discharged from our hospital.Results The procedure was performed successfully in all the patients. Bipedicular injection was used in 2 of the patients, and unipedicular injection was made in the others. The operation time ranged from 25 to 120 minutes (45 minutes per vertebra on average). The average bleeding volume was about 20 ml. Polymethylmethacrylate1.5 - 5.0 ml (mean, (3.15±0.78) ml) was injected through each pedicle into all the patients except one, who received calcium sulphate 3.5 ml instead. The patients were followed up for 12-15 months (13.5 months on average). The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry Disability Index, anterior, midline, and posterior vertebral height, and kyphotic angle of the patients were improved significantly at the end of the follow-up compared with those before the operation.(2.5±1.3, 35.1%, (20.94±6.15) mm, (20.26±4.59) mm, (26.72±3.49) mm, and 8.2 degrees vs. 8.5±1.9, 61.2%, (19.11±6.72) mm, (15.88±5.73) mm, (25.78±3.67) mm, and 17.3 degrees

  6. Performance of Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters in a Balloon Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, J; Dedhia, D K; Manchanda, R K; Shah, P B; Chitnis, V R; Gujar, V M; Parmar, J V; Pawar, D M; Kurhade, V B

    2016-01-01

    ASTROSAT is India's first satellite fully devoted to astronomical observations covering a wide spectral band from optical to hard X-rays by a complement of 4 co-aligned instruments and a Scanning Sky X-ray Monitor. One of the instruments is Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter with 3 identical detectors. In order to assess the performance of this instrument, a balloon experiment with two prototype Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters (LAXPC) was carried out on 2008 April 14. The design of these LAXPCs was similar to those on the ASTROSAT except that their field of view (FOV) was 3$^{\\circ}$ $\\times$ 3$^{\\circ}$ versus FOV of 1$^{\\circ}$ $\\times$ 1$^{\\circ}$ for the LAXPCs on the ASTROSAT. The LAXPCs are aimed at the timing and spectral studies of X-ray sources in 3-80 keV region. In the balloon experiment, the LAXPC, associated electronics and support systems were mounted on an oriented platform which could be pre-programmed to track any source in the sky. A brief description of the LAXPC design, laborator...

  7. Kyphoplasty for the treatment of incomplete osteoporotic burst fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Antonio; Zettl, Ralph; Ziring, Ewgeni; Mann, Dieter; Schnabel, Michael; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Kyphoplasty has become a standard procedure in the treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures. According to current guidelines, involvement of the posterior wall of the vertebral body is a relative contraindication. From February 2002 until January 2008, 97 patients with at least one AO classification A 3.1 fracture were treated by kyphoplasty. There was a structured follow-up for the medium-term evaluation of the patients’ outcome. Ninety-seven patients (68 of whom were females ...

  8. Flight performance of EXAM - a balloon-borne detector to search for extragalactic antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the performance of the EXAM detector during its five hour balloon flight in 1988. EXAM is an experiment designed to search for cosmic rays of extragalactic origin which are made of antimatter. The EXAM technique to identify antinuclei is unique, being based on higher order corrections to electronic stopping power of charged particles, and on the response characteristics of CR-39 track-etch detectors, plastic scintillators, and Cherenkov radiators. Included in the present paper are the completed analysis of the electronic detectors, and preliminary results of the analysis of the track-etch detectors, including a demonstration of our ability to match particles identified with the drift tube tracking elements during the flight with their tracks found in the passive CR-39 detectors. When the CR-39 analysis is complete, we will have approximately 10 000 events for which antimatter analysis can be made. ((orig.))

  9. 单双侧椎体后凸成形骨水泥注入修复骨质疏松性椎体压缩性骨折的荟萃分析%A meta-analysis of unilateralversus bilateral balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贵福; 钱耀文; 刘林; 骆文远; 柳少光

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Baloon kyphoplasty is effective in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, but it is unclear that which one is proper, unilateral or bilateral approach, with better efficacy and fewer complications. OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy and safety of unilateralversus bilateral baloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. METHODS: We searched the electronic bibliographic databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CBMdisc and other databases to colect clinical trials concerning unilateral versus bilateral baloon kyphoplasty. Two estimators independently evaluated the quality of these included studies and analyzed data by Cochrane Colaboration’s RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Fourteen trials involving 876 patients were included. There were 442 cases of unilateral approach and 434 of bilateral approach. The meta-analysis showed that there were no significant differences in pain score by visual analog scale, vertebral height, and kyphotic angle; while the unilateral approach had less operating time, lower amount of cement injected and lower risk of cement leakage than the bilateral approach [mean difference (MD)=-19.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-24.42,-14.24); MD=-2.07, 95%CI (-2.42,-1.71); odds ratio=0.47, 95% CI (-24.42,-14.240)]. These findings indicate that the unilateral baloon kyphoplasty can reduce the leakage rate of bone cement.%背景:球囊椎体后凸成形可有效治疗骨质疏松引起的椎体压缩性骨折,但对于采用单侧还是双侧入路哪种入路疗效更佳、并发症更少,目前尚无定论。  目的:系统评价单侧与双侧穿刺入路椎体后凸成形治疗骨质疏松性椎体压缩性骨折的疗效和安全性。  方法:应用计算机检索PubMed、EMBASE、Cochrane Library、ISI Web of Knowledge、CBM等数据库1963年1月至2014年3月文献,收集单侧对比双侧入路椎体后

  10. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in patients with osteoporotic fractures: secured knowledge and open questions; Vertebroplastie und Kyphoplastie bei osteoporotischen Wirbelkoerperfrakturen: Gesicherte Kenntnisse, offene Fragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohndorf, K.; Fessl, R. [Klinikum Augsburg, Klinik fuer diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Augsburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Cementoplasty, performed either as percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, has become well established as an effective technique to treat painful vertebral body fractures. It has low complication rates, is successful in alleviating pain, and improves the patients' mobility and quality of life. A series of questions remain open though or are the subject of controversial debate; for example, the results of several biomechanical studies are in part contradictory. Clinical data on subsequent fractures are also still inadequate, although the majority of studies show no elevated rate of subsequent fractures following treatment with cementoplasty in comparison to the natural course in patients with osteoporotic fractures. Kyphoplasty has the advantage of being able to restore the vertebral body height or reduce the kyphosis angle without leading to different clinical outcomes in comparison to vertebroplasty. Biomechanical considerations on whether restoration of the vertebral body's normal shape could reduce the rate of subsequent fractures still need scientific substantiation. Both surgical methods are employed in our clinic. Kyphoplasty seems to us to be indicated when the height of the anterior portion of the vertebral body is reduced by one-third compared to the norm or a kyphosis angle of more than 15-20 is present. The goals of therapy are restoring the shape and reducing the kyphosis angle. This can only succeed, however, in fractures that are not older than 3 weeks. In all other cases vertebroplasty is performed. (orig.) [German] Die Zementoplastie, entweder als perkutane Vertebro- oder Kyphoplastie ausgefuehrt, hat sich als effiziente Technik fuer die Behandlung schmerzhafter Wirbelkoerperfrakturen etabliert. Sie hat geringe Komplikationsraten, ist erfolgreich bei der Schmerzlinderung und verbessert die Mobilitaet und Lebensqualitaet der Patienten. Allerdings ist eine Reihe von Fragen noch offen oder Gegenstand einer kontroversen Debatte, so sind z

  11. Mars Solar Balloon Lander Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  12. Kyphoplasty for osteoporotic fractures with spinal canal compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical outcome of kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise. Methods: A total of 16 patients with osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit were attempted to be treated by kyphoplasty. During kyphoplasty, modified techniques including staged bone cement injection and dynamic fluoroscopic monitoring were used. Pain was measured using the self-reporting Visual Analogue pain Scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability questionnaire (ODI) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. The height of the compromised vertebral body, the kyphotic angle and the spinal canal compromise were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Results: Operations were completed smoothly, with the exception of one patient with less cement leakage but without clinical symptom occurred. Relief of pain was achieved after kyphoplasty. The mean VAS score of these patients decreased from 8.1 ± 1.2 pre-operatively to 2.7 ± 0.6 post-operatively (P0.05). In the final follow-up, the spinal canal compromise was (14.4 ± 3.1)%. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty is a relatively safe and effective method for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit. (authors)

  13. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rester, A. C.; Coldwell, R. L.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.; Eichhorn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The GRAD (Gamma-Ray Advanced Detector) gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988, where it was used to make observations of SN 1987A. The performance of the bismuth germanate (BGO) active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined. The promised effectiveness of this shielding in the suppression of unwanted background has been demonstrated. The BGO-shielded GRAD spectrometer detected gamma-ray lines with fluxes of 0.002/sq cm sec from SN 1987A in a radiation background approximately a factor of 4 more intense than that over Alice Springs, Australia. This level of sensitivity indicates that BGO is at least as effective as CsI when used as active shielding. Isomerism is common, both in the bismuth and germanium regions of the nuclear chart, but is found to be less of a problem for background suppression in the latter region than in the former.

  14. The thermal design, characterization, and performance of the SPIDER long-duration balloon cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Dore, O.; Filippini, J. P.; Fraisse, A. A.; Gambrel, A.; Gandilo, N. N.; Hasselfield, M.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Montroy, T. E.; Morford, T. A.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the SPIDER flight cryostat, which is designed to cool six millimeter-wavelength telescopes during an Antarctic long-duration balloon flight. The cryostat, one of the largest to have flown on a stratospheric payload, uses liquid 4 He to deliver cooling power to stages at 4.2 and 1.6 K. Stainless steel capillaries facilitate a high flow impedance connection between the main liquid helium tank and a smaller superfluid tank, allowing the latter to operate at 1.6 K as long as there is liquid in the 4.2 K main tank. Each telescope houses a closed cycle 3 He adsorption refrigerator that further cools the focal planes down to 300 mK. Liquid helium vapor from the main tank is routed through heat exchangers that cool radiation shields, providing negative thermal feedback. The system performed successfully during a 17 day flight in the 2014-2015 Antarctic summer. The cryostat had a total hold time of 16.8 days, with 15.9 days occurring during flight.

  15. The Thermal Design, Characterization, and Performance of the SPIDER Long-Duration Balloon Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Gudmundsson, J E; Amiri, M; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Doré, O; Filippini, J P; Fraisse, A A; Gambrel, A; Gandilo, N N; Hasselfield, M; Halpern, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Megerian, K; Moncelsi, L; Montroy, T E; Morford, T A; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Wiebe, D V; Young, E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the SPIDER flight cryostat, which is designed to cool six millimeter-wavelength telescopes during an Antarctic long-duration balloon flight. The cryostat, one of the largest to have flown on a stratospheric payload, uses liquid helium-4 to deliver cooling power to stages at 4.2 and 1.6 K. Stainless steel capillaries facilitate a high flow impedance connection between the main liquid helium tank and a smaller superfluid tank, allowing the latter to operate at 1.6 K as long as there is liquid in the 4.2 K main tank. Each telescope houses a closed cycle helium-3 adsorption refrigerator that further cools the focal planes down to 300 mK. Liquid helium vapor from the main tank is routed through heat exchangers that cool radiation shields, providing negative thermal feedback. The system performed successfully during a 17 day flight in the 2014-2015 Antarctic summer. The cryostat had a total hold time of 16.8 days, with 15.9 days occurring during flight.

  16. Tuberculous Spondylitis Following Kyphoplasty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao-Yuan; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Yong-Hong; Liu, Tuan-Jiang; Guo, Hua; He, Bao-Rong; Qian, Li-Xiong; Zhao, Yuan-Tin; Yang, Jun-Song; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculous spondylitis of the augmented vertebral column following percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty has rarely been described. We report an unusual case of tuberculous spondylitis diagnosed after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP).A 61-year-old woman presented to our institution complaining of back pain following a fall 7 days before. Radiologic studies revealed an acute osteoporotic compression L1 fracture. The patient denied history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and there were no signs of infection. The patient was discharged from hospital 4 days after undergoing L1 PKP with a dramatic improvement in her back pain. Two years later, the patient was readmitted with a 1 year history of recurrent back pain. Imaging examinations demonstrated long segmental bony destruction involving L1 vertebra with massive paravertebral abscess formation. The tentative diagnosis of tuberculous spondylitis was made, after a serum T-SPOT. The TB test was found to be positive. Anterior debridement, L1 corpectomy, decompression, and autologous rib graft interposition, and posterior T8-L4 instrumentation were performed. The histologic examination of the resected tissue results confirmed the diagnosis of spinal TB. Anti-TB medications were administered for 12 months and the patient recovered without sequelae.Spinal TB and osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are similar clinically and radiologically. Spinal surgeons should consider this disease entity to avoid misdiagnosis or complications. Early surgical intervention and anti-TB treatment should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis of spinal TB after vertebral augmentation is made. PMID:26986102

  17. Precise Pointing and Stabilization Performance for the Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT): 2015 Test Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Romualdez, L J; Damaren, C J; Galloway, M N; Hartley, J W; Li, L; Massey, R J; Netterfield, C B

    2016-01-01

    Balloon-borne astronomy offers an attractive option for experiments that require precise pointing and attitude stabilization, due to a large reduction in the atmospheric interference observed by ground-based systems as well as the low-cost and short development time-scale compared to space-borne systems. The Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT) is an instrument designed to meet the technological requirements of high precision astronomical missions and is a precursor to the development of a facility class instrument with capabilities similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. The attitude determination and control systems (ADCS) for BIT, the design, implementation, and analysis of which are the focus of this paper, compensate for compound pendulation effects and other sub-orbital disturbances in the stratosphere to within 1-2$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (rms), while back-end optics provide further image stabilization down to 0.05$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (not discussed here). During the inaugural test flight from Timmins, Canada in S...

  18. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penacchioni, A. V., E-mail: ana.penacchioni@inpe.br; Braga, J., E-mail: joao.braga@inpe.br; Castro, M. A., E-mail: manuel.castro@inpe.br; Sacahui, J. R., E-mail: rodrigo.sacahui@inpe.br; D’Amico, F., E-mail: flavio.damico@inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) São José dos Campos (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modelled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galactic Centre (CG) region during balloon flights in Brazil (∼ −23° of latitude and an altitude of ∼40 km) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the GC: 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  19. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penacchioni, A. V.; Braga, J.; Castro Avila, M. A.; Amico, F. D.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modelled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galactic Centre (GC) region during balloon flights in Brazil (∽ -23° of latitude and ∽ 40 km of altitude) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the GC region: IE 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  20. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Penacchioni, A V; Castro, M A; D'Amico, F

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modeled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galatic Centre region during balloon flights in Brazil ($\\sim -23^{\\circ}$ of latitude and an altitude of $\\sim 40 \\thinspace$ km) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the Galactic Centre region: 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  1. Design and performance in the first flight of the transition radiation detector and charge detector of the CREAM balloon instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument flew on a high altitude balloon in Antarctica in 2004-2005 for a record breaking 42 days. An array of detectors was deployed to identify cosmic rays and measure their energies up to several hundred TeV. A major science goal is the measurement of secondary nuclei at high energy (produced by spallation reactions of heavier cosmic rays in the interstellar medium). This is done with a transition radiation detector using xenon-filled proportional tubes, and charge identification devices comprising plastic scintillator and Cherenkov counters. Accurate and stable performance of these detectors is necessary for the reliable identification of the secondary nuclei. The design of these detectors and their performance in flight are discussed, and preliminary data presented

  2. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry-BLASTPol: Performance and results from the 2012 Antarctic flight

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, N; Angilé, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment, designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLASTPol observes polarized light using a total power instrument, photolithographic polarizing grids, and an achromatic half-wave plate to modulate the polarization signal. During its second flight from Antarctica in December 2012, BLASTPol made degree scale maps of linearly polarized dust emission from molecular clouds in three wavebands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The instrumental performance was an improvement over the 2010 BLASTPol flight, with decreased systematics resulting in a higher number of confirmed polarization vectors. The resultant dataset allows BLASTPol to trace magnetic fields in star-forming regions at scales ranging from cores to entire molecular cloud complexes.

  3. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna Ultra-high Energy Neutrino Detector Design, Performance, and Sensitivity for 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P; Beatty, J; Besson, D; Binns, W; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P; DuVernois, M; Field, R; Goldstein, D; Goodhue, A; Hast, C; Hebert, C; Hoover, S; Israel, M; Kowalski, J; Learned, J; Liewer, K; Link, J; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B; Miki, C; Miocinovic, P; Nam, J; Naudet, C; Nichol, R; Palladino, K; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Ruckman, L; Saltzberg, D; Seckel, D; Varner, G; Walz, D; Wang, Y; Wu, F

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity. Neutrino physics results will be reported separately.

  4. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P. W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Allison, P. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beatty, J. J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Besson, D. Z. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binns, W. R. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Chen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Clem, J. M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Connolly, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Dowkontt, P. F. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); DuVernois, M. A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Field, R. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Goodhue, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hast, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hebert, C. L. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Hoover, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Israel, M. H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States). et al.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  5. Kyphoplasty combined with intraoperative radiotherapy (Kypho-IORT). Alternative therapy for patients with oligometastatic spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a more effective systemic therapy the survival of patients suffering from malignant tumors has been significantly improved but a longer life span is often associated with a higher incidence of osseous metastases. The majority of these metastases are localized in the spine causing pain, instability and neurological impairments. The interdisciplinary management of spinal metastases previously consisted of stabilization followed by fractionated external body radiation therapy. A reduction in procedural severity and morbidity as well as consideration of self-sufficiency and hospitalization time are important target parameters for these palliative patients. Kyphoplasty combined with intraoperative radiotherapy (Kypho-IORT) is one of several modern treatment options, which involves a minimally invasive procedure with local high-dose transpedicular irradiation of the spine with low-energy (50 kV) X-rays. Immediately following irradiation, stabilization of the spine is carried out using kyphoplasty via the same access route so that a single stage procedure with excellent pain reduction and good local tumor control can be achieved. This article presents clinical data for this procedure and the different fields of indications are critically reviewed and compared to other therapy options. Methodological improvements and options for further individualization of therapy are demonstrated. The Kypho-IORT procedure is a safe, feasible and beneficial modern treatment option for instant stabilization and local tumor control in patients with spinal metastases. More than 100 operations have been successfully performed so that the method can be deemed suitable for inclusion in the clinical routine. A phase II dose escalation study has now been completed and submitted for publication and a 2-arm non-inferiority trial (phase III study) for comparison with conventional irradiation is in progress. (orig.)

  6. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in the Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Taş

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In our study which is carried out to detect the effect of kyphoplasty over acute vertebral fractures, 8 patients; presenting with 6 osteoporotic, 1 tumoral, 1 traumatic acute vertebra fractures underwent kyphoplasty procedure at a total of 12 levels. No postoperative complications were detected, and as achieved, in the 6 th and 12 th month follow up periods, no adjacent vertebral fracture was observed with X ray imaging. With this small series, kyphoplasty has been shown to have affirmative effects in the treatment of acute vertebral fractures with respect to the visual analogue scale, Qualeffo-41 questionnaire and morphometric vertebral height measurements.

  7. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Lind, J.; Strömberg, J.-E.; Welin, O.; Iyudin, A.; Shifrin, D.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the three Crab observations conducted. The signal-to-background ratio for the observations is shown to be 0.25 ±0.03 and the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (99 % C.L.) is (28.4 ±2.2) %. A strategy for the continuation of the PoGOLite programme is outlined based on experience gained during the 2013 maiden flight.

  8. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, M; Jackson, M; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kiss, M; Kole, M; Mikhalev, V; Moretti, E; Olofsson, G; Rydström, S; Takahashi, H; Lind, J; Strömberg, J -E; Welin, O; Iyudin, A; Shifrin, D; Pearce, M

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25 - 240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the...

  9. Percutaneous kyphoplasty:complications and prevention strategies%椎体后凸成形术的并发症及预防策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴从俊; 马兵; 邓汉华; 彭勇骏; 陶海; 李绍刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes for the complications after percutaneous kyphoplasty ( PKP )and discuss the prevention strategies. Methods From December 2010 to May 2012,22 cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures( OVCF )with 30 vertebrae underwent PKP in our department, all of which were conducted with X-ray transmission and local anesthesia. Working canals were inserted percutaneously into the injured vertebrae either trans-pedicularly or trans-vertebrally, which was followed sequentially by balloon dilatation and bone cement fixation. Under different circumstances, the operations were performed uni-or bilaterally with great care to avoid excessive vertebral height restoration and bone cement leakage. Results In the 22 cases,pain was relieved to different degrees after operation. Bone cement leakage occurred in 6 cases but no clinical symptoms existed. Local bleeding puncture site hematoma occurred in 1 case, perioperative balloon burst occurred in 1 case, cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 1 case and mild pain and numbness of lower limbs occurred in 1 case postoperatively. All these clinical symptoms disappeared after timely symptomatic treatment. Change was little in 5 vertebrae bodies, more than 50% in 15,almost complete in 8,and only in anterior column in 2. Conclusion PKP can obviously relieve the pain caused by OVCF,but attention should be paid to the associated complications. Mastering puncture technique, making precise radiologic diagnosis before and during the operation, having appropriate balloon dilatation as well as bone-cement infusion techniques are critical to the reduction in the occurrence of PKP complications.%目的 分析椎体后凸成形术并发症产生的原因,探讨其预防策略.方法 22例老年椎体压缩性骨折患者30椎接受经皮椎体后凸成形术,所有手术均在X线透视和局麻下进行,经皮穿刺置入工作通道,球囊扩张和推注骨水泥.手术根据情况选择单侧或双侧

  10. Percutaneous gastrostomy performed by radiologists using balloon replacement tubes. A simple interventional technique for the placement of nutritional catheters without endoscopy or surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients afflicted with stenotic head and neck or esophageal tumors often require artificial enteral feeding. Frequently passage of an endoscope through the esophagus is impossible in these patients. Interventional, fluoroscopically assisted, percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) by balloon replacement tubes is a feasible and successful alternative to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and the method of choice in patients where the esophagus cannot be passed with an endoscope anymore. Technical success rate is very high and serious complications are rare. Radiological PG is a feasible, equivalent alternative to PEG also in all other patients. We recommend PG with balloon gastrostomy tubes in conjunction with gastropexy performed with three to four T-fasteners, which are left in place for seven days in order to prevent dislocation and leakage. (orig.)

  11. [Balloon valvuloplasty in stenotic bioprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo, R; Farell, J; Ariza, H; González Carmona, V M; Abundes, A; Tello, R; López Cuellar, M

    1992-01-01

    The results of balloon valvuloplasty performed on five patients with stenotic bioprosthesis treated in the Hospital de Cardiología Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, are presented. All five bioprosthesis were right sided, two in tricuspid position, one in pulmonary valve position and two in valvulated conduits from right ventricle to pulmonary artery. In all cases a pressure gradient reduction was achieved, an improvement of clinical functional class and heart failure manifestations were obtained. Mansfields balloons were used. One in two patients, and two balloons in three. We had not complications with the procedure. We conclude that balloon valvuloplasty on bioprosthesis is a safe and dependable procedure to be used in right sided bioprosthesis. PMID:1482221

  12. A Mars 2011 Balloon Mission Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.

    Mars Scouts are competitively selected PI-led missions to further Mars exploration in ways that satisfy NASA s overall objectives but are not currently in the planned line of missions The current 2006 Announcement of Opportunity AO for Mars Scouts has just closed The goal of this SwRI study was to develop a new balloon mission concept to where it could be credibly proposed for the AO The balloon system was defined in the study as consisting of two parts the balloon flight system BFS and the balloon deployment inflation system DIS The BFS includes the balloon envelope accessory hardware and gondola The balloon includes the envelope seams end fittings load core inflation tube diffusers payload tether shock attenuator and separation hardware The DIS includes the balloon container deployment hardware sequencer tankage gas and control hardware Trade studies were performed to better define the mission design space These studies included 1 effect of varied atmospheric thermal loads 2 effect of varying latitudes 3 effect of payload mass for varying altitudes 4 effect of radiative material properties on balloon size mass 5 effect of material areal densities on balloon size mass and 6 effect of inflation gas on system masses Results of the balloon trade study for the Mars 2011 mission opportunity will be presented

  13. Newly Shaped Intra-Aortic Balloons Improve the Performance of Counterpulsation at the Semirecumbent Position: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-08-01

    The major hemodynamic benefits of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation are augmentation in diastolic aortic pressure (Paug ) during inflation, and decrease in end-diastolic aortic pressure (ΔedP) during deflation. When the patient is nursed in the semirecumbent position these benefits are diminished. Attempts to change the shape of the IAB in order to limit or prevent this deterioration have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic performance of six new IAB shapes, and compare it to that of a traditional cylindrical IAB. A mock circulation system, featuring an artificial left ventricle and an aortic model with 11 branches and physiological resistance and compliance, was used to test one cylindrical and six newly shaped IABs at angles 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40°. Pressure was measured continuously at the aortic root during 1:1 and 1:4 IABP support. Shape 2 was found to consistently achieve, in terms of absolute magnitude, larger ΔedP at angles than the cylindrical IAB. Although ΔedP was gradually diminished with angle, it did so to a lesser degree than the cylindrical IAB; this diminishment was only 53% (with frequency 1:1) and 40% (with frequency 1:4) of that of the cylindrical IAB, when angle increased from 0 to 40°. During inflation Shape 1 displayed a more stable behavior with increasing angle compared to the cylindrical IAB; with an increase in angle from 0 to 40°, diastolic aortic pressure augmentation dropped only by 45% (with frequency 1:1) and by 33% (with frequency 1:4) of the drop reached with the cylindrical IAB. After compensating for differences in nominal IAB volume, Shape 1 generally achieved higher Paug over most angles. Newly shaped IABs could allow for IABP therapy to become more efficient for patients nursed at the semirecumbent position. The findings promote the idea of personalized rather than generalized patient therapy for the achievement of higher IABP therapeutic efficiency, with a choice

  14. Newly Shaped Intra‐Aortic Balloons Improve the Performance of Counterpulsation at the Semirecumbent Position: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major hemodynamic benefits of intra‐aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation are augmentation in diastolic aortic pressure (P aug) during inflation, and decrease in end‐diastolic aortic pressure (ΔedP) during deflation. When the patient is nursed in the semirecumbent position these benefits are diminished. Attempts to change the shape of the IAB in order to limit or prevent this deterioration have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic performance of six new IAB shapes, and compare it to that of a traditional cylindrical IAB. A mock circulation system, featuring an artificial left ventricle and an aortic model with 11 branches and physiological resistance and compliance, was used to test one cylindrical and six newly shaped IABs at angles 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40°. Pressure was measured continuously at the aortic root during 1:1 and 1:4 IABP support. Shape 2 was found to consistently achieve, in terms of absolute magnitude, larger ΔedP at angles than the cylindrical IAB. Although ΔedP was gradually diminished with angle, it did so to a lesser degree than the cylindrical IAB; this diminishment was only 53% (with frequency 1:1) and 40% (with frequency 1:4) of that of the cylindrical IAB, when angle increased from 0 to 40°. During inflation Shape 1 displayed a more stable behavior with increasing angle compared to the cylindrical IAB; with an increase in angle from 0 to 40°, diastolic aortic pressure augmentation dropped only by 45% (with frequency 1:1) and by 33% (with frequency 1:4) of the drop reached with the cylindrical IAB. After compensating for differences in nominal IAB volume, Shape 1 generally achieved higher P aug over most angles. Newly shaped IABs could allow for IABP therapy to become more efficient for patients nursed at the semirecumbent position. The findings promote the idea of personalized rather than generalized patient therapy for the achievement of higher IABP therapeutic efficiency

  15. Correlating coating characteristics with the performance of drug-coated balloons--a comparative in vitro investigation of own established hydrogel- and ionic liquid-based coating matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kaule

    Full Text Available Drug-coated balloons (DCB, which have emerged as a therapeutic alternative to drug-eluting stents in percutaneous cardiovascular intervention, are well described with regard to clinical efficacy and safety within a number of clinical studies. In vitro studies elucidating the correlation between coating additive and DCB performance are however rare but considered important for the understanding of DCB requirements and the improvement of established DCB. In this regard, we examined three different DCB-systems, which were developed in former studies based on the ionic liquid cetylpyridinium salicylate, the body-own hydrogel hyaluronic acid and the pharmaceutically well-established hydrogel polyvinylpyrrolidone, considering coating morphology, coating thickness, drug-loss, drug-transfer to the vessel wall, residual drug-concentration on the balloon surface and entire drug-load during simulated use in an in vitro vessel model. Moreover, we investigated particle release of the different DCB during simulated use and determined the influence of the three coatings on the mechanical behavior of the balloon catheter. We could show that coating characteristics can be indeed correlated with the performance of DCB. For instance, paclitaxel incorporation in the matrix can reduce the drug wash-off and benefit a high drug transfer. Additionally, a thin coating with a smooth surface and high but delayed solubility can reduce drug wash-off and decrease particle burden. As a result, we suggest that it is very important to characterize DCB in terms of mentioned properties in vitro in addition to their clinical efficacy in order to better understand their function and provide more data for the clinicians to improve the tool of DCB in coronary angioplasty.

  16. Kyphoplasty combined with intraoperative radiotherapy (Kypho-IORT). Alternative therapy for patients with oligometastatic spinal metastases; Kyphoplastie kombiniert mit intraoperativer Radiotherapie (Kypho-IORT). Therapiealternative fuer den oligometastasierten Patienten mit Wirbelsaeulenmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bludau, F.; Obertacke, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Med. Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Orthopaedisch-Unfallchirurgisches Zentrum, Mannheim (Germany); Reis, T.; Schneider, F.; Clausen, S.; Wenz, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Med. Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Due to a more effective systemic therapy the survival of patients suffering from malignant tumors has been significantly improved but a longer life span is often associated with a higher incidence of osseous metastases. The majority of these metastases are localized in the spine causing pain, instability and neurological impairments. The interdisciplinary management of spinal metastases previously consisted of stabilization followed by fractionated external body radiation therapy. A reduction in procedural severity and morbidity as well as consideration of self-sufficiency and hospitalization time are important target parameters for these palliative patients. Kyphoplasty combined with intraoperative radiotherapy (Kypho-IORT) is one of several modern treatment options, which involves a minimally invasive procedure with local high-dose transpedicular irradiation of the spine with low-energy (50 kV) X-rays. Immediately following irradiation, stabilization of the spine is carried out using kyphoplasty via the same access route so that a single stage procedure with excellent pain reduction and good local tumor control can be achieved. This article presents clinical data for this procedure and the different fields of indications are critically reviewed and compared to other therapy options. Methodological improvements and options for further individualization of therapy are demonstrated. The Kypho-IORT procedure is a safe, feasible and beneficial modern treatment option for instant stabilization and local tumor control in patients with spinal metastases. More than 100 operations have been successfully performed so that the method can be deemed suitable for inclusion in the clinical routine. A phase II dose escalation study has now been completed and submitted for publication and a 2-arm non-inferiority trial (phase III study) for comparison with conventional irradiation is in progress. (orig.) [German] Durch verbesserte onkologische Therapie kommt es nicht nur zu einer

  17. Anatomical and pathological considerations in percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty : A reappraisal of the vertebral venous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, RJM; du Toit, DF; Phillips, FM; Hoogland, PVJM; Kuizenga, K; Coppes, MH; Muller, CJF; Grobbelaar, M; Mattyssen, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To focus attention of the clinician on the anatomy and (patho) physiology of the vertebral venous system, so as to offer a tool to better understand and anticipate ( potential) complications that are related to the application of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Background. P

  18. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  19. Cutting Balloon angioplasty for cardiac transplant vasculopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Y.; Currier, JW; Yeatman, LA; Kobashigawa, JA; Rogers, AD; Cianfichi, LJ; Fishbein, MC; Tobis, JM

    2002-01-01

    We performed Cutting Balloon angioplasty on 20 lesions in 11 heart transplant recipients 7.5 +/- 3.8 years after transplantation. The mean percentage of diameter stenosis decreased from 88.3% +/- 13.8% to 19.6% +/- 13.7% after Cutting Balloon angioplasty without complication. Seven patients underwent follow-up angiography at 4.9 +/- 1.7 months in a total of 12 lesions, and all lesions showed restenosis with a mean diameter stenosis of 84.4% +/- 19.2%. Cutting Balloon angioplasty can be used t...

  20. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty

  1. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia

  2. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  3. Bursting water balloons

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Hugh M

    2011-01-01

    The impact and rupture of water-filled balloons upon a flat, rigid surface is studied experimentally, for which three distinct stages of the flow are observed. Due to the impact, waves are formed on the balloon's surface for which the restoring force is tension in the latex. Immediately following rupture of the membrane, a shear instability created by the retraction of the balloon is observed. At later times, a larger-scale growth of the interfacial amplitude is observed, that may be regarded as a manifestation of a phenomenon known as the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This flow is closely related to the classical understanding of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for when there exists a density difference between the fluids inside and outside the balloon. Further, it is shown experimentally that this growth of the interface may also occur when there is no density difference across the balloon, a situation that does not arise for the standard Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.

  4. First experience using navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in sacral insufficiency fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. Methods: In this single-center retrospective observational study, four consecutive patients with sacral insufficiency fractures were treated with navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty between April 2010 and May 2012. Symptom characteristics, pain duration and pain intensity were recorded for each patient. Cement extravasation was evaluated in thin-sliced and triplanar reconstructed CT scans of the sacrum. Results: Four female patients with painful sacral insufficiency fractures and extensive osteopenic areas significantly improved from an average pre-treatment VAS score of 8.3 ± 0.5 to 2.3 ± 1.0 (p < 0.001) on the first postoperative day and to 1.3 ± 1.9 (p < 0.004) at follow-up (mean, 20.1 weeks). Slight cement extravasations were observed without evidence of being symptomatic. No major complications or procedure-related morbidity were noted. Conclusion: From the limited experience in four patients, navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for sacral insufficiency fractures even though asymptomatic cement extravasation was noted. The use of navigation based on intraoperative 3 D images simplifies the positioning of the navigated bone needles via the long axis approach. The radiofrequency kyphoplasty system provides the possibility to administer a sufficient amount of bone cement with a well-defined viscosity over the entire period of the procedure leading to high security and low cement extravasation. Sacroplasty provides rapid and enduring pain relief and facilitates prompt mobilization. (orig.)

  5. First experience using navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, J.H.; Kluge, P.; Sircar, R.; Kogias, E.; Scholz, C.; Krueger, M.T.; Scheiwe, C.; Hubbe, U. [Freiburg Univ. Medical Center, Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. Methods: In this single-center retrospective observational study, four consecutive patients with sacral insufficiency fractures were treated with navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty between April 2010 and May 2012. Symptom characteristics, pain duration and pain intensity were recorded for each patient. Cement extravasation was evaluated in thin-sliced and triplanar reconstructed CT scans of the sacrum. Results: Four female patients with painful sacral insufficiency fractures and extensive osteopenic areas significantly improved from an average pre-treatment VAS score of 8.3 {+-} 0.5 to 2.3 {+-} 1.0 (p < 0.001) on the first postoperative day and to 1.3 {+-} 1.9 (p < 0.004) at follow-up (mean, 20.1 weeks). Slight cement extravasations were observed without evidence of being symptomatic. No major complications or procedure-related morbidity were noted. Conclusion: From the limited experience in four patients, navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for sacral insufficiency fractures even though asymptomatic cement extravasation was noted. The use of navigation based on intraoperative 3 D images simplifies the positioning of the navigated bone needles via the long axis approach. The radiofrequency kyphoplasty system provides the possibility to administer a sufficient amount of bone cement with a well-defined viscosity over the entire period of the procedure leading to high security and low cement extravasation. Sacroplasty provides rapid and enduring pain relief and facilitates prompt mobilization. (orig.)

  6. Spinal loads after osteoporotic vertebral fractures treated by vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Bergmann, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are routine treatments for compression fractures of vertebral bodies. A wedge-shaped compression fracture shifts the centre of gravity of the upper body anteriorly and generally, this shift can be compensated in the spine and in the hips. However, it is still unclear how a wedge-shaped compression fracture of a vertebra increases forces in the trunk muscle and the intradiscal pressure in the adjacent discs. A nonlinear finite element model of the lumbar spine wa...

  7. Pain and functional outcome after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to treat pain from non-neoplastic vertebral fractures and improve functional outcomes. Materials and methods: We compared 30 patients treated by vertebroplasty for non-neoplastic vertebral fractures with 30 patients treated by kyphoplasty for the same condition. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional outcome with the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Baseline data were compared with measurements on the day after the procedure (for pain alone) and at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year. Results: The VAS pain score was reduced by 4-5 points on the day after either type of treatment, a statistically significant improvement. The global ODI was significantly improved (by 13-18 points) at 1 month after either procedure. These improvements persisted at 6 months and 1 year. No significant differences in functional outcome were observed between the techniques. Conclusion: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty obtain similar improvements in pain and functional outcomes in these patients. The choice of technique must therefore depend on other factors. An initial improvement with either technique is a good predictor of long-term improvement.

  8. Pain and functional outcome after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan@ono.co [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Perez Abela, Antonio [Department of Traumatology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada Spain (Spain); Alvarez Osuna, Rosa Maria [Department of Traumatology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to treat pain from non-neoplastic vertebral fractures and improve functional outcomes. Materials and methods: We compared 30 patients treated by vertebroplasty for non-neoplastic vertebral fractures with 30 patients treated by kyphoplasty for the same condition. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional outcome with the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Baseline data were compared with measurements on the day after the procedure (for pain alone) and at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year. Results: The VAS pain score was reduced by 4-5 points on the day after either type of treatment, a statistically significant improvement. The global ODI was significantly improved (by 13-18 points) at 1 month after either procedure. These improvements persisted at 6 months and 1 year. No significant differences in functional outcome were observed between the techniques. Conclusion: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty obtain similar improvements in pain and functional outcomes in these patients. The choice of technique must therefore depend on other factors. An initial improvement with either technique is a good predictor of long-term improvement.

  9. Balloon Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger

    2007-01-01

    PlanetaryBalloon Version 5.0 is a software package for the design of meridionally lobed planetary balloons. It operates in a Windows environment, and programming was done in Visual Basic 6. By including the effects of circular lobes with load tapes, skin mass, hoop and meridional stress, and elasticity in the structural elements, a more accurate balloon shape of practical construction can be determined as well as the room-temperature cut pattern for the gore shapes. The computer algorithm is formulated for sizing meridionally lobed balloons for any generalized atmosphere or planet. This also covers zero-pressure, over-pressure, and super-pressure balloons. Low circumferential loads with meridionally reinforced load tapes will produce shapes close to what are known as the "natural shape." The software allows for the design of constant angle, constant radius, or constant hoop stress balloons. It uses the desired payload capacity for given atmospheric conditions and determines the required volume, allowing users to design exactly to their requirements. The formulations are generalized to use any lift gas (or mixture of gases), any atmosphere, or any planet as described by the local acceleration of gravity. PlanetaryBalloon software has a comprehensive user manual that covers features ranging from, but not limited to, buoyancy and super-pressure, convenient design equations, shape formulation, and orthotropic stress/strain.

  10. PEBS - Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Von Doetinchem, P; Kirn, T; Yearwood, G R; Schael, S

    2007-01-01

    The best measurement of the cosmic ray positron flux available today was performed by the HEAT balloon experiment more than 10 years ago. Given the limitations in weight and power consumption for balloon experiments, a novel approach was needed to design a detector which could increase the existing data by more than a factor of 100. Using silicon photomultipliers for the readout of a scintillating fiber tracker and of an imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, the PEBS detector features a large geometrical acceptance of 2500 cm^2 sr for positrons, a total weight of 1500 kg and a power consumption of 600 W. The experiment is intended to measure cosmic ray particle spectra for a period of up to 20 days at an altitude of 40 km circulating the North or South Pole. A full Geant 4 simulation of the detector concept has been developed and key elements have been verified in a testbeam in October 2006 at CERN.

  11. The Descending Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  12. Resistive ballooning mode equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.; Nelson, D. B.

    1978-10-01

    A second-order ordinary differential equation on each flux surface is derived for the high mode number limit of resistive MHD ballooning modes in tokamaks with arbitrary cross section, aspect ratio, and shear. The equation is structurally similar to that used to study ideal MHD ballooning modes computationally. The model used in this paper indicates that all tokamak plasmas are unstable, with growth rate proportional to resistivity when the pressure gradient is less than the critical value needed for ideal MHD stability.

  13. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    (over the line of sight) than with dedicated RF system, which requires balloon visibility from the ground station. For long duration flights (3 months) of Infra Red Montgolfieres, a house keeping gondola has been developed, using the Inmarsat C standard to have communication all around the world (up to N or S 80 ° latitude) with an automatic switching between the 4 geostationnary Inmarsat satellites. After validation flights performed from Bauru / Brazil. (2000 & 2001) and Kiruna/Sweden (2002), the first operational flights took place from Bauru in February 2003 during ENVISAT validation campaign. The next flights will be realized in the framework of the Hibiscus campaign planned in February 2004 in Bauru.. The Balloon Division was involved in the Franco / Japanese HSFD II project which consists to drop a mock-up of the Japanese HOPE-X space shuttle from a stratospheric balloon to validate its flight from the altitude of 30 km. We developed a specific gondola as a service module for the HOPE-X shuttle, providing power and GPS radio-frequency signal during the balloon flight phase, telemetry end remote control radio frequency links and separation system with pyrotechnic cutters for the drop of the shuttle. A successful flight was performed at Kiruna in July 2003. Concerning gondola with pointing system, the study of a big g-ray telescope (8 m of focal length), started by the end of 2002. For this 1 ton gondola, the telescope stabilization system will be based on control moment gyro (CMG). The CMG system has been designed and will be manufactured and validated during 2004. The first flight of this g-ray gondola is planned for 2006. The progress, status and future plans concerning these gondola developments will be presented.

  14. Kyphoplasty via unilateral extrapedicular approach for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracic compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and safety of kyphoplasty via unilateral extrapedicular approach for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracic compression fractures. Methods: A total of 16 patients with painful osteoporotic thoracci fractures were treated by kyphoplasty via unilateral extrapedicular approach. Pain was measured using the self-reporting visual analogue scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Disability was measured using the Oswestry disability index (ODI) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. The height of the compromised vertebral body, the kyphotic angle were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Results: Operations were completed smoothly, with the exception of 1 patients with less cement leakage but there was no clinical symptom occurred. The other one had intercostal neuralgia. Relief of pain was achieved in 24 hours post-operation. The mean operation time was 31minutes and the mean fluoroscopic time was 19.1. And the mean VAS score of these patients decreased from 8.2 ± 1.1 pre-operatively to 2.6 ± 0.8 post-operatively (P<0.05), and it improved further to 2.8 ± 1.1 in the final follow-up. The ODI score varied from 69.2 ± 1.2 pre-operatively to 32.2 ± 1.1 post-operatively (P<0.05). Improvement was maintained in the final follow-up. Comparing the height of anterior vertebrae (Ha), the height of midline vertebrae (Hm) and the kyphotic angle between pre-and post-operation there was no statistical significant difference. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty via unilateral extrapedicular approach for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracic compression fractures is effective. It can help reducing the radiation exposure. (authors)

  15. Fluoroscopically Guided Balloon Dilation for Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woong Hee; Kim, Jin Hyoung, E-mail: m1fenew@daum.net; Park, Jung-Hun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Little was known about the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods: From February 2000 to November 2010, 14 patients underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. Technical success, clinical success, and complications were evaluated. Patients were followed up for recurrent symptoms. Results: In all patients, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was technically and clinically successful with no major complications. Following the initial procedure, six patients (43 %) remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period. Obstructive symptoms recurred in eight patients (57 %) within 6 months (mean, 1.7 months), who were treated with repeat balloon dilation (n = 4) and other therapies. Of the four patients who underwent repeat balloon dilation, three became asymptomatic. One patient became asymptomatic after a third balloon dilation. On long-term (mean, 74 months) follow-up, 71 % of patients experienced relief of symptoms following fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation. Conclusions: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation may be safe, is easy to perform, and resulted in effective treatment in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis.

  16. Universal stratospheric balloon gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yury; Filippov, Sergey; Brekhov, Oleg; Nikolaev, Nikolay

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth’s crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). For investigation of Earth's magnetic field one of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN and MAI during already about 25 years. This system consists of three instrumental containers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. Up today this set has been used only for geomagnetic purposes. So we describe this system on example of the measuring of the geomagnetic field gradient. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one’s name is - stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Process of SBMG deployment, feature of the exit of rope from the magazine at the moment of balloon launching has been studied. Used magazine is cellular type. The hodograph of the measuring base of SBMG and the technique of correction of the deviations of the measuring base from the vertical line (introduction of the amendments for the deviation) during the flight have been investigated. It is shown that estimation of the normal level of values of the vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field is determined by the accuracy of determining the length of the measuring base SBMG

  17. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  18. The French Balloon Program 2013 - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Vargas, André; Raizonville, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting - as designer and operator - a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique and valuable access to near space science. From 2008 to 2013, an important renovation effort was achieved, beginning by Zero Pressure Balloons (ZPB) systems, to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to the growing reliability and performance requirements from scientific missions. The paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2015 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for ZPB, qualified in flight in 2013. In particular, the PILOT telescope successfully flew during the 2015 campaign, key figures about the flight and mission will be given. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently in process of developement at CNES will be given, as well as the presentation of the Stratéole 2 project, dedicated to the survey of the low stratosphere and upper troposphere in equatorial regions, with a fleet of small suprer pressure balloons (SPB). As far as tropospheric balloons are concerned, the Aeroclipper initiative will be presented, aiming at qualifying a quasi-tethered balloon, pushed by the winds close to the sea surface, for the study of cyclones. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  19. Evaluation of spiral CT three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction guidance in percutaneous kyphoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical guiding value of spiral computed tomography(SCT) with three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction (3-DCT)in percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). Methods: 24 patients prepared to be treated with PKP were examined under 3-DCT before the treatment. Results: According to the contra-indications shown by 3-DCT, 11 patients' operation were cancelled; the others were treated with PKP and got good outcomes due to the accurate data provided by 3-DCT. Conclusion: SCT plays an important role in PKP. (authors)

  20. CT-guided vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: comparing technical success rate and complications in 101 cases; CT-gesteuerte Vertebro- und Kyphoplastie: Vergleichende Untersuchung zu technischem Erfolg und Komplikationen bei 101 Eingriffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.H.; Kroetz, M.; Hoffmann, R.T.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M.; Linsenmaier, U. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Euler, E.; Heining, S. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, LMU Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Purpose: to compare the technical success and complication rates in CT-guided vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Materials and methods: from 2002 - 2005 69 patients (101 vertebrae) were treated with vertebroplasty (n = 82) or kyphoplasty (n = 19) using 4-slice MSCT with CT fluoroscopy as the sole guidance for the procedure. The underlying lesions were osteoporotic fractures in 78 vertebral bodies and 23 vertebral metastases. Results: technical success was achieved in all 101 procedures. Post-interventional CT demonstrated asymptomatic cement leakage in 51/101 vertebrae. Kyphoplasty resulted in leakage in 11/19 (57.9%) and vertebroplasty in 40/82 (48.8%) procedures. With p = 0.48 (Mann-Whitney test) there was no significant difference between kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty with respect to the number of cement leakage occurrences. There was one minor complication of an L5 root irritation following radiofrequency ablation and vertebroplasty of a sarcoma metastasis which subsided without treatment after 8 weeks. There was one major complication of intraspinal cement leakage during tumor vertebroplasty causing T5 root compression and requiring laminectomy for cement removal. The overall rate of major complications requiring treatment was 0.99%. (orig.)

  1. Simulation of stratospheric balloon environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of materials used for the construction of stratospheric balloons is studied at DERTS by means of irradiations performed in reals time and simulating the exact flight environment. Two chambers were designed in the laboratory and are described together with the experimental procedure. In order to reduce cost and save time, it is worth accelerating the simulation when only a preliminary evaluation of the sample's properties is required. For this reason, a systematic study was undertaken in order to evaluate the respective effects of different parameters on the material degradation. The results of this study are given

  2. Membranous duodenal stenosis: Initial experience with balloon dilatation in four children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, R.R. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lienden, K.P. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fortuna, T.L. [Dalhousie University, Medical school, Halifax (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); D' Alessandro, L.C.A. [University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine, London (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Connolly, B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Chait, P.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: peter.chait@rogers.com

    2006-07-15

    Introduction: We present a novel approach to the treatment of membranous duodenal stenosis (MDS). To our knowledge this is the first paper to describe balloon dilatation for this entity. Material and methods: Four children, 2 boys and 2 girls, aged between 8 and 28 days, underwent duodenal balloon dilatation. Balloon dilatation was performed under general anaesthesia using standard angiography balloons per os. Balloon diameters ranged from 6 to 14 mm. Results: All balloon dilatations were successful. None of the procedures showed procedural or post-procedural complications. None of the patients subsequently required surgical intervention. To date all children are doing well. Discussion: The initial experience with balloon dilation of MDS showed a 100% success rate, without procedural or post-procedural complications. The results obtained in this small group of patients suggest that the use of balloon dilatation in cases of MDS may be a safe technique that can be readily performed by an experienced interventional radiologist.

  3. Membranous duodenal stenosis: Initial experience with balloon dilatation in four children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We present a novel approach to the treatment of membranous duodenal stenosis (MDS). To our knowledge this is the first paper to describe balloon dilatation for this entity. Material and methods: Four children, 2 boys and 2 girls, aged between 8 and 28 days, underwent duodenal balloon dilatation. Balloon dilatation was performed under general anaesthesia using standard angiography balloons per os. Balloon diameters ranged from 6 to 14 mm. Results: All balloon dilatations were successful. None of the procedures showed procedural or post-procedural complications. None of the patients subsequently required surgical intervention. To date all children are doing well. Discussion: The initial experience with balloon dilation of MDS showed a 100% success rate, without procedural or post-procedural complications. The results obtained in this small group of patients suggest that the use of balloon dilatation in cases of MDS may be a safe technique that can be readily performed by an experienced interventional radiologist

  4. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  5. Comments on ideal ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideal ballooning modes are investigated for the case of plane magnetized slab geometry. Toroidal effects are simulated by a gravitational acceleration periodically varying along magnetic field lines. High shear is shown to be very effective in stabilizing these modes even when field line curvature is most unfavorable to their stability

  6. Fraturas vertebrais adjacentes: cifoplastia versus vertebroplastia Fracturas vertebrales adyacentes: cifoplastía vs vertebroplastía Adjacent vertebral fractures: kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cláudio Schettino

    2011-01-01

    pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos diferentes: Vertebroplastía (V y Cifoplastía (C, de acuerdo con el procedimiento realizado. Se comparó, entre los dos grupos, la altura de los cuerpos vertebrales y la cifosis angular, antes y después de cada procedimiento, y fueron correlacionadas con la incidencia de fracturas vertebrales adyacentes. El análisis estadístico fue hecho por las pruebas chi-cuadrado, t de Student y ANOVA de 2 factores seguida por prueba post-hoc de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: Fueron analizadas las historias médicas de 55 pacientes. Diez pacientes fueron excluidos del estudio. Veintiséis pacientes realizaron vertebroplastía y diecinueve pacientes hicieron cifoplastía. Fue observada reducción de la cifosis angular promedio, en los pacientes del grupo C, de 1,81 grados cuando se compararon con los pacientes del grupo V. No hubo diferencia estadística entre los dos grupos cuanto a la altura promedio del cuerpo vertebral pre y posoperatoria. Tres pacientes del grupo V y dos pacientes del grupo C presentaron fractura vertebral adyacente. Los dos pacientes, con fracturas adyacentes del grupo C, estaban en uso de corticosteroides. Los tres pacientes del grupo V, con fracturas adyacentes, presentaron extravación de cemento. CONCLUSIÓN: No hubo diferencia en la incidencia de fracturas vertebrales adyacentes entre los dos grupos.OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of adjacent vertebral fractures between vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiographs pre and postoperatively from January 2002 to January 2009. The minimal follow-up time was three months. The patients were divided in two distinct groups: vertebroplasty (V and kyphoplasty (K group, according to the procedure performed. The vertebral body height and the angular kyphosis before and after each procedure were compared between these two groups and correlated to the incidence of adjacent vertebral fractures. RESULTS: We analyzed 55 medical records. Ten

  7. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures

  8. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures.

  9. Adverse Prognostic Factors and Optimal Intervention Time for Kyphoplasty/Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Papanastassiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. While evidence supports the efficacy of vertebral augmentation (kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures, randomized trials disputed the value of vertebroplasty. The aim of this analysis is to determine the subset of patients that may not benefit from surgical intervention and find the optimal intervention time. Methods. 27 prospective multiple-arm studies with cohorts of more than 20 patients were included in this meta-analysis. We hereby report the results from the metaregression and subset analysis of those trials reporting on treatment of osteoporotic fractures with kyphoplasty and/or vertebroplasty. Results. Early intervention (first 7 weeks after fracture yielded more pain relief. However, spontaneous recovery was encountered in hyperacute fractures (less than 2 weeks old. Patients suffering from thoracic fractures or severely deformed vertebrae tended to report inferior results. We also attempted to formulate a treatment algorithm. Conclusion. Intervention in the hyperacute period should not be pursued, while augmentation after 7 weeks yields less consistent results. In cases of thoracic fractures and significant vertebral collapse, surgeons or interventional radiologists may resort earlier to operation and be less conservative, although those parameters need to be addressed in future randomized trials.

  10. Kyphoplasty for Vertebral Augmentation in the Elderly With Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Scenarios and Review of Recent Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Timothy; Heyde, Christoph E.; Bednar, Grace; Nguyen, David; Volpi, Elena; Przkora, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Background Vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis are among the most common fractures in the elderly. The treatment focuses on pain control, maintenance of independence, and management of the osteoporosis. Elderly patients often encounter adverse effects to pain medications, do not tolerate bed rest, and are not ideal candidates for invasive spinal reconstructive surgery. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) has become popular as a less-invasive alternative. However, studies have questioned the effectiveness of these procedures. Methods The authors conducted a MEDLINE search using relevant search terms including osteoporosis, osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, elderly, kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Case summary/Results Two elderly patients presented with a fracture of their third and first lumbar vertebral body, respectively. One patient progressed well with conservative treatment, whereas the other patient was hospitalized secondary to pain after conservative measures failed to offer improvement. The hospitalized patient subsequently opted for a kyphoplasty and was able to resume his normal daily activities after the procedure. Conclusions Selecting patients on an individual case-by-case basis can optimize the effectiveness and outcomes of a vertebral augmentation. This process includes the documentation of an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with the aide of imaging studies, including the acuity of the fracture as well as the correlation with the physical examination findings. Patients who are functional and improving under a conservative regimen are not candidates for kyphoplasty. However, if the conservative management is not successful after 4 to 6 weeks and the patient is at risk to become bedridden, an augmentation should be considered. A kyphoplasty procedure may be preferred over vertebroplasty, given the lower risk profile and better outcomes regarding spinal alignment. PMID:24139093

  11. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net --- result of a ground inflation test of a 2,000 cubic-meter balloon ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Akita, Daisuke; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Shimadu, Shigeyuki; Goto, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    A light super-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m^{3} balloon. Beginning from a demonstration test of the net-balloon with a 10 m^{3} balloon in 2010, we have been polished the net-balloon through ground inflation tests and flight tests, including a flight test of a 3,000 m ^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon in 2012, and a flight test of a 10 m^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 2 kg rubber balloon in 2013, as reported in the last COSPAR. In 2014, we developed a 5,000 m^{3} balloon and performed a ground inflation test to find that the balloon burst from a lip panel for termination with a differential pressure of 425 Pa. It was due to a stress concentration at the edge of a thick tape attached along the termination mechanism. In 2015, we modified the balloon by adding tapes on the lip panel to avoid the stress concentration, and also shorten the net length to leave some margin of the film and performed a ground inflation test again to find the balloon showed asymmetrical deployment and burst from the edge of the net with a differential pressure of 348 Pa. We consider it is due to the margin of the film along the circumferential direction, and proposed a gore shape which circumference length is kept as determined by the pumpkin shape of the balloon but setting meridian length longer than that. We developed a 10 m^{3} balloon with the gore design to find that the balloon deployed symmetrically and showed the burst pressure of 10,000 Pa. In 2016, we are going to develop a 2,000 m^{3} balloon with the gore design and perform its ground inflation test. In this paper, we are going to report its result with the sequence of the development.

  12. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  13. Comparison of percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty for the management of Kümmell's disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic osteonecrosis of a vertebral body occurring in a delayed fashion was first described by the German doctor Kümmell in 1895. Several studies have reported percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP, or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP for Kümmell's disease achieves good outcomes. However, it is unknown whether a technique is superior for the treatment of this disease. The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of PVP and PKP for the treatment of Kümmell's disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for 73 patients with Kümmell's disease. PVP was performed in 38 patients and PKP in 35 patients. Visual analogue score (VAS was used to evaluate pain. The anterior vertebral height was measured. The operative time, the incidence of cement leakage and the costs were recorded. Results: In both PVP group and PKP group, the VAS and anterior vertebral height significantly improved at 1-day postoperatively (P 0.05. Between the PVP and PKP groups, there were no significant differences in VAS and the anterior vertebral height at 1-day postoperatively and at the final followup (P > 0.05. The operating time and expense in the PKP group were higher than the PVP group (P < 0.001. Cement leakages in the PKP group were fewer than PVP group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PVP is a faster, less expensive option that still provides a comparable pain relief and restoration of vertebral height to PKP for the treatment of Kümmell's disease. PKP has a significant advantage over PVP in term of the fewer cement leakages.

  14. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  15. Obesity and gastric balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Yasawy, Mohammed I; Al-Quorain, Abdulaziz A.; Anas M Hussameddin; Yasawy, Zakia M.; Al-Sulaiman, Raid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB) in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in...

  16. 椎体后凸成形术治疗高龄骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折%Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebra Compressive Fractures in the over 80-year-old Patients with Percutaneous Kyphoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾璞; 李元; 唐海

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨单一球囊扩张经皮椎体后凸成形术治疗80 岁以上老年骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折的疗效及安全性.方法 回顾分析高龄(80岁及其以上)老年骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折患者15 例,男性3 例,女性12 例,平均年龄(82.2±1.9)岁.共45个椎体,均为骨质疏松性脊柱压缩骨折,压缩骨折椎体后壁均完整.全部在C型臂X线机引导下行单侧入路、单一球囊椎体后凸成形术.结果 患者平均能在术后第2天下床行走,未发现严重手术并发症.椎体前缘、中部及后缘平均高度分别由术前的(2.17±0.82) cm、(1.75±0.66) cm、(2.95±0.43) cm增至术后的(2.40±0.73) cm、(2.11±0.51)cm、(3.00±0.45) cm,椎体前缘、中部高度差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);术后48 h患者胸腰背痛均有缓解,术前、术后48 hVAS评分比较差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 应用椎体后凸成形术治疗高龄骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折,能够安全、有效地改善骨折椎体高度,明显缓解疼痛,早期下床活动.%Objective To evaluate the efficiency and safety of percutaneous kyphoplasty in treating osteoporotic vertebra compressive fractures in the elderly(≥80 years)with one balloon.Methods 15 cases were retrospectively reviewed(3 males,12 females),and all with well intact posterior wall of vertebral body.45 vertebral bodies were treated by percutaneous kyphoplasty with one balloon under"C"armed imaging guiding by an unipedicular approach.Results All the procedures of 15 patients were successful without any complication.The mean height of the anterior,media and posterior vertebral bodies was(2.17±0.82) cm、(1.75±0.66) cm、(2.95±0.43) cm preoperatively and(2.40±0.73) cm、(2.11±0.51) cm、(3.00±0.45) cm postoperatively(P<0.01).The VAS of pre and post-operation were declined significantly after the treatment(P<0.01).Conclusion Percutaneous kyphoplasty for senior people(≥80 year) with osteoporotic vertebra

  17. A Survey of Titan Balloon Concepts and Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the options for, and technology status of, balloon vehicles to explore Saturn's moon Titan. A significant amount of Titan balloon concept thinking and technology development has been performed in recent years, particularly following the spectacular results from the descent and landing of the Huygens probe and remote sensing observations by the Cassini spacecraft. There is widespread recognition that a balloon vehicle on the next Titan mission could provide an outstanding and unmatched capability for in situ exploration on a global scale. The rich variety of revealed science targets has combined with a highly favorable Titan flight environment to yield a wide diversity of proposed balloon concepts. The paper presents a conceptual framework for thinking about balloon vehicle design choices and uses it to analyze various Titan options. The result is a list of recommended Titan balloon vehicle concepts that could perform a variety of science missions, along with their projected performance metrics. Recent technology developments for these balloon concepts are discussed to provide context for an assessment of outstanding risk areas and technological maturity. The paper concludes with suggestions for technology investments needed to achieve flight readiness.

  18. Via póstero-lateral unilateral para cifoplastia percutánea con balón Acesso póstero-lateral unilateral para cifoplastia percutânea com balão Posterolateral unilateral approach for percutaneous baloon kyphoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oscar Ricciardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia ha sido realizada en el Hospital Alvarez de Buenos Aires, Argentina en pacientes tratados por el Equipo de Columna Vertebral. El autor ha modificado el método original de punción descrito por Valls y Ottolenghi, lo que permite ubicar al paciente en decúbito lateral y prescinde del instrumental descrito originalmente, como spider y guía que se utilizaban con equipos de rayos X convencionales. El presente trabajo pretende describir en detalle la técnica aplicada para efectuar la cifoplastía con balón en vértebras torácicas y lumbares por vía póstero-lateral extrapedicular unilateral bajo anestesia local infiltrativa.Esta experiência foi realizada no Hospital Alvarez de Buenos Aires, Argentina, em pacientes tratados pela Equipe de Coluna Vertebral, que tenho a honra de liderar. O autor modificou o método original de punção descrito por Valls e Ottolenghi, o que permite colocar o paciente em decúbito lateral prescindindo da instrumentação originalmente descrita, tal como spider e fio-guia que eram utilizados com equipamento de raios-X convencional. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever em detalhes a técnica utilizada para realizar cifoplastia com balão em vértebras torácicas e lombares por acesso póstero-lateral extrapedicular unilateral com anestesia local por infiltração.This experiment was performed at the Hospital Alvarez from Buenos Aires, Argentina, in patients treated by the Spine Team, which I have the honor to lead. The author modified the original puncture method described by Valls and Ottolenghi, which allows accommodating the patient in the lateral position dispensing the instrumentation originally described like spider and guide wires that were used with X-ray conventional. This paper aims to describe in detail the technique used to perform balloon kyphoplasty for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae by posterolateral extrapedicular unilateral approach with local anesthesia by infiltration.

  19. Clad ballooning model in MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clad ballooning may substantially decrease the flow of fluids through the affected core region and may expose the inner cladding surface to oxidation in the vicinity of rupture sites. The cladding ballooning model was not included in MELCOR 1.8.4. and consideration of incorporating the cladding ballooning model is scheduled as a post-1.8.4 release activity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the clad ballooning model by the modified MELCOR 1.8.4 with this model. The typical accident sequence of a large LOCA scenario is selected. The clad ballooning model accelerates the accident progression compared to that without the ballooning model. The amount of hydrogen does not change much and it may be caused by ignoring the effect of flow area change. Future study is planning to analyze the flow redistribution

  20. Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J. A.; Cooper, H. W.; Hall, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Pauken, M. T.; White, C. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H. M.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Smith, I. S.; Shreves, C. M.; Lachenmeier, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of Mars superpressure balloons were flight tested for aerial deployment and inflation in the Earth's stratosphere in June, 2002. One was an 11.3 m diameter by 6.8 m high pumpkin balloon constructed from polyethylene film and Zylon (PBO) tendons, the second was a 10 m diameter spherical balloon constructed from 12 μm thick Mylar film. Aerial deployment and inflation occurred under parachute descent at 34 km altitude, mimicing the dynamic pressure environment expected during an actual Mars balloon mission. Two on-board video cameras were used on each flight to provide real-time upward and downward views of the flight train. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were also recorded. Both prototypes successfully deployed from their storage container during parachute descent at approximately 40 m/s. The pumpkin balloon also successfully inflated with a 440 g charge of helium gas injected over a 1.5-min period. Since the helium inflation system was deliberately retained after inflation in this test, the pumpkin balloon continued to fall to the ocean where it was recovered for post-flight analysis. The less robust spherical balloon achieved only a partial (~70%) inflation before a structural failure occurred in the balloon film resulting in the loss of the vehicle. This structural failure was diagnosed to result from the vigorous oscillatory motion of the partially inflated balloon, possibly compounded by contact between the balloon film and an instrumentation box above it on the flight train. These two flights together represent significant progress in the development of Mars superpressure balloon technology and pave the way for future flight tests that will include post-deployment flight of the prototype balloons at a stable altitude.

  1. Titan Balloon Convection Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  2. Comparison of therapeutic effect between percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty on vertebral compression fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian-lin; LIU Shi-qing; MING Jiang-hua; PENG Hao; QIU Bo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty ( PVP) with percutaneous kyphoplasty ( PKP ) in the treatment of vertebral compression fracture (VCF).Methods: Ninety-eight patients with VCF were treated by PVP (n =42) or PKP (n = 56). The anterior midline and posterior heights of vertebrae body, preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), operation time and amount of blood loss were compared between 2 groups.Results: There was statistical difference in vertebral height between two groups (P<0. 01). No significant difference was seen in VAS, operation time and blood loss between two groups (P<0. 05).Conclusions: PKP and PVP have the similar therapeutic efficacy in treatment of VCF with minimal invasion, less operation time and blood loss. However, PKP is superior in the recovery of vertebral height.

  3. Treatment of tuberculous bronchostenosis: balloon bronchoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the balloon bronchoplasty in the treatment of the tuberculous bronchostenosis. Balloon bronchoplasty was performed in thirteen patients with stenosis of the left main bronchus (two with combined left upper and lower lobar bronchostenosis) using a inflatable balloon catheter under a fluoroscopic guide. We analysed the changes in the severity of dyspnea and wheezing, serial FEV1/FVC as a parameter of the airflow obstruction, and bronchial diameter and lung volume on chest radiographs. The extent of pulmonary tuberculosis was correlated with the improvement of FEV1/ FVC. There was an improvement of dyspnea in 69% (9/13), decrease of wheezing in 69% (9/13), significant increase of FEV1/FVC in 18% (2/11). The increase of the bronchial diameter and lung volume were seen in 84% (11/13) and 53% (7/13), respectively. The significant increase of FEV1/FVC was seen in 28% (2/7) of the patients with lung involvement of tuberculous less than one third of left upper lobe, whereas there was no increase in those of more than one third. The was no complication except transient leukocytosis, fever and blood-tinged sputum. In conclusion, balloon bronchoplasty is effective in the treatment of medically intractable tuberculous bronchostenosis, and can be considered as an initial method of treatment

  4. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  5. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: Terry.Price@gmail.com [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  6. A Systematic Review of the Level of Evidence in Economic Evaluations of Medical Devices: The Example of Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Martelli

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations are far less frequently reported for medical devices than for drugs. In addition, little is known about the quality of existing economic evaluations, particularly for innovative devices, such as those used in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.To assess the level of evidence provided by the available economic evaluations for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.A systematic review of articles in English or French listed in the MEDLINE, PASCAL, COCHRANE and National Health Service Economic Evaluation databases, with limits on publication date (up to the date of the review, March 2014.We included only economic evaluations of vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Editorial and methodological articles were excluded.Data were extracted from articles by two authors working independently and using two analysis grids to measure the quality of economic evaluations.Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. All were published between 2008 and 2014. Eighteen (86% were full economic evaluations. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA was the most frequent type of economic evaluation, and was present in 11 (52% studies. Only three CEAs complied fully with the British Medical Journal checklist. The quality of the data sources used in the 21 studies was high, but the CEAs conforming to methodological guidelines did not use high-quality data sources for all components of the analysis.This systematic review shows that the level of evidence in economic evaluations of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty is low, despite the recent publication of a large number of studies. This finding highlights the challenges to be faced to improve the quality of economic evaluations of medical devices.

  7. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  8. Balloon observations of solar ultraviolet irradiance at solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon observations of solar irradiance between 200 and 240 nm have been performed in 1976 and 1977 corresponding to minimum conditions of solar activity. Ultraviolet spectra have been recorded for different zenith angles at an altitude of 41 km by means of a spectrometer with a spectral bandpass of 0.4 nm. Solar irradiances at 1 a.u. confirm previous values obtained by balloon. They are compared with other measurements and discussed in terms of possible long-term variability. (author)

  9. Sonic Thermometer for High-Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John

    2012-01-01

    The sonic thermometer is a specialized application of well-known sonic anemometer technology. Adaptations have been made to the circuit, including the addition of supporting sensors, which enable its use in the high-altitude environment and in non-air gas mixtures. There is a need to measure gas temperatures inside and outside of superpressure balloons that are flown at high altitudes. These measurements will allow the performance of the balloon to be modeled more accurately, leading to better flight performance. Small thermistors (solid-state temperature sensors) have been used for this general purpose, and for temperature measurements on radiosondes. A disadvantage to thermistors and other physical (as distinct from sonic) temperature sensors is that they are subject to solar heating errors when they are exposed to the Sun, and this leads to issues with their use in a very high-altitude environment

  10. Local drug-delivery balloon for proliferative occlusive in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Fabio Dell'Avvocata; Massimo Giordan

    2011-01-01

    Drug-coated balloon has been developed as an alternative to drug-eluting stents for in-stent restenosis but the performance of drug infusion balloon in such setting has not been previously described. We present a case of particularly aggressive in-stent restenosis after drug eluting stent implantation treated with a new kind of drug infusion balloon developed in order to overcome the impossibility to inflate regular drug-coated balloon for several dilatation.

  11. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful

  12. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful.

  13. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  14. 经皮穿刺椎体后凸成形术中骨水泥与硫酸钙应用的对比%Calcium sulfate cement versus polymethylmethacrylate in percutaneous kyphoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白明; 银和平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis caused by the vertebral fractures in orthopedic clinical disease is very common; due to pain,kyphosis affects the quality of life of older persons. In recent years using balloon kyphoplasty (PKP) treatment of the disease to obtain good clinical, but its use of traditional bone cement filler has many shortcomings, and injectable calcium sulfate is a biocompatible, safe and effective bone substitute material, as the method of filling enhanced to make up for the lack of bone cement.OBJECTIVE: By analyzing and summarizing bone cement and injectable calcium sulfate in the kyphoplasty in applied research since 1975, to look for ideal filling materials for kyphoplasty.METHODS: By using "osteoporosis, percutaueous kyphoplasty (PKP), calcium sulfate cement (CSC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)" as keywords, we retrieved articles published 1975-01/2009-12 included in Wanfang database and PubMed database.Irrelevant and the repetitive contents were excluded. Twenty-five documents retained for further analysis.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Ideal effective implants may be injection shall be of good, can precisely infuse fracture sites,and may reduce the injection pressure; they can rapidly be solidified, have enough mechanical strength, stable, immediately recover vertebral body load capacity; Solidification low temperature, can reduce heat damage to nearby tissue; A good imaging capabilities, can develop during the operation, which precisely control the location and depth of the filler; can be slowly biodegradable; Material origin is widespread, and cheaper prices. At present there is no a filling materials can completely have the above advantages. Therefore, the research to develop a kind of ideal filling materials for clinical use is an important task in the future.%背景:近几年采用球囊扩张椎体后凸成形术治疗老年骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折获得很好临床疗效,其使用的传统填充物骨水泥有诸多缺点,可注射硫酸

  15. Intestinal cholesterol embolism resulting from intra-aortic balloon pumping: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kakazu, Masanori; Osamu, Arasaki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intra-aortic balloon pumping is used in elective percutaneous coronary intervention for increasing coronary blood flow. However, intra-aortic balloon pumping may decrease visceral blood flow and cause mesenteric ischemia by visceral artery obstruction. Case presentation We report the case of a 79-year-old Asian man in whom elective percutaneous coronary intervention was performed with intra-aortic balloon pumping. He died from mesenteric ischemia 25 hours after the procedure. Mic...

  16. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualifi...

  17. Superpressure Tow Balloon for Extending Durations and Modifying Trajectories of High Altitude Balloon Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation involves the concept of using a Superpressure Tow Balloon (STB) with existing NASA high altitude balloon designs to form a tandem balloon...

  18. Percutaneous kyphoplasty combined with the posterior screw-rod system in treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Twenty six patients (65 years of age or older with the single spine fractures included in study. The preoperative bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray. The PKP was done in all the cases. Decompression was done if neurological symptoms were present. Results: The results demonstrated osteoporosis with BMD T value ≤ −2.5; injured posterior vertebral body (3 cases had shown the whole damage accompanied by neurological symptoms through X-ray or CT. After 2 days, the remaining patients of back pain symptoms were relieved or disappeared except for three cases of patients with decompression incision. VAS score and Cobb angle changed from preoperative 8.23 ± 0.17 and 28.7 ± 0.33° respectively to postoperative 3.77 ± 0.44 and 3.8 ± 0.2° respectively. Conclusion: Treatment of rupture of the posterior vertebral osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures by means of kyphoplasty combined with posterior screw-rod system is a safe, effective procedure.

  19. The treatment of refractures after vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty in the elderly with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the treatment of refractures after vertebroplasty (VP) /kyphoplasty (KP) in the elderly with osteoporosis. Methods: Twelve patients of refractures after VP/KP in osteoporosis patients were treated, including 2 patients having the treatment at 4 vertebrae using the VP technique and 5 patients at 9 vertebrae using the KP technique. The above seven patients received the treatment of osteoporosis after VP/KP. Another patients underwent KP again after the initial procedure. This patient chose conventional treatment including bed rest and osteoporosis medication when she experienced the third time vertebral fracture. There were still 4 patients experiencing refractures of the same vertebral body after the KP. These 4 patients were treated with osteoporosis medication. The follow-up period was from to 6 to 12 months after the treatment of the lastest refractures. Results: The patients treated with VP/KP had marked or complete pain relief. All the patients receiving systematic osteoporosis medication didn't undergo refratures over the 6 to 12 months follow-up. Conclusion: VP/KP is still a good method for pain relief in the treatment of refractures after initial procedure. It is more important to treat osteoporosis in these elderly adults. (authors)

  20. The challenge to balloon science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    A thorough review of the NASA balloon program in 1995 confirmed both the inherent importance of balloon science investigations and their value for developing technology for future space missions. A follow-on study in 1996 looked into restructuring the entire suborbital program, in order to find more efficient and effective ways of doing business. These studies were mandated by the adverse impact of NASA's declining budgets and work force constraints on all aspects of space research. The challenge is to accomplish more with less. The balloon program began stepping up to this challenge several years ago with the advent of 10 - 20 day long-duration flights in Antarctica. We must now push ahead with enhanced flight capabilities and with new science instrument technologies, as we forge alliances with other modes of low-cost access to space. Specifically, the development of sealed superpressure balloons could extend flight duration by another order of magnitude, to about 100 days, making ballooning even more competitive with space missions.

  1. BLOCKING SUN WITH ORBITING BALLOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chul Park [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Kor ea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)

    2008-09-30

    Sun's radiation power reaching Earth's surface can be reduced by letting large balloons circle the Earth in orbits at approximately 1000 km altitude. These balloons, made of plastic films 1 mm in thickness, of a diameter of approximately 46 km, will weigh about 10,000 tons each. A balloon will consist of one hundred of 100 ton pieces. They are transported to the orbit piece by piece, and are assembled there into the spherical shape. They are kept inflated with the vapor pressure of potassium and the electrostatic forces. The inclination angles of these balloons with respect to the solar ecliptic plane can be varied from zero to 90 degrees, although efficiency is highest with the zero degree inclination. If zero degree inclination is chosen, twenty-three of these will reduce the average sun's radiation by 0.01%. In the 1000 km orbits, which are stable and are populated only by space debris, these balloons will serve also to remove the debris.

  2. Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.

  3. Ballonnen in zee = balloons as marine litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Releasing balloons seems harmless. However, remains of balloons, especially valves and ribbons are becoming a common and persistent type of marine litter found on beaches. Following Dutch Queens day 2007, large numbers of Dutch balloons were found in Normandy, France. Animals may become entangled in

  4. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons, consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness, meridional tendons. This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons. The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation, whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent. Upon inflation and pressurization, the "instantaneous", i.e. linear-elastic strain and stress distribution in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction. However, over time, and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the material, the hoop strains increase and the meridional stresses decrease, whereas the remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged. These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission, both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon. An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter, 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented. The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature. The results show good correlation with a numerical study, using the ABAQUS finite-element package, that includes a widely used model of the visco-elastic response of the gore material:

  5. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (Pperpendicular/Pparallel > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy

  6. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy.

  7. Global electrodynamics from superpressure balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Hu, H.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field and conductivity measurements in the stratosphere between November 1992 and March 1993 have been made using superpressure balloons in the southern hemisphere. Over 400 payload-days of data have been made during a record setting experiment called ELBBO (Extended Life Balloon Borne Observatories). This experiment resulted in 4 flights aloft simultaneously for over 2 months including one flight which lasted over 4 months. Electrodynamical coupling between the atmosphere and ionosphere is studied using the measured electric fields, and a simple empirical model of the stratospheric conductivity. Altitude profiles of conductivity have been obtained from several superpressure balloon flights using the large end-of-flight altitude swings on the last few days of each flight (as the balloon begins to loose superpressure). Coupling between the fields and atmospheric inertial waves has been observed. Effects and dynamics of the global circuit suggest that standard models are missing significant phenomena. Large scale ionospheric convection activity has been studied from the polar cap to the middle latitudes. Cusp latitude fields have been continuously measured for many days in a row.

  8. Drug-Coated Balloons for Infrainguinal Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sanjum S; Lee, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Revascularization of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease has traditionally been accomplished via percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. However, long-term results have been hampered by high rates of restenosis. Along with the advent of stents, paclitaxel-coated balloons are an emerging therapeutic option for the invasive management of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. Paclitaxel has been successful in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the main mechanism for in-stent restenosis. Technological advances have facilitated the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons, which show promise in early trials for femoropopliteal stenosis relative to uncoated balloons. For infrapopliteal stenoses, the data remain scant and conflicted. Therefore, large-scale randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up evaluating safety and effectiveness between various strategies need to be performed to determine the optimal invasive management strategy for infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. PMID:27342205

  9. Planetary Science with Balloon-Borne Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Cheng, Andy; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the planetary science community have recently been exploring the potential contributions of stratospheric balloons to the planetary science field. A study that was recently concluded explored the roughly 200 or so science questions raised in the Planetary Decadal Survey report and found that about 45 of those questions are suited to stratospheric balloon based observations. In September of 2014, a stratospheric balloon mission called BOPPS (which stands for Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science) was flown out of Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The mission had two main objectives, first, to observe a number of planetary targets including one or more Oort cloud comets and second, to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the platform, instruments, and subsystems for making scientific measurements in support planetary science objectives. BOPPS carried two science instruments, BIRC and UVVis. BIRC is a cryogenic infrared multispectral imager which can image in the.6-5 m range using an HgCdTe detector. Narrow band filters were used to allow detection of water and CO2 emission features of the observed targets. The UVVis is an imager with the science range of 300 to 600 nm. A main feature of the UVVis instrument is the incorporation of a guide camera and a Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) system to reduce image jitter to less than 100 milliarcseconds. The BIRC instrument was used to image targets including Oort cloud comets Siding Spring and Jacques, and the dwarf planet 1 Ceres. BOPPS achieved the first ever earth based CO2 observation of a comet and the first images of water and CO2 of an Oort cloud comet (Jacques). It also made the first ever measurement of 1Ceres at 2.73 m to refine the shape of the infrared water absorption feature on that body. The UVVis instrument, mounted on its own optics bench, demonstrated the capability for image correction both from atmospheric disturbances as well as some

  10. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  11. Balloon atrial septostomy under echocardiographic guide: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Meraji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure in pediatric cardiology. Nowadays, most patients in need of the procedure have acceptable outcomes after surgical repair. Thus, it is important to perform this procedure as safe as possible. By performing early arterial switch operation and prostaglandin infusion, the rate of balloon atrial septostomy has markedly decreased. However, not all centers performing early arterial switch repairs have abandoned atrial septostomy, even in patients who respond favorably to prostaglandin infusion.Case presentation: In total, eight 1- to 15-day old term neonates admitted in Shahid Rajaee Heart Center in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2011, with congenital heart diseases were scheduled for balloon atrial septostomy. In six cases the procedure was done exclusively under echocardiographic guidance and in two cases with the help of fluoroscopy. Success was defined as the creation of an atrial septal defect with a diameter equal to or more than 5 mm and ample mobility of its margins.Results: Male sex was predominant (87% and the mean age of the neonates was six days. The diagnosis in all cases was simple transposition of great arteries. The procedure was successful in all patients with any cardiovascular complication.Conclusion: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure that can be done safely and effectively under echocardiographic guidance. According to the feasibility of this technique it could be performed fast, safe and effective at bedside, avoiding patient transportation to hemodynamic laboratory or referral center.

  12. Stability of infernal and ballooning modes in advanced tokamak scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holties, H. A.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Kerner, W.; Parail, V.V.; Soldner, F. X.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical parameter study has been performed in order to find MHD stable operating regimes for advanced tokamak experiments In this study we have concentrated on internal modes. Ballooning stability and stability with respect to infernal modes are considered. The calculations confirm that pressure

  13. Scientific Ballooning Technologies Workshop STO-2 Thermal Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The heritage thermal model for the full STO-2 (Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory II), vehicle has been updated to model the CSBF (Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility) SIP-14 (Scientific Instrument Package) in detail. Analysis of this model has been performed for the Antarctica FY2017 launch season. Model temperature predictions are compared to previous results from STO-2 review documents.

  14. The balloon system with stabilized platform and oriented submillimeter telescope: Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshin, V.; Leonov, V.; Levshuk, B.; Shekshnya, V.

    1994-02-01

    A large number of scientific ballooning programs in the interests both of fundamental sciences (astrophysics, solar physics, etc.) and applied research require fine spatial orientation in inertial space of scientific instruments installed on balloons. Among these, some of the actual programs are the investigations of astophysical objects in gamma- and X-ray, far-infrared/submillimeter regions, as are also high precision magnetometric measurements, the research of the Earth's atmosphere and related ecological problems. As an applied problem, the development of modern balloon-based communication systems is pointed out. A rather large amount of different balloon platforms is developed and used in modern practice of ballooning. The Academy of Sciences of Russia (ASR) provides the design of the balloon-borne oriented and stabilized platform from 1991 (Lebedev Physical Institute, ASR). We have designed and built the balloon platform, that is considered a universal device for future balloon research, where spatial orientation is required. At the first stage of this project, the design of the far-infared version of this platform was performed. The platform is equipped with an 1-meter Cassegrain type telescope (on scheme Nesmith). The primary mirror of spherical form (f/0.5) is made from special aluminum alloy: the construction of telescope is lightweight.

  15. Research Progress of Percutaneous Kyphoplasty%经皮椎体后凸成形术的研究应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志刚

    2015-01-01

    经皮椎体成形术(percutaneous vertebroplasty,PVP)和经皮椎体后凸成形术(percutaneous kyphoplasty,PKP)是脊柱微创手术的一种新方法,治疗骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折、椎体内血管瘤、肿瘤等具有很好的临床效果,就其临床技术应用及发展方向进行综述。%Percutaneous vertebroplasty (percutaneous vertebroplasty, PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (percutaneous kyphoplasty, PKP) is a new method of minimally invasive spine operation, the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, vertebral body angioma, cancer has good clinical effects, the clinical technology application and development direction for review.

  16. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  17. Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously...

  18. Comparison of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate and compare the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness in the treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and kyphoplasty (PKP). Methods: Seventy-two patients (96 vertebrae) with painful OVCFs were treated by Pvp (n=34) or Pk (n=38) under radiological monitoring. After bone biopsy needle into the compressed vertebra, bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate) was injected in Pvp group, and that was inserted followed by the inflation of vertebra to create cavities in Pk group. The fluoroscopy time, total amount of bone cement injected, and cost were recollected respectively. The score of visual analogue scale point (Vas, 10-point scale) was determined at before the procedures, and 24 hours, one week, and one month after the procedures. Pain relief and complications were observed. The C obb angle and vertebral heights of the anterior, middle, and posterior border were measured pre-and post-operative. Results: The two procedures were technically successful in all patients. The follow-up ranged from 1.0 to 34.0 months [mean time, (8.9±3.2) months]. The Mean fluoroscopy time of treating per vertebra in Pvp group was (11.1±10.6) min, which was significant shorter than that (23.5±13.0) min in Pk group (P 0.05) in average cement volumes in Pvp group [(4.9±1.1) ml] and Pk group [(5.4±1.7) ml]. Pain relief of was observed in 94.1% (32/34) of PVP group and in 92.1% (35/38) of PKP group. The score of VAS at pre-operation was (8.3±0.4 vs 7.9±0.8), and at post-operative 24 h (2.9±0.9 vs 2.8±1.2), 1 week (2.6±0.9 vs 2.6±1.1), and 1 month (2.6±0.9 vs 2.5±1.3) were no difference at PKP and PVP group (P<0.05). There was significant difference between pre- and post-operative time point in each group. The Cobb angle, anterior and middle height of vertebra was corrected in both PVP and PKP group. In PVP group, the preoperative Cobb angle, anterior and middle height of vertebra was

  19. Balloon dacryocystoplasty study in the management of adult epiphora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of dacryocystoplasty with balloon dilation in the treatment of acquired obstruction of the nasolacrimal system in adults. METHODS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty was performed in 52 eyes of 42 patients under general anaesthetic. A Teflon-coated guidewire was introduced through the canaliculus and manipulated through the nasolacrimal system and out of the nasal aperture. A 4 mm wide 3 cm coronary angioplasty balloon catheter was threaded over the guidewire in a retrograde fashion and dilated at the site of obstruction. RESULTS: There was complete obstruction in 30% of cases and partial obstruction in 70%. The most common site of obstruction was the nasolacrimal duct. The procedure was technically successful in 94% of cases. The overall re-obstruction rate was 29% within 1 year of the procedure. There was an anatomical failure rate of 17% for partial obstruction and 69% for complete obstruction within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty has a high recurrence rate. There may be a limited role for this procedure in partial obstructions. Further refinements of the procedure are necessary before it can be offered as a comparable alternative to a standard surgical dacryocystorhinostomy.

  20. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively

  1. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung [Seoul Natioal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Jae [Inje University Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively.

  2. Balloon-assisted coiling through a 5-French system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catheter technique that utilizes a 5F system for the purpose of balloon-assisted coiling in the setting of intracranial aneurysms. A standard 5F short sheath is placed in the common femoral artery, and a 5F diagnostic catheter is placed through the sheath and used for selective vessel angiography. When endovascular intervention is pursued, the diagnostic catheter is placed in the appropriate vessel and systemic heparinization is ensured. Over an exchange length wire, the 5F vertebral catheter and 5F short sheath are exchanged for a 5F Shuttle (Cook) sheath. We then routinely place a 10, 14 or 18 microcatheter over an appropriately gauged microguidewire into the aneurysm. As needed, balloon catheters are then placed across the neck of the aneurysm for remodeling purposes. During the course of the procedure, control angiography is performed through the Shuttle sheath. Following the placement of coils, the microcatheter and balloon catheter are removed and a final biplane image is obtained via the 5F Shuttle sheath. This technique has been employed in 15 patients who required balloon-assisted coiling of an intracranial aneurysm. There were no technical difficulties or arterial access site complications from the procedures. Catheter mobility and torque were not affected, nor was the quality of our imaging. We conclude that this small-diameter system provides ample ''room'' for catheter placement and interventional treatment while reducing the known risks of postprocedural complications. Angiographic images remain excellent and are comparable to those obtained by larger catheters. (orig.)

  3. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used.

  4. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used

  5. Prediction of pressure tube ballooning under non-uniform circumferential temperature gradients and high internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some accident scenarios in CANDU reactors the pressure tube is expected to reach sufficiently high temperature at high internal pressure such that the pressure tube expands radially, i.e., the pressure tube balloons.Under these conditions it is of importance to the assessment of fuel channel integrity to be able to accurately predict the timing and extent of pressure tube ballooning. If the circumferential temperature gradient on the pressure tube is non-uniform, the resulting transverse hoop stress is non-uniform and the pressure tube experiences a non-uniform ballooning. This could result in a failure of the pressure tube before it balloons into contact with the surrounding calandria tube. The fuel channel integrity code SMARTT (Simulation Method for Azimuthal and Radial Temperature Transients) is used to predict the ballooning of CANDU Zr-2.5wt%Nb pressure tubes. The pressure tube strain rate calculation in SMARTT was extracted and used as the basis for the code PTSTRAIN which was constructed to model pressure tube ballooning with the temperature of the pressure tube and the internal pressure specified as the boundary conditions for the calculation. The main objectives of this paper are to describe the comparison of the predictions of this code against two different sets of experiments which were performed with defected and non-defected pressure tubes, and to provide further validation of the pressure tube ballooning model against independent experiments. (author)

  6. The data processor of the EUSO-Balloon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JEM-EUSO instrument is a wide-angle refractive telescope in near-ultraviolet wavelength region being proposed for attachment to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) onboard International Space Station (ISS). The main scientific goal of the mission is the study of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR) above 5 × 1019 eV. The instrument consists of high transmittance optical Fresnel lenses with a diameter of 2.5 m, a focal surface covered by ∼ 5000 Multi Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes of 64 pixels, front-end readout, trigger and system electronics. The EUSO-Balloon experiment is a pathfinder mission in which a telescope of smaller dimension than the one designed for the ISS will be mounted onboard a stratospheric balloon. The main objective of this pathfinder mission, planned for 2014, is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies and instrumentation of JEM-EUSO detectors and to prove the global detection chain. Furthermore, EUSO-Balloon will measure the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background components, in different observational modes, fundamental for the development of the simulations. Through a series of stratospheric balloon flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers from above, paving the way for any future large scale, space-based EECR observatory. In this paper we will present the Data Processor (DP) of EUSO-Balloon, which is the component of the Electronics System which performs the data management and the instrument control. More in detail, the DP controls the front-end electronics, performs the 2nd level trigger filtering, tags events with arrival time and payload position through a GPS system, manages the Mass Memory for data storage, measures live and dead time of the telescope, provides signals for time synchronization of the event, performs housekeeping monitor, and handles the interface to the telemetry system. The DP has to operate at high altitude

  7. Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; James, Bryan; Fixsen, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical observations at millimeter wavelengths require large (2-to-5- meter diameter) telescopes carried to altitudes above 35 km by scientific research balloons. The scientific performance is greatly enhanced if the telescope is cooled to temperatures below 10 K with no emissive windows between the telescope and the sky. Standard liquid helium bucket dewars can contain a suitable telescope for telescope diameter less than two meters. However, the mass of a dewar large enough to hold a 3-to-5-meter diameter telescope would exceed the balloon lift capacity. The solution is to separate the functions of cryogen storage and in-flight thermal isolation, utilizing the unique physical conditions at balloon altitudes. Conventional dewars are launched cold: the vacuum walls necessary for thermal isolation must also withstand the pressure gradient at sea level and are correspondingly thick and heavy. The pressure at 40 km is less than 0.3% of sea level: a dewar designed for use only at 40 km can use ultra thin walls to achieve significant reductions in mass. This innovation concerns new construction and operational techniques to produce a lightweight liquid helium bucket dewar. The dewar is intended for use on high-altitude balloon payloads. The mass is low enough to allow a large (3-to-5-meter) diameter dewar to fly at altitudes above 35 km on conventional scientific research balloons without exceeding the lift capability of the balloon. The lightweight dewar has thin (250- micron) stainless steel walls. The walls are too thin to support the pressure gradient at sea level: the dewar launches warm with the vacuum space vented continuously during ascent to eliminate any pressure gradient across the walls. A commercial 500-liter storage dewar maintains a reservoir of liquid helium within a minimal (hence low mass) volume. Once a 40-km altitude is reached, the valve venting the vacuum space of the bucket dewar is closed to seal the vacuum space. A vacuum pump then

  8. Cryo-balloon catheter position planning using AFiT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinoeder, Andreas; Brost, Alexander; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common heart arrhythmia. In certain situations, it can result in life-threatening complications such as stroke and heart failure. For paroxsysmal AFib, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by catheter ablation is the recommended choice of treatment if drug therapy fails. During minimally invasive procedures, electrically active tissue around the pulmonary veins is destroyed by either applying heat or cryothermal energy to the tissue. The procedure is usually performed in electrophysiology labs under fluoroscopic guidance. Besides radio-frequency catheter ablation devices, so-called single-shot devices, e.g., the cryothermal balloon catheters, are receiving more and more interest in the electrophysiology (EP) community. Single-shot devices may be advantageous for certain cases, since they can simplify the creation of contiguous (gapless) lesion sets around the pulmonary vein which is needed to achieve PVI. In many cases, a 3-D (CT, MRI, or C-arm CT) image of a patient's left atrium is available. This data can then be used for planning purposes and for supporting catheter navigation during the procedure. Cryo-thermal balloon catheters are commercially available in two different sizes. We propose the Atrial Fibrillation Planning Tool (AFiT), which visualizes the segmented left atrium as well as multiple cryo-balloon catheters within a virtual reality, to find out how well cryo-balloons fit to the anatomy of a patient's left atrium. First evaluations have shown that AFiT helps physicians in two ways. First, they can better assess whether cryoballoon ablation or RF ablation is the treatment of choice at all. Second, they can select the proper-size cryo-balloon catheter with more confidence.

  9. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster

  10. A program for the simulation and analysis of open atmospheric balloon soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.

    2003-03-01

    The equation of motion for a balloon in an atmosphere is generalized but placed in proper context by taking into account some fluid theory results and a few factors not considered in previous works. The design of a computer program becomes necessary to find solutions. A code that allows to perform 2D simulations of open balloons flights is developed. The coupled integrodifferential nature of the problem represented a significant challenge for a satisfactory implementation.

  11. Saturated gravity wave spectra measured with balloons in Mendoza (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, A.; Giraldez, A.; Alexander, P.

    1994-09-01

    Spectral results from a sounding of temperature and wind velocity between 11.9 and 23.1 km performed with an open type stratospheric balloon near the Andes Mountains, are reported. The use of this kind of balloons and high performance instruments, allowed to attain better spatial resolution (around 2.5 meters during the descent) than previous results and other sounding techniques. This high resolution permitted to study the complete interval of altitude data in three consecutive subintervals (below, around and above the tropopause). Each of these subintervals shows different saturation characteristics. Some differences have been found with the general pattern of power spectral densities reported by different theories. A large amplitude wave of around 1.8 km and possibly originated in the mountain relief, is clearly observed in the temperature, vertical and shear wind velocity components.

  12. Airborne Internet Providing Tethered Balloon System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvriti Dhawan1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall introduce a new system for providing wireless network communication over a specified area using ’lighter than air’ balloons. This technology will replace the existing fiber optic network system. This will be done by using a tethered balloon along with the payload (containing a receiver, a transmitter and a radio communication device.This payload will be suspended from the ground at an altitude (depending on the area of coverage required. Users under this area will be able to access this system directly for internet connectivity. This system can be used over large areas like universities, companies and societies to provide internet facility to their users through Wi-Fi or over an area where the user is specified (commercial purposes. Currently Google is working on similar idea called the ’Google Loon’ in which they use high altitude balloons which float at an altitude twice as high as air planes and the weather. They recently tested this system over New-Zealand by providing internet to their pilot testers on ground. Their balloons not being stationary, move with directional winds and have to be replaced one after the other to maintain consistency. This can be a huge problem over the areas where upper atmospheric winds are not in favorable direction. We can resolve this problem by using our stationary tethered balloon system which can communicate with the loon balloons to provide internet facility over a desired area. Moreover when our balloon will communicate with the loon balloon it will increase the coverage area as the loon balloon has to communicate to a point which is above the ground. Our system will not only replace the existing fiber optic system but it will also be selfsustaining i.e. It will generate its own power using solar panels.

  13. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  14. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular…

  15. The balloon and the airship technological heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    The balloon and the airship are discussed with emphasis on the identification of commonalities and distinctions. The aerostat technology behind the shape and structure of the vehicles is reviewed, including a discussion of structural weight, internal pressure, buckling, and the development of a stable tethered balloon system. Proper materials for the envelope are considered, taking elongation and stress into account, and flight operation and future developments are reviewed. Airships and tethered balloons which are designed to carry high operating pressure with low gas loss characteristics are found to share similar problems in low speed flight operations, while possessing interchangeable technologies.

  16. Looners: Inside the world of balloon fetishism

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1997, Shaun had just broken up with a boyfriend, and his roommate had moved out. Living alone for the first time and relieved of the fear that someone might walk in the door, he was finally able to indulge his fantasy. The young man sat on his couch and started blowing up balloons. Shaun had loved playing with balloons since he was a child. When he hit puberty, he felt his first orgasm rubbing against a balloon. It was then that his relationship with the object took ...

  17. Inverted Meckel's diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed using double-balloon enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Kosuke; Osawa, Satoshi; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Tsukui, Hiroe; Furuta, Takahisa; Wada, Hidetoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken

    2016-05-01

    An inverted Meckel's diverticulum is a rare gastrointestinal congenital anomaly that is difficult to diagnose prior to surgery and presents with anemia, abdominal pain, or intussusception. Here, we report the case of 57-year-old men with an inverted Meckel's diverticulum, who was preoperatively diagnosed using double-balloon enteroscopy. He had repeatedly experienced epigastric pain for 2 mo. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed intestinal wall thickening in the pelvis. Double-balloon enteroscopy via the anal route was performed for further examination, which demonstrated an approximately 8-cm, sausage-shaped, submucosal tumor located approximately 80 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. A small depressed erosion was observed at the tip of this lesion. Forceps biopsy revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with an inverted Meckel's diverticulum, and single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed. This case suggests that an inverted Meckel's diverticulum should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a submucosal tumor in the ileum. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy with forceps biopsy facilitate a precise diagnosis of this condition. PMID:27158212

  18. Recent Developments in Balloon Support Instrumentation at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan

    2012-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research has been conducting stratospheric balloon flights regularly for various experiments in Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in Balloon flight Support instrumentation by the Control Instrumentation Group to keep in space with the growing complexities of the scientific payloads have contributed to the total success of balloon flights conducted recently. Recent improvements in display of Balloon position during balloon flight by showing on real time the balloon GPS position against Google TM maps is of immense help in selecting the right spot for payload landing and safe recovery . For further speeding up the payload recovery process, a new GPS-GSM payload system has been developed which gives SMS of the payload position information to the recovery team on their cell phones. On parallel footing, a new GPS- VHF system has been developed using GPS and Radio Modems for Balloon Tracking and also for obtaining the payload impact point. On the Telecommand side, a single board Telecommand/ Timer weighing less than 2 Kg has been specially developed for use in the mesosphere balloon test flight. The interference on the existing Short Range Telemetry System has been eliminated by introducing a Band Pass Filter and LNA in the Receiving system of the modules, thereby enhancing its reliability. In this paper , we present the details of the above mentioned developments.

  19. Shielded Mars Balloon Launcher (SMBL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, along with its partner Vertigo Industries, proposes a novel approach to deployment of balloon-based payloads into the Martian atmosphere....

  20. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —   NASA has plans to fly stratospheric ULDBs for missions of 100 days or more in the next few years. As these balloons circumnavigate the globe multiple...

  1. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  2. Percutaneous transvenous balloon occlusion of arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure of arteriovenous fistulas, using a balloon catheter introduced through the vein draining the fistula, is discussed. The application of this method to the closure of an iatrogenic vertebrovertebral fistula is described. (orig.)

  3. Magnetometer for Balloons and UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will investigate a new, low-cost approach to atomic magnetometry that is suited for operation from UAVs and research balloons. Atomic...

  4. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs.

  5. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between 99mTc and HDR 192Ir*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro; de Lima, Carla Flavia; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with 99mTc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and Methods Simulations of implants with 99mTc-filled and HDR 192Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results The 99mTc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h-1.mCi-1 and 0.190 cGyh-1.mCi-1 at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh-1.mCi-1, respectively, for the HDR 192Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the 99mTc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR 192Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion Temporary 99mTc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR 192Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. PMID:27141131

  6. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between {sup 99m}Tc and HDR {sup 192}Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de; Lima, Carla Flavia de; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with {sup 99m}Tc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and methods: simulations of implants with {sup 99m}Tc-filled and HDR {sup 192}Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results: the {sup 99m}Tc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1} and 0.190 cGyh{sup -1} at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1}, respectively, for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the {sup 99m}Tc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion: temporary {sup 99m}Tc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. (author)

  7. Double-Balloon Catheter for Isolated Liver Perfusion: An Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Further development of a previously described interventional method for isolated liver perfusion (ILP) with a new double-lumen balloon catheter, and evaluation of the side-effects of such isolation.Methods: In six pigs a double-balloon occlusion catheter was placed via the transjugular approach with its tip in the portal vein. One of the balloons was positioned in the inferior vena cava (IVC), cranial to the origin of the hepatic veins and the other balloon in the portal vein. By the transfemoral approach, a single-balloon occlusion catheter was placed in the IVC caudal to the origin of the hepatic veins. A third catheter was placed by the transfemoral route with the occlusion balloon in the proper hepatic artery. After inflation of all balloons 99Tcm-labelled human serum albumin was recirculated through the liver. The isolation was evaluated by repeated measurement of radioactivity levels in peripheral blood. Laboratory tests of liver and pancreas function, and hemoglobin, were taken before, at the end of, and 3 days after the procedure. Blood gases were tested at the beginning and end of the procedure.Results: One pig died during the procedure due to technical failure and was excluded from the study. In the other pigs leakage from the isolated liver to the systemic circulation increased slowly, up to 9.7% (mean) during 30 min of recirculation of the perfusate through the liver. Laboratory tests were normal in all pigs except insignificant acidosis directly after the procedure and the slight elevation of s-ALAT after 3 days.Conclusions: Only minor leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation was noted during ILP performed with a new, double-balloon catheter. There were no serious side effects

  8. Significant skin burns may occur with the use of a water balloon in HIFU treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert; Collin, Jamie; Wu, Feng; Coussios, Constantin; Leslie, Tom; Cranston, David

    2012-10-01

    HIFU is a minimally-invasive therapy suitable for treating selected intra-abdominal tumors. Treatment is safe although skin burns may occur due to pre-focal heating. HIFU treatment of a renal transplant tumor located in the left lower abdomen was undertaken in our centre. Treatment was performed prone, requiring displacement of the abdominal wall away from the treatment field using a water balloon, constructed of natural rubber latex and filled with degassed water. Intra-operatively, ultrasound imaging and physical examination of the skin directly over the focal region was normal. Immediately post-operative, a full-thickness skin burn was evident at the periphery of the balloon location, outside the expected HIFU path. Three possibilities may account for this complication. Firstly, the water balloon may have acted as a lens, focusing the HIFU to a neo-focus off axis. Secondly, air bubbles may have been entrapped between the balloon and the skin, causing heating at the interface. Finally, heating of the isolated water within the balloon may have been sufficient to cause burning. In this case, the placement of a water balloon caused a significant skin burn. Care should be taken in their use as burns, situated off axis, may occur even if the overlying skin appears normal.

  9. Bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion for giant vertebrobasilar aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the clinical presentation, radiological and clinical results in six consecutive patients with a giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm treated by bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion. Five patients presented with headache and signs of brain-stem compression and one with subarachnoid haemorrhage. In all patients vertebral artery balloon occlusion was performed. In four, this followed successful test occlusion. In one patient, who did not tolerate the test occlusion, a bypass from the external carotid to the posterior cerebral artery preceded definitive vertebral artery occlusion. One patient underwent bypass surgery prior to test occlusion. At 6-22 months follow-up three patients had a good functional outcome and showed unchanged size or shrinkage of the aneurysm on MRI. Three other patients died; one from recurrent haemorrhage, and two probably from delayed brain-stem ischaemia. The presence of two large posterior communicating arteries predicted good functional outcome, which was also related to the clinical condition at presentation, and the degree of brain-stem compression and oedema on MRI. Bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion can be considered in patients with otherwise untreatable giant vertebrobasilar aneurysms. If test occlusion is not tolerated, a surgical bypass to the posterior circulation can be considered. (orig.)

  10. The balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new detector system developed for high-altitude balloon flights to observe the cosmic-ray electrons above 10 GeV. The Balloon borne Electron Telescope with Scintillating (BETS) fibers instrument is an imaging calorimeter which is capable of selecting electrons against the large background of protons. The calorimeter is composed of a sandwich of scintillating optical-fiber belts and lead plates with a combination of three plastic scintillators for shower trigger. The total thickness of lead is 40 mm (∼ 7.1 r.l.) and the number of fiber belts is nine. In each belt, alternating layers are oriented in orthogonal (x and y) directions. Two sets of an intensified CCD camera are adopted for read-out of the scintillating fibers in the x and y direction, respectively. The accelerator beam tests were carried out to study the performance of detector for electrons in 1996 and for protons in 1997 at CERN-SPS. The instrument was successfully flown aboard high-altitude balloon in 1997 and 1998. It is demonstrated by the flight data that a reliable identification of the electron component has been achieved in 10-100 GeV and the energy spectrum has been obtained

  11. Precision Attitude Control for the BETTII Balloon-Borne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rinehart. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. Operating at wavelengths of 30-90 microns, BETTII will obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets at angular resolutions down to less than half an arcsecond, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This requires attitude control at a level ofless than a tenth of an arcsecond, a great challenge for a lightweight balloon-borne system. We have designed a precision attitude determination system to provide gondola attitude knowledge at a level of 2 milliarcseconds at rates up to 100Hz, with accurate absolute attitude determination at the half arcsecond level at rates of up to 10Hz. A mUlti-stage control system involving rigid body motion and tip-tilt-piston correction provides precision pointing stability to the level required for the far-infrared instrument to perform its spatial/spectral interferometry in an open-loop control. We present key aspects of the design of the attitude determination and control and its development status.

  12. GRAPE: a balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Bancroft, Christopher; Bloser, Peter F.; Connor, Taylor; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James M.

    2009-08-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50 - 500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module that has been calibrated at a polarized hard X-ray beam and flown on an engineering balloon test flight. A full-scale scientific balloon payload, consisting of up to 36 modules, is currently under development. The first flight, a one-day flight scheduled for 2011, will verify the expected scientific performance with a pointed observation of the Crab Nebula. We will then propose long-duration balloon flights to observe gamma-ray bursts and solar flares.

  13. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  14. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  15. Ballooning mode spectrum in general toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, R.L.; Glasser, A.H.

    1982-04-01

    A WKB formalism for constructing normal modes of short-wavelength ideal hydromagnetic, pressure-driven instabilities (ballooning modes) in general toroidal magnetic containment devices with sheared magnetic fields is developed. No incompressibility approximation is made. A dispersion relation is obtained from the eigenvalues of a fourth order system of ordinary differential equations to be solved by integrating along a line of force. Higher order calculations are performed to find the amplitude equation and the phase change at a caustic. These conform to typical WKB results. In axisymmetric systems, the ray equations are integrable, and semiclassical quantization leads to a growth rate spectrum consisting of an infinity of discrete eigenvalues, bounded above by an accumulation point. However, each eigenvalue is infinitely degenerate. In the nonaxisymmetric case, the rays are unbounded in a four dimensional phase space, and semiclassical quantization breaks down, leading to broadening of the discrete eigenvalues and accumulation point of the axisymmetric case into continuum bands. Analysis of a model problem indicates that the broadening of the discrete eigenvalues is numerically very small, the dominant effect being broadening of the accumulation point.

  16. Percutaneous gastrostomy performed by radiologists using balloon replacement tubes. A simple interventional technique for the placement of nutritional catheters without endoscopy or surgery; Perkutane Gastrostomie mit Ballon-PEG-Ersatzsonden durch den Radiologen. Eine interventionelle Technik zur einfachen Einlage von Ernaehrungskathetern ohne chirurgischen oder endoskopischen Eingriff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkel, H.P.; Triller, J. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2001-06-01

    Patients afflicted with stenotic head and neck or esophageal tumors often require artificial enteral feeding. Frequently passage of an endoscope through the esophagus is impossible in these patients. Interventional, fluoroscopically assisted, percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) by balloon replacement tubes is a feasible and successful alternative to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and the method of choice in patients where the esophagus cannot be passed with an endoscope anymore. Technical success rate is very high and serious complications are rare. Radiological PG is a feasible, equivalent alternative to PEG also in all other patients. We recommend PG with balloon gastrostomy tubes in conjunction with gastropexy performed with three to four T-fasteners, which are left in place for seven days in order to prevent dislocation and leakage. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit HNO-Tumoren oder malignen Oesophagusstenosen muessen oft mit einem gastroenteralen Stoma versorgt werden. Haeufig sind die Tumoren so stenosierend, dass eine perkutane endoskopische Gastrostomie (PEG) nicht mehr moeglich ist und eine chirurgische Gastrostomie durchgefuehrt wird. Wir berichten ueber die radiologisch-perkutane Gastrostomie (PG). Die perkutane Gastrostomie ist Methode der Wahl bei stark stenosierenden oesophagealen Prozessen. Auch bei anderen Patienten (ohne Passagehindernis) stellt die PG eine gleichwertige Alternative zur PEG dar. Die Erfolgsrate der PG liegt nahe 100%, Komplikationen sind selten. Wir empfehlen Ballon-arretierte Sonden (sog. Ballonersatzsonden) in Verbindung mit der perkutanen Gastropexie mit 3-4 Fadenzugankern, die fuer etwa 7 Tage belassen werden. (orig.)

  17. Balloon dilatation of intrahepatic biliary strictures in liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of balloon dilatation in the treatment of intrahepatic biliary strictures in patients with liver transplantation. Methods: Of the 100 patients with liver transplantation, 16 patients had intrahepatic biliary strictures and received balloon dilatation treatment. Results: Initial technical balloon dilatation was successful in 14 caes but failed in 2 cases. There were no procedure-related complications. 4 restenosis occurred and they were treated with repeated balloon dilatation treatment. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation represented an effective and relatively safe treatment for biliary stricture in liver transplant recipients. For restenosis, balloon dilatation was also an effective treatment

  18. Application of new balloon catheters in the treatment of congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszer, Roland; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Smerdziński, Sebastian; Chodór, Beata; Białkowski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Balloon angioplasty (BAP) and aortic or pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (BAV, BPV) are well-established treatment options in congenital heart defects. Recently, significant technological progress has been made and new catheters have been implemented in clinical practice. Aim To analyze the results of BAP, BAV and BPV with the new balloon catheter Valver and its second generation Valver II, which the company Balton (Poland) launched and developed. These catheters have not been clinically evaluated yet. Material and methods We performed 64 interventions with Valver I and Valver II. With Valver I the following procedures were performed: 17 BPV (including 9 in tetralogy of Fallot – TOF), 10 BAV and 27 BAP in coarctations of the aorta (CoA) – including 9 native and 18 after surgery. With Valver II ten interventions were done – 3 BPV, 2 pulmonary supravalvular BAP (after switch operations), 2 BAP of recoarctations and 3 other BAP. Age of the patients ranged from a few days to 40 years. Results All procedures were completed successfully, without rupture of any balloon catheters. The pressure gradient drop was statistically significant in all groups: BPV in isolated pulmonary valvular stenosis 28.1 mm Hg (mean), BPV in TOF 18.7 mm Hg, BAV 32.8 mm Hg, BAP in native CoA 15.4 mm Hg and in recoarctations 18.6 mm Hg. In 3 cases during rapid deflation of Valver I, wrinkles of the balloons made it impossible to insert the whole balloon into the vascular sheath (all were removed surgically from the groin). No such complication occured with Valver II. Conclusions Valver balloon catheters are an effective treatment modality in different valvular and vascular stenoses. PMID:27625686

  19. Ballooning mode instability at the plasmapause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Mond, M.; Hameiri, E.

    1990-01-01

    The ballooning mode instability, which can excite hydromagnetic waves at the plasmapause, is studied in the presence of azimuthal plasma flows induced during geomagnetically disturbed periods. A general sufficient criterion for the ballooning mode stability is derived, for a change in the potential energy greater than or equal to 0, which involves the integration over an entire field line. A local stability analysis at the equatorial plasmapause region shows that the ballooning modes could be spontaneously generated via instability under at least two conditions: one is similar to the usual interchange condition, and the second to the quasi-interchange modes. Both of these local instability conditions can be derived from the general stability criterion. Finally an exact solution for the equilibrium state with flow is derived analytically, and the change in the potential energy is computed numerically. It is found that, in the cases studied, the flow does not spontaneously excite the ballooning modes; it only further stabilizes (or destabilizes) the ballooning spectrum if originally the system is stable (or unstable). The analysis would be useful for the interpretation of some of the low-frequency modes observed at the ground and near the equatorial plasmapause.

  20. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2015-06-01

    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  1. Parallel wire balloon angioplasty for undilatable venous stenosis in hemodialysis fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Beom; You, Jin Jong; Cho, Jae Min [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of the parallel wire balloon angioplasty technique for treating dysfunctional hemdialysis fistula with rigid stenosis, and this type of lesion was resistant to conventional angioplasty. Between March 2002 and August 2003, we included 6 patients (mean age: 59, males: 2, females: 4) who were treated via parallel the wire balloon angioplasty technique and their hemodialysis fistula has stenoses that were resistant to conventional angioplasty. We performed conventional angioplasty in all patients, but we failed to achieve sufficient dilatation. In the cases of highly resistant stenosis, an additional 0.016 inch wire was inserted into the 7 F vascular sheath. During angioplasty, a 0.016 inch guide wire was inserted between the balloon and the stenosis and then it was pushed to and fro until the balloon indentation disappeared. After the procedure, we performed angiography to identify the residual stenosis and the procedure-related complications. The undilatable stenoses in 5 patients were successfully resolved without complications via the parallel wire angioplasty technique. In one patient, indentation of balloon was not resolved, but the residual stenosis was both minimal and hemodynamically insignificant. The parallel wire angioplasty technique seems to be a feasible and cost-effective method for treating a dysfunctional hemodialysis fistula with undilatable and rigid stenosis.

  2. Balloon Dilatation of Pediatric Subglottic Laryngeal Stenosis during the Artificial Apneic Pause: Experience in 5 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balloon dilatation is a method of choice for treatment of laryngeal stenosis in children. The aim of procedure in apneic pause is to avoid new insertion of tracheostomy cannula. Patients and Methods. The authors performed balloon dilatation of subglottic laryngeal strictures (SGS in 5 children (3 girls and 2 boys without tracheotomy. Two of them with traumatic and inflammatory SGS had a tracheal cannula removed in the past. The other 3 children with postintubation SGS had never had a tracheostomy before. The need for tracheostomy due to worsening stridor was imminent for all of them. Results. The total of seven laryngeal dilatations by balloon esophagoplasty catheter in apneic pause was performed in the 5 children. The procedure averted the need for tracheostomy placement in 4 of them (80%. Failure of dilatation in girl with traumatic stenosis and concomitant severe obstructive lung disease led to repeated tracheostomy. Conclusion. Balloon dilatation of laryngeal stricture could be done in the absence of tracheostomy in apneic pause. Dilatation averted threatening tracheostomy in all except one case. Early complication after the procedure seems to be a negative prognostic factor for the outcome of balloon dilatation.

  3. Near Space Observations: Planetary Science from a Balloon-Borne Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E.; Hibbitts, C.; Cheng, A.; Dolloff, M.; Kremic, T.

    2015-10-01

    On 25-SEP-2014, the BOPPS balloon mission (Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science) launched from Ft Sumner, NM. During its 17-hour flight, BOPPS observed three comets in wavelengths from 0.8 to 4.6 μm with its infrared camera and demonstrated 66 mas image stability with its visible- UV cameras. The BOPPS payload was intended to develop and demonstrate two key capabilities of balloonborne telescopes: the ability to acquire IR wavelengths that are obscured from the ground or from SOFIA, and the ability to obtain diffraction-limited images at wavelengths shortward of 1 μm, where ground-based adaptive optics systems typically provide poor Strehl ratios. Now that the successful BOPPS mission is behind us, there is the potential to re-use the BOPPS instrumentation for additional long-duration balloon missions to address other planetary science investigations: a planetary observatory in the stratosphere, with the possibility of performing observations that are proposed and competed by the planetary community. NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility just flew a record-setting 32-day circumglobal super-pressure balloon mission at southern mid-latitudes. Unlike previous long-duration flights from Antarctica (zeropressure balloons flying in constant daylight), this recent flight launched from New Zealand and passed through day/night cycles, demonstrating the ability of balloons to carry science payloads weighing up to 3000 lb and provide hundreds of hours of dark time above 99.5 % of the atmosphere. We will provide an overview of the BOPPS payload and a review of the BOPPS flight. We will highlight the recommended changes that would allow BOPPS to become a general purpose infrared and visible/UV observatory.

  4. Second Generation Prototype Design and Testing for a High Altitude Venus Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. L.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Plett, G. A.; Said, M.; Fairbrother, D.; Sandy, C.; Frederickson, T.; Sharpe, G.; Day, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a second generation prototype balloon intended for flight in the upper atmosphere of Venus. The design of this new prototype incorporates lessons learned from the construction and testing of the first generation prototype, including finite element analyses of the balloon stresses and deformations, measured leak performance after handling and packaging, permeability and optical property measurements on material samples, and sulfuric acid testing. An improved design for the second generation prototype was formulated based on these results, although the spherical shape and 5.5 m diameter size were retained. The resulting balloon has a volume of 87 cubic meters and is capable of carrying a 45 kg payload at a 55 km altitude at Venus. The design and fabrication of the new prototype is described, along with test data for inflation and leakage performance.

  5. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    gondola characteristics are assessed in this study and a concept is recommended, the Gondola for High-Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS). This first generation platform is designed around a 1 m or larger aperture, narrow-field telescope with pointing accuracies better than one arc-second. A classical Cassegrain, or variant like Ritchey-Chretien, telescope is recommended for the primary telescope. The gondola should be designed for multiple flights so it must be robust and readily processed at recovery. It must be light-weighted to the extent possible to allow for long-duration flights on super-pressure balloons. Demonstration Flights: Recent demonstration flights achieved several significant accomplishments that can feed forward to a GHAPS gondola project. Science results included the first ever Earth-based measurements for CO2 in a comet, first measurements for CO2 and H2O in an Oort cloud comet, and the first measurement of 1 Ceres at 2.73 m to refine the shape of the infrared water absorption feature. The performance of the Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) was also demonstrated. The BOPPS platform can continue to be leveraged on future flights even as GHAPS is being developed. The study affirms the planetary decadal recommendations, and shows that a number of Top Priority science questions can be achieved. A combination GHAPS and BOPPS would provide the best value for PSD for realizing that science.

  6. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  7. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  8. Balloon dilatation of alimentary tract strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a series of balloon dilatations of alimentary tract strictures 11 patients with different types of gastric and oesophagogastric anastomotic stenoses are reported. The dilatation of gastric outflow tract obstructions was highly effective in the treatment of retention. In 7 out of 8 cases with gastric outflow stenosis surgery could be entirely avoided and replaced by balloon dilatation. The importance of eliminating retention in the healing of gastric ulcer is discussed. Fistulation in oesophagogastric anastomoses due to stenosis of the outflow portion was successfully treated. The importance of achieving a free outflow tract in order to prevent insufficiency of the anastomosis and formation of a fistula is stressed. (orig.)

  9. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  10. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, G. (Space Astronomy Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32609 (US)); Coldwell, R.L.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rester, A.C. (Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Exploration, University of Florida, Alachua, FL 32615 (US)); Trombka, J.I.; Starr, R. (NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (US)); Lasche, G.P. (DARPA/NMO, Arlington, VA (US))

    1989-05-15

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector(GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78{degree} S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Co in the Supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software.

  11. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R. L.; Dunnam, F. E.; Rester, A. C.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector (GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high-altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 deg S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of Co-56 in the supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software.

  12. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector(GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 degree S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of 56Co in the Supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software

  13. Large amplitude waves detected with balloons near the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, A.; Alexander, P.; Giraldez, A.

    Spectral results from a vertical sounding of temperature and wind velocity performed with an open stratospheric balloon in Argentina near the Andes mountains between 12 and 25 km of altitude, are reported. The use of sonic anemometers allows for a higher resolution than in previous experiments. The data records are studied in successive subintervals, yielding a good spectral correlation between the ascent and the descent around and below the tropopause. The possibilities of an orographic origin for large amplitude modes observed in the spectra and of wave generation by non linear interactions between them are discussed.

  14. Pointing System for the Balloon-Borne Astronomical Payloads

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmal, K; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle, or in areal photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  15. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  16. Increased Production of Sonic Hedgehog by Ballooned Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rangwala, Fatima; Cynthia D Guy; Lu, Jiuyi; SUZUKI, Ayako; Burchette, James L.; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2011-01-01

    Ballooned hepatocytes distinguish nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from steatosis. Such cells contain dilated endoplasmic reticulum and ubiquitin aggregates, characteristics of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hepatocyte ballooning increases risk for fibrosis in NASH, suggesting ballooned hepatocytes release pro-fibrogenic factors. Hedgehog ligands function as pro-fibrogenic factors in liver diseases, but mechanisms for Hedgehog ligand production remain poorly understood. We evaluated the hyp...

  17. Auditory Risk of Exploding Hydrogen-Oxygen Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.; Macedone, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Although hydrogen-oxygen balloon explosions are popular demonstrations, the acoustic impulse created poses a hearing damage risk if the peak level exceeds 140 dB at the listener's ear. The results of acoustical measurements of hydrogen-oxygen balloons of varying volume and oxygen content are described. It is shown that hydrogen balloons may be…

  18. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  19. Overview Of The Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    2016-07-01

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from Esrange since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times of 4-5 days are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. Circumpolar flights of more than two weeks are possible if Russian overflight permission exists. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. Since last COSPAR a number of interesting balloon flights have been performed from Esrange. In late 2014 parachute tests for the ExoMars programme was performed by drop-test from balloons. This was followed up on in the summer of 2015 with full end-to-end dynamic stability tests of Earth re-entry capsule shapes. Several balloon

  20. Perioperative and long-term operative outcomes after surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: microvascular decompression vs percutaneous balloon ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Douglas; Owen Kevin; Benedict William; Jellish W Scott; Fluder Elaine; Shea John F

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Numerous medical and surgical therapies have been utilized to treat the symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This retrospective study compares patients undergoing either microvascular decompression or balloon ablation of the trigeminal ganglion and determines which produces the best long-term outcomes. Methods A 10-year retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) or percutaneous balloon ablation (BA) surgery for TN...

  1. Diagnostic value of biopsy during kyphoplasty for presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures%椎体后凸成形术治疗椎体压缩性骨折中穿刺活检的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包肇华; 杨惠林; 陈广东; 李继刚; 张波; 倪莉; 李荣群; 王根林

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价椎体压缩性骨折患者行椎体后凸成形术(PKP)时,穿刺活检测定未预料的恶性肿瘤的发生率.方法 回顾性分析我院PKP术中穿刺所得的活检样本,2003年1月至2010年7月行PKP治疗椎体压缩性骨折患者216例,男60例,女156例,年龄36~92岁,平均68.4岁.其中有恶性疾病病史者9例,术中共取活检标本249个,由资深病理科医师对标本进行评价.结合患者病史、术前术后症状、病理结果及影像学资料综合分析.结果 所有患者压缩性骨折获得治愈,疼痛缓解,症状消失,未出现有症状的并发症.204例病理结果符合压缩性骨折的诊断,表明了骨折愈合的不同阶段.9例有恶性疾病病史患者中,6例确诊为转移性肿瘤,3例活检时未发现恶性病变.另3例患者之前未诊断为恶性疾病病理结果显示恶性.结论 PKP术中常规取活检并不会增加手术风险,但能证实潜在的压缩性骨折的病理过程.本研究中未预料到的恶性肿瘤发生率为1.4%,我们推荐在PKP治疗椎体压缩性骨折中常规取病理活检.%Objective To evaluate the incidence of unsuspected malignancy in bone biopsies of patients undergoing PKP for presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Methods From January 2003 to July 2010, 216 patients underwent vertebral body biopsies in conjunction with kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. Average patient age was 68.4 ( range, 36 - 92), including 60 males and 156 females, 9 of them had a history of malignancy. 249 biopsies were obtained from all the patients. Histologic/immunohistochemical evaluations were performed by experienced pathologists. A definitive diagnosis was obtained from comprehensive analysis clinic data including patient history, preoperative and postoperative symptoms, pathological findings and radiologic films. Results All patients treated in this study healed their VCFs following surgery and no clinical complications were

  2. Space and Earth Observations from Stratospheric Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterzen, Steven; Ubertini, Pietro; Masi, Silvia; Ibba, Roberto; Ivano, Musso; Cardillo, Andrea; Romeo, Giovanni; Dragøy, Petter; Spoto, Domenico

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78o N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennal oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultralight payloads and TM system ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program

  3. The effect of ballooning model in ISAAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ballooning effect in the fuel channel with the ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU Plants) computer code which was developed for the severe accident analysis at CANDU plants. Cladding/PT ballooning model parameter in the ISAAC code is used to analyze its effect mainly on the hydrogen production from the fuel channel. According to the current ISAAC version, cladding failure occurs when the cladding temperature exceeds a user-specified failure temperature, resulting in a fission products release from the fuel rod to the primary system. The typical accident sequences of a loss of feed water (LOFW) and a large LOCA (LLOCA) scenario are selected. Unlike the PWRs, the ballooning effect in CANDU plants is not so clear during the low pressure sequences. Instead, pressure tube ballooning during the high pressure sequences decreases the amount of hydrogen generated from the fuel when pressure tube-calandria tube contact occurs, resulting in a cladding and pressure tube temperature decrease. (authors)

  4. A case of balloon rupture during insertion of an intragastric balloon for treatment of morbid obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Serhat; TURAN, İlker; ÖZÜTEMİZ, Ömer

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic options for treatment of morbid obesity are diet, exercise, behavioral modifications, medical treatment and bariatric surgery. An alternative approach to surgery is the endoscopic placement in the stomach of balloons which are filled with liquid, providing a sensation of fullness that decreases food consumption. The rate of complications associated with the placement of intragastric balloons is low. A significant late complication is deflation and/or displacement of the...

  5. Stratospheric Balloon Platforms for Near Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    For over five decades, high altitude aerospace balloon platforms have provided a unique vantage point for space and geophysical research by exposing scientific instrument packages and experiments to space-like conditions above 99% of Earth's atmosphere. Reaching altitudes in excess of 30 km for durations ranging from hours to weeks, high altitude balloons offer longer flight durations than both traditional sounding rockets and emerging suborbital reusable launch vehicles. For instruments and experiments requiring access to high altitudes, engineered balloon systems provide a timely, responsive, flexible, and cost-effective vehicle for reaching near space conditions. Moreover, high altitude balloon platforms serve as an early means of testing and validating hardware bound for suborbital or orbital space without imposing space vehicle qualifications and certification requirements on hardware in development. From float altitudes above 30 km visible obscuration of the sky is greatly reduced and telescopes and other sensors function in an orbit-like environment, but in 1g. Down-facing sensors can take long-exposure atmospheric measurements and images of Earth's surface from oblique and nadir perspectives. Payload support subsystems such as telemetry equipment and command, control, and communication (C3) interfaces can also be tested and operationally verified in this space-analog environment. For scientific payloads requiring over-flight of specific areas of interests, such as an active volcano or forest region, advanced mission planning software allows flight trajectories to be accurately modeled. Using both line-of-sight and satellite-based communication systems, payloads can be tracked and controlled throughout the entire mission duration. Under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program, NSC can provide a range of high altitude flight options to support space and geophysical research: High Altitude Shuttle System (HASS) - A balloon-borne semi-autonomous glider carries

  6. Experiencia preliminar en el tratamiento combinado de metástasis vertebrales mediante radiofrecuencia y cifoplastia en sesión única Preliminary experience in the treatment of vertebral metastases by radiofrequency and Kyphoplasty combined in one single session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buitrago

    2013-02-01

    de radiofrecuencia asociada a cifoplastia en la enfermedad metastásica vertebral puede contribuir al manejo del dolor refractario al tratamiento médico y al control local de la enfermedad.Objectives: Describe our preliminary experience in the treatment of vertebral metastases by radiofrequency and Kyphoplasty combined in one single session. Material and methods: Four patients with histologically confirmed single spinal metastasis (breast, prostate, lung and myeloma in L1, L5, D12, D12, respectively were treated. The indication in all cases was pain with a poor response to medical treatment. All patients had pain in the range 6-7 visual analogue scale (VAS. In two cases there was a lytic lesion of the spinal posterior wall. After obtaining informed consent, and under sedation and local anesthetic the procedure took place. The transpedicular approach took place with a 11 G bone puncture system. Two radiofrequency needles were coaxially inserted to carry out an ablation cycle through each pedicle. During the ablation cycle the tip of the ablation neddle stood between the anterior and middle third of the vertebral body, while the second needle was used as thermal sensor with its end to the height of the vertebral posterior wall. The duration of each cycle of ablation was 8 minutes reaching intratumoral temperatures of 70-80 ºC. Transpedicular Kyphoplasty was performed subsequently. Results: No complications were reported during or after the procedure and patients were discharged in the first 24 hours. There was an immediate improvement in pain after the procedure (with a VAS 1-2 intensity pain in all patients. During follow up, analgesic medication was withdrawn in three patients, and there was no evidence of disease progression or recurrence of pain (pain intensity 1 (VAS in a follow-up in the range of 8-14 months. Clinical and radiological follow-up after discharge could not be performed on a patient. Conclusion: The use of radio-frequency associated with

  7. Palliative balloon dilation of pulmonic stenosis in a dog with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, C; Ames, M; Kellihan, H; Bright, J; Orton, C

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month-old Beagle with tetralogy of Fallot underwent balloon valvuloplasty of the pulmonary valve. Balloon valvuloplasty was successful and resulted in palliation of clinical signs and an improved quality of life for approximately 9 months. After 9 months, the dog became symptomatic and a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure was successfully performed. Based on this report, balloon valvuloplasty in dogs with tetralogy of Fallot appears to be a feasible technique that may result in improvement of clinical signs. In addition, it may allow for the delay of the more invasive surgical palliation and provide time for weight gain and development of the pulmonary vascular bed for greater ease of surgical shunt creation. PMID:27025569

  8. The readout electronic of EUSO-Balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.; Blaksley, C.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de la Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Prévôt, G.; Reina, J. A. R.

    2014-03-01

    The EUSO-Balloon experiment is a pathfinder for the satellite mission JEM-EUSO whose goal will be to observe Extensive Air Showers produced in the atmosphere by the passage can detect fluorescent UV photons released by the EAS thanks to Multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMT) arranged in 6 × 6 matrices inside Photo Detector Modules (PDM). A set of lenses is used to focus the photons on the PDM which can be compared to a UV camera taking pictures every 2.5 μs period (GTU: Gate Time Unit). The experiment consists in launching a balloon, at an altitude of 40 km, equipped with complete PDM and Data Processing systems. This project, supported by CNES and constructed by the JEM-EUSO collaboration, is meant to prove that the technology of such an instrument is possible and that the performance is satisfying, raising the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of JEM-EUSO. Moreover, complex trigger algorithms will be assessed and the main back ground (night glow plus star light) will be studied. A complex readout electronic chain has been designed for the EUSO-Balloon project. It contains two elements: the 9 EC units and the 6 EC-ASIC boards. The EC unit includes four 64-channel Multi-Anode Photomultipliers and a set of pcbs used to supply the 14 different high voltages needed by the MAPMTs and to read out the analog anode signals. These signals are transmitted to the EC-ASIC boards which contain 6 SPACIROC ASICs each. During the year 2012, prototypes of each board were produced and tested successfully, leading to the production of the flight model PCBs in 2013.

  9. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  10. Measurements of gondola motion on a stratospheric balloon flight

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Mathew, Joice; Murthy, Jayant; Anand, Devarajan; Kapardhi, B V N; Kumar, B Suneel; Kulkarni, P M

    2016-01-01

    Balloon experiments are an economically feasible method of conducting observations in astronomy that are not possible from the ground. The astronomical payload may include a telescope, a detector, and a pointing/stabilization system. Determining the attitude of the payload is of primary importance in such applications, to accurately point the detector/telescope to the desired direction. This is especially important in generally unstable lightweight balloon flights. However, the conditions at float altitudes, which can be reached by zero pressure balloons, could be more stable, enabling accurate pointings. We have used the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), placed on a stratospheric zero pressure balloon, to observe 3-axis motion of a balloon payload over a fight time of 4.5 hours, from launch to the float altitude of 31.2 km. The balloon was launched under nominal atmospheric conditions on May 8th 2016, from a Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

  11. A Simple Radiological Technique for Demonstration of Incorrect Positioning of a Foley Catheter with Balloon Inflated in the Urethra of a Male Spinal Cord Injury Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Foley catheter should be located within the urinary bladder, but when the Foley catheter is misplaced with the balloon inflated in the urethra, a round opaque shadow of the Foley balloon is seen separately below the urinary bladder. This radiological study takes only a few minutes to perform, can be carried out bedside with a mobile X-ray machine, and does not require special expertise or preparations, unlike transrectal ultrasonography. When a Foley balloon is inflated in the urethra, abdominal ultrasonography will show an absence of the Foley balloon within the bladder. The technique described above aids in positive demonstration of a Foley balloon lying outside the urinary bladder. Such documentation proves valuable in planning future treatment, education of health professionals, and settlement of malpractice claims.

  12. How to Prevent Leaving 'Needle Cast' or 'Cement Tail' in Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui Lin; Sun, Zhi Yong; Zhang, Hong Tao; Zhu, Xiao Yu; Chen, Kang Wu; Qian, Zhong Lai [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Jiangs (China)

    2012-09-15

    Nowadays, percutaneous vertebroplasty, or its evolution kyphoplasty, is a valid therapeutic option for the management of severe back pain, caused by vertebral compression fractures (1). They are minimally invasive, radiologically guided interventional procedures, which involve the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the fractured vertebral body. The injection process was monitored continuously, under a fluoroscopic control in the lateral plane (2). Ideally, the injection should be completed in 5 to 6 minutes and before the PMMA becomes too viscous to allow reinsertion of the stylus. This is not always possible, but is preferred to avoid the risk of leaving a 'needle castor a 'cement tail', within the soft tissues, as the needle is removed with the adherent cement (Fig. 1). In the event that the reinsertion cannot be achieved, great care should be taken to dislodge the adherent PMMA cement before extracting the needle from the vertebral body (3).

  13. A review of infrared and submillimeter astronomy with balloon-borne telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared and submillimeter astronomical observations performed with balloon-borne instruments have produced major contributions to the understanding of many areas of astrophysics. A review of recent results obtained on the cosmic background radiation, galactic structure, star formation processes, the outer planets and the solar atmosphere are presented. (author)

  14. A new TDRSS Compatible Transceiver for Long Duration HIgh Altitude Scientific Balloon Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, B.; Siemon, M.

    High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to near space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based or sounding rocket experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to several weeks. Longer missions with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra-Long) are on the drawing board. An enabling technology for the growth of the scientific balloon missions is the use of the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for telemetering the health, status, position and payload science data to mission operations personnel. The TDRSS system provides global coverage by relaying the data through geostationary relay satellites to a single ground station in White Sands New Mexico. Data passes from the White Sands station to the user via commercial telecommunications services including the Internet. A forward command link can also be established to the balloon for real- time command and control. Early TDRSS communications equipment used by the National Scientific Balloon Facility was either unreliable or too expensive. The equipment must be a le tob endure the rigors of space flight including radiation exposure, high temperature extremes and the shock of landing and recovery. Since a payload may occasionally be lost, the cost of the TDRSS communications gear is a limiting factor in the number of missions that can be supported. Under sponsorship of the NSBF, General Dynamics Decision Systems has developed a new TDRSS compatible transceiver that reduces the size, weight and cost to approximately one half that of the prior generation of hardware. This paper describes the long and ultra-long balloon missions and the role that TDRSS communications plays in mission success. The new transceiver design is described, along with its interfaces, performance characteristics, qualification and production status. The transceiver can also be used in other space, avionics or

  15. The clinical application of percutaneous puncture kyphoplasty in the treatment of vertebral compression fracture in the elderly%经皮穿刺球囊扩张椎体后凸成形术治疗高龄胸腰椎压缩性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启中; 杨朝华; 区杰雄; 杜国聪; 纪新梅; 李春海

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect and complications of percutaneous puncture kyphoplasty in the treatment of vertebral compression fracture in the elderly. Methods 19 cases of vertebral compression fracture in the elderly patients with disc 25 PKP technology applications were diagnosed with the accurate positioning,local anesthesia a small incision of about 0. 3cm later puncture path through vertebral pedicle to the wound vertebra,After perspective is the accurate lateral, putting into high-pressure balloon, injecting the contrast agent into the balloon with high-pressure syringe gradually. The wound vertebra is blackmai until a high degree of vertebral distraction to the recovery basis under the C-arm, and then taking the balloon out after pumping the contrast agent out. Bone cement is mixed well and injected into the cavity of the wound vertebra slowly which is the result of balloon dilation,during that time under the control of bone cement inside the wound vertebra,then puting the working column out and surgery completed. Results The low back pain of 19 patients immediately disappeared or significantly reduced after the operation, and 8 postoperative patients is up that day, 11 cases is up the following day. The degree of the wound vertebra is recovered by X-ray examination, and the bone cement evenly distributed within the wound vertebra, no spills. This group of patients are followed up for an average of 18 months(1 ~24 months) ,using visual analog and digital method to determine changes in Iow back pain. The data are paired t test,P < 0.01. It have significant difference of views.Conclusion Percutaneous kyphoplasty accurate cervical disc herniation and effective disarmament of the symptoms and signs, with trauma and rapid recovery, fewer complications, shorter course of treatment and so on, and it is a safe and effective way in the treatment of vertebral compression fracture in the elderly.%目的 观察经皮穿刺球囊扩张椎体后凸成形

  16. Background Measurements from Balloon-Borne CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J A; Grindlay, J E; Bloser, P F; Stahle, C K; Parker, B; Barthelmy, S D; Jenkins, Johnathan A; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl; Parker, Brad; Barthelmy, Scott

    2002-01-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CZT detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10mm x 10mm x 5mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 $\\times$ 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman material. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40deg field-of-view collimator (comprisinga graded passive shield and plastic scintillator) used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previous detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental back...

  17. Balloon sinuplasty: a new concept in the endoscopic nasal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Júnior, João Flávio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinus diseases affect millions of people annually. Clinical treatment is effective in most patients, but in case of failure of this therapy the functional endoscopic surgery is currently the treatment choice for surgical treatment. The objective of the functional endoscopic surgery is to increase the aeration and drainage of the involved paranasal sinuses, which allows for the adequate functioning of the nasal mucosa mucociliary clearance. However, this method still has some limitations, mainly because it removes the nasal mucosa and bone tissue, and it may lead to physiologic alterations of the nasosinusal mucosa and cicatricial fibrosis. Many of these patients could be benefited from less invasive methods, with larger nasal mucosa preservation. Since 2006, an even less invasive procedure was remarked in our specialty: the balloon dilatation of the paranasal sinus ostia. Objective: The objective of this article is to define the concept of sinuplasty, its action mechanism, and present the necessary material for the procedures performance; to describe the techniques with the equipment in a nasosinusal endoscopic surgery simulator model and review the current literature about the indications, complications, results, and follow-up of patients submitted to this procedure. Balloon sinuplasty is safe and appears to be effective in the improvement of the quality of life of patients not responsive to conventional clinical therapy. New applications and indications for this equipment should be described and researched.

  18. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  19. Treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation: A forgotten tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization and dilation, urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy as well. Although treatment option depends on the type, length and aetiology of stricture, the choice can be influenced to varying degrees by the simplicity of the method, the preferences of the patient the available accoutrements and the patient health condition. Both urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy require anaesthesia and thus are not suitable for many elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients. On the other hand, dilations are easy to perform in every day clinical practice however they have been associated with iatrogenic urethral trauma. In contrast, balloon dilation under vision dilates by radial application of forces against the stricture, avoiding the potentially shearing forces associated with sequential rigid dilation. Since it reduces the possibility of an iatrogenic urethral trauma and the subsequent spongiofibrosis may lead into improved therapeutic outcomes. In this report we describe a technique for the treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation in elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients.

  20. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of ...

  1. A Balloon-Gondola Dedicated for Waterlanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, J.; Roudil, G.; Catalano, C.; Von Ballmoos, P.

    2015-09-01

    As balloon flights over populated areas are increasingly considered a safety risk, new launch sites are chosen to ensure that sparsely inhabited regions are overflown. Particular vigilance is requested for the selection of the zones where flight termination and landing take place. While open sea would ideally fulfil the safety requirements for flight track and termination, traditional balloon experiments are lost or severely damaged on water landings. EUSO-Balloon, a pathfinder mission for Cosmic-Ray physics, has deliberately been designed as a water-landing gondola as the instrument eventually will observe Energetic Air Showers above open water. In order to maximize the chances for a dry recovery of all the sensitive equipment after a water-landing, the gondola features a number of special devices: inside a watertight capsule using a Fresnel lens as a porthole, the electronics is mounted on a ‘dry-shelf' with limber holes (drain holes). Also, the entire capsule is held above the waterline by a collar of floaters. To minimize damage to the payload and warrant the integrity of the leak-tight capsule at splashdown, efficient deceleration is achieved by using the instruments optical baffle (nadir-pointing) as a cylinder; the pressure of the air-cushion in the enclosed volume being passively controlled by calibrated evacuation-holes. Upon its maiden flight of August 25, 2014 from Timmins, Ontario, EUSO-Balloon not only accomplished its science goals, but it also accidentally landed in a small lake, validating the water-landing capacity it was designed for.

  2. Lightweight Reusable Solar Array For Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Tensor, P.; Nock, K.; Wyszkowski, C.

    We will discuss a new lightweight reusable solar array system, dubbed HighPower, which is being developed for the Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program using NASA/SBIR funding, but which is also applicable to other balloon systems. The system uses a vertically deployed stack of panels suspended from their corners by cables. The stack act likes a two-dimensional Venetian blind. By raising and lowering opposite corners, the array of parallel panels can be pointed over most of the upper hemisphere. This allows the panels to remain normal to the sun despite the slow rotation of the gondola and without requiring rotation of the system (no slip rings) or heavy cantilevered rotation joints. The system is sized to generate 2000 W using six 2m x 2m panels. The modularity of the system allows panels to be added or removed to tailored the power to the needs of the mission. Prior to cut -down of the balloon, the panels can be retracted and stowed compactly in the lower part of the gondola. This will protect the array during landing, allowing the array to be reused on subsequent flights.

  3. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  4. MAXIS Balloon Observations of Electron Microburst Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R. M.; Hunter, A. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding relativistic electron variability in the radiation belts. SAMPEX observations indicate that electron microburst precipitation is a major loss mechanism during active periods; the loss of relativistic electrons during a six hour period due to microburst precipitation was recently estimated to be comparable to the total number of trapped electrons in the outer zone (Lorentzen et al., 2001). Microburst precipitation was first observed from a balloon (Anderson and Milton, 1964), but these early measurements were only sensitive to MAXIS 2000 long duration balloon campaign. MAXIS was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica carrying a germanium spectrometer, a BGO scintillator and two X-ray imagers designed to measure the bremsstrahlung produced by precipitating electrons. The balloon circumnavigated the south pole in 18 days covering magnetic latitudes ranging from 58o-90o South. During the week following a moderate geomagnetic storm (with Dst reaching -91 nT), MAXIS detected a total of over 16 hours of microburst precipitation. We present high resolution spectra obtained with the MAXIS germanium spectrometer which allow us to determine the precipitating electron energy distribution. The precipitating distribution will then be compared to the trapped distribution measured by the GPS and LANL satellites. We also examine the spatial distribution of the precipitation.

  5. Depression of the Thoracolumbar Posterior Vertebral Body on the Estimation of Cement Leakage in Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Chen; Pu Jia; Li Bao; Fei Feng; He Yang; Jin-Jun Li; Hai Tang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cross-section ofthoracolumbar vertebral body is kidney-shaped with depressed posterior boundary.The anterior wall of the vertebral canal is separated from the posterior wall of the vertebral body on the lateral X-ray image.This study was designed to determine the sagittal distance between the anterior border of the vertebral canal and the posterior border of the vertebral body (DBCV) and to analyze the potential role of DBCV in the estimation of cement leakage during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP).Methods: We retrospectively recruited 233 patients who had osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and were treated with PVP or PKP.Computed tomography images ofT1 l-L2 normal vertebrae were measured to obtain DBCV.The distance from cement to the posterior wall of the vertebral body (DCPW) of thoracolumbar vertebrae was measured from C-ann images.The selected vertebrae were divided into two groups according to DCPW, with the fracture levels, fracture grades and leakage rates of the two groups compared.A relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine whether the DCPW difference can be used to estimate the degree of cement leakage.The data were processed by statistical software SPSS version 21.0 using independent sample t-test and Chi-square tests.Results: The maximum DBCV was 6.40 mm and the average DBCV was 3.74 ± 0.95 mm.DBCV appeared to be longer in males than in females, but the difference was not statistically significant.The average DCPW of type-B leakage vertebrae (2.59 ± 1.20 mm) was shorter than that of other vertebrae (7.83 ± 2.38 mm, P < 0.001).The leakage rate of group DCPW ≤6.40 mm was lower than that of group DCPW >6.40 mm for type-C and type-S, but much higher for type-B.ROC curve revealed that DCPW only has a predictive value for type-B leakage (area under the curve: 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.954.99, P < 0.001), and when the cut-offvalue was 4.05 mm, the

  6. MR imaging evaluation for percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty of mitral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses MR imaging performed in 23 patients undergoing percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty (PBV) of mitral stenosis to evaluate cardiac anatomy and postprocedural changes. A 2.0-T MR system was used (Spectro-20000, Gold Star, Korea). The valvuloplasty procedure was successful in all cases. MR imaging was performed 1--2 days before and atrium decreased from 8.5 cm ± 1.2 to 8.2 cm ± 1.1 (P < .01) and from 4.9 cm ± 1.0 to 4.3 cm ± 0.9 (P < .01), respectively. The high signal due to slow flow in the left atrial cavity completely disappeared in 13 cases and decreased in intensity in four cases. Pericardial effusion was detected in one case

  7. Response of Balloon-Expandable Endoprosthetic Metallic Stents Subjected to Over-Expansion In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted to evaluate the in vitro behavior and performance of balloon-expandable endoprosthetic metallic stents subjected to over-expansion (OE). Seventy-two balloon-expandable endoprosthetic stents, representing 22 models from six manufacturers, were over- expanded in vitro. Stents were initially expanded to their maximum manufacturer- recommended diameter and then over-expanded incrementally to their endpoints. Endpoints for OE were either stent disarticulation or an inability to undergo further expansion despite balloon insufflation to maximum burst pressure. Measurements of stent dimensions were recorded at each overexpanded diameter and comparisons were made to manufacturer's specifications. A total of 288 balloon-driven expansions were performed on 72 stents. Sixteen stents were expanded to large diameters (≥ 16 mm), 20 stents underwent OE of 50% or greater. One model tended to disarticulate after OE greater than 50%. There were five models that had a tendency to disarticulate after minimal OE. Five models were resistant to OE (25% or less OE) but did not disarticulate. Nearly all stents showed some degree of foreshortening with OE, while 36 stents underwent foreshortening of 30% or more. Models that are not recommended for OE include Intrastent, Intrastent DoubleStrut, NIR Royale and Omniflex. Good candidates for OE include Intrastent DoubleStrut LD, Palmaz large, Medtronic Extra Support Biliary Plus and Medtronic Flexible Biliary. Palmaz XL remains the only model available for expansion from 20 to 28 mm in diameter. For the remaining stents, OE is possible, however, caution should be used

  8. Gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt: treated by retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization to treat the gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. Methods: From Nov. 2006 to Jun. 2010, retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization was performed on 8 patients who had gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. All the patients were men and the age ranged from 40 to 61 years. The balloon catheter was inserted into the spontaneous gastrorenal shunt through the right femoral vein, then percutaneous transhepatic splenic vein venography was performed to identify the number and morphology of gastric varices. After that gastric varices embolization was performed while the balloon catheter was dilated, which was withdrawn one day after the procedure. Results: Technical success of interventional treatment was achieved in all 8 cases with no significant complications. The increase of average portal venous pressure was 5.5 cm H2O (1 cm H2O=0.098 kPa, preoperative 35.0 to 41.0 cm H2O, postoperative 39.0 to 45.5 cm H2O). After follow up of 1 to 46 months, no recurrence haemorrhage occurred. Conclusion: Retrograde gastrorenal shunt balloon occlusion combined with percutaneous transhepatic gastric varices embolization can be safely performed and could be one of the effective choices for patients who had gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt, which is not suitable to treat by the endoscopic sclerotherapy. (authors)

  9. Improving uv resistance of high strength fibers used in large scientific balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M.; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

    For the last three decades, NASA has been involved in the development of giant balloons that are capable of lifting heavy payloads of equipment (such as large telescopes and scientific instruments) to the upper atmosphere. While the use of such balloons has led to scientific discoveries, the demand for competitive science payloads and observational programs continues to rise. The NASA Balloon Program Office has entered a new phase of research to develop an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) that will lift payloads of up to 3,600 kg to altitudes of up to 40 km. The flight duration is targeted to ranges between 30 to 100 days. Attaining these target durations requires the development of a super-pressure balloon design. The use of textile structures have already been established in these missions in the form of high strength tendons essential for the super pressure pumpkin design. Unfortunately, high strength fibers lose significant strength upon exposure to Ultra Violet (UV) radiation. Such UV degradation poses a serious challenge for the development of the ULDB. To improve the mission performance of the ULDB, new methods for protecting the tendons from the environmental effects need to be developed. NASA and NC State University College of Textiles are undertaking a research program to address these issues. Four tracks have been identified to prepare finishes that are believed to enhance the resistance of high strength fibers to UV. These tracks are: (a) self-polymerizing, (b) diffusion application, (c) polymer-filled with 30-40% UV absorber, and (d) combination of dyeing plus surface application. Four high performance fibers have been selected for this research investigation. These are Vectran, Spectra, Kevlar and, PBO (Zylon). This work will address the current progress of evaluating the performance of the UV finishes. This will be accomplished by comparing the tensile properties (strenthg, breaking elongation, modulus, etc) of untreated, unexposed to UV fibers

  10. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.8pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument agree to <±50% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations, and tend to show less agreement

  11. Modular and Reusable Power System Design for the BRRISON Balloon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Nicholas A.

    High altitude balloons are emerging as low-cost alternatives to orbital satellites in the field of telescopic observation. The near-space environment of balloons allows optics to perform near their diffraction limit. In practice, this implies that a telescope similar to the Hubble Space Telescope could be flown for a cost of tens of millions as opposed to billions. While highly feasible, the design of a balloon telescope to rival Hubble is limited by funding. Until a prototype is proven and more support for balloon science is gained, projects remain limited in both hardware costs and man hours. Thus, to effectively create and support balloon payloads, engineering designs must be efficient, modular, and if possible reusable. This thesis focuses specifically on a modular power system design for the BRRISON comet-observing balloon telescope. Time- and cost-saving techniques are developed that can be used for future missions. A modular design process is achieved through the development of individual circuit elements that span a wide range of capabilities. Circuits for power conversion, switching and sensing are designed to be combined in any configuration. These include DC-DC regulators, MOSFET drivers for switching, isolated switches, current sensors and voltage sensing ADCs. Emphasis is also given to commercially available hardware. Pre-fabricated DC-DC converters and an Arduino microcontroller simplify the design process and offer proven, cost-effective performance. The design of the BRRISON power system is developed from these low-level circuits elements. A board for main power distribution supports the majority of flight electronics, and is extensible to additional hardware in future applications. An ATX computer power supply is developed, allowing the use of a commercial ATX motherboard as the flight computer. The addition of new capabilities is explored in the form of a heater control board. Finally, the power system as a whole is described, and its overall

  12. Acoustical characterization of exploding hydrogen-oxygen balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Julia A; Gee, Kent L; Macedone, Jeffrey H

    2012-03-01

    Exploding hydrogen-oxygen balloons are popular chemistry demonstrations. Although initial research experimentally quantified potential hearing risk via analysis of peak levels [K. L. Gee et al., J. Chem. Educ. 87, 1039-1044 (2010)], further waveform and spectral analyses have been conducted to more fully characterize these impulsive noise sources. While hydrogen-only balloons produce inconsistent reactions and relatively low, variable levels, stoichiometrically mixed hydrogen-oxygen balloons produce consistent high-amplitude noise waveforms. Preliminary consideration is also given to the potential use of these exploding balloons in architectural acoustics applications. PMID:22423815

  13. The role of scientific ballooning for exploration of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetosphere is explored in situ by satellites, but measurements near the low altitude magnetospheric boundary by rockets, balloons and groundbased instruments play a very significant role. The geomagnetic field provides a frame with anisotropic wave and particle propagation effects, enabling remote sensing of the distant magnetosphere by means of balloon-borne and groundbased instruments. Examples will be given of successful studies, with coordinated satellite and balloon observations, of substorm, pulsation and other phenomena propagating both along and across the geomagnetic field. Continued efforts with sophisticated balloon-borne instrumentations should contribute substantially to our understanding of magnetospheric physics. (Author)

  14. Multiorder etalon sounder (MOES) development and test for balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Paul B.; Wnag, Jinxue; Wu, Jian

    1993-01-01

    concept and laboratory experiments were worked on for the past several years. Both theoretical studies and laboratory prototype experiments showed that MOES is very competitive compared with other high resolution sounders in terms of complexity and performance and has great potential as a compact and rugged high resolution atmospheric temperature and trace species sounder from the polar platform or the geostationary platform. The logical next step is to convert our laboratory prototype to a balloon instrument, so that field test of MOES can be carried out to prove the feasibility and capability of this new technology. Some of the activities related to the development of MOES for a possible balloon flight demonstration are described. Those research activities include the imaging quality study on the CLIO, the design and construction of a MOES laboratory prototype, the test and calibration of the MOES prototype, and the design of the balloon flight gondola.

  15. The role of cystatin C in vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Jun; Dong, Zhao-Qiang; Lu, Qing-Hua

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of cystatin C (CysC) in the vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: the balloon-injured injury group (n = 16), the CysC monoclonal antibody group (n = 16), and the sham-operative group (n = 16). Serum CysC levels were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Changes in adventitial area, adventitial thickness, lumen area (LA), neointimal area (IA), internal elastic lamina area (IELA), external elastic lamina area (EELA), vascular remodeling index (VRI) and residual stenosis (RS) were measured by the Leica image analysis system. Immunohistochemical analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. Serum CysC levels of rabbits in the balloon-injured injury group were significantly higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody group and the sham-operative group (both P IA, IELA and EELA in the balloon-injured injury group were also higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody and sham-operative groups (all P rabbits. PMID:24981928

  16. Ballooning and rupture behavior of Zircaloy-4 cladding under transient-heating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenomena of fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) have been observed in several experiments on very-high-burnup fuels under simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions using a test reactor. In order to improve the prediction of the phenomena, ballooning and rupture behaviors of cladding under simulated LOCA conditions were investigated by performing laboratory-scale experiments in which internally pressurized non-irradiated Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) claddings were heated to burst. The maximum circumferential strains of the ballooned claddings were strongly dependent on burst temperature and the trends seemed to depend on the heating rate in the experiment. Values of the maximum circumferential strain were normalized by dividing them by engineering hoop stress at the time of rupture. A correlation between the normalized values and the burst temperatures suggests that the fraction of β phase in Zry-4 cladding affects the extent of the strain of cladding ballooning and the embrittlement of cladding due to oxidation suppresses the ballooning of cladding. The length and width of rupture opening had the peak at ∼1073 K and decreased as the temperature increased from ∼1073 K in the case of the low heating rate while no specific trends were observed in the case of the high heating rate. These results suggest that the embrittlement of cladding due to oxidation affects the rupture behavior and results in small rupture openings. (author)

  17. Validation and retrieval of IASI measurements with IASI-balloon correlative measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, Sébastien; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pondrom, Marc; Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Bureau, Jérôme; Pépin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and pollutants in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times and their impact on the environment (ozone hole, air quality, acid rains, greenhouse effect), in situ and remote-sensing measurements of atmospheric composition are carried out by a wide variety of instruments, using different measurement principles and different platforms (ground, aircrafts, balloons, satellites). The IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) instrument, consisting of a nadir-looking thermal infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, which was launched onboard the MetOp-A platform on 19th October 2006, is dedicated to operational meteorology. However, IASI spectra have demonstrated a huge potential for retrieving trace gases such as ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and many others. In this framework the LPMAA (Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique) developed a balloon-borne Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer called IASI-balloon to record high resolution (0.1 cm-1 apodised) spectra of the atmosphere / surface system in the nadir looking geometry. Several flight of this balloon experiments have been performed allowing to provided a large number of thermal emission nadir looking FTIR spectra in the 650 - 3000 cm-1 region, recorded from float at about 35 km altitude. We retrieved profiles and/or columns of H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO and CH4. For a flight performed from Teresina, Brazil, the spectra recorded during the balloon flight are in good coincidence with IASI-MetOp measurements. We used this set of data to test the impact on the retrieval of a new cloud simulation module in our retrieval algorithm LARA (LPMA retrieval Atmospheric Algorithm). The results will be presented here.

  18. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trained interventional radiologist or neuroradiologist in an interventional radiology or neuroradiology suite, or occasionally in the operating ... page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient Section top of page This page ...

  19. Balloon mitral valvotomy in youngest documented rheumatic mitral stenosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Achyut; Patil, Shailesh; Ahmed, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is common in the Indian subcontinent. Early recognition and management is essential. Rarely rheumatic MS may occur in saving intervention in these cases unless contraindicated, although the procedure entails considerable technical issues in this age group. Herein, we report a successful balloon mitral valvotomy in a 4-year-old child with severe rheumatic MS (documented since 2 years 6 months of age) presenting with repeated pulmonary edema. To the best of our knowledge, this child is the youngest documented case of established rheumatic heart disease and also one of the youngest PTMC procedure performed. This report supports the clinical usefulness of PTMC in childhood MS; however, pertinent technical issues are raised, which needs a proper consensus. PMID:26012486

  20. Reflood Phenomena in a 5 x 5 Ballooned Rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Jong Rok; Kim, Kihwan; Moon, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Various experimental programs were carried out for the coolability of an assembly containing a partial blockage in a group of ballooned fuel rods under LOCA conditions. A review on these experimental programs is well documented in. One key distinguished feature of KAERI research activities is the consideration of local power increase owing to fuel relocation, whereas the past experimental program did not consider the effect of fuel relocation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reflood phenomena in the partial blocked 5 x 5 rod bundle. A series of the forced reflood tests were performed with/without consideration of local power increase by fuel relocation. The experimental data were evaluated with numerical predictions using MARS code. The flow blockage alone has little effect on the peak wall temperature. However, the local power increase by fuel relocation affects considerably the peak wall temperature and the time period during which high wall temperatures continue.

  1. Fine tracking system for balloon-borne telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, M; Lorenzetti, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study along with a first prototype of a high precision system (? 1 arcsec) for pointing and tracking light (near-infrared) telescopes on board stratospheric balloons. Such a system is essentially composed by a star sensor and by a star tracker, able to recognize the field and to adequately track the telescope, respectively. We present the software aimed at processing the star sensor image and the predictive algorithm that allows the fine tracking of the source at a sub-pixel level. The laboratory tests of the system are described and its performance is analyzed. We demonstrate how such a device, when used at the focal plane of enough large telescopes (2-4m, F/10), is capable to provide (sub-)arcsec diffraction limited images in the near infrared bands.

  2. Reflood Phenomena in a 5 x 5 Ballooned Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various experimental programs were carried out for the coolability of an assembly containing a partial blockage in a group of ballooned fuel rods under LOCA conditions. A review on these experimental programs is well documented in. One key distinguished feature of KAERI research activities is the consideration of local power increase owing to fuel relocation, whereas the past experimental program did not consider the effect of fuel relocation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reflood phenomena in the partial blocked 5 x 5 rod bundle. A series of the forced reflood tests were performed with/without consideration of local power increase by fuel relocation. The experimental data were evaluated with numerical predictions using MARS code. The flow blockage alone has little effect on the peak wall temperature. However, the local power increase by fuel relocation affects considerably the peak wall temperature and the time period during which high wall temperatures continue

  3. Stratospheric Balloons for Planetary Science and the Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) Mission Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Cheng, Andrew F.; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dolloff, Matthew D.; Landis, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the planetary science community have been exploring the potential contributions approximately 200 questions raised in the Decadal Survey have identified about 45 topics that are potentially suitable for addressing by stratospheric balloon platforms. A stratospheric balloon mission was flown in the fall of 2014 called BOPPS, Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science. This mission observed a number of planetary targets including two Oort cloud comets. The optical system and instrumentation payload was able to provide unique measurements of the intended targets and increase our understanding of these primitive bodies and their implications for us here on Earth. This paper will discuss the mission, instrumentation and initial results and how these may contribute to the broader planetary science objectives of NASA and the scientific community. This paper will also identify how the instrument platform on BOPPS may be able to contribute to future balloon-based science. Finally the paper will address potential future enhancements and the expected science impacts should those enhancements be implemented.

  4. Ballooning Spiders: The Case for Electrostatic Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    We consider general aspects of the physics underlying the flight of Gossamer spiders, also known as ballooning spiders. We show that existing observations and the physics of spider silk in the presence of the Earth's static atmospheric electric field indicate a potentially important role for electrostatic forces in the flight of Gossamer spiders. A compelling example is analyzed in detail, motivated by the observed "unaccountable rapidity" in the launching of such spiders from H.M.S. Beagle, recorded by Charles Darwin during his famous voyage.

  5. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? PMID:27543477

  6. Ballooning instability precursors to high β disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongly ballooning modes have been found as precursors to high β disruptions on TFTR. The modes are typically localized to a region spanning about 60 degree in the toroidal direction. The toroidal localization is associated with lower frequency, global Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) activity, typically an ideal n = 1 kink mode. They have moderate to high frequency (f = 10--20 frot), implying toroidal mode numbers in the range n = 10--20. The growth rates for the modes are large, of order 104/sec

  7. General theory of kinetic ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ballooning mode formalism, previously developed for the ideal MHD problem, is applied here to the kinetic problem in tokamaks. The general two-dimensional equation governing drift and trapped-electron eigenmodes reduces to a one-dimensional integral equation along the lines of force with the radial structure determined by a WKB procedure. Comparisons made between the present one-dimensional code and a previous two-dimensional code embodying identical physical assumptions indicate reasonable agreement. This correspondence holds both for the structure along the field line and for the radial structure in the special case of closely spaced turning points

  8. Double-balloon endoscopy: Who needs it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, J.W.; Vilmann, P.; Jensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) made the small bowel accessible to inspection and therapy in its entirety. However, DBE is a time-consuming procedure that requires a highly skilled endoscopist, several nurses and - more often than not - anesthesiological support. This makes the selection...... of patients for DBE a pivotal point. The mainstay of this screening examination of the small bowel is capsule endoscopy (CE). The aim of this study was to describe the results of this screening procedure and the subsequent DBE in patients with suspected mid-gastrointestinal bleeding (MGIB). Material...

  9. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw Dejene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation.

  10. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejene, Shiferaw; Ahmed, Fahim; Jack, Kastelik; Anthony, Arnorld

    2013-07-01

    We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation. PMID:23922614

  11. Explosive Ballooning Flux Tubes in Tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ham, C J; Brochard, G; Wilson, H R

    2016-01-01

    Tokamak stability to, potentially explosive, `ballooning' displacements of elliptical magnetic flux tubes is examined in large aspect ratio equilibrium. Above a critical pressure gradient the energy stored in the plasma may be lowered by finite (but not infinitesimal) displacements of such tubes (metastability). Above a higher pressure gradient, the linear stability boundary, such tubes are linearly and nonlinearly unstable. The flux tube displacement can be of the order of the pressure gradient scale length. Plasma transport from displaced flux tubes may result in rapid loss of confinement.

  12. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  13. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles – Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Renard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10–20 μm in diameter in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria and Paris (France, (ii pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment – ChArMEx campaigns, (iii meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign. More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  14. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  15. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelles, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-09-01

    In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 μm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  16. Simultaneous stent expansion/balloon deflation technique to salvage failed balloon remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Froehler, Michael T; Mocco, J

    2016-04-01

    Herniation, with possible embolization, of coils into the parent vessel following aneurysm coiling remains a frequent challenge. For this reason, balloon or stent assisted embolization remains an important technique. Despite the use of balloon remodeling, there are occasions where, on deflation of the balloon, some coils, or even the entire coil mass, may migrate. We report the successful use of a simultaneous adjacent stent deployment bailout technique in order to salvage coil prolapse during balloon remodeling in three patients. Case No 1 was a wide neck left internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm, measuring 9 mm×7.9 mm×6 mm with a 5 mm neck. Case No 2 was a complex left superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm, measuring 5.3 mm×4 mm×5 mm with a 2.9 mm neck. Case No 3 was a ruptured right posterior communicating artery aneurysm, measuring 4 mm×4 mm×4.5 mm with a 4 mm neck. This technique successfully returned the prolapsed coil mass into the aneurysm sac in all cases without procedural complications. The closed cell design of the Enterprise VRD (Codman and Shurtleff Inc, Raynham, Massachusetts, USA) makes it ideal for this bailout technique, by allowing the use of an 0.021 inch delivery catheter (necessary for simultaneous access) and by avoiding the possibility of an open cell strut getting caught on the deflated balloon. We hope this technique will prove useful to readers who may find themselves in a similar predicament. PMID:25801773

  17. Recent developments in the scientific ballooning in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R.; Sreenivasan, S.; Subbarao, J.; Kumar, P.

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING IN INDIA R. K. Manchanda1, S. Sreenivasan2, J. V. Subbarao2, P. R. Kumar2 1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Colaba, Mumbai-400 005, India. 2. TIFR Balloon Facility, PO Box 5, ECIL Post Office, Hyderabad-500 762, India ravi@tifr.res.in/FAX: +91-22-2152110 National Balloon facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is the only one of its kind in the world, which combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. In the past few years we executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years and the results of the test flight conducted to qualify new sub systems will be presented.

  18. Methods for tracking of balloons and rockets at Esrange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedqvist, Tomas

    2001-08-01

    At Esrange several methods are used for tracking of balloons and rockets with help of radar, Vaisala sounding data, ARGOS and GPS information. Information from these different sources is fed into a computer system for processing, and for display on adapted systems. Data from balloon flights are displayed on a digital map, which includes population data and a system to predict impact point of the balloon. Data from rocket flights can be displayed either on a digital map, or in a system for range safety purpose. Signals from various sources are converted into a data format used in the new ATC (Air Traffic Control) transponder system in order to ease future integration into this system. Data from the GPS system in NMEA format can also be adopted directly into the tracking system for both balloon and rocket flight. Balloon tracking data is also transferred via Internet to ATCs centres for flight safety reasons. Future developments: A new system for wind measurements will be created from "throw away" GPS sondes. In air traffic transponders, the expensive altimeter will be replaced by an inexpensive GPS system. For recovery, Argos-GPS on balloons will be used for real-time tracking, position information via satellites and as a support system for recovery by helicopter. Balloons equipped with the Inmarsat system, for long duration balloon flights, will have their position displayed in the digital map system.

  19. The Evaluation of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation Treatment for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri-Shirvani Javad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Balloon dilatation of stricture is one of the new treatment methods among patients with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO. However, the prevalence and underlying etiologies of GOO in various populations are different. The goal of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic balloon dilatation and factors that would affect its success rate patients with benign etiology for GOO. Forty-five patients with the symptoms of benign GOO were randomly selected. Gastric outlet was delineated using double channel videoendoscopy. The information of initial balloon dilation was collected from recorded files. Balloon dilatation was repeated during the mean follow up of 9.9 ± 5.8 months. The severity of gastric pain was measured immediately before balloon dilatation and one month after procedure and was rated on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. The mean age of patients was 43.7 ± 18.1 years and 86.7% of them were men. Furthermore, 71.1% were H pylori positive. Response rate to endoscopic balloon dilatation was 80% and 8 patients underwent surgical resection. Weight loss was more frequent in non-responding group. The pain severity was significantly reduced more in responding subjects. No meaningful relationships were found between the responses to balloon dilatation and positive H pylori and cigarette smoking. Endoscopic balloon dilation is safe and effective for most patients with benign gastric outlet obstruction and has favorable long-term outcome.

  20. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  1. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    sodium, flows anti-sunward and forms a long tail with a length of 1400 Mercury radii. The intensity profile along the tail shows several bumps, suggesting that temporal variations in sodium release from the surface occur in a day. However the cause is still unknown, because Mercury is only observable during a very short period around sunrise and sunset. The thin atmosphere in the stratosphere also provides darker daytime sky, which enables much longer observation of the Mercury sodium tail. In the presentation, the balloon borne telescope system, the test results of its pointing perfor-mance and the observation plan of the planets in 2011 will be reported.

  2. The Application of Dual-wire Balloon in The Treatment of Coronary Bifurcation Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess the efficiency and safety of dual-wire balloon angioplasty side branch combined stenting the main branch in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. Methods This study included thirty-six patients with 41 coronary bifurcation lesions. Selective dual-wire balloon angioplasty was performed in side branch and/or in main branch, and implantation of stents was performed in main branch only. Clinical outcome and major adverse cardiac events were observed inhospital and follow-up. Results Success rate of side branch dilatation before main branch stenting was 100%; main branch direct stenting performed in 4 cases; success main branch dilatation performed in the other 37 cases; kissing technique was performed successfully in 5 cases, which side branch was jailed after main branch stenting with TIMI grade 0-2 flow. No Q-wave myocardial infarction, acute revascularization and death occurred during in-hospital.Clinical follow-up was available in all patients. No Q-wave myocardial infarction, revascularization and death occurred, angina pectoris recurred in three patients,released by strengthen drug treatment. Conclusions Dual-wire balloon angioplasty side branch combined stenting the main branch is simple, safe and effective for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions.

  3. Spectrum of the ballooning Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ballooning Schroedinger equation (BSE) is a model equation for investigating global modes that can, when approximated by a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) ansatz, be described by a ballooning formalism locally to a field line. This second order differential equation with coefficients periodic in the independent variable θk is assumed to apply even in cases where simple WKB quantization conditions break down, thus providing an alternative to semiclassical quantization. Also, it provides a test bed for developing more advanced WKB methods: e.g. the apparent discontinuity between quantization formulae for open-quotes trappedclose quotes and open-quotes passingclose quotes modes, whose ray paths have different topologies, is removed by extending the WKB method to include the phenomena of tunnelling and reflection. The BSE is applied to instabilities with shear in the real part of the local frequency, so that the dispersion relation is inherently complex. As the frequency shear is increased, it is found that trapped modes go over to passing modes, reducing the maximum growth rate by averaging over θk

  4. Intravascular ultrasound imaging following balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobis, J M; Mahon, D J; Moriuchi, M; Honye, J; McRae, M

    1991-01-01

    Despite its long history and reliability, contrast angiography has several inherent limitations. Because it is a two-dimensional projection image of the lumen contour, the wall thickness cannot be measured and the plaque itself is not visualized. This results in an underestimation of the amount of atherosclerotic disease by angiography. An assessment of atherosclerosis could be improved by an imaging modality: (1) that has an inherent larger magnification than angiography and (2) that directly visualizes the plaque. Intravascular ultrasound fulfils these criteria. This presentation will provide evidence that intravascular ultrasound may prove complimentary or even superior to angiography as an imaging modality. Intravascular ultrasound demonstrates excellent representations of lumen and plaque morphology of in vitro specimens compared with histology. There is very close intraobserver and interobserver variability of measurements made from intravascular ultrasound images. Phantom studies of stenoses in a tube model demonstrate that angiography can misrepresent the severity of stenosis when the lumen contour is irregular and not a typical ellipse, whereas intravascular ultrasound reproduces the cross-sectional morphology more accurately since it images the artery from within. In vitro studies of the atherosclerotic plaque tissue characteristics compare closely with the echo representation of fibrosis, calcification, and lipid material. In addition, in vitro studies of balloon angioplasty demonstrate that intravascular ultrasound accurately represents the changes in the structure of artery segments following balloon dilatation. PMID:1833473

  5. Balloon concepts for scientific investigation of Mars and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Opportunities for scientific investigation of the atmospheric planets using buoyant balloons have been explored. Mars and Jupiter were considered in this study because design requirements at those planets bracket nominally the requirements at Venus, and plans are already underway for a joint Russian-French balloon system at Venus. Viking data has provided quantitative information for definition of specific balloon systems at Mars. Free flying balloons appear capable of providing valuable scientific support for more sophisticated Martian surface probes, but tethered and powered aerostats are not attractive. The Jovian environment is so extreme, hot atmosphere balloons may be the only scientific platforms capable of extended operations there. However, the estimated system mass and thermal energy required are very large.

  6. The ballooning of fuel cladding tubes: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under some conditions, fuel clad ballooning can result in considerable strain before rupture. If ballooning were to occur during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the resulting substantial blockage of the sub-channel would restrict emergency core cooling. However, circumferential temperature gradients that would occur during a LOCA may significantly limit the average strain at failure. Understandably, the factors that control ballooning and rupture of fuel clad are required for the analysis of a LOCA. Considerable international effort has been spent on studying the deformation of Zircaloy fuel cladding under conditions that would occur during a LOCA. This effort has established a reasonable understanding of the factors that control the ballooning, failure time, and average failure strain of fuel cladding. In this paper, both the experimental and theoretical studies of the fuel clad ballooning are reviewed. (author)

  7. The University of Toronto's balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunch, D.; Drummond, J. R.; Midwinter, C.; Taylor, J. R.; Fu, D.; Walker, K. A.; McElroy, C. T.; Strong, K.; Bernath, P.; Fast, H.

    The University of Toronto s Fourier transform spectrometer U of T FTS derived from a Bomem DA5 Michelson-type interferometer was rebuilt and flown on the Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment MANTRA high-altitude balloon platform in September 2004 The U of T FTS has a resolution of 0 02 cm -1 a spectral range covering 1200-5000 cm -1 and InSb and MCT detectors that measure simultaneously The spectrometer was originally built in the 1980s and purchased by the Meteorological Service of Canada To prepare the instrument for flight the original software was replaced with new LabVIEW control software creating a robust and easily-controlled instrument adaptable to either remote control or lab-based work As a result of replacing the software most of the electronics had to be replaced creating a lighter lower-power more robust instrument A description of the refurbishment will be presented Despite balloon launch and gondola pointing system failures during the MANTRA 2004 campaign two spectra were recorded on each detector during sunset from a float height of 35 km The data indicate that the instrument performed well throughout the flight and had the payload pointing been under control would have retrieved a full set of occultation data The data that were acquired will be shown The U of T FTS has since participated in a ground-based FTS inter-comparison campaign with two other FTS instruments the University of Toronto s Toronto Atmospheric Observatory TAO FTS a complementary NDACC station Network for the Detection of

  8. Zodiac II: debris disk science from a balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Rahman, Zahidul; Rey, Justin; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vaischt, Gautam

    2011-10-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visiblewavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  9. Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty by the Inoue balloon technique: the procedure of choice for treatment of mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O; Holmes, D R

    1998-03-01

    The Inoue technique of percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty, introduced in 1984, is a truly startling advance in cardiology in modern times. It is time to reeducate our colleagues that when they hear the opening snap in patients with mitral stenosis, they should automatically open these stenotic mitral valves with an Inoue balloon catheter rather than submit these patients to surgical correction. PMID:9514461

  10. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Samia de Freitas Brandao; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted int...

  11. GRAINE project: The first balloon-borne, emulsion gamma-ray telescope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Kamada, Keiki; Mizutani, Saki; Nakagawa, Ryo; Ozaki, Keita; Rokujo, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    The GRAINE project (Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion) has been developed for the observation of cosmic γ-rays in the energy range 10 MeV-100 GeV with a precise (0.08°} at 1-2 GeV), polarization-sensitive, large-aperture-area (˜10 m^2) emulsion telescope by repeated long-duration balloon flights. In 2011, the first balloon-borne experiment was successfully performed with a 12.5 × 10cm^2 aperture area and 4.6 hour flight duration for a feasibility and performance test. Systematic detection, energy reconstruction, and timestamping of γ-ray events were performed across the whole area of the emulsion film, up to 45° incident zenith angle, down to 50 MeV γ-ray energy, with 97% detection reliability, 0.2 sec timestamp accuracy, and 98% timestamp reliability. A γ-ray data checking and calibration method was created using the γ-rays produced in the converter. We measured the atmospheric γ-ray flux in the energy range 50-300 MeV and obtained a first understanding of the cosmic γ-ray background. By combining the attitude data, we established a procedure for determining the γ-ray arrival direction in celestial coordinates. The first flight of the balloon-borne emulsion telescope confirmed its potential as a high-performance cosmic γ-ray detector.

  12. Study on the dynamic change of endothelin in the development of stenosis of aorta after balloon injury in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the dynamic change of endothelin (ET) in the blood with pathological and immunohistochemical changes of ET(ET-immunoreaction, ET-IR) in the development of stenosis of rabbit aorta after transluminal angioplasty. Methods: According to the different periods of being killed after micro-balloon angioplasty, 30 rabbits were divided randomly into 6 groups including 6-hour group, 1-day group, 3-day group, 7-day group, 15-day group and 22-day group. 3 out of 5 rabbits in each group were created as models of aortic endothelium injury by micro-balloon angioplasty, the rest 2 rabbits were taken as control. ET levels in the plasma were measured by ELISA before, as well as after micro-balloon angioplasty. Pathomorphological examination of the local traumatic aorta was carried out to observe the intimal thickness and the extent of lumen stenosis, and ET-IR was assessed by immunohistochemical technique performed on aortic wall after micro-balloon angioplasty. Results: (1) The major change of vascular stenosis was proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelium. (2) ET levels in the plasma and ET-IR on the local aortic wall were significantly increased after micro-balloon angioplasty. Conclusions: The experimental results show that the major pathologic change of vascular stenosis is the obvionus proliferation of VSMC and endothelium. Further more, ET is a key factor in the development of vascular stenosis. (authors)

  13. Unintended Thermal Injuries from Radiofrequency Ablation: Organ Protection with an Angioplasty Balloon Catheter in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha-Grace Knuttinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate a novel approach of using a balloon catheter as a protective device to separate liver from the diaphragm or nearby bowel during radiofrequency ablation (RFA of hepatic dome tumors in an animal model. Materials and Methods: All experimental procedures were approved by animal Institutional Review Board. Using a 3 cm RF needle electrode, 70 hepatic ablation zones were created using ultrasound in 7 pigs. 50 lesions were created using balloon interposition between liver and diaphragm; 20 lesions were created using the balloon device interposed posteriorly between liver and bowel. Additional 21 control lesions were performed. Animals were sacrificed immediately; diaphragm and bowel were then visually inspected and sectioned. Diaphragmatic and bowel injury was then classified according to the depth of thickness. Results: Control lesions caused full thickness injury, either to diaphragm or bowel. During ablation of lesions with balloon interposition, there was significantly less diaphragmatic injury, P < 0.001 and less bowel injury, P < 0.01. Conclusion: Using balloon interposition as a protective device has advantages over previous saline infusion or CO 2 insufflation, providing a safe way to expand percutaneous RFA of liver tumors located on the undersurface of the diaphragm. In addition, this method may be used in protection of other organs adjacent to areas being ablated.

  14. Intravascular β-irradiation with a liquid 188Re-filled balloon for the prevention of restenosis in rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intravascular β-irradiation with a liquid 188Re-filled balloon on restenosis in rabbit model, and to evaluate the feasibility of the intravascular irradiation. Methods: The bilateral iliac arteries of 14 rabbits were injured by catheter balloon overdilation. A random side iliac artery of the rabbit was irradiated by a liquid 188Re-filled balloon with the radioactivity of 15 Gy at a depth of 0.5 mm beneath the skin close to the artery, and the other iliac artery served as a control. At 12 weeks after operation, quantitative angiography, histopathology and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed in the injured iliac arteries to evaluate the effects of irradiation. Results: There was significant increase in iliac artery diameter [(1.94 +- 0.19) vs (1.77 +- 0.28) mm, P2, P188Re-filled balloon irradiation group compared with control group. Conclusions: Intravascular β-irradiation by a liquid 188Re-filled balloon with 15 Gy at 0.5 mm tissue depth beneath the skin close to the artery in rabbit model could inhibit neointimal proliferation and prevent restenosis. The intravascular brachytherapy with irradiation for prevention of restenosis is technically feasible

  15. Long-term results of endoscopic balloon dilatation of lower GI tract strictures in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years there have been several reports on endoscopic balloon dilatation of Crohn's strictures of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, to date, long-term results are not available. Our objective is to examine the long-term results of endoscopic treatment in a prospective study conducted over a period of 10 years, 1997 to January 2007. Here, we report our initial findings. A total of 25 patients (20 female and five male: aged 18-75 years) with at least one symptom of stricture, with the standard colonoscopy not able to be passed and with a scarred Crohn's stricture of the lower GI were included in the study. The main symptom was abdominal pain. The endoscopic balloon dilatation was performed with an 18 mm balloon under endoscopic and radiological control. Eleven strictures were located in the colon, 13 at the anastomosis after ileocoecal resection, three at the Bauhin valve and four in the ileum. Four patients had two strictures and one patient had three strictures. Of the 31 strictures, in 30 was balloon dilatation successful in a single endoscopic session, so that eventually the strictures could be passed easily with the standard colonoscopy. In one patient with a long stricture of the ileum involving the Bauhin valve and an additional stricture of the ileum which were 15 cm apart, sufficient dilatation was not possible. This patient therefore required surgery. Improvement of abdominal symptoms was achieved in all cases with technically successful balloon dilatation. Although in one case, perforation occurred after dilatation of a recurrent stricture. Available follow-up was in the range 54-118 months (mean of 81 months). The relapse rate over this period was 46% but 64% of relapsing strictures could be successfully dilated again. Only in four patients was surgery required during this followup period. We conclude from these initial results that endoscopic balloon dilatation especially for short strictures in Crohn's disease, can be

  16. Safety and Efficacy Studies of Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and Mesh-Container-Plasty for the Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Donghua; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Tong; Liu, Xunwei; Zhong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), and percutaneous mesh-container-plasty (PMCP) for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a retrospective study of 90 patients with VCFs who had been treated by PVP (n = 30), PKP (n = 30), and PMCP (n = 30) was conducted. The clinical efficacies of these three treatments were evaluated by comparing their PMMA cement leakages, cement patterns, height restoration percentages, wedge angles, visual analogue scales (VAS), and oswestry disability index (ODI) at the pre- and post-operative time points. 6.67%, 3.33%, and 0% of patients had PMMA leakage in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. Three (solid, trabecular, and mixed patterns), two (solid and mixed patterns), and one (mixed patterns) types of cement patterns were observed in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. PKP and PMCP treatments had better height restoration ability than PVP treatment. PVP, PKP, and PMCP treatments had significant and similar ability in pain relief and functional recovery ability for the treatment of VCFs. These results indicate minimally invasive techniques were effective methods for the treatment of VCFs. Moreover, these initial outcomes suggest PMCP treatment may be better than both PVP treatment and PKP treatment. PMID:26963808

  17. Safety and Efficacy Studies of Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and Mesh-Container-Plasty for the Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Donghua; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Tong; Liu, Xunwei; Zhong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), and percutaneous mesh-container-plasty (PMCP) for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a retrospective study of 90 patients with VCFs who had been treated by PVP (n = 30), PKP (n = 30), and PMCP (n = 30) was conducted. The clinical efficacies of these three treatments were evaluated by comparing their PMMA cement leakages, cement patterns, height restoration percentages, wedge angles, visual analogue scales (VAS), and oswestry disability index (ODI) at the pre- and post-operative time points. 6.67%, 3.33%, and 0% of patients had PMMA leakage in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. Three (solid, trabecular, and mixed patterns), two (solid and mixed patterns), and one (mixed patterns) types of cement patterns were observed in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. PKP and PMCP treatments had better height restoration ability than PVP treatment. PVP, PKP, and PMCP treatments had significant and similar ability in pain relief and functional recovery ability for the treatment of VCFs. These results indicate minimally invasive techniques were effective methods for the treatment of VCFs. Moreover, these initial outcomes suggest PMCP treatment may be better than both PVP treatment and PKP treatment. PMID:26963808

  18. Safety and Efficacy Studies of Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and Mesh-Container-Plasty for the Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Preliminary Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP, percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP, and percutaneous mesh-container-plasty (PMCP for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs, a retrospective study of 90 patients with VCFs who had been treated by PVP (n = 30, PKP (n = 30, and PMCP (n = 30 was conducted. The clinical efficacies of these three treatments were evaluated by comparing their PMMA cement leakages, cement patterns, height restoration percentages, wedge angles, visual analogue scales (VAS, and oswestry disability index (ODI at the pre- and post-operative time points. 6.67%, 3.33%, and 0% of patients had PMMA leakage in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. Three (solid, trabecular, and mixed patterns, two (solid and mixed patterns, and one (mixed patterns types of cement patterns were observed in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. PKP and PMCP treatments had better height restoration ability than PVP treatment. PVP, PKP, and PMCP treatments had significant and similar ability in pain relief and functional recovery ability for the treatment of VCFs. These results indicate minimally invasive techniques were effective methods for the treatment of VCFs. Moreover, these initial outcomes suggest PMCP treatment may be better than both PVP treatment and PKP treatment.

  19. Microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuji

    In JAXA, microgravity experiment system using a high altitude balloon was developed , for good microgravity environment and short turn-around time. In this publication, I give an account of themicrogravity experiment system and a combustion experiment to utilize the system. The balloon operated vehicle (BOV) as a microgravity experiment system was developed from 2004 to 2009. Features of the BOV are (1) BOV has double capsule structure. Outside-capsule and inside-capsule are kept the non-contact state by 3-axis drag-free control. (2) The payload is spherical shape and itsdiameter is about 300 mm. (3) Keep 10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds However, BOV’s payload was small, and could not mount large experiment module. In this study, inherits the results of past, we established a new experimental system called “iBOV” in order toaccommodate larger payload. Features of the iBOV are (1) Drag-free control use for only vertical direction. (2) The payload is a cylindrical shape and its size is about 300 mm in diameter and 700 mm in height. (3) Keep 10-3-10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds We have "Observation experiment of flame propagation behavior of the droplets column" as experiment using iBOV. This experiment is a theme that was selected first for technical demonstration of iBOV. We are conducting the flame propagation mechanism elucidation study of fuel droplets array was placed at regular intervals. We conducted a microgravity experiments using TEXUS rocket ESA and drop tower. For this microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon, we use the Engineering Model (EM) for TEXUS rocket experiment. The EM (This payload) consists of combustion vessel, droplets supporter, droplets generator, fuel syringe, igniter, digital camera, high-speed camera. And, This payload was improved from the EM as follows. (1) Add a control unit. (2) Add inside batteries for control unit and heater of combustion

  20. Double-balloon remodeling for coil embolization of a primitive trigeminal artery variant aneurysm. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Tomoji; Suzuki, Kensuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryotaro; Takano, Issei; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a patient with a wide-necked unruptured aneurysm arising at origin of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) variant from the right internal carotid artery (ICA), supplying the territory of the right superior cerebellar artery and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. To preserve the ICA and the PTA variant, coil embolization of the aneurysm was performed using a double-balloon remodeling technique (HyperForm™ and HyperGlide™ Occlusion Balloon Systems; ev3 Endovascular Inc., Irvine, CA, USA). The association of a PTA variant with an aneurysm is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the use of coil embolization using double-balloon remodeling to treat a PTA variant aneurysm. This technique permits complete embolization and reduces the risk of cerebral and cerebellar ischemia. PMID:24976091

  1. A calculation of the plasma ballooning mode stability and the bootstrap current in negative magnetic shear configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that reversed (negative)magnetic shear is favorable for the stability of ballooning mode in tokamak, and hence for the achievement of high β, large bootstrap current. In several recent experiment it has been seen that negative magnetic shear strongly enhanced plasma performance. Based on MHD ballooning model stability theory and Hirshman's expression for the flux surface averaged parallel bootstrap current density, marginal stability regions of plasma ballooning mode and bootstrap current density profile in negative magnetic shear configuration are calculated. The results shows negative magnetic shear configuration permit larger β value and produced larger bootstrap current fraction. If parameter q2R/Lp is nearly equivalent, when shear value between +-0.2--+-0.5, negative magnetic shear permit two times larger β than positive magnetic shear and corresponding bootstrap current fraction ≥70%. The results provide a reference for the feasible research of hybrid reactor core

  2. BOOMERANG A Balloon-borne Millimeter Wave Telescope and Total Power Receiver for Mapping Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Crill, B P; Artusa, D R; Bhatia, R S; Bock, J J; Boscaleri, A; Cardoni, P; Church, S E; Coble, K; De Bernardis, P; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Haynes, C V; Hivon, E; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jones, W C; Lange, A E; Martinis, L; Masi, S; Mason, P V; Mauskopf, P D; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Paine, C G; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Pongetti, F; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scaramuzzi, F; Sforza, D M; Turner, A D

    2002-01-01

    We describe BOOMERANG; a balloon-borne microwave telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at a resolution of 10' from the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform. The millimeter-wave receiver employs new technology in bolometers, readout electronics, cold re-imaging optics, millimeter-wave filters, and cryogenics to obtain high sensitivity to CMB anisotropy. Sixteen detectors observe in 4 spectral bands centered at 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The wide frequency coverage, the long duration flight, the optical design and the observing strategy provide strong rejection of systematic effects. We report the flight performance of the instrument during a 10.5 day stratospheric balloon flight launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica that mapped ~2000 square degrees of the sky.

  3. Longitudinal stent elongation during retraction of entrapped jailed guidewire in a side branch with balloon catheter support: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Norimasa; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: a-takahashi@wine.ocn.ne.jp

    2015-01-15

    A 72-year-old man underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention for a subtotal occlusion in the mid-portion of the left anterior descending artery involving a large diagonal branch. After successful stenting with a 3.0/24 mm bare metal stent, during which, the diagonal branch was protected with a coronary guidewire, conventional retrieval of the jailed guide wire was impossible. Subsequently, several attempts at a strong retraction of the wire with the support of a balloon catheter enabled retrieval of the trapped wire. Optical coherence tomography performed after post-dilatation, revealed that the stent was elongated to the left main coronary artery, and the structure of the strut had become coarse in the proximal portion. The stent was believed to have become entangled with the balloon catheter when the guidewire was being pulled. This case suggests that retrieving the jailed guidewire with a balloon catheter carries a potential risk of entrapment in the deformed stent.

  4. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  5. Procoagulant platelet balloons: evidence from cryopreparation and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M W; Siljander, P

    2001-05-01

    Visualisation of the procoagulant transformation of human platelets has recently become possible through use of an in vitro approach combined with fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. Here, we extended these studies to the ultrastructural level by employing both rapid freezing/freeze-substitution and conventional ambient-temperature chemical fixation for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Procoagulant transformation was only inducible by adhering platelets to collagen fibrils or to the collagen-related peptide and exposing them to physiological extracellular Ca2+ levels. Under these conditions prominent, 2- to 4-micron-wide balloon-like structures were regularly observed, regardless of the specimen fixation protocol. In strong contrast to normal platelets in their vicinity, the balloons' subcellular architecture proved remarkably poor: dilute cytoplasm, no cytoskeleton, only a few, randomly distributed organelles and/or their remnants. Cryofixed balloons displayed intact and smooth surfaces whereas conventional specimen processing caused plasma membrane perforations and shrinkage of the balloons. Our results clearly show that neither the balloons themselves, nor their simple ultrastructure reflect fixation artefacts caused by inadequate membrane stabilisation. The balloons are interpreted as to be transformed and/or fragmented procoagulant platelets. Thus, the generation of balloons represents a genuine, final stage of platelet ontogenesis, presumably occurring alternatively to aggregate formation. PMID:11449892

  6. Graph-Based Path-Planning for Titan Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars James; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a graph-based path-planning algorithm for balloons with vertical control authority and little or no horizontal control authority. The balloons are designed to explore celestial bodies with atmospheres, such as Titan, a moon of Saturn. The algorithm discussed enables the balloon to achieve horizontal motion using the local horizontal winds. The approach is novel because it enables the balloons to use arbitrary wind field models. This is in contrast to prior approaches that used highly simplified wind field models, such as linear, or binary, winds. This new approach works by discretizing the space in which the balloon operates, and representing the possible states of the balloon as a graph whose arcs represent the time taken to move from one node to another. The approach works with arbitrary wind fields, by looking up the wind strength and direction at every node in the graph from an arbitrary wind model. Having generated the graph, search techniques such as Dijkstra s algorithm are then used to find the set of vertical actuation commands that takes the balloon from the start to the goal in minimum time. In addition, the set of reachable locations on the moon or planet can be determined.

  7. Ballooning of CANDU pressure tubes. Model assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient creep equations used to analyze the possible ballooning and failure of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were developed and verified using as-received Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube material. But in a CANDU reactor, the pressure tubes absorb deuterium and are exposed to a continuous neutron fluence. Consequently, a literature survey was done to determine how irradiation damage and deuterium might affect the creep rate and ductility of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes in the temperature range from 600 to 800 degrees C. It was found that irradiation damage, dissolved deuterium and deuteride blisters could possibly affect the creep rate and ductility of ZR-2.5% Nb pressure tubes in this temperature range, but deuteride platelets are expected to have little effect. Further tests are required to determine the effect of irradiation damage and deuterium on the creep rate and ductility of pressure tubes

  8. Balloon brachytherapy: how I do it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the technical aspects of insertion of MammoSite Radiation System, cosmetic issues, patients selection for the procedure and their satisfaction. Seventy patients underwent brachytherapy after insertion of the MammoSite catheter and received a boost HDR totaling 1500 cGy in six fractions over a three day period. Each patient then received 5 weeks of external beam radiotherapy to the whole breast. Only T1-2 patients were treated. All patients had excellent cosmetic results. The complications (minimal skin erythema, hematoma, balloon leak, seroma, were minimal. The safety and effectiveness of the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System as a replacement for whole breast irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer has not yet been established. (author)

  9. Interventional treatment of common congenital heart diseases: the common view of Chinese medical experts. Part Four: Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary and aortic valve stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of first choice for pulmonary valve stenosis. Congenital aortic valve stenosis can also be relieved by percutaneous balloon dilatation. Percutaneous valvuloplasty is indicated for patients with isolated pulmonary valve stenosis when the transvalvular peak systolic pressure gradient is over 40 mmHg and for patients with aortic valve stenosis when the pressure gradient exceeds 60 mmHg. A careful selection of patients, standardized procedure, individualized selection of the balloon type, size and length, and careful avoidance of any damage to chorda tendineae and to surrounding tissue are keys to achieving a successful procedure. Balloon valvuloplasty should be selectively performed in new-born and in infant since complications of the procedure are inversely related to age. (authors)

  10. High-pressure balloon assessment of pelviureteric junction prior to laparoscopic “vascular hitch”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Parente

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim To assess if calibration of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ using a high-pressure balloon inflated at the UPJ level in patients with suspected crossing vessels (CV could differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic stenosis prior to laparoscopic vascular hitch (VH. Materials and Methods We reviewed patients with UPJO diagnosed at childhood or adolescence without previous evidence of antenatal or infant hydronephrosis (10 patients. By cystoscopy, a high-pressure balloon is sited at the UPJ and the balloon inflated to 8-12 atm under radiological screening. We considered intrinsic PUJO to be present where a ‘waist’ was observed at the PUJ on inflation of the balloon and a laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty is performed When no ‘waist’ is observed we considered this to represent extrinsic stenosis and a laparoscopic VH was performed. Patients with absence of intrinsic PUJ stenosis documented with this method are included for the study. Results Six patients presented pure extrinsic stenosis. The mean age at presentation was 10.8 years. Mean duration of surgery was 99 min and mean hospital stay was 24 hours in all cases. We found no intraoperative or postoperative complications. All children remain symptoms free at a mean follow up of 14 months. Ultrasound and renogram improved in all cases. Conclusion When no ‘waist’ is observed we considered this to represent extrinsic stenosis and a laparoscopic VH was performed. In these patients, laparoscopic transposition of lower pole crossing vessels (‘vascular hitch’ may be a safe and reliable surgical technique.

  11. Migration of Bakri balloon through an unsuspected uterine perforation during the treatment of secondary postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leparco, Soizic; Viot, Alexandre; Benachi, Alexandra; Deffieux, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    The current case describes an unreported complication of Bakri balloon placement: the migration of the Bakri balloon to the broad ligament through an unsuspected uterine rupture. Finally, a hysterectomy had been required. The Bakri balloon may be involuntary introduced in an unexpected uterine rupture, even if the balloon is placed with ultrasound guidance. PMID:23470856

  12. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  13. Effect of poloidally asymmetric sheared flow on resistive ballooning turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shear flow induced through the Reynolds stress tensor by turbulence with ballooning character is poloidally asymmetric. For circular cross section tokamak plasmas, its main component is the (m=1, n=0). The effect of such a sheared flow on both linear and nonlinear instability is analyzed. Its effect on the linear stability properties of resistive ballooning modes is compared with the effect of poloidally symmetric sheared flows. It is shown that asymmetry in the flow does not reduce its effectiveness in stabilizing the linear resistive ballooning modes. It is also effective in reducing the turbulence level and decreasing the turbulence induced diffusivities. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Validation of IASI ozone profiles, using balloon sounding data

    OpenAIRE

    Delcloo, Andy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a validation study of IASI vertical ozone profiles. This has been done using balloon ozone sonde data, which have a vertical resolution of about 100 m and measures ozone from the surface up to an altitude of about 30 km. IASI vertical ozone profiles are given as partial ozone columns [in DU per layer] between varying pressure levels. To validate the satellite derived ozone layers with the balloon ozone sounding data we integrate the ozone measured by the balloon ozone sounding...

  15. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  16. Results of the first EUSO-Balloon flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.; Bertaina, M.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    EUSO-Balloon, a balloon-borne diffractive fluorescence telescope, was launched by the French Space Agency ONES from the Timmins base in Ontario (Canada) on August 25th in 2014. After reaching the floating altitude of about 38 km, EUSO-Balloon imaged the UV background for more than 5 hours before descending to ground using the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. A detailed and precise measurement of the UV background in different atmospheric and ground conditions was achieved. The instrument proved the capability of detecting Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by observing laser tracks with similar characteristics. This contribution will summarise the first results obtained concerning all the topics described above.

  17. Current Status of a NASA High-Altitude Balloon-Based Observatory for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Denise M.; Dischner, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that progress can be made on over 20% of the key questions called out in the current Planetary Science Decadal Survey by a high-altitude balloon-borne observatory. Therefore, NASA has been assessing concepts for a gondola-based observatory that would achieve the greatest possible science return in a low-risk and cost-effective manner. This paper addresses results from the 2014 Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) mission, namely successes in the design and performance of the Fine Pointing System. The paper also addresses technical challenges facing the new Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) reusable platform, including thermal control for the Optical Telescope Assembly, power generation and management, and weight-saving considerations that the team will be assessing in 2015 and beyond.

  18. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Bronchial Carcinoid Diagnosed by Balloon-Occluded Pulmonary Arterial Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsukura, Masaya; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Asakura, Keisuke; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kurihara, Isao; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Asamura, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old man with Cushing syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumor. A small nodule was located in close association with the lateral segmental branch of the pulmonary artery in the left upper lobe. Blood samples were obtained from various branches of the pulmonary artery by balloon-occluded retrograde sampling for the measurement of location-specific serum ACTH levels. After confirmation that the pulmonary nodule was responsible for the increased ACTH secretion, lobectomy was performed. This report demonstrates the usefulness of balloon-occluded retrograde pulmonary arterial sampling for the preoperative diagnosis of an ACTH-producing tumor whose diagnosis is difficult to confirm. PMID:27106427

  19. Stingray balloon used in slender percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eugene B; Ikari, Yuji

    2013-07-01

    Slender chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using 5 Fr radial Ikari catheter is possible in simple CTO cases. We report a case where we initially thought the LAD CTO was short and easy, but we found that the CTO had a considerable amount of calcium and also some tortuosity, making simple wire crossing impossible. We used a Stingray balloon to perform re-entry by tracking the balloon over an Ultimate Bros 3 gram wire using an extension wire. We successfully punctured into true lumen and completed stenting through a slender 5 Fr system. This case demonstrates the beauty of combining the advances in CTO PCI from the East and the West together and also demonstrates the possibility of using the Stingray system in a 5 Fr guiding catheter. PMID:23813075

  20. Upper and midureteral calculi: Percutaneous extraction with an occlusion balloon catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, C.F.; Roth, R.A.; Luedke, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    In 44 patients with one or more calculi in the upper two-thirds of the ureter, single-stage percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed through a middle or upper calyceal nephrostomy after cystoscopic placement of an occlusion balloon catheter distal to the calculus; in 42, the procedure was successful. The occlusion balloon catheter permitted retrograde opacification of all systems for enhanced renal puncture. In the last 30 patients an attempt was made either to push the calculus upward mechanically or to flush it upward into the renal pelvis with carbon dioxide or dilute contrast material. This was successful in 24 of these patients. Prior overnight occlusion of the ureter by means of ureteral dilatation further facilitates dislodgement of the calculus, which was successful in 12 of 13 patients.

  1. Balloon valvuloplasty in dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis: immediate and intermediate outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the immediate and intermediate outcome in dysplastic and doming pulmonary valve stenosis in children and to determine various factors associated with unsuccessful outcome. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from June 2006 to December 2012. Methodology: All patients presenting with severe pulmonary valve stenosis were enrolled in the study. Balloon valvuloplasty was performed on all patients. Successful outcome (residual gradient 75 mmHg was the most significant factor associated with unsuccessful outcome (p 60 mmHg was the only significant factor associated with re-intervention in group A (p=0.001). Conclusion: The results from balloon valvuloplasty in dysplastic pulmonary valve were suboptimal when compared to doming valves. However, it provides a high freedom from re-intervention rate in intermediate follow-up. Intervention at moderate severity can result in better outcome. (author)

  2. Management of cardiac perforation and pericardial tamponade complicating percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of cute cardiac perforation and tamponade complicating percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty. Methods and Results: Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty was performed in 772 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis from May 1992 to Dec. 2001, 9 were diagnosed cardiac perforation, 2 which developed pericardial tamponade which was successfully controlled by contrast and X-ray guided pericardiocentesis using a sub-xiphoid approach. Conclusions: Only a minority of cardiac perforation resulted from PBMV developed pericardial tamponade. The latter could be controlled safely and effectively by contrast and X-ray guided pericardiocentesis using a sub-xiphoid approach. The diagnosis of pericardial tamponade during or after PBMV relies on a strong clinical suspicion, and contrast and X-ray guided pericardiocentesis should be carried out without echocardiography for patients in unstable state

  3. Derivatives of the local ballooning growth rate with respect to surface label, field line label and ballooning parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For comprehensive ballooning analysis in three-dimensional (stellarator) systems, an extensive set of ballooning eigenvalue calculations is generally required. For several applications, it is convenient to know how the local ballooning stability will change as a function of the surface label ψ, the field line label α and the angle-like ballooning parameter ηk. A particularly important application is in the ray tracing problem [Dewar and Glasser 1983], when results from the local ballooning analysis are extended to make predictions regarding global stability. This article presents an explicit method for calculating the derivatives of the ballooning eigenvalue with respect to (ψ, α,ηk). The required derivatives satisfy δλ = ∂λ/∂ψ|α,ηk δψ + ∂λ/∂α|ψ,ηk δα+ ∂λ/ ∂ηk| ψ,α δηk, (1) for infinitesimal variations δψ,δα and δηk. The method is an application of eigenvalue perturbation analysis. The ballooning equation, with eigenvalue λ and eigenfunction ξ, may be written ∂ηP∂ηξ + Qξ = λRξ, (2). A small change in (ψ, α, ηk) induces a change in the ballooning coefficients, and a corresponding variation in the ballooning eigenvalue. The eigenvalue derivatives are calculated ∂λ/∂ψ|α,ζ = ηδPψ∂ + δQψ - λδRψ|ξ> (3) where Pψ, Qψ, and Rψ are the changes in the coefficients due to a small change in ψ,with similar expressions for ∂λ/∂α and ∂λ/∂ηk. Preliminary results of ray-tracing calculations will be presented. (author)

  4. Clinical experience of cerebral protection with balloon occlusion during carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To asses the technical feasibility and the results of cerebral protection with the GuardWire Plus Temporary Occlusion and Aspiration System during carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenosis. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients 20 carotid artery stenoses were treated with stent placement under cerebral protection. A contralateral carotid occlusion was an exclusion criteria for the use of the protection device. In all cases only aspiration, but no flushing was used before deflation of the occlusion balloon. In 17 of 20 patients diffusion-weighted (DW-)MRT imaging of the brain was performed before and 24 hours after the procedure. Results: The stent implantation was successfully performed in all patients. In 3 patients neurologic symptoms occurred during the occlusion time. In these 3 patients the symptoms immediately disappeared after deflation of the balloon. In one case there was dilatation of the internal carotid artery at the site of the balloon inflation. In 3 of the 17 DW-MR images new ipsilateral cerebral lesions, in one case a new contralateral lesion occurred after the procedure. Conclusions: The cerebral protection procedure is technically feasible. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery was not tolerated by all patients. The DW-MR imaging demonstrated cerebral lesions indicating the occurrence of cerebral microemboli during the procedure. Further investigations are necessary to determine if the use of the cerebral protection device will improve the results of the carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenoses. (orig.)

  5. Inverted Meckel’s diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed using double-balloon enteroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Kosuke; Osawa, Satoshi; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Tsukui, Hiroe; Furuta, Takahisa; Wada, Hidetoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken

    2016-01-01

    An inverted Meckel’s diverticulum is a rare gastrointestinal congenital anomaly that is difficult to diagnose prior to surgery and presents with anemia, abdominal pain, or intussusception. Here, we report the case of 57-year-old men with an inverted Meckel’s diverticulum, who was preoperatively diagnosed using double-balloon enteroscopy. He had repeatedly experienced epigastric pain for 2 mo. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed intestinal wall thickening in the pelvis. Double-balloon enteroscopy via the anal route was performed for further examination, which demonstrated an approximately 8-cm, sausage-shaped, submucosal tumor located approximately 80 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. A small depressed erosion was observed at the tip of this lesion. Forceps biopsy revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with an inverted Meckel’s diverticulum, and single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed. This case suggests that an inverted Meckel’s diverticulum should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a submucosal tumor in the ileum. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy with forceps biopsy facilitate a precise diagnosis of this condition. PMID:27158212

  6. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  7. Current status of intragastric balloon for obesity treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Han; Chun, Hoon Jai; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic bariatric therapy may be a useful alternative to pharmacological treatment for obesity, and it provides greater efficacy with lower risks than do conventional surgical procedures. Among the various endoscopic treatments for obesity, the intragastric balloon is associated with significant efficacy in body weight reduction and relief of comorbid disease symptoms. Anatomically, this treatment is based on gastric space-occupying effects that increase the feeling of satiety and may also affect gut neuroendocrine signaling. The simplicity of the intragastric balloon procedure may account for its widespread role in obesity treatment and its applicability to various degrees of obesity. However, advances in device properties and procedural techniques are still needed in order to improve its safety and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, verification of the physiological outcomes of intragastric balloon treatment and the clinical predictive factors for treatment responses should be considered. In this article, we discuss the types, efficacy, safety, and future directions of intragastric balloon treatment. PMID:27350727

  8. Proposed techniques for launching instrumented balloons into tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    A method is proposed to introduce instrumented balloons into tornadoes by means of the radial pressure gradient, which supplies a buoyancy force driving to the center. Presented are analytical expressions, verified by computer calculations, which show the possibility of introducing instrumented balloons into tornadoes at or below the cloud base. The times required to reach the center are small enough that a large fraction of tornadoes are suitable for the technique. An experimental procedure is outlined in which a research airplane puts an instrumented, self-inflating balloon on the track ahead of the tornado. The uninflated balloon waits until the tornado closes to, typically, 750 meters; then it quickly inflates and spirals up and into the core, taking roughly 3 minutes. Since the drive to the center is automatically produced by the radial pressure gradient, a proper launch radius is the only guidance requirement.

  9. 10 meter Sub-Orbital Large Balloon Reflector (LBR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Besides serving as a launch vehicle, the carrier balloon provides a stable mount for the enclosed telescope. Looking up, the LBR will serve as a telescope. Looking...

  10. Endoscopic assessment of effacement of balloon waist during pneumatic dilatation of primary achalasia cardia under topical anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon dilatation of Primary Achalasia Cardia (PAC) is usually performed under antegrade endoscopic guidance, with conscious sedation. The main goals of this prospective study were to assess the safety and efficacy of pneumatic dilatation without conscious sedation and to determine the endoscopic signs of effacement of the balloon waist. Pneumatic dilatation was successfully performed as outdoor procedure without conscious sedation in patients (n= 25; mean age 42.56 years) with endoscopic and radiologic diagnosis of PAC. Immediate relief of symptoms was observed in 23 (92%) cases. Effacement of the balloon waist under endoscopic vision was appreciated in all cases in the present study. Common complications of pneumatic dilatation were chest pain in all (100%) subjects and mild local bleeding in 17 (68%) patients. There was no cancellation of procedure. Re-dilatation was required in 2 (8%) cases. The duration of follow-up was from 6 weeks to 23 months. Pneumatic dilatation of PAC can be safely performed as same day procedure, without conscious sedation. Obliteration of the balloon waist can be readily determined by antegrade endoscopic assessment of stretch on the lower oesophageal sphincter (EASL). (author)

  11. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Kirsty A.; Hunt, Hugh E.M.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal...

  12. Small Research Balloons in a Physics Course for Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Verner, E.; Long, T.; Montanaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    At The Catholic Univ. of America, we teach an experimental physics course entitled Physics 240: The Sun-Earth Connection, which is designed for the undergraduate education major. The emphasis is on providing hands-on experience and giving the students an exciting experience in physics. As part of this course, in the Spring 2013 semester, we instituted a project to plan, build, launch, and retrieve a small (~1.3 kg) research balloon payload. The payload flown was a small GPS unit that sent its position to an Internet site, a small wide-angle high-resolution video camera, and an analog refrigerator thermometer placed in the field of view of the camera. All data were stored on the camera sim-card. Students faced the problems of flying a small research balloon in the congested, densely populated Northeast Corridor of the US. They used computer simulators available on the Web to predict the balloon path and flight duration given velocities for the Jet Stream and ground winds, as well as payload mass and amount of helium in the balloon. The first flight was extremely successful. The balloon was launched 140 km NW of Washington DC near Hagerstown, MD and touched down 10 miles (16 km) NW of York, PA, within 1.6 km of what was predicted. The balloon reached 73,000 ft (22,000 m) and the thermometer indicated temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit (-57 C) during the flight. Further balloon flights are planned in conjunction with this course. Additional exercises and experiments will be developed centered around these flights. Besides learning that science can be exciting, students also learn that science is not always easily predictable, and that these balloon flights give an understanding of many of problems that go into real scientific space missions. This project is supported in part by an educational supplement to NASA grant NNX10AC56G

  13. Percutaneous Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Benign Biliary Strictures

    OpenAIRE

    Trambert, Jonathan J.; Bron, Klaus M.; Zajko, Albert B.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo

    1987-01-01

    Between February 1981 and June 1984, 15 patients with benign biliary strictures were treated with percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation. Three of these patients had received liver transplants. The treatment began with a course of balloon dilatation therapy, after which a stent catheter was left across the stricture. Six weeks later, after duct patency had been shown by cholangiography, the stent catheter was removed from all but two patients, both of whom had intrahepatic sclerosing ch...

  14. How to Inflate the Balloon Can Be Dangerous?

    OpenAIRE

    Yürümez, Yusuf; Küçük, Egemen; YAVUZ, Yücel; Eşme, Hıdır; SOLAK, Okan; Yücel, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a quite rare clinical condition. A variety of reasons are responsible from etiology thats are increases intra-alveolar pressure and leading to rupture of alveoli. In this study 38-year-old male patient has been submitted that he has crackling sensation and pain in the neck region, hoarseness and shortness of breath two hours after inflating the balloon. Inflating the balloon that not included in the literature and appear to be innocent should be included among...

  15. Development of a tiny tandem balloon system for atmospheric observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Masatomo

    2016-07-01

    A tandem balloon system with a combination of a zero-pressure balloon on top and a super-pressure balloon on the bottom has a unique trajectory characteristic, with different flight altitudes between day and night and thus with ascending and descending motions at dawn and dusk, respectively. This characteristic provides a unique opportunity to explore the atmosphere, e.g., the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric region with cross-tropopause measurements twice a day. We started development of a tiny tandem balloon system using a 10 m^{3} super-pressure balloon and a 100 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon, with a capability of carrying 3 kg of payload. One of the scientific targets is to measure water vapor, cloud particles, and temperature around the tropical tropopause which is the entry point of the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. For the data transfer, the iridium satellite communication module, SBD9603 is used. In this paper, the current status of the development will be reported.

  16. The Accordion Sign in the Transplant Ureter: Ramifications During Balloon Dilation of Strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegshauser, J. Scott, E-mail: skriegshauser@mayo.edu; Naidu, Sailen G. [Mayo Clinic Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Chang, Yu-Hui H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Biostatistics (United States); Huettl, Eric A. [Mayo Clinic Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to demonstrate the accordion sign within the transplant ureter and evaluate its ramifications during balloon dilation of strictures.MethodsA retrospective electronic chart and imaging review included demographic characteristics, procedure reports, and complications of 28 renal transplant patients having ureteral strictures treated with percutaneous balloon dilation reported in our transplant nephrology database during an 8-year period. The accordion sign was deemed present or absent on the basis of an imaging review and was defined as present when a tortuous ureter became kinked and irregular when foreshortened after placement of a wire or a catheter. Procedure-related urine leaks were categorized as occurring at the stricture if within 2 cm; otherwise, they were considered away from the stricture.ResultsThe accordion sign was associated with a significantly greater occurrence of leaks away from the stricture (P = 0.001) but not at the stricture (P = 0.34).ConclusionsThe accordion sign is an important consideration when performing balloon dilation procedures on transplant ureteral strictures, given the increased risk of leak away from the stricture. Its presence should prompt additional care during wire and catheter manipulations.

  17. Impact of ion diamagnetic drift on ideal ballooning mode stability in rotating tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, N.

    2016-04-01

    Drift magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations have been derived in order to investigate the ion diamagnetic drift effect on the stability to ideal MHD modes in rotating plasmas. These drift MHD equations have been simplified with the Frieman-Rotenberg formalism under the incompressible assumption, and a new code, MINERVA-DI, has been developed to solve the derived extended Frieman-Rotenberg equation. Benchmark results of the MINERVA-DI code show good agreements with the analytic theory discussing the stability to an internal kink mode and that to a ballooning mode in static plasmas. The stability analyses of the ballooning mode with respect to toroidal rotation with the ion diamagnetic drift effect have been performed using MINERVA-DI. The stabilizing effect by the ion diamagnetic drift is found to be negligible when the rotation frequency is large compared to the ion diamagnetic drift frequency. The direction of plasma rotation affects the ballooning mode stability when the ion diamagnetic drift effect is taken into account. It is identified that there are two physics mechanisms responsible for the dependence of MHD stability on the rotation direction. One is the correction of the dynamic pressure effect on MHD stability by the ion diamagnetic drift, and the other is the change of the MHD eigenmode structure by the combined effect of plasma rotation and ion diamagnetic drift.

  18. GDC embolization of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms using balloon-assisted technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main factor limiting endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms is the shape of the aneurysmal sac, especially the width of the neck. We describe an early experience and technical aspects of treating wide-necked cerebral aneurysm using a Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) and simultaneous application of a temporary balloon. Four cases of unruptured wide-necked cerebral aneurysm were treated with GDC, with simultaneous application of a temporary balloon. Patients were aged between 29 and 49 years. On admission, clinical presentation was subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in all cases. Hunt and Hess grade was 2 in two cases, 3 in one case, and traumatic SAH in one case. In all patients angiography revealed an asymptomatic aneurysm after rupture of another aneurysm or traumatic SAH. The aneurysms were occluded with GDC-10, and a Cirrus balloon occlusion system was used simultaneously. All procedures were performed under endotracheal general anesthesia and systemic heparinization. All cases were treated successfully, without parent artery compromise. The occlusion rate at the end of the procedure was total in three cases and subtotal in one. In one case a heparin-related hematoma occurred during post-procedural treatment and the patient eventually expired. One patient underwent follow-up angiography after 6 months, and the coil was not changed. An aneurysm may not be completely occluded, but with regard to coil compaction and parent artery preservation, the technique is an attractive alternative

  19. 24 hour ST segment analysis in transient left ventricular apical ballooning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bode

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The etiologic basis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning, a novel cardiac syndrome, is not clear. Among the proposed pathomechanisms is coronary vasospasm. Long-term ST segment analysis may detect vasospastic episodes but has not been reported. METHODS: 30 consecutive patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning, left ventricular dysfunction and normal or near-normal coronary arteries were investigated. A 24-hour Holter ECG was obtained after emergency admission. ST segment analysis was performed automatically in 2 leads and confirmed by visual inspection. Criteria for an ischemic event were: 1. ST elevation or 2. horizontal or down-sloping ST segments ≥1 min duration and ≥100 µV J+80 point deviation corrected for baseline ST-deviation. RESULTS: Patients presented with ST segment elevation (n = 19 and/or T wave inversion (n = 20 on admission ECG. Ejection fraction was 50±12%. No transient ST elevations were observed during Holter ECG analysis. In 3 patients, 8 transient episodes of ST depression were recorded. Durations of episodes varied between 75 s and 790 s (mean 229 s. Maximal ST deviation averaged -191±71 µV. Ischemic burden was -1 to -22 mVs (mean -8 mVs. 27 patients showed no ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS: ST segment analysis of 24 h Holter recordings revealed minor ischemic events in only 10% of patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Overall, ST segment changes were not indicative of recurrent coronary spasm playing a major role in the genesis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning.

  20. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  1. Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs

  2. Demonstration of a Balloon Borne Arc-Second Pointer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Keith D.; Ward, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    Many designs for utilizing stratospheric balloons as low-cost platforms on which to conduct space science experiments have been proposed throughout the years. A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which these vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target. A significant number of scientists have sought the ability to point their instruments with jitter in the arc-second range. This paper presents the design and analysis of a stratospheric balloon borne pointing system that is able to meet this requirement. The test results of a demonstration prototype of the design with similar ability are also presented. Discussion of a high fidelity controller simulation for design analysis is presented. The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis. A multiple controller scheme is utilized for coarse and fine pointing. Coarse azimuth pointing is accomplished by an established pointing system, with extensive flight history, residing above the gondola structure. A pitch-yaw gimbal mount is used for fine pointing, providing orthogonal axes when nominally on target. Fine pointing actuation is from direct drive dc motors, eliminating backlash problems. An analysis of friction nonlinearities and a demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided. A unique bearing hub design is introduced that eliminates static friction from the system dynamics. A control scheme involving linear accelerometers for enhanced disturbance rejection is also presented. Results from a linear analysis of the total system and the high fidelity simulation are given. Results from a generalized demonstration prototype are presented. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware was used to demonstrate the efficacy and performance of the pointer design for a mock instrument. Sub-arcsecond pointing ability from a ground hang test setup

  3. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, E; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Marsden, G; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Mauskopf, P; Netterfield, C B; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Wiebe, D V

    2007-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 micron. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 micron. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~<5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. Since a test-flight in ...

  4. Assessing The Potential Of Stratospheric Balloons For Planteary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments in high altitude balloon platform capabilities, specifically long duration flights in excess of 50 days at over 100,000 ft and precision pointing with performance at the arc sec level or better have raised the question whether this platform can be utilized for high-value planetary science observations. In January of 2012 a workshop was held at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Oh to explore what planetary science can be achieved utilizing such a platform. Over 40 science concepts were identified by the scientists and engineers attending the workshop. Those ideas were captured and then posted to a public website for all interested planetary scientists to review and comment on. The results of the workshop, and subsequent community review, have demonstrated that this platform appears to have potential for high-value science at very competitive costs. Given these positive results, the assessment process was extended to include 1) examining, in more detail, the requirements for the gondola platform and the mission scenarios 2) identifying technical challenges and 3) developing one or more platform concepts in enough fidelity to enable accurate estimating of development and mission costs. Upon completion, assessment results will be provided to NASA’s planetary science division to help them determine whether to embark on science efforts utilizing this platform. The poster will provide the current status of the assessment efforts.

  5. Assessing the potential of stratospheric balloons for planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, T.; Hibbitts, K.; Young, E.; Landis, R.; Noll, K.; Baines, K.

    Recent developments in high altitude balloon platform capabilities, specifically long duration flights in excess of 50 days at over 100,000 ft and precision pointing with performance at the arc sec level or better have raised the question whether this platform can be utilized for high-value planetary science observations. In January of 2012 a workshop was held at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio to explore what planetary science can be achieved utilizing such a platform. Over 40 science concepts were identified by the scientists and engineers attending the workshop. Those ideas were captured and then posted to a public website for all interested planetary scientists to review and give their comments. The results of the workshop, and subsequent community review, have demonstrated that this platform appears to have potential for high-value science at very competitive costs. Given these positive results, the assessment process was extended to include 1) examining, in more detail, the requirements for the gondola platform and the mission scenarios 2) identifying technical challenges and 3) developing one or more platform concepts in enough fidelity to enable accurate estimating of development and mission costs. This paper provides a review of the assessment, a summary of the achievable science and the challenges to make that science a reality with this platform.

  6. Drive Mechanisms for Peeling-Ballooning Modes and Implications for Kinetic Ballooning Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunniss, Amelia; Wilson, Howard; Snyder, Phil

    2015-11-01

    The EPED model of the H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas combines a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) criterion for the critical pressure gradient with a non-local peeling-ballooning (P-B) mode stability criterion to provide an integrated picture of pedestal structure and ELMs. Employing a set of model tokamak equilibria with pedestal gradients constrained by the KBM criterion, we explore the P-B stability for different pedestal widths. The narrowest widths, corresponding to early in the ELM cycle, are stable. Once a critical width is realised, an intermediate-n P-B mode is destabilised, which we show to be driven by a combination of the kink and curvature contributions to δW, exceeding field line bending. Although formally of O(n-1) , we show that the kink term survives to very large n because of steep current density gradients in the pedestal. This kink term is not presently retained in gyro-kinetic codes, but may be important for an accurate prediction of the KBM stability criterion in realistic low collisionality tokamak pedestals. This project has received part funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  7. 椎体成形术或后凸成形术生物活性充填材料的体内降解%The degradation of bioactive bone cement for vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪松; 陈晓庆; 陈春茂; 王根林; 顾勇; 耿德春; 张志明; 杨惠林

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察磷酸钙骨水泥(CPC)和硫酸钙骨水泥(CSC)在椎体内的演变过程,为椎体成形术或后凸成形术中寻找更为合适的充填材料.方法 对24只成年雌性绵羊的L2~L5椎体制作骨缺损,随机注入CPC、CSC和聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA),其中剩余的椎体作为空白对照,并以L6椎体作正常对照.术后2周、12周和24周分别随机处死其中8只绵羊,进行大体观察、生物力学测试、不脱钙组织学分析.结果 CSC组和CPC组椎体被填充材料明显增强,但CSC组椎体力学性能自2~12周呈现下降趋势,而到24周时又出现回升.CPC组椎体力学性能自2~24周呈上升趋势.12周时3组新骨形成量差异不明显,CSC已被大部分吸收;植入24周时新骨形成量CSC组>空白组>CPC组,CPC出现了明显的吸收,而CSC仅有少量残留.结论 CSC与CPC初期均能明显增强椎体;随着时间的推移,CSC在体内降解迅速,而CPC在体内降解缓慢.%Objective To observe the degradation of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) and calcium sulfate cement (CSC) in vertebras, and explore the ideal filler for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.Methods Bone voids were created in L2-L5 vertebras of 24 female mature sheep. CPC, CSC and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were injected into one bone void randomly, and the remaining voids served as the blank control, and L6 vertebra served as the normal control. Eight sheep were sacrificed at the 2nd,12th and 24th week after operation randomly. Gross observation, biomechanical test and undecalcified bone histology analyses were performed. Results Biomechanical analysis showed that the vertebras could be augmented by CPC and CSC. The mechanical properties of CSC group were decreased from the 2nd to 12th week, and increased from the 12th to 24th week after operation. The mechanical properties of CPC group were increased from the 2nd to 24th week, however, but lower than PMMA group. Histology analysis revealed CSC was mostly

  8. Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Early Biliary Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Successful Initial and Mid-Term Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial and mid-term outcomes of transhepatic balloon dilatation for the treatment of early biliary strictures in lateral left-segment liver transplants in young children.Methods: Between April 1997 and May 2001, seven children aged 9 months to 6 years with nine benign strictures in left-segment liver grafts were treated percutaneously. Sessions of two or three dilations were performed three or four times at average intervals of 10-20 days. In each session, the biliary stenoses were gradually dilated using balloons of 3-7 mm. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 54 months (mean 27 months, median 12 months). Clinical success was defined as resolution of the stenosis, normalization of liver enzymes and lack of clinical symptoms. Results: Technical success was achieved in all nine strictures. Hemobilia occurred in one patient and was successfully treated. On follow-up, all patients had complete clinical recovery with normalization of liver function and imaging of patent bile ducts. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation is an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of early biliary strictures in left-segment liver transplantation in young children. We recommend this approach as the initial treatment for early strictures. Metal stents or surgery should be reserved for patients with late appearance of strictures or failure of balloon dilatation

  9. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.

    2009-01-01

    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  10. Complexity Analysis of Balloon Drawing for Rooted Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Poon, Sheung-Hung; Fan, Jia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    In a balloon drawing of a tree, all the children under the same parent are placed on the circumference of the circle centered at their parent, and the radius of the circle centered at each node along any path from the root reflects the number of descendants associated with the node. Among various styles of tree drawings reported in the literature, the balloon drawing enjoys a desirable feature of displaying tree structures in a rather balanced fashion. For each internal node in a balloon drawing, the ray from the node to each of its children divides the wedge accommodating the subtree rooted at the child into two sub-wedges. Depending on whether the two sub-wedge angles are required to be identical or not, a balloon drawing can further be divided into two types: even sub-wedge and uneven sub-wedge types. In the most general case, for any internal node in the tree there are two dimensions of freedom that affect the quality of a balloon drawing: (1) altering the order in which the children of the node appear in...

  11. Restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ming-Hua Li; Ren-Jie Yang; Hui-Zhen Zhang; Zai-Xian Ding; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Ke-Zhong Shang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.METHODS: A total of 49 rats with esophageal stenosis were induced in 70 rats using 5 ml of 50 % sodium hydroxide solution and the double-balloon method, and an esophageal restenosis (RS) model was developed by esophageal stenosis using dilation of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon catheter. These 49 rats were divided into two groups: rats with benign esophageal stricture caused by chemical burn only (control group, n=21) and rats with their esophageal stricture treated with balloon catheter dilation (experimental group, n=28). Imaging analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses of esophageal stenosis and RS formation in the rats, respectively.RESULTS: Cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the esophageal mucosa layer, muscle layer, and the entire esophageal layers increased significantly in the experimental group compared with the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was expressed on the 5th day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month. Fibronectin (FN)was expressed on the 1st day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month.CONCLUSION: Expression of PCNA and FN plays an important role in RS after balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.

  12. Development of Ultra-Thin Polyethylene Balloons for High Altitude Research upto Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Suneel; Nagendra, N.; Ojha, D. K.; Peter, G. Stalin; Vasudevan, R.; Anand, D.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Reddy, V. Anmi; Rao, T. V.; Sreenivasan, S.

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 μm for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000-gram rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenization of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 μm for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere to meet the needs of user scientists working in the area of atmospheric dynamics commenced in 2011. Pursuant to the successful trials with 61,000-m3 balloon made of 3.8-μm Antrix film reaching stratopause (48 km) for the first time in the history of balloon facility in the year 2012, fine tuning of launch parameters like percentage free lift was carried out to take the same volume balloons to higher mesospheric altitudes. Three successful flights with a total suspended load of 10 kg using 61,000-m3 balloons were carried out in the month of January 2014 and all the three balloons crossed into the mesosphere reaching altitudes of over 51 km. All the balloons flown so far are closed system with no escape ducts. Balloon fabrication, development of launch hardware, flight control instruments and launch technique for these mesospheric balloon flights are discussed in this paper.

  13. New Heights with High-Altitude Balloon Launches for Effective Student Learning and Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Dailey, J. F.; Takehara, D.; Krueger, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Over a seven-year period Taylor University, an undergraduate liberal art school, has successfully launched and recovered over 200 sophisticated student payloads to altitudes between 20-33 km (100% success with rapid recovery) with flight times between 2 to 6 hrs. All of the payloads included two GPS tracking systems, cameras and monitors, a 110 kbit down link, an uplink command capability for educational experiments (K-12 and undergrad). Launches were conducted during the day and night, with multiple balloons, with up to 10 payloads for experiments, and under varying weather and upper atmospheric conditions. The many launches in a short period of time allowed the payload bus design to evolve toward increased performance, reliability, standardization, simplicity, and modularity for low-cost launch services. Through NSF and NASA grants, the program has expanded leading to over 50 universities trained at workshops to implement high altitude balloon launches in the classroom. A spin-off company (StraoStar Systems LLC) now sells the high-altitude balloon system and facilitates networking between schools. This high-altitude balloon program helps to advance knowledge and understanding across disciplines by giving students and faculty rapid and low-cost access to earth/ecology remote sensing from high altitude, insitu and limb atmospheric measurements, near-space stratosphere measurements, and IR/UV/cosmic ray access to the heavens. This new capability is possible by exposing students to recent advances in MEMS technology, nanotechnology, wireless telecommunication systems, GPS, DSPs and other microchip miniaturizations to build learning outcomes. Furthermore this program has generated many front page news reports along with significant TV coverage because of its connection to hands-on learning for students and adults of all ages, connection to understanding climate change and ways to mitigate global warming, and the excitement of taking measurements in a much uncharted

  14. Cifoplastia no tratamento da fratura vertebral por insuficiência: avaliação funcional prospectiva Cifoplastia en el tratamiento de la fractura vertebral por insuficiencia: evaluación funcional prospectiva Kyphoplasty in the treatment of vertebral compression fracture: prospective functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeu Ribeiro Coutinho Filho

    2011-01-01

    located in the thoracolumbar spine. METHODS: Prospective study in which adult patients diagnosed with vertebral compression fracture with a course over eight weeks, with pain at the fracture site and bone edema evident by MRI imaging were identified and evaluated for the study. The functional evaluation was performed through the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 and Visual Analogue Scale of Pain pre- and postoperatively. The personal satisfaction with treatment was measured by the scale of Johnson. RESULTS: A significant improvement in pain with an average fall of 6.4 points in the Visual Analogue Scale of Pain at the end of twelve months of follow-up compared to preoperatively (p < 00.5. The functional evaluation showed 88% excellent or good results, with seven patients (41% with excellent results and eight patients (47% with good results. Two patients (12% maintained their functional assessment unchanged. As to the subjective degree of satisfaction, 82% said they were satisfied, and of those, 59% were completely satisfied and 23% satisfied with minimal restrictions. Three patients (18% reported being dissatisfied with the outcome of the procedure. CONCLUSION: Kyphoplasty has proven effective in improving the function and relieving the pain in patients with vertebral compression fracture. The occurrence of a serious complication (AMI calls attention to the need for proper hospital care during the procedure.

  15. High-n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic study of stability against high-n ballooning modes is highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. - From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that local shear has an important effect on the stability of elongated plasmas, and that stability deteriorates through high elongation since the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear are reduced. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation for strong ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). - The computational study of high-n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for βsub(p) less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for βsub(p) larger than unity. (author)

  16. Review of the British scientific sounding rocket and balloon programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the UK scientific sounding rocket programmes which have utilised Skylarks for 21 years, Petrels for 10 years and Fulmars for 2 years. The SRC's ongoing programme is now based on the Petrel and Fulmar rockets, and approved proposals by 5 UK scientific groups covering 1978 and 1979 are outlined. The British scientific balloon programme, which serves 14 scientific groups within UK universities, involves a planned 10 flights per annum using balloons of 3 M cu ft to 31 M cu ft capacity and payloads up to 2 tons in weight. The review outlines the balloon programme of flights planned mainly from Palestine in Texas and Alice Springs/Mildura in Australia. (author)

  17. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  18. Dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-11-01

    Electromechanical instability, a significant phenomenon in dielectric elastomers, has been well studied in the literature. However, most previous work was based on the assumption that dielectric elastomers undergo quasi-static deformation. This letter investigates the dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon which renders four types of oscillation subject to a parametric combination of DC and AC voltages. The simulated oscillations show that dynamic electromechanical instability occurs within quite a large range of excitation frequency, in the form of snap-through or snap-back, when the DC and AC voltages reach critical values. The balloon is at its most susceptible to dynamic electromechanical instability when the superharmonic, harmonic or subharmonic resonance is excited. Taking all excitation parameters into account, this letter analyzes the global critical condition which triggers the dynamic electromechanical instability of the balloon.

  19. Popping balloons: formation of a crack network in rubber membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulinet, Sebastien; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Equipe Morphogenèse et phénomènes multi-échelle Team

    2015-03-01

    Everyone can make the observation: a rubber balloon inflated until it spontaneously pop breaks into a large number of shreds. In contrast, a balloon pierced with a needle at an early stage of its inflation breaks into two large pieces. Using model latex balloons, we have experimentally investigated the transition between these two breaking regimes. We have showed that, above a threshold stress in the latex membrane, a single crack become unstable and separates into two new cracks. Then, a cascade of tip-splitting generates a network of cracks that eventually form a large number of fragments. We have observed that the instability of the crack occurs when it reaches a limit velocity that could the speed of sound. By studying the energy balance during the explosion, we can determine the intrinsic fracture energy of rubber, a measurement difficult to achieve with usual tensile testing.

  20. Extrusion process optimization for toughness in balloon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, K. M.; Harrison, I. R.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental optimization process for blown film extrusion is described and examined in terms of the effects of the technique on the toughness of balloon films. The optimization technique by Cantor (1990) is employed which involves the identification of key process variables including screw speed, nip speed, bubble diameter, and frost-line height for analysis to optimize the merit function. The procedure is employed in the extrusion of a low-density polyethylene polymer, and the resulting optimized materials are toughness- and puncture-tested. Balloon toughness is optimized in the analytical relationship, and the process parameters are modified to attain optimal toughness. The film produced is shown to have an average toughness of 24.5 MPa which is a good value for this key property of balloon materials for high-altitude flights.

  1. Tokamak resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning instability in the negative shear regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bing-Ren; Lin Jian-Long; Li Ji-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Improved confinement of tokamak plasma with central negative shear is checked against the resistive ballooning mode. In the negative shear regime, the plasma is always unstable for purely growing resistive ballooning mode. For a simplest tokamak equilibrium model, the s-α model, characteristics of this kind of instability are fully clarified by numerically solving the high n resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning eigen-equation. Dependences of the growth rate on the resistivity, the absolute shear value, the pressure gradient are scanned in detail. It is found that the growth rate is a monotonically increasing function of a while it is not sensitive to the changes of the shear s, the initial phase θ0 and the resistivity parameter εR.

  2. Pre-test prediction and post-test analysis of PWR fuel rod ballooning in the MT-3 in-pile LOCA simulation experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USNRC and the UKAEA have jointly funded a series of in-pile LOCA simulation experiments in the Canadian NRU reactor in order to secure further information on the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation response of PWR fuel rod bundles. Test MT-3 in the series was performed using reflood rate and rod internal pressure conditions specified by the UK nuclear industry. The parameters were selected to ensure the development of a near-isothermal clad temperature history during which zircaloy was required to balloon and rupture near the alpha-alpha/beta phase transition. Specification of the reflood rate conditions was assisted by the performance of a precursor test on an unpressurised rod bundle and by complementary application of appropriate thermal hydraulic analyses. Identification of the rod internal pressure needed to cause ballooning and rupture was achieved using a creep deformation model, BALLOON, in conjunction with the clad thermal history defined by the prior thermal hydraulic test. This paper presents the basis of the BALLOON analysis and describes its application in calculating the fill gas pressure for rods MT-3, their axial ballooning profile and the clad temperature at peak radial strain elevations. (author)

  3. Balloon vetebroplasty with calcium phosphate cement augmentation for direct restoration of traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, JJ; van Helden, WH; Oner, FC; Verbout, AJ; Dhert, WJA

    2002-01-01

    Study Design. A human cadaveric model was used to evaluate balloon vertebroplasty in traumatic vertebral fractures. Objectives. To assess the feasibility and safety of balloon vertebroplasty followed by calcium phosphate cement augmentation to prevent recurrent kyphosis. Summary of Background Data.

  4. To sail the skies of Mars - Scientific ballooning on the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric J.; Burke, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons represent a novel approach to exploring the surface of Mars. One promising aerostat system incorporates a solar-powered balloon as a means of generating diurnally varying lift and so can 'hop' across the surface, obtaining detailed information at a large number of sites. Two important areas of research and testing are underway on solar balloon technology and balloon payload design. The solar balloon concept has been demonstrated on earth, but more work is needed on a 'flyable' version for Mars. Particular attention must be paid to radiation heat transfer and aerodynamic effects. A special 'snake' payload concept has been demonstrated that allows for balloon system traverses of the surface and provides a usable instrument platform. A balloon system of this type could obtain unique surface imaging and physical and chemical data. The flight of the balloon also provides in situ atmospheric boundary-layer and circulation measurements.

  5. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  6. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-speed, high-capacity digital data storage system has been developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates sophisticated, yet easy to use and economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts

  7. Testing in a stratospheric balloon of a semiconductor detector altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An altimeter containing a semiconductor detector has been operated on flight. We have used a stratospheric balloon launched from AIRE-SUR-ADOUR with the C.N.E.S. collaboration. During this assay two apparatus have been used. The first allowed to follow the balloon during its ascension and descent, the second to follow its evolution at its maximum altitude. Informations transmitted by radio and recorded on Magnetophon, have been studied after the flight. Results are identical with these given by the barometer used by the C.N.E.S. in this essay. (authors)

  8. Nonlinear simulation of resistive ballooning modes in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear simulations of a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) plasma in full three-dimensional geometry of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are conducted to study nonlinear evolution of pressure-driven instabilities. A series of simulations for a resistive plasma shows growth of resistive ballooning instability. The growth rate of the most unstable resistive ballooning mode is shown to be proportional to the one-third power of the resistivity. Nonlinear saturation of the instability and its slow decay are observed. After the nonlinear saturation, the pressure takes a profile similar to so-called pedestal. A possible scenario of nonlinear relaxation of a plasma toward a new equilibrated state is discussed. (author)

  9. Polymer blends for LDB applications. [Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichkus, Andrew M.; Harrison, Ian R.

    1991-01-01

    A series of LCP/PE blends have been studied to determine the potential of such systems to produce a high modulus balloon film material which retains the balloon fabrication and low temperature flight advantages of the current PE films. Blown films of blends of 5 and 15 percent LCP in PE have been produced which show a 28 percent enhancement in modulus over the neat PE matrix. These results are substantially lower than anticipated and are explained in terms of the LCP reinforcement aspect ratio and fibril diameter.

  10. BETTII: The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII),8oeight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks io young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  11. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline provides subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  12. AIAA Educator Academy: The Space Weather Balloon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmier, B.; Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based science and engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude balloon equipped with HD cameras.The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The payload is located using the GPS device. In April 2012, the Space Weather Balloon team conducted a prototype field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. To better assist teachers in implementing one or more of these Curriculum Modules, teacher workshops are held to give teachers a hands-on look at how this curriculum is used in the classroom. And, to provide further support, teachers are each

  13. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Manzoor, S; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Togo, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  14. Aerodynamic Design of a Propeller for High-Altitude Balloon Trajectory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Richard; Somers, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a propeller for the trajectory control of a high-altitude, scientific balloon has been performed using theoretical methods developed especially for such applications. The methods are described. Optimum, nonlinear chord and twist distributions have been developed in conjunction with the design of a family of airfoils, the SE403, SE404, and SE405, for the propeller. The very low Reynolds numbers along the propeller blade fall in a range that has yet to be rigorously investigated, either experimentally or theoretically.

  15. AIRWATCH from SPACE: preliminary results from lab. measurements and from balloon background observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, S.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Linsley, J.; Maccarone, M. C.; Sacco, B.; Scarsi, L.; AIRWATCH Collaboration

    1998-12-01

    In the framework of the AIRWATCH from SPACE mission, measurements of efficiency of UV yield, in air and in Nitrogen, have been performed using X-ray photons of 22 keV at the LAX X-Ray Beam Facility in Palermo. Results are reported and discussed. The nightglow has been observed with the instrument dubbed BABY (BAckground BYpass) from an altitude of 26 Km during a balloon flight from the Trapani-Milo Base in Sicily. Data profile are presented, showing the difference between over-land and over-sea detector exposition in the range of 300-400 nanometers.

  16. Development and demonstration flight of a fuel cell system for high-altitude balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Shimada, Takanobu; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Saito, Yoshitaka [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Ariyama, Yusuke; Fukuzawa, Naoya; Noguchi, Daisuke [Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Ogawa, Keita [Advanced Engineering Services, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0032 (Japan); Naito, Hitoshi [Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2009-09-05

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell offers higher energy density than the existing battery technologies for high-energy applications, and it is a promising power source for various industries including aerospace vehicles. We have been developing and testing a non-external humidified fuel cell system for high-altitude balloons, which require simple, light, and easy-to-operate power systems. This system consists of three major subsystems - a fuel cell stack, a reactant supply subsystem, and an electrical control subsystem. Ground performance testing in a vacuum chamber simulating the high-altitude vacuum condition was performed before the flight. Then, a demonstration flight of the fuel cell system was launched using a large balloon for verifying its performance under practical high-altitude conditions. Cell voltage variations synchronized with oxygen pressure spikes were observed that were probably caused by condensed product water plugging the flow passages of the back pressure regulator. Flight results indicated that the fuel cell system operated better when water was expelled as vapor, rather than in the liquid form. In addition, a back pressure regulator should be installed to avoid the accumulation of water droplets for realizing a stable performance. (author)

  17. Three dimensional intravascular ultrasonic assessment of the local mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Costa (Marco); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); K. Kozuma (Ken); A.L. Gaster; M. Sabaté (Manel); I.P. Kay (Ian Patrick); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); P. Thayssen; M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); D.P. Foley (David); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty. DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENTS: 13 patients treated with balloon angioplasty. INTERVENTIONS: 111 coronary subsegments (2 mm each) were analysed after balloon angioplasty and at a six month follow up using th

  18. Long-term follow-up after embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with detachable silicone balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2007-01-01

    ) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not...

  19. Critical appraisal of paclitaxel balloon angioplasty for femoral–popliteal arterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Monika; Torsello, Giovanni B; Schönefeld, Eva; Stahlhoff, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease, particularly critical limb ischemia, is an area with urgent need for optimized therapies because, to date, vascular interventions often have limited life spans. In spite of initial encouraging technical success after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting, postprocedural restenosis remains the major problem. The challenging idea behind the drug-coated balloon (DCB) concept is the biological modification of the injury response after balloon dilatation. Antiproliferative drugs administered via DCBs or drug-eluting stents are able to suppress neointimal hyperplasia, the main cause of restenosis. This article reviews the results of DCB treatments of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal lesions in comparison to standard angioplasty with uncoated balloons. A systematic literature search was performed in 1) medical journals (ie, MEDLINE), 2) international registers for clinical studies (ie, www.clinicaltrials.gov), and 3) abstracts of scientific sessions. Several controlled randomized trials with follow-up periods of up to 5 years demonstrated the efficacy of paclitaxel –DCB technology. However, calcified lesions seem to affect the efficacy of DCB. Combinations of preconditioning methods with DCBs showed promising results. Although the mechanical abrasion of calcium via atherectomy or laser ablation showed favorable periprocedural results, the long-term impact on restenosis and clinical outcome has to be demonstrated. Major advantages of the DCBs are the rapid delivery of drug at uniform concentrations with a single dose, their efficacy in areas wherein stents have been contraindicated until now (ie, bifurcation, ostial lesions), and in leaving no stent scaffold behind. Reinterventions are easier to perform because DCBs leave no metal behind. Various combinations of DCBs with other treatment modalities may prove to be viable options in future. The follow-up results of clinical studies will evaluate the long

  20. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  1. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  2. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia de Freitas Brandao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results Intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the I 1 and I 2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the I 1 and I 2 infiltration zones. Conclusion Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones.

  3. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /1 and /2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /1 and /2 infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  4. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-In; Hwang, Shin; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  5. A cooled intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during endocardial surgical radiofrequency ablation of the left atrium: a finite element study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berjano, Enrique J [Center for Research and Innovation on Bioengineering, Valencia Polytechnic University, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Hornero, Fernando [Cardiac Surgery Department, Valencia University General Hospital, Avd Tres Cruces s/n, 46014, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-10-21

    Recent clinical studies on intraoperative monopolar radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation have reported some cases of injury to the esophagus. The aim of this study was to perform computer simulations using three-dimensional finite element models in order to investigate the feasibility of a cooled intraesophageal balloon appropriately placed to prevent injury. The models included atrial tissue and a fragment of esophagus and lung linked by connective tissue. The lesion depth in the esophagus was assessed using a 50 deg. C isotherm and expressed as a percentage of thickness of the esophageal wall. The results are as follows: (1) chilling the esophagus by means of a cooled balloon placed in the lumen minimizes the lesion in the esophageal wall compared to the cases in which no balloon is used (a collapsed esophagus) and with a non-cooled balloon; (2) the temperature of the cooling fluid has a more significant effect on the minimization of the lesion than the rate of cooling (the thermal transfer coefficient for forced convection); and (3) pre-cooling periods previous to RF ablation do not represent a significant improvement. Finally, the results also suggest that the use of a cooled balloon could affect the transmurality of the atrial lesion, especially in the cases where the atrium is of considerable thickness. (note)

  6. A cooled intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during endocardial surgical radiofrequency ablation of the left atrium: a finite element study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent clinical studies on intraoperative monopolar radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation have reported some cases of injury to the esophagus. The aim of this study was to perform computer simulations using three-dimensional finite element models in order to investigate the feasibility of a cooled intraesophageal balloon appropriately placed to prevent injury. The models included atrial tissue and a fragment of esophagus and lung linked by connective tissue. The lesion depth in the esophagus was assessed using a 50 deg. C isotherm and expressed as a percentage of thickness of the esophageal wall. The results are as follows: (1) chilling the esophagus by means of a cooled balloon placed in the lumen minimizes the lesion in the esophageal wall compared to the cases in which no balloon is used (a collapsed esophagus) and with a non-cooled balloon; (2) the temperature of the cooling fluid has a more significant effect on the minimization of the lesion than the rate of cooling (the thermal transfer coefficient for forced convection); and (3) pre-cooling periods previous to RF ablation do not represent a significant improvement. Finally, the results also suggest that the use of a cooled balloon could affect the transmurality of the atrial lesion, especially in the cases where the atrium is of considerable thickness. (note)

  7. Long Duration Balloon flights development. (Italian Space Agency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterzen, S.; Masi, S.; Dragoy, P.; Ibba, R.; Spoto, D.

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, earth observations, near space research and commercial component testing, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78º N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennial oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultra-light payloads and TM systems ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program. This paper discusses the development of the launch facilities and international LDB development.

  8. [Expansion dilatation balloons for cervical ripening in obstetric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducarme, G; Grange, J; Vital, M

    2016-02-01

    During recent decades, mechanical devices have been substituted by pharmacological methods. Their place in the therapeutic arsenal remains important with a renewed obstetrical interest for these devices. Due to a lack of data they are still not recommended as first-line. This review thus attempted to examine the use of expansion dilatation balloons (Foley catheter and double-balloons) to analyze their effectiveness in case of native uterus and previous cesarean section. Twenty-seven clinical trials had compared balloons catheter and prostaglandins in patients without a history of uterine scar. The risk of cesarean section did not differ. Mechanical methods seemed to be more effective in achieving delivery within 24hours, with fewer episodes of excessive uterine contractions, but they necessitated more oxytocin during labor. Ten clinical trials analyzed dilatation balloons in patients with previous cesarean section. More than 70% women had favorable cervical ripening (Bishop score>6), and vaginal delivery was reported between 35 and 70% of patients. The risk of uterine rupture was low between 0.64 and 0.72%, with neither increased risk of severe neonatal and maternal morbidity nor increased risk of infectious morbidity. Mechanical methods are effective and safe for third trimester cervical ripening, mainly in women with previous cesarean section. Potential advantages may include wide availability and reduction of some of the side effects. PMID:26774842

  9. High-Altitude Balloon Observatories for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. P.; Tibor, K.; Cheng, A. F.; Hibbitts, C.; Young, E. F.; Andrews, J.; Landis, R.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that progress can be made on over 20% of the key questions called out in the current Planetary Science Decadal Survey by a high-altitude balloon borne observatory. Therefore NASA has been assessing concepts for a gondola based observatory that would achieve the most possible science in a low risk and cost effective manner. As a first application of the concept, a stratospheric balloon mission to observe the newly discovered comet ISON is being developed and planned to fly in late 2013. This flight will demonstrate some of the characteristic features of balloon borne observatories and how those impact planetary science observations. That flight will result in mission proven instrument payloads which can be applied to future flights and science investigations. This paper documents the current status of stratospheric balloon applications to planetary science and some of the contributions that BRRISON will provide for a potential future planetary observatory system. The paper will also discuss the science benefits to be expected if larger aperture telescopes are flown, better pointing systems are realized, or different instruments are utilized with the telescopes. The paper concludes with a high level summary of ways to interface and utilize the potential platform for the readers own scientific interests.

  10. Meshed-Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Yavrouian, Andre

    2003-01-01

    An improved, lightweight design has been proposed for super-pressure balloons used to carry scientific instruments at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Earth for times as long as 100 days. [A super-pressure balloon is one in which the pressure of the buoyant gas (typically, helium) is kept somewhat above ambient pressure in order to maintain approximately constant density and thereby regulate the altitude.] The proposed design, called "meshed pumpkin," incorporates the basic concept of the pumpkin design, which is so named because of its appearance. The pumpkin design entails less weight than does a spherical design, and the meshed-pumpkin design would reduce weight further. The basic idea of the meshed-pumpkin design is to reinforce the membrane of a pumpkin balloon by attaching a strong, lightweight fabric mesh to its outer surface. The reinforcement would make it possible to reduce the membrane mass to one-third or less of that of the basic pumpkin design while retaining sufficient strength to enable the balloon to remain at approximately constant altitude for months.

  11. [Intra-graft balloon pumping--a clinical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, M; Tashiro, T; Tanaka, K; Haruta, Y; Todo, K

    1991-12-01

    A 29-year-old female underwent tube graft replacement of distal aortic arch and descending aorta for dissecting aneurysm. After 42 minutes of aortic cross-clamping the patient was initially weaned satisfactorily from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest necessitated reestablishment of CPB. Electro-cardiography showed inferior myocardial infarction. To wean CPB intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was mandatory. But because of dissecting aortic aneurysm IABP in conventional method was contra-indicated. Intra graft balloon pumping (IGBP) was initiated while the patient was on full CPB. A low-porosity woven Dacron tube graft (22 mm) was anastomosed end-to-side to ascending aorta. A balloon was inserted into the tube graft to establish IGBP. This IGBP provided effective circulatory assist. The patient was weaned from CPB 1 hours after reestablishment of IGBP. Postoperative course was stable. The patient was returned to the operating room for removal of the balloon 3 days postoperatively. We reported the case for whom IGBP was effective. IGBP was effective circulatory support for the patient when conventional use of IABP was contra-indicated. PMID:1774515

  12. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Satoru; Group, for the Emulsion Gamma-ray Telescope

    2010-01-01

    By detecting the beginning of electron pairs with nuclear emulsion, precise gamma-ray direction and gamma-ray polarization can be detected. With recent advancement in emulsion scanning system, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming powerful. Now we are developing the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion. Overview and status of our telescope is described.

  13. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20546-0001 (202-358-0168). On the Internet at: http://sites.wff.nasa... and draft FONSI on the Internet; 4. Consultations with Federal, State, and local agencies; and 5... positive economic impact each year during balloon campaigns at CSBF Fort Sumner from the purchase of...

  14. Using Hydrogen Balloons to Display Metal Ion Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, James H.

    2008-01-01

    We have optimized a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products. We report air quality measurements in a lecture hall immediately after the demonstration. While we recommend that this demonstration be done outdoors or in…

  15. Intervention with rotational atherectomy, sharp balloon and implant of conventional Stent in ostium lesion of right coronary artery, calcified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic lesions from the right coronary artery ostium have a low incidence in the manifestation of coronary disease. The high content of smooth muscle cells in the coronary ostium is related to a low success probability of a percutaneous intervention. We present a clinical complex case of a 61 years old female with right coronary artery ostium disease to whom we performed an angioplasty with cutting balloon and rotational arterectomy with successful results

  16. A Case of Blind Loop Syndrome Caused by Infection with Giardia duodenalis Diagnosed with Double Balloon Enteroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Mandai, Yasushi; Saito, Masaya; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Saito, Keiko; Minemura, Shoko; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 75-year-old man who had undergone partial gastrectomy was referred to our hospital due to worsening leg edema, loose stools and malnutrition. Double balloon enteroscopy followed by insertion of an indwelling ileus tube was performed to investigate the microbial flora and for washing inside the blind loop. Trophozoites of Giardia were detected in the sampled fluid from the blind loop and DNA analysis disclosed an assemblage of genotype A-II of Giardia duodenalis. Treatment with oral metronid...

  17. Assessment of the "long sheath" technique for percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, S; Beatt, K J; van den Brand, M; Di Mario, C; Meier, B; Serruys, P W

    1990-02-01

    A 100 cm-long 16.5 F valvuloplasty catheter introducer was assessed as an adjunct for percutaneous transluminal aortic valvuloplasty (PTAV) via the femoral artery in 31 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Observed improvements in peak systolic gradient (81.6 +/- 29.9 mm Hg vs. 35.5 +/- 16.0 mm Hg, P less than 0.000001) and aortic valve area (0.6 +/- 0.4 cm2 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.6 cm2, P less than 0.00001) were similar to those achieved in a control group (C) of 17 patients in which no femoral sheath was used. However, a shorter procedure duration (211 +/- 81 min vs. 117 +/- 30 min, P less than 0.001) and a reduced rate of vascular complications at the femoral puncture site (41% vs. 6.5%) were observed in patients in whom the long sheath (LS) technique was used. The frequency of other PTAV-related complications was comparable (C = 35%, LS = 29%, P = n.s.). Other technical advantages of this device are: 1) prevention of looping and bending of the balloon catheter in tortuous vessels and easy positioning of the balloon across the aortic orifice provided by the LS trackability, 2) stabilisation of the balloon during inflation, 3) monitoring of supravalvular aortic pressure provided by the side-arm of the LS and reliable measurement of systolic gradient, and 4) the ability to perform aortograms without the need of another catheter in the ascending aorta. Thus, in our experience, the long sheath technique is a valuable adjunct for PTAV. PMID:2306775

  18. Simple balloon dilation for drug-eluting in-stent restenosis: An optical coherent tomography analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikawa, Ryo [Division of Cardiology, Tenyoukai Central Hospital, Izumi-cho, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hyamaguchi@tsm.bbiq.jp [Division of Cardiology, Tenyoukai Central Hospital, Izumi-cho, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Takaoka, Junichiro; Miyamura, Akihiro; Atsuchi, Nobuhiko; Ninomiya, Toshiko; Atsuchi, Yoshihiko [Division of Cardiology, Tenyoukai Central Hospital, Izumi-cho, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohishi, Mitsuru [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Hypertension, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan); Terashima, Mitsuyasu [Department of Cardiology, Toyohashi Heart Center, Toyohashi (Japan); Kaneda, Hideaki [Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Although drug-eluting stent (DES) has significantly reduced restenosis, the treatment of DES-in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a challenge with high restenosis rate. Methods: We examined whether morphologic appearance of restenosis tissue by optical coherent tomography (OCT) had an impact on outcomes after balloon angioplasty for DES-ISR. The morphologic appearance of restenosis tissue was qualitatively assessed for tissue structures such as homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous patterns. Results: Using OCT, 50 patients with DES-ISR were divided into 2 groups: 25 lesions with homogeneous or layered patterns (homo/layered group) and 25 lesions with heterogeneous patterns (hetero group). Acute gain was larger in the hetero group (1.33 ± 0.41 mm vs. 1.06 ± 0.32 mm in the homo/layered group, P = 0.03). On intravascular ultrasound analysis, post-procedural percent neointimal area was smaller in the hetero group (27.4 ± 9.2% vs. 34.0 ± 11.2% in the homo/layered group, P = 0.05). Angiographic follow-up was performed in 37 lesions (74%). Follow-up minimal lumen diameter was larger in the hetero group (1.75 ± 0.89 mm vs. 1.01 ± 0.81 mm in the homo/layered group, P = 0.04). Target lesion revascularization rates tended to be lower in the hetero group (20% vs. 43% in the homo/layered group, P = 0.12). Conclusions: Balloon angioplasty was more effective for DES-ISR with heterogeneous tissue appearance than DES-ISR with homogeneous/layered tissue appearance. OCT assessment of DES-ISR morphology may be a useful adjunct in determining clinical strategies. Simple balloon dilatation is a possible treatment strategy for DES-ISR lesions with a heterogeneous appearance on OCT images.

  19. Double-balloon endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of GI tract diseases: Methodology, indications, safety, and clinical impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuya Akahoshi; Masaru Kubokawa; Masahiro Matsumoto; Shingo Endo; Yasuaki Motomura; Jiro Ouchi; Mitsuhide Kimura; Atsuhiko Murata; Michiaki Murayama

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively evaluate the indications, methodology, safety, and clinical impact of double-balloon endoscopy.METHODS: A total of 60 patients with suspected or documented small- or large-bowel diseases were investigated by double balloon endoscopy. A total of 103 procedures were performed (42 from the oral route, 60 from the anal route, and 1 from the stoma route). The main outcome measurements were the time of insertion and the entire examination, complications, diagnostic yields,and the ability to successfully perform treatment.RESULTS: Observation of the entire small intestine was possible in 10 (40%) of 25 patients with total enteroscopy. The median insertion time was 122 min (range,74-199 min). Observation of the entire colon was possibie in 13 (93%) of 14 patients after failure of total colonoscopy using a conventional colonoscope. Small-intestine abnormalities were found in 20 (43%) of 46 patients with indications of suspected or documented small bowel diseases, obscure GI tract bleeding, or a history of ileus.Endoscopic procedures including tattooing (n = 33), bite biopsy (n = 17), radiographic examination (n = 7), EUS (n = 5), hemostasis (n = 1), polypectomy (n = 5), balloon dilatation (n = 1), endoscopic mucosal resection (n = 1)and lithotripsy (n = 1) were all successfully performed.No relevant technical problems or severe complications were encountered.CONCLUSION: Double balloon endoscopy is a feasible technique that allows adequate small and large bowel examination and potentially various endoscopic procedures of small-intestinal lesions. Tt is safe, useful, and also provides a high clinical impact.

  20. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The

  1. Balloon-assisted percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with osteoporotic compression fractures - first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility, efficacy and safety of balloon-assisted percutaneous vertebroplasty (BA-VP) in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Materials and Methods: In 47 patients (29 women, 18 men; mean age: 70 years and 4 months) with severe VCFs, 66 BA-VPs were performed via a unipedicular access. After initial puncture (under combined fluoroscopy and CT guidance) of the vertebral body (VB), the needle was retraced by 1.5 cm, and a 12-mm Fogarty balloon catheter was introduced and inflated using 2-4 ml diluted contrast media (CM). After the subsequent removal of the catheter and repositioning of the needle, vertebroplasty was performed. Results: The mean volume of PMMA injected was 4.4 ml (2.5-7.2 ml). Pain reduction (measured by the Visual Analogue Scale) was achieved in 95% of the patients, dropping from on average 8.0 preinterventionally to 2.2 after a mean follow-up of 8 months. A reduction of the pain relieving medication was achieved in 68% of the cases and patient activity improved markedly. No severe or clinically relevant complications were observed. Cement leakage occurred by filling of epidural and paravertebral veins in 9.1 and 6.1% of the cases, respectively. Leakage into the paravertebral soft tissues was seen in 3.0% of the patients and to the adjacent disc space in 10.6% of the cases. (orig.)

  2. SMILE-II: Balloon-Borne Telescope for Background-Suppressed Soft Gamma-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, T.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Sonoda, S.; Mizumura, Y.; Tomono, D.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Komura, S.; Sato, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Iwaki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for an all-sky survey at the MeV gamma-ray band. The ETCC consists of a gaseous tracker and a position sensitive scintillation camera to measure the momentum of the Compton-recoil electron and the scattering gamma ray so that we can reconstruct the energy and momentum of the incident gamma ray photon by photon. Also the ETCC has strong background rejection methods using tracking information such as the dE/dx particle identification and theCompton kinematics test. To confirm feasibility of observing celestial objects in space, we performed a balloon experiment to successfully observe the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays, which confirmed the effectiveness of the background rejection capability. Based on the first balloon experiment result, we are developing a large ETCC and plan to launch it for the test of the imaging property. The performance of the SMILE-II ETCC is simulated and then it will obtain an effective area of 1.1 cm2 for 200 keV by improving the electron track reconstruction efficiency by a factor of about 10, which results in the detection of Crab nebula at >5σ level for several-hour observation in the middle latitude with an altitude of 40 km.

  3. Clinical efficacy of intra-aortic balloon pumping in treating patients with acute myocardial infarction with left main coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP) counter pulsation in the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI) with concurrent left main coronary artery(LM-CA) disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed

  4. Radiation measurement platform for balloon flights based on the TriTel silicon detector telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabori, Balazs; Hirn, Attila; Pazmandi, Tamas; Apathy, Istvan; Szanto, Peter; Deme, Sandor

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research airplanes. However the cosmic radiation field is not well known between 15 km and 30 km. Our experiment idea based on to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere. The main technical goals of our experiment were to test at first time the TriTel 3D silicon detector telescope system for future ISS missons and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TriTel system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the ballon flight and to intercompare the TriTel and Pille results to provide a correction factor definition method for the Pille ISS measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TriTel silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Müller counters, Pille passive thermoluminescent dosimeters and Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities and flew on board the BEXUS stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden (from ESRANGE Space Center). The float altitude was approximately 28.6 km and the total flight time was about 4 hours. The active instruments measured in real time and the ground team received the collected data continuously during the mission. The main technical goals were received since the operation of the TriTel experienced no failures and the experiment worked as it expected. This paper presents the scientific goals and results. From the TriTel measurements the deposited energy spectra, the Linear Energy Transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined for the

  5. Multiple Balloon Campaign (MINIS) to Study MeV Electron Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, J. G.; Smith, D. M.; Parks, G.; Holzworth, R.; Bering, E. A.; McCarthy, M.; Millan, R.; Kokorowski, M.; Reddell, B.; Huss, L.; Lay, E.; Bale, S.; Delory, G.; O'Brien, P.; Blake, J.; Lin, R. P.; Hughes, A. R.; Stoker, P.; Moraal, H.

    2003-12-01

    A unique new Antarctic multiple balloon campaign MINIS (MINIature Spectrometer) is set for launch in December `04. Using small (7000m3) hand-launched balloons, four identical payloads will carry a suite of instruments principally designed to study the precipitation of relativistic (MeV) electrons from the radiation belts. The payloads will have the opportunity and the capability to study rare, recently discovered precipitation events that are short-lived and precipitate only the highest-energy electrons, (Foat et al. 1998, GRL 25, no. 22; Millan et al. 2002, GRL 29, no. 24). Understanding the loss mechanisms for the MeV electron radiation belt population is interesting in its own right, but may also help us to understand the origin and acceleration of these particles and better protect satellites from radiation damage. MeV electron precipitation events may even influence ozone depletion at mid to high latitudes, depending on the downward transport of odd nitrogen compounds. Each MINIS payload will include a NaI scintillator for the detection of bremsstrahlung X-rays as well as instruments to detect electromagnetic fields and waves which will help indicate the cause of a given precipitation event. The payloads will be launched successively in December 2004 from the South African National Antarctic Expedition IV (SANAE) base (72S,2E) such that they will be able to simultaneously study temporal and spatial variations in the precipitation of electrons in both the bounce-loss and drift-loss populations at L-values between 4 and 6. Having four balloons at different positions will also allow us to study magnetic local time effects in the precipitation processes and will also provide a new platform for studying substorm evolution in conjunction with existing instruments on the ground and in space. In preparation for the December '04 campaign from SANAE, a single balloon will be launched in December '03 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in order to test the payload

  6. Feasibility of Endovascular Radiation Therapy Using Holmium-166 Filled Balloon Catheter in a Swine Hemodialysis Fistula Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Jung [Dept. of Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To describe how to make a swine hemodialysis fistula model and report our initial experience to test the feasibility of endovascular radiation therapy with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. The surgical formation of arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was performed by end-to-side anastomosis of the bilateral jugular vein and carotid artery of 6 pigs. After 4 weeks, angiograms were taken and endovascular radiation was delivered to the venous side of AVF with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. Pigs were sacrificed 4 weeks after the radiation and AVFs were harvested for histological examination. All animals survived without any morbidity during the experimental periods. The formation of fistula on the sides of necks was successful in 11 of the 12 pigs (92%). One AVF failed from the small jugular vein. On angiograms, 4 of the 11 AVFs showed total occlusion or significant stenosis and therefore, endovascular radiation could not be performed. Of 7 eligible AVFs, five underwent successful endovascular radiation and two AVFs did not undergo radiation for the control. Upon histologic analysis, one non-radiated AVF showed total occlusion and others showed intimal thickening from the neointimal hyperplasia. Formation of the swine carotid artery-jugular vein hemodialysis fistula model was successful. Endovascular radiation using a Holmium-166 filled balloon catheter was safe and feasible.

  7. Experimental study for the effects of ballooned rod bundle on the convective heat transfer by single-phase steam flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) conditions in a pressurized-water reactor, the cladding temperature increases until the reflood phase and the increased temperature can make a ballooned fuel rods. As a result, the flow passage area of sub-channel is reduced and it leads the redistribution of flow and heat transfer in sub-channels. During the single-phase steam flow in the early phase of the reflood, the cladding temperature may increase and have a peak value due to low heat transfer from the fuel to the steam. If a LBLOCA condition and ballooned fuel rods are occurred, the effect of reduced flow passage on the convective heat transfer by single-phase steam flow is important phenomena to analyze the safety of a reactor. The present experiments were performed in various Reynolds numbers (about 2600∼13000) to investigate the effect of the Ballooned fuel rods on heat transfer phenomena by single-phase steam flow. The experiments were performed in two rod bundles in KAERI reflood ATHER test facility. One is a non-deformed 6x6 rod bundle, which consists of 36 non-deformed heater rods. The other is a deformed 5x5 rod bundle that consists of 9 deformed heater rods and 16 non-deformed heater rods. The cladding temperature and convective heat transfer for two rod bundles are compared for each flow conditions and the effects of experimental parameters are analyzed. (author)

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  9. High-resolution temperature profiles measured with stratospheric balloons near the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, A.; Alexander, P.; Giraldez, A.

    1997-05-01

    A spectral analysis of two balloon soundings of temperature performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Andes Mountains in Argentina with a vertical resolution of 10 m has been performed. The first and second soundings, launched at the same location, were performed during unusually calm and disturbed atmospheric conditions respectively. Considerable deviations from the -3 value predicted for the spectral slopes in the power-law range by current saturation theories are found. These departures are reduced if the data resolution at disposal is diminished, thereby eliminating the highest wavelength harmonics. Slopes do not clearly steepen with increasing height as suggested by other authors and topography seems to be responsible for this fact at low altitudes. The spectral amplitude increase with height detected from recent lidar data is corroborated only in the sounding with calm atmospheric conditions. Spectra are found to scale with the buoyancy frequency not as simply as suggested by the saturation models.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  11. Design and implementation of the Photo-Detector Module electronics for the EUSO-Balloon, prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key feature of the JEM-EUSO observatory for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) search is the electronics, and in particular the Photo-Detector Module (PDM) on the focal surface of an advanced diffractive optical system. As a pathfinder experiment for this space-based mission, over the last 3 years the EUSO-Balloon project has been developed to observe the ultraviolet background from the edge of the atmosphere on board a stratospheric balloon. August 2014, the EUSO Balloon was successfully operated 8-hour balloon flight over Timmins, Ontario, Canada. The EUSO-Balloon experiment uses a detector consisting of one Photo-Detector Module, identical to the 137 modules that will be present on the JEM-EUSO focal surface. UV light generated by ultra high-energy air showers passes the optics, UV filter, and impacts the Multi Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes (MAPMTs). UV photons are converted by the MAPMT photocathode into electrons, which are multiplied by the MAPMTs dynode and fed into a Elementary Cell - Application Specific Integrated Circuit (EC-ASIC) boards. These EC-ASIC boards in turn perform the photon counting and charge estimation, by counting the single photoelectron emitted during each Gate Time Unit (of 2.5 us each). The PDM board interfaces with these ASIC boards, providing them with power and configuration parameters as well as collecting data from the external trigger. In this paper, I will describe the details of the design and the fabrication of the PDM, as well as its EUSO-Balloon flight results

  12. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Aoife N. [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Wang, Tim T. [Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Surgical Epidemiology and Quality Unit, Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  13. Temporary Arterial Balloon Occlusion as an Adjunct to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. This study was designed to describe the technique of arterial occlusion using a temporary occlusion balloon system as an alternative to coil occlusion during Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Methods. Review of charts, angiography, and follow-up imaging studies of consecutive patients undergoing oncological embolization procedures in which a HyperForm system (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) was used. Intraprocedural target vessel occlusion and patency of the target vessel on follow-up were recorded. Clinical data and Bremsstrahlung scans were reviewed for evidence of nontarget embolization. Results. Four radioembolization procedures were performed in three patients (all female, age 48–54 (mean 52) years). Five arteries were temporarily occluded (three gastroduodenal arteries, one right gastric artery, and one cystic artery). All radioembolization procedures were successfully completed. Follow-up imaging (either digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA)) was available for all patients between 28–454 (mean 183) days following the procedure, demonstrating all five vessels to be patent. No clinical or imaging evidence for nontarget embolization was found. Conclusions. Temporary balloon occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries during radioembolization allows safe therapy with preserved postprocedural vessel patency on early and midterm follow-up.

  14. Brain 'Embolism' Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Commissurotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The common finding of thrombi between the bifoil balloons when they were extracted after mitral dilation prompted us to look for evidence of minor brain embolisms using the sensitive technique of BMRI (brain magnetic resonance T2-weighted imaging). Methods: BMRI was performed within 48 hr before and after a percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy (PMBC) in each of the 63 patients in this study. Results: There was evidence (hyperintensity foci: HI) of a previous asymptomatic brain embolism in 38 of 63 patients before PMBC and a new HI appeared in 18 of 63 patients after the procedure. New HI signals were found exclusively in the white matter in 8 of 18 patients and in only 3 of 18 were HI signs larger than 1 cm. One patient, with an HI signal >1 cm in the thalamus and another 8; 4, patients from western countries vs the others) were not statistically significant, probably because the number of patients in each subgroup was low. Patients in atrial fibrillation had slightly more (not significant) HI before PMBC (15/20, 75%) than patients in sinus rhythm (23/43, 53%), but after PMBC their HI frequencies were similar (atrial fibrillation: 5/20, 25%; sinus rhythm: 13/43, 30%). Conclusion: Brain microembolism is frequent during PMBC, but is often anatomically limited and free from clinical signs in most cases. Brain embolism seems to be related mainly to the procedure itself and not the features of the patient

  15. PB3D: a new code for 3D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyens, Toon; Sanchez, Raul; Huijsmans, Guido; Garcia, Luis; Loarte, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Ideal peeling-ballooning modes are important for magnetic nuclear fusion devices, but most of the theoretical and computational work that has been performed over the years to gain insight into their inner workings and consequences has been limited to axisymmetric (so-called 2D) cases which limits the range of applicability of the results. For example, the proposed use of perturbation coils in tokamaks to destabilize ELMS before they have a chance to grow dangerous has an inherently non-axisymmetric (3D) nature. Furthermore, many devices, such as stellarators, are intrinsically not axisymmetric. In this contribution we present a new code, PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3D), that implements the equations of a previously developed theory that overcomes these stringent limitations by making no use of an axisymmetric approximation. The first benchmarking results of PB3D, dealing with the investigation of the stability properties of magnetic equilibria with nested flux surfaces obtained numerically from multiple equilibrium codes, such as HELENA and VMEC, are presented here. The results will be compared with those of various axisymmetric stability codes.

  16. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. RESULTS: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  17. Balloon Flight Test of a Compton Telescope Based on Scintillators with Silicon Photomultiplier Readouts

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Bancroft, C M; Ryan, J M; McConnell, M L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first high-altitude balloon flight test of a concept for an advanced Compton telescope making use of modern scintillator materials with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readouts. There is a need in the fields of high-energy astronomy and solar physics for new medium-energy gamma-ray (~0.4 - 10 MeV) detectors capable of making sensitive observations. A fast scintillator- based Compton telescope with SiPM readouts is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge, since the fast response of the scintillators permits the rejection of background via time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The Solar Compton Telescope (SolCompT) prototype was designed to demonstrate stable performance of this technology under balloon-flight conditions. The SolCompT instrument was a simple two-element Compton telescope, consisting of an approximately one-inch cylindrical stilbene crystal for a scattering detector and a one-inch cubic LaBr3:Ce crystal for a calorimeter detector. Both scintillator dete...

  18. Development and in Vitro Characterization of Photochemically Crosslinked Polyvinylpyrrolidone Coatings for Drug-Coated Balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svea Petersen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP is a conventionally applied hydrophilic lubricious coating on catheter-based cardiovascular devices, used in order to ease movement through the vasculature. Its use as drug reservoir and transfer agent on drug-coated balloons (DCB is therefore extremely promising with regard to the simplification of its approval as a medical device. Here, we developed a PVP-based coating for DCB, containing paclitaxel (PTX as a model drug, and studied the impact of crosslinking via UV radiation on drug stability, wash off, and transfer during simulated use in an in vitro vessel model. We showed that crosslinking was essential for coating stability and needed to be performed prior to PTX incorporation due to decreased drug bioavailability as a result of photodecomposition and/or involvement in vinylic polymerization with PVP under UV radiation. Moreover, the crosslinking time needed to be carefully controlled. While short radiation times did not provide enough coating stability, associated with high wash off rates during DCB insertion, long radiation times lowered drug transfer efficiency upon balloon expansion. A ten minutes radiation of PVP, however, combined a minimized drug wash off rate of 34% with an efficient drug transfer of 49%, underlining the high potential of photochemically crosslinked PVP as a coating matrix for DCB.

  19. Coronagraphic Imaging of Debris Disks from a High Altitude Balloon Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen; Traub, Wesley; Bryden, Geoffrey; Brugarolas, Paul; Chen, Pin; Guyon, Olivier; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Kasdin, Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vasisht, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks around nearby stars are tracers of the planet formation process, and they are a key element of our understanding of the formation and evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. With multi-color images of a significant number of disks, we can probe important questions: can we learn about planetary system evolution; what materials are the disks made of; and can they reveal the presence of planets? Most disks are known to exist only through their infrared flux excesses as measured by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and through images measured by Herschel. The brightest, most extended disks have been imaged with HST, and a few, such as Fomalhaut, can be observed using ground-based telescopes. But the number of good images is still very small, and there are none of disks with densities as low as the disk associated with the asteroid belt and Edgeworth-Kuiper belt in our own Solar System. Direct imaging of disks is a major observational challenge, demanding high angular resolution and extremely high dynamic range close to the parent star. The ultimate experiment requires a space-based platform, but demonstrating much of the needed technology, mitigating the technical risks of a space-based coronagrap, and performing valuable measurements of circumstellar debris disks, can be done from a high-altitude balloon platform. In this paper we present a balloon-borne telescope experiment based on the Zodiac II design that would undertake compelling studies of a sample of debris disks.

  20. Space-quality data from balloon-borne telescopes: the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO)

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, Jason; Booth, Jeffrey; Massey, Richard; Liewer, Kurt; Smith, Roger; Amara, Adam; Aldrich, Jack; Berge, Joel; Bezawada, Naidu; Brugarolas, Paul; Clark, Paul; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M; Ellis, Richard; Frenk, Carlos; Gallie, Angus; Heavens, Alan; Henry, David; Jullo, Eric; Kitching, Thomas; Lanzi, James; Lilly, Simon; Lunney, David; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morris, David; Paine, Christopher; Peacock, John; Pellegrino, Sergio; Pittock, Roger; Pool, Peter; Refregier, Alexandre; Seiffert, Michael; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Alexandra; Stuchlik, David; Taylor, Andy; Teplitz, Harry; Vanderveld, R Ali; Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for attaining sub-arcsecond pointing stability during sub- orbital balloon flights, as designed for in the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO) concept. The pointing method presented here has the potential to perform near-space quality optical astronomical imaging at 1-2% of the cost of space-based missions. We also discuss an architecture that can achieve sufficient thermomechanical stability to match the pointing stability. This concept is motivated by advances in the development and testing of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights which promise to allow observation campaigns lasting more than three months. The design incorporates a multi-stage pointing architecture comprising: a gondola coarse azimuth control system, a multi-axis nested gimbal frame structure with arcsecond stability, a telescope de-rotator to eliminate field rotation, and a fine guidance stage consisting of both a telescope mounted angular rate sensor and guide CCDs in the focal plane to drive a fast-steering ...

  1. Preparation and characterisation of polyamide 11/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites for use in angioplasty balloon applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Khairul Anwar A. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia); Farrell, Joseph B. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Kennedy, James E., E-mail: jkennedy@ait.ie [Department of Polymer Engineering, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland)

    2013-12-16

    With increased demands on catheter balloon functionality, there is an emphasis to blend new materials which can improve mechanical performance. Polymer nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending polyamide 11 (PA 11) with organically modified montmorillonite nanoclay. The effects of incorporating the nanoclay on the short-term mechanical properties of PA 11 were assessed using a design of experiments (DoEs) approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis techniques (DMA) were used to characterise the morphology of the nanocomposites. Design of experiments studies revealed that the optimum nanocomposites properties can be achieved by carefully controlling the melt compounding parameters. XRD and TEM data proved that exfoliated clay morphologies existed within the matrix at low clay loading (2%). Whereas the interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoclay was quantified in the DMA spectra, showed a significant increase in storage modulus (up to 80%). The reinforcing effect of nanoclay within the PA 11 was further investigated using mechanical testing, where significant increases in the ultimate tensile strength and strain at break of reinforced tri-layer balloon tubing were observed. - Highlights: • TEM reveals the coexistence of exfoliated and intercalated nanostructures. • Isothermal crystallisation studies found that the nano-clays reduced the crystallisation time. • Significant increase in the storage modulus was due to the reinforcing effect of the nano-clay platelets. • It was observed that the activation energy values decreased due to the presence of nanoclay.

  2. The nuclear compton telescope: A balloon-borne soft γ-ray spectrometer, polarimeter, and imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, S. E.; Jean, P.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.; von Ballmoos, P.; Madden, N. W.; Luke, P. N.; Amman, M.; Burks, M. T.; Hull, E. L.; Craig, W.; Ziock, K.

    2001-10-01

    Our collaboration has begun the design and development of a prototype high resolution Compton telescope utilizing 3-D imaging germanium detectors. The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-15 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and polarization. NCT is a prototype design for the Advanced Compton Telescope, to study gamma-ray radiation with very high spectral resolution, moderate angular resolution, and high sensitivity. The instrument has a novel, ultra-compact design optimized for studying nuclear line emission in the critical 0.5-2 MeV range, and polarization in the 0.2-0.5 MeV range. We have proposed to develop and fly NCT on a conventional US balloon flight in Summer of 2004. This first flight will perform gamma-ray polarization measurements the Crab nebula, Crab pulsar, and Cyg X-1, and 26Al emission from the Cygnus Region. This flight will critically test the novel instrument technologies and analysis techniques we have developed for high resolution Compton telescopes, and qualify the payload to begin a series of ~10-day long duration ballon flights from Alice Springs, Australia starting in Spring 2005. .

  3. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  4. A system for visualization and automatic placement of the endoclamp balloon catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Hugo; Stüdeli, Thomas; Sette, Mauro; Samset, Eigil; Gersak, Borut

    2010-02-01

    The European research network "Augmented Reality in Surgery" (ARIS*ER) developed a system that supports minimally invasive cardiac surgery based on augmented reality (AR) technology. The system supports the surgical team during aortic endoclamping where a balloon catheter has to be positioned and kept in place within the aorta. The presented system addresses the two biggest difficulties of the task: lack of visualization and difficulty in maneuvering the catheter. The system was developed using a user centered design methodology with medical doctors, engineers and human factor specialists equally involved in all the development steps. The system was implemented using the AR framework "Studierstube" developed at TU Graz and can be used to visualize in real-time the position of the balloon catheter inside the aorta. The spatial position of the catheter is measured by a magnetic tracking system and superimposed on a 3D model of the patient's thorax. The alignment is made with a rigid registration algorithm. Together with a user defined target, the spatial position data drives an actuator which adjusts the position of the catheter in the initial placement and corrects migrations during the surgery. Two user studies with a silicon phantom show promising results regarding usefulness of the system: the users perform the placement tasks faster and more accurately than with the current restricted visual support. Animal studies also provided a first indication that the system brings additional value in the real clinical setting. This work represents a major step towards safer and simpler minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

  5. Comparison of a nitinol stent versus balloon angioplasty for treatment of a dysfunctional arteriovenous graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to 1) evaluate the outcome of placing a nitinol stent for treating dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts (AVG), and 2) compare the results with those of successful balloon angioplasty. Between February 2008 and October 2011, we retrospectively reviewed the interventional data and medical records of 29 patients (21 men, 8 women; mean age, 67.4 years) who underwent interventional procedures for dysfunctional AVG. Stents were placed only in cases with inadequate angioplasty results. Stent patency was evaluated and compared to cases of successful balloon angioplasty using the Kaplan Meier analysis. Eleven stents and 18 angioplasties were performed successfully at the venous anastomotic site of AVG. The primary patency at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months did not differ significantly for stent placement and angioplasty (52%, 29%, 15%, 15% vs. 71%, 50%, 34%, 34%; mean survival, 164 vs. 253 days, p = 0.283). Secondary patency of the stent also did not differ significantly from angioplasty (80%, 80%, 49%, 49% vs. 76%, 57%, 57%, 36%; mean survival, 405 vs. 385 days, p = 0.553). Nitinol stent placement was effective for treating dysfunctional AVG, but did not improve the primary and secondary patency compared to successful angioplasty

  6. The HXR80M-balloon experiment: a microprocessor-controlled transatlantic payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the results obtained from the succesful transatlantic flight launched during the summer 1976 from the CNR Milo Base, Sicily, the Laboratorio di Astrofisica Spaziale has started a new program in the hard X-ray astronomy field. It basically consists in the development of high resolution large area Multiwire Proportional Chambers to be employed in long duration balloon flights to study and monitor galactic and extragalactic sources. This note will describe the flight configuration and performances of the HXR80M payload. The experiment is expected to fly during July 1980 from the Milo Base in the framework of the CNR experimental balloon campaign. The note will analyze the main characteristics of the detectors employed, of the data handling electronics and in particular of the hardware and the software of the on-board microprocessor controlled multichannel analyzer. In fact the limitation due to the low bit rate HF link (1.2kbit/s) and the long flight duration (about one week) make imperative the use of an on-board microprocessor system to handle and select in real time the scientific data and to control the housekeeping and the telecommand systems

  7. Fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere with the new balloon-borne instrument LITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Theuerkauf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere for high resolution wind turbulence soundings up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed applying a constant temperature anemometer (CTA with a vertical resolution of ~2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched at any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007 LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 at Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students. We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. First case studies allow a clear distinction between non-turbulent layers and turbulent layers with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.

  8. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new code demonstrates the stabilization of MHD ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation. A shifted-circle model is used to elucidate the physics, and numerically reconstructed equilibria are used to analyze DIII-D discharges. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and, in the shifted circle model, direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is a fraction of the Alfven frequency, ωA = VA/qR. Shear stabilization is also demonstrated for an equilibrium reconstruction of a DIII-D VH-mode. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  9. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths, a powerful tool for scientific discovery, We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers,

  10. [Adherence and fidelity in patients treated with intragastric balloon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazure, R A; Cancer, E; Martínez Olmos, M A; De Castro, M L; Abilés, V; Abilés, J; Bretón, I; Álvarez, V; Peláez, N; Culebras, J M

    2014-01-01

    A correct treatment of obesity needs a program of habits modification regardless of the selected technique, especially if it is minimally invasive as the intragastric balloon (BIG). The adherence of the obese patients with regard to recommended drugs measures to medium- and long-term is less than 50%. Given that the results obtained using the technique of gastric balloon must be seen influenced by adherence to the modification of habits program and its fulfillment, we reviewed series published in attention to the program proposed with the BIG. The series published to date provide few details about the used Therapeutic Programs as well as the adherence of patients to them, and even less concerning the Monitoring Plan and the loyalty of the patient can be seen. We conclude the convenience to agree on a follow-up strategy, at least the 6 months during which the BIG remain in the stomach. PMID:24483961

  11. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  12. Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

  13. Electrodynamics of the stratosphere using 5000 cu m superpressure balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere research project encompasses the design of a microprocessor-controlled payload and the launch of up to eight small superpressure balloons in the 1982-1984 period. The primary payload instrument will measure the vector electric field from dc to 10 kHz, and the payloads will include instruments measuring local ionization, electrical conductivity, magnetic field, and temperature and pressure fluctuations. In addition, optical lightning will be recorded. The simultaneous measurement of these stratospheric parameters by several balloons, for periods extending over several solar rotations, will allow the study of electrical coupling between atmosphere and magnetosphere, of global current systems, and of global response to solar flares and magnetospheric storms.

  14. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how a...

  15. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Boots Rob; Barnett Adrian G; Timms Daniel; Dunster Kimble; Geng Shureng; Bellapart Judith; Fraser John F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and in...

  16. Effect of Externally Driven Magnetic Islands on Resistive Ballooning Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIMURA, Seiya; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Turbulent transport in the edge region of tokamak plasmas is simulated using a reduced set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. Repetitive and intermittent transport bursts driven by resistive ballooning turbulence with external heating are observed. The effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on turbulent heat transport is examined, where the electromagnetic response of the plasma to the RMP is solved consistently. The penetration of the RMP excites a magnetic island chain and damps th...

  17. Asymptotic stability boundaries of ballooning modes in circular tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model ballooning mode equation of Connor, Hastie, and Taylor for large-aspect-ratio circular tokamaks is analyzed in the limit of large pressure gradient, and corresponding expressions for stability boundaries are derived. In particular, it is found that for a fixed radial wave number, there exists an infinite sequence of unstable bands, and that minimizing over the radial wave numbers leads to asymptotic merging between the neighboring bands

  18. Semi hemi antenna. [balloon parachuted microwave antenna for stratospheric testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repucci, T. A.; Ferris, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The University of Michigan minipod, which is released from a balloon and floats down on a parachute, is designed for stratospheric testing. The present paper briefly describes the evolution of antenna designs for the minipod 1.5 GHz transceiver, which communicates with and relays information to an aircraft and ground station. The following stages are noted: ordinary monopole, crossed dipole, capacitative antenna, fat monopole, the addition of parasitic elements, and a thinner monopole with taper.

  19. Development of long-duration ballooning in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following four successful long-duration test flights from Australia to South America, a new flight support system with global tracking, command, and telemetry capability is being developed to support long-duration balloon flights of relatively sophisticated instruments at both mid-latitudes and in Antarctica. The first test flight for the joint NASA-NSF program to support flights in Antarctica is scheduled from McMurdo in December 1989, with operational capability two years later

  20. Latex Micro-balloon Pumping in Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Wadi harun, Sulaiman; Madou, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have emerged as point-of-care diagnostic tools. However, the unidirectional nature of the centrifugal force limits the available space for multi-stepped processes on a single microfluidics disc. To overcome this limitation, a passive pneumatic pumping method actuated at high rotational speeds has been previously proposed to pump liquid against the centrifugal force. In this paper, a novel micro-balloon pumping method that relies on elastic energy stored in a...

  1. Double-balloon enteroscopy in detecting small intestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Fa-chao; PAN De-shou; ZHOU Dian-yuan; XIAO Bing; JIANG Bo; WAN Tian-mo; GUO Yu; ZHOU Dan; WANG Li-hui; CHEN Jin-feng; XIE Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Digestive tract hemorrhage is a common disease of the digestive system, but about 0.4%-5% intestinal bleeding can not be detected with gastroscope or colonscope.1 Since the intestine is long, tortuous, far away from both ends of the digestive tract and unfixed in position, clinical diagnosis of the bleeding is relatively difficult. Yamamoto and Sugano2 reported the clinical application of double-balloon enteroscope at American DDW in 2003.

  2. Balloon Cell Urethral Melanoma: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McComiskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour (0.2% of all melanomas that most commonly affects the meatus and distal urethra and is three times more common in women than men. Case. A 76-year-old lady presented with vaginal pain and discharge. On examination, a 4 cm mass was noted in the vagina and biopsy confirmed melanoma of a balloon type. Preoperative CT showed no distant metastases and an MRI scan of the pelvis demonstrated no associated lymphadenopathy. She underwent anterior exenterative surgery and vaginectomy also. Histology confirmed a urethral nodular malignant melanoma. Discussion. First-line treatment of melanoma is often surgical. Adjuvant treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy has also been reported. Even with aggressive management, malignant melanoma of the urogenital tract generally has a poor prognosis. Recurrence rates are high and the mean period between diagnosis and recurrence is 12.5 months. A 5-year survival rate of less than 20% has been reported in balloon cell melanomas along with nearly 20% developing local recurrence. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of balloon cell melanoma arising in the urethra. The presentation and surgical management has been described and a literature review provided.

  3. Can the Non-linear Ballooning Model describe ELMs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, S. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-11-01

    The explosive, filamentary plasma eruptions described by the non-linear ideal MHD ballooning model is tested quantitatively against experimental observations of ELMs in MAST. The equations describing this model were derived by Wilson and Cowley for tokamak-like geometry which includes two differential equations: the linear ballooning equation which describes the spatial distribution along the field lines and the non-linear ballooning mode envelope equation, which is a two-dimensional, non-linear differential equation which can involve fractional temporal-derivatives, but is often second-order in time and space. To employ the second differential equation for a specific geometry one has to evaluate the coefficients of the equation which is non-trivial as it involves field line averaging of slowly converging functions. We have solved this system for MAST, superimposing the solutions of both differential equations and mapping them onto a MAST plasma. Comparisons with the evolution of ELM filaments in MAST will be reported in order to test the model. The support of the EPSRC for the FCDT (Grant EP/K504178/1), of Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 (No 633053) and of the RCUK Energy Programme [grant number EP/I501045] is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  5. A Sensitivity Analysis of fMRI Balloon Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2015-04-22

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows the mapping of the brain activation through measurements of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast. The characterization of the pathway from the input stimulus to the output BOLD signal requires the selection of an adequate hemodynamic model and the satisfaction of some specific conditions while conducting the experiment and calibrating the model. This paper, focuses on the identifiability of the Balloon hemodynamic model. By identifiability, we mean the ability to estimate accurately the model parameters given the input and the output measurement. Previous studies of the Balloon model have somehow added knowledge either by choosing prior distributions for the parameters, freezing some of them, or looking for the solution as a projection on a natural basis of some vector space. In these studies, the identification was generally assessed using event-related paradigms. This paper justifies the reasons behind the need of adding knowledge, choosing certain paradigms, and completing the few existing identifiability studies through a global sensitivity analysis of the Balloon model in the case of blocked design experiment.

  6. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty Versus Balloon Angioplasty as Treatment for Short Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery: Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatments of a short-segment atherosclerotic stenosis in the superficial femoral arteries with the cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) versus conventional balloon angioplasty [percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)] in a randomized controlled trial. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 60 patients (33 men, 27 women; average age 64 years) with a short (≤5 cm) focal SFA de novo atherosclerotic stenosis associated with a history of intermittent claudication or rest pain. The primary end point of this study was the rate of binary restenosis in the treated segment 12 months after the intervention. All patients were evenly randomized to either the PTA or CBA treatment arms. Follow-up angiograms and ankle–brachial index (ABI) measurements were performed after 12 months. The evaluation of the restenosis rates and factors influencing its occurrence were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis, restenosis rates after 2-month follow-up were 9 of 30 (30 %) in the PTA group and 4 of 30 (13 %) in the CBA group (p = 0.117). In the actual treatment analysis, after exclusion of patients who required nitinol stent placement for a suboptimal result after angioplasty alone (5 patients in the PTA group and none in the CBA group), restenosis rates were 9 of 25 (36 %) and 4 of 30 (13 %), respectively (p = 0.049). In the intention-to-treat analysis there were also significant differences in ABI values between the PTA and CBA groups at 0.77 ± 0.11 versus 0.82 ± 0.12, respectively (p = 0.039), at 12 months. Conclusion: Based on the presented results of the trial, CBA seems to be a safer and more effective than PTA for treatment of short atherosclerotic lesions in the superior femoral artery

  7. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty Versus Balloon Angioplasty as Treatment for Short Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech, E-mail: wponcyl@poczta.onet.pl; Falkowski, Aleksander, E-mail: bakhis@hot.pl [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (Poland); Safranow, Krzysztof, E-mail: chrissaf@mp.pl; Rac, Monika, E-mail: carmon@pum.edu.pl [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry (Poland); Zawierucha, Dariusz, E-mail: dariusz13@yahoo.com [Interventional Radiology, Sacred Heart Medical Center, River Bend (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatments of a short-segment atherosclerotic stenosis in the superficial femoral arteries with the cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) versus conventional balloon angioplasty [percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)] in a randomized controlled trial. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 60 patients (33 men, 27 women; average age 64 years) with a short ({<=}5 cm) focal SFA de novo atherosclerotic stenosis associated with a history of intermittent claudication or rest pain. The primary end point of this study was the rate of binary restenosis in the treated segment 12 months after the intervention. All patients were evenly randomized to either the PTA or CBA treatment arms. Follow-up angiograms and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements were performed after 12 months. The evaluation of the restenosis rates and factors influencing its occurrence were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis, restenosis rates after 2-month follow-up were 9 of 30 (30 %) in the PTA group and 4 of 30 (13 %) in the CBA group (p = 0.117). In the actual treatment analysis, after exclusion of patients who required nitinol stent placement for a suboptimal result after angioplasty alone (5 patients in the PTA group and none in the CBA group), restenosis rates were 9 of 25 (36 %) and 4 of 30 (13 %), respectively (p = 0.049). In the intention-to-treat analysis there were also significant differences in ABI values between the PTA and CBA groups at 0.77 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.82 {+-} 0.12, respectively (p = 0.039), at 12 months. Conclusion: Based on the presented results of the trial, CBA seems to be a safer and more effective than PTA for treatment of short atherosclerotic lesions in the superior femoral artery.

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound with double-balloon endoscopy for the diagnosis of inverted Meckel’s diverticulum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Akihiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inverted Meckel’s diverticulum has usually been misdiagnosed in the cases based on computed tomography images presented in the literature. The final diagnosis was made intra-operatively or by pathology reports after surgery. Despite this, preoperative diagnosis could be made successfully by using endoscopic ultrasound with double-balloon endoscopy prior to surgery. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese woman with severe anemia complained of several episodes of black stool over the preceding 2 years. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3.0-cm low-density tumor in the ileum, suggesting a diagnosis of intestinal lipoma. Examination of the tumor by endoscopic ultrasound with double-balloon endoscopy revealed a hypo-echoic layer corresponding to the muscularis propria, and a hyper-echoic layer corresponding to the fat tissue. These findings, which suggested that the tumor included areas outside the intestinal serosa, are not typical for a lipoma, despite the existence of a hyper-echoic layer corresponding to fatty tissue. We then considered a diagnosis of inverted Meckel’s diverticulum. Conclusion Lipoma and inverted Meckel’s diverticulum are difficult to differentially diagnose by computed tomography. Polypectomy is the preferred therapeutic approach when a lipoma is present; however, polypectomy in a patient with Meckel’s diverticulum requires full-thickness resection. Situations where polypectomy is performed without preparing for full-thickness resection can be avoided by first making a precise diagnosis using double-balloon endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound.

  9. The Predictive Value of Mitral Leaflet Motion and Thickness Index Scores on Early Restenosis after Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mustafa; Sagcan, Abdi; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Ozerkan, Filiz; Akilli, Azem; Yavuzgil, Oguz; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between mitral leaflet motion (LMI) and leaflet thickness index (LTI) scores and the rate of restenosis 3 months after successful mitral balloon valvuloplasty. The study population consisted of 46 patients with symptomatic rheumatic mitral stenosis who underwent balloon valvuloplasty (37 women, 9 men; mean age, 36 ± 9 years). Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients on the day before, immediately after, and 3 months after valvuloplasty. The severity of restriction of leaflet motion and the severity of leaflet thickening were classified into grades of mild (a score of 0), moderate (a score of 1), and severe (a score of 2). Subvalvular disease and commissural involvement were homogeneous in all patients. Before and immediately after mitral balloon valvuloplasty, there were no significant differences in mitral valve area among the groups with different LMI and LTI scores. However, at 3 months after valvuloplasty, reduction in mitral valve area was more significant in patients who had higher pre-procedural LMI and LTI scores (P < 0.05). The rates of early restenosis were 0 with a total score of 0, 14.2% with a total score of 1–2, and 32% with a total score of 3. In conclusion, quantitative assessment of LMI and LTI scores by 2-dimensional echocardiography may be helpful in predicting early restenosis after mitral balloon valvuloplasty. Early reduction in mitral valve area is significant in patients who have higher total LMI and LTI scores. PMID:15562845

  10. The evaluation of collateral cerebral circulation using 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT during the balloon Matas test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A balloon Matas test using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99mTC-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HM-PAO) was performed to evaluate collateral cerebral circulation during temporary carotid occlusion in 14 patients (6 with internal carotid artery aneurysms, 2 with basilar skull tumors, 5 with neck tumors, and one with traumatic common carotid artery aneurysm). The occlusion sites were internal carotid artery in 12 patients and common carotid artery in 2 patients. The observation of the neurological state, the carotid stump pressure, cerebral angiography for assessing collateral circulation and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring were also undertaken in all patients. In four patients, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by xenon-inhalation method and compared with the CBF image by 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT. The 99mTC-HM-PAO (20 mCi) was injected intravenously 3 minutes before balloon deflation. In all patients, the neurological state and EEG showed no abnormality during the balloon Matas test. Eight patients were considered treatable by the permanent occlusion of the carotid artery. Permanent carotid ligation was carried out in five of these 8 patients, and no neurological deficit occurred. Permanent occlusion of the carotid artery was impossible in 5 patients because of marked reduction of CBF. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT should three-dimensional cerebral perfusion pattern. In conclusion, a balloon Matas test using 99mTC-HM-PAO SPECT is a reliable, simple and safe method of evaluating the collateral cerebral circulation. (J.P.N.)

  11. Trans-catheter closure of atrial septal defect: Balloon sizing or no balloon sizing - single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Selecting the device size using a sizing balloon could oversize the ostium secundum atrial septal defect (OSASD with floppy margins and at times may lead to complications. Identifying the firm margins using trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE and selecting appropriate-sized device optimizes ASD device closure. This retrospective study was undertaken to document the safety and feasibility of device closure without balloon sizing the defect. Methods : Sixty-one consecutive patients who underwent trans-catheter closure of OSASD guided by balloon sizing of the defect and intra procedural fluoroscopy (group I and 67 consecutive patients in whom TEE was used for defect sizing and as intraprocedural imaging during device deployment (group II were compared. The procedural success rate, device characteristics, and complications were compared between the two groups. Results : The procedure was successful in 79.7 % patients. The success rate in group II (60 of 67, 89.6% was significantly higher than in group I (41 of 61, 67.2 % (P = 0.002. Mean upsizing of ASD device was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.001. TEE also provided better success rate with smaller device in subjects with large ASD (>25 mm and in those who were younger than 14 years of age. There were four cases of device embolization (two in each group; of which one died in group II despite successful surgical retrieval. Conclusion : Balloon sizing may not be essential for successful ASD device closure. TEE-guided sizing of ASD and device deployment provides better success rate with relatively smaller sized device.

  12. 椎弓根内固定椎体后凸成形术治疗骨质疏松性胸腰椎骨折%Pedicle Screw Fixation Kyphoplasty in Treatment of Osteoporotic Thoracolumbar Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯勇

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨椎弓根内固定结合椎体后凸成形术治疗骨质疏松性胸腰椎骨折的方法及临床治疗的效果。方法自2011年2月~2012年2月本院采用后路切开椎弓根内固定结合椎体后凸成形术治疗13例骨质疏松性胸腰椎压缩性骨折患者。术后随访24个月,术后复查胸腰椎正侧位片。分别于术前、术后4d、末次随访用Oswestry功能障碍指数评分(oswestry disability index,ODI),X线片上测量椎体矢状面指数(sagittal index,SI)及Cobb角(SI=椎体前缘高度/椎体后缘高度),观察内固定及伤椎稳定及功能恢复情况。结果所有患者都未发生骨水泥渗漏,无神经症状的缺失。13例患者中,12例获平均20个月随访,末次随访时患者的功能恢复良好,未发现椎弓根钉松动、断裂。结论椎弓根内固定结合椎体后凸成形术为骨质疏松性胸腰椎压缩性骨折的手术治疗提供了一种安全、可靠的方法,改善了机体的功能,提高了患者的生活质量。%Objective To investigate the pedicle screw fixation combined with kyphoplasty treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures and clinical treatment ef ect. Methods The hospital incision posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with kyphoplasty treatment of 13 cases of osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fracture patients from February 2011 to February 2012 The patients were fol owed up for 24 months, after review of the thoracic and lumbar lateral radiographs. Preoperative and postoperative 4D, the last fol ow-up, the Oswestry Disability Index score (oswestry disability index, ODI), X-ray measurement the vertebral sagit al index (sagit al index, SI) and the Cobb angle (SI =vertebral edge height /posterior margin height), fixed and the injured vertebra stable and function recovery observed. Results Al patients had happened leakage of bone cement, the lack of neurological symptoms. 13 patients, 12 patients were an average of 20 months fol ow

  13. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  14. The Interpretation of Saturated Spectra as Obtained from Atmospheric Balloon Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; de La Torre, A.

    1999-03-01

    Transformations that take into account the characteristics of balloon motion and wave propagation to infer the `real' vertical wavelengths from the `apparent' ones measured during soundings were derived in a first paper. These results are now used to estimate the deviation of the saturated spectra obtained with balloon measurements from the theoretically expected shape. It is found that data stemming from slowly ascending or descending balloons may lead to a significant distortion of spectra.

  15. The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies (HABE-ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, D.; Caylor, M.; Williamson, D.; Larson, L.

    1995-01-01

    The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (HABE-ATP) is a system built around balloon-borne payload which is carried to a nominal 26-km altitude. The goal is laser tracking thrusting theater and strategic missiles, and then pointing a surrogate laser weapon beam, with performance levels end a timeline traceable to operational laser weapon system requirements. This goal leads to an experiment system design which combines hardware from many technology areas: an optical telescope and IR sensors; an advanced angular inertial reference; a flexible multi-level of actuation digital control system; digital tracking processors which incorporate real-time image analysis and a pulsed, diode-pumped solid state tracking laser. The system components have been selected to meet the overall experiment goals of tracking unmodified boosters at 50- 200 km range. The ATP system on HABE must stabilize and control a relative line of sight between the platform and the unmodified target booster to a 1 microrad accuracy. The angular pointing reference system supports both open loop and closed loop track modes; GPS provides absolute position reference. The control system which positions the line of sight for the ATP system must sequence through accepting a state vector handoff, closed-loop passive IR acquisition, passive IR intermediate fine track, active fine track, and then finally aimpoint determination and maintenance modes. Line of sight stabilization to fine accuracy levels is accomplished by actuating wide bandwidth fast steering mirrors (FSM's). These control loops off-load large-amplitude errors to the outer gimbal in order to remain within the limited angular throw of the FSM's. The SWIR acquisition and MWIR intermediate fine track sensors (both PtSi focal planes) image the signature of the rocket plume. After Hard Body Handover (HBHO), active fine tracking is conducted with a visible focal plane viewing the laser-illuminated target

  16. Development of ultra-thin polyethylene balloons for high altitude research upto mesosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Suneel; Ojha, D K; Peter, G Stalin; Vasudevan, R; Anand, D; Kulkarni, P M; Reddy, V Anmi; Rao, T V; Sreenivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 microns for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000 grams rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenisation of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 microns for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere ...

  17. Treatment of visual defects in empty sella syndrome with detachable balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To report a detachable balloon chiasmopexy treatment of a patient with significant visual defects, with descent of the optic chiasm into an empty sella. A 48 year old female had pituitary adenoma surgery in 1990, presents with severe deterioration of vision in the three months prior to therapy. MRI revealed descent of the optic chiasm into an empty sella. Intra-operatively, a window was made into the bone of the anterior sella turcica. An ITC detachable balloon (Target) 1cm long, 0.6cm wide was placed into the base of the sella. The balloon was filled with iso-osmolar non-ionic contrast. The patient's vision improved, but the balloon deflated after one day. At re-operation, a longitudinal tear was found in the balloon, presumably from pressure from the edge of the bone window. Another detachable balloon was inserted, now filled with 0.6mls of solution of 80% lipiodol and 20% histo-acryl glue (Braun).The balloon stayed inflated, and her vision improved. Check CT at 3 months revealed good balloon position and inflation. There have been two previous literature reports in using detachable balloon chiasmopexy to treat this rare problem. Co-operation between radiology and surgery has successfully treated significant visual impairment in an empty sella syndrome patient. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. The Response of an Open Stratospheric Balloon to the Presence of Inertio-Gravity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Cornejo, J.; de La Torre, A.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic solutions for the vertical response of an open stratospheric balloon to the presence of inertio-gravity waves during its descent are obtained. Monochromatic waves with simultaneous variations in density, velocity, and temperature are considered. Two extreme cases for the thermal conductivity of the balloon are analyzed: perfect and null. In the first case the velocity variations of the wave dominate the balloon's behavior, but in the second one the air density oscillations also become significant. It is concluded that open stratospheric balloons may behave more adiabatic than perfect conducting.

  19. High-Altitude Ballooning Program at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, A; Safonova, M; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-01-01

    We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Recent advances in balloons as well as in electronics have made possible scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but to also explore phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts, using balloon-borne payloads. This paper discusses the results of three tethered balloon experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote and our plans for the future. We also describe the stages of payload development for these experiments.

  20. Long-term outcome of a modified balloon dilatation in the treatment of patients with achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doder Radoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Balloon dilatation is a standard approach to the initial achalasia treatment. Modified dilatation is also applied to rise efficacy and to lower complications. Methods. A total of 57 patients were analysed within a median follow-up of 8.2 years. No premedication was used, dilatation was performed up to the pain treshold, while introduction and positioning of a dilatator was done in combination of endoscopic and radiological control. Dilatation effect was estimated by both Kim Symptom Scoring and objective parameters: body weight rise and radiological scintigraphic findings. Results. Excellent and good results were obtained in 50 (88% of the patients, while in 7 (12% of the patients surgery was performed. There was no difference in dilatation efficacy regarding sex of the patients, but the results were better in the patients above 40 years. Duration of symptoms, body weight loss, esophageal lumen width do not indicate the definitive dilatation outcome. Esophageal scintigraphy and body weight increase were in a direct correlation with the effect of dilatation measured with the Kim Symptom Scoring. After the one to two repeated dilatations the efficacy increased from 74% to 88% justifying the repetition of dilatation. In 2 (3.57% of the patients, that is in 2.65% of the totally dilated patients, perforation was recorded. There was no lethal outcome of dilatation, and the other complications were not clinically significant. Conclusion. Modified balloon dilatation can be recommended for initial method in achalasia treatment due to high efficacy, easy performance in daily hospital while complications are in standard range.

  1. Thromboembolic events associated with single balloon-, double balloon-, and stent-assisted coil embolization of asymptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms: evaluation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takigawa, Tomoji; Suzuki, Kensuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryotaro; Takano, Issei; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Akio [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Koshigaya, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The introduction of the balloon remodeling and stent-assisted technique has revolutionized the approach to coil embolization for wide-neck aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of thromboembolic events associated with single balloon-assisted, double balloon-assisted, and stent-assisted coil embolization for asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A retrospective review was undertaken by 119 patients undergoing coiling with an adjunctive technique for unruptured saccular aneurysms (64 single balloon, 12 double balloon, 43 stent assisted). All underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 24 h after the procedure. DWI showed hyperintense lesions in 48 (40 %) patients, and ten (21 %) of these patients incurred neurological deterioration (permanent, two; transient, eight). Hyperintense lesions were detected significantly more often in procedures with the double balloon-assisted technique (7/12, 58 %) than with the single balloon-assisted technique (16/64, 25 %, p = 0.05). Occurrence of new lesions was significantly higher with the use of stent-assisted technique (25/43, 58 %) than with the single balloon-assisted technique (p = 0.001). Symptomatic ischemic rates were similar between the three groups. The increased number of microcatheters was significantly related to the DWI abnormalities (two microcatheters, 15/63 (23.8 %); three microcatheters, 20/41 (48.8 %) (p = 0.008); four microcatheters, 12/15 (80 %) (p = 0.001)). Thromboembolic events detected on DWI related to coil embolization for unruptured aneurysms are relatively common, especially in association with the double balloon-assisted and stent-assisted techniques. Furthermore, the number of microcatheters is highly correlated with DWI abnormalities. The high rate of thromboembolic events suggests the need for evaluation of platelet reactivity and the addition or change of antiplatelet agents. (orig.)

  2. Balloon flight test of a Compton telescope based on scintillators with silicon photomultiplier readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J. S.; Bancroft, C. M.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of the first high-altitude balloon flight test of a concept for an advanced Compton telescope making use of modern scintillator materials with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readouts. There is a need in the fields of high-energy astronomy and solar physics for new medium-energy gamma-ray (~0.4-10 MeV) detectors capable of making sensitive observations of both line and continuum sources over a wide dynamic range. A fast scintillator-based Compton telescope with SiPM readouts is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge, since the fast response of the scintillators permits both the rejection of background via time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination and the ability to operate at high count rates. The Solar Compton Telescope (SolCompT) prototype presented here was designed to demonstrate stable performance of this technology under balloon-flight conditions. The SolCompT instrument was a simple two-element Compton telescope, consisting of an approximately one-inch cylindrical stilbene crystal for a scattering detector and a one-inch cubic LaBr3:Ce crystal for a calorimeter detector. Both scintillator detectors were read out by 2×2 arrays of Hamamatsu S11828-3344 MPPC devices. Custom front-end electronics provided optimum signal rise time and linearity, and custom power supplies automatically adjusted the SiPM bias voltage to compensate for temperature-induced gain variations. A tagged calibration source, consisting of ~240 nCi of 60Co embedded in plastic scintillator, was placed in the field of view and provided a known source of gamma rays to measure in flight. The SolCompT balloon payload was launched on 24 August 2014 from Fort Sumner, NM, and spent ~3.75 h at a float altitude of ~123,000 ft. The instrument performed well throughout the flight. After correcting for small (~10%) residual gain variations, we measured an in-flight ToF resolution of ~760 ps (FWHM). Advanced scintillators with SiPM readouts continue to show great promise

  3. Clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the resection of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in performing the surgical resection of sacral tumors. Methods: Conventional surgical excision of sacral tumors was employed in 24 patients with sacral tumors (control group), while preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta was carried out in 32 patients with sacral tumors (study group). The operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate of both groups were documented, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Angiography showed that in the study group the sacral tumors were supplied by several vessels, and these feeding arteries were occluded separately. The tumors were successfully removed in all patients with the help of intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. During the surgery, the surgical area was clearly exposed and the blood loss wa remarkably reduced. After the surgery, no ectopic vascular embolization, renal ischemia, limb ischemia or other complications occurred. Statistically significant difference in the operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate existed between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce the blood loss during the surgery and provide a clear surgical field, and thus the surgical safety can be significantly ensured. (authors)

  4. The treatment of post-operative and peptic esophageal strictures after esophageal atresia repair: A program including dilatation with balloon catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients, 6 weeks to 17 years of age with esophageal atresia (EA), developed esophageal strictures and were treated with 26 balloon catheter dilatations over a period of 3 years; 6 are now asymptomatic. Five of the 9 patients had suspected reflux esophagitis, confirmed in 3 by biopsy and treated medically prior to dilatation. Seven of the 9 patients had a primary anastomosis, 1 a gastric tube, and 1 a colonic interposition. Most dilatations in the group of 7 were performed with balloon (B) ≥ the diameter of the distal esophagus (E) (B/E ≥ 1). The 3 residually symptomatic patients inlcude an infant dilated conservatively (B/E < 1) to facilitate later bougienage, 1 patient with a recurrent stricture after stopping medical therapy band home bougienage, and 1 infant who had a persistent anastomotic stricture, suspected by untreated reflux esophagitis, and a perforation during the second balloon dilatation. Balloon catheter esophageal dilatation, as an alternative to bougienage, is usually a safe and effective procedure when reflux esophagitis is diagnosed and treated prior to dilatation. (orig.)

  5. Balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures other than those due to primary repair of oesophageal atresia, interposition or restrictive fundoplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasulakis, Stephen [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Andronikou, Savvas [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-10-01

    Balloon dilatation of the oesophagus in children has been performed predominantly for treating strictures, which are the result of primary repair of oesophageal atresia, interposition surgery or restrictive Nissen's fundoplication. Reports of the use of this technique for alternative causes of stricture are few. To report our experience and success with balloon dilatation of strictures due to caustic ingestion, achalasia, oesophagitis, congenital stenosis, and epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and to make comparisons with our treatment of patients with primary repair of oesophageal atresia (OA), as well as with reports in the English language literature. Retrospective review of fluoroscopically guided balloon oesophageal dilatation procedures in 19 patients over a 5-year period, and comparison of those performed for OA repair complications with those due to other diseases. The average radiation dose, per procedure, was calculated by a medical physicist. Ten patients had strictures as a result of primary repair of OA. Three patients had stricture as a result of EB, two from achalasia, two from caustic injury, one due to an oesophageal web and one from reflux oesophagitis. Our results show that the technique can also be curative for the last group and that it may be used intermittently to alleviate symptoms in ongoing diseases. We have not experienced any complications and have also calculated that, even with prolonged use of multiple procedures, the radiation exposure is comparable to other radiological techniques. Patients with alternative causes for oesophageal stricture may be treated to resolution within 2 years using balloon dilatation. Ongoing diseases such as EB require ongoing dilatation, but balloon dilatation of strictures has been successful in alleviating swallowing difficulty. Patients with stricture from OA repair sometimes need ongoing dilatation. Radiation exposure for multiple procedures, over an extended period, is comparable to that from a single

  6. Balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures other than those due to primary repair of oesophageal atresia, interposition or restrictive fundoplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon dilatation of the oesophagus in children has been performed predominantly for treating strictures, which are the result of primary repair of oesophageal atresia, interposition surgery or restrictive Nissen's fundoplication. Reports of the use of this technique for alternative causes of stricture are few. To report our experience and success with balloon dilatation of strictures due to caustic ingestion, achalasia, oesophagitis, congenital stenosis, and epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and to make comparisons with our treatment of patients with primary repair of oesophageal atresia (OA), as well as with reports in the English language literature. Retrospective review of fluoroscopically guided balloon oesophageal dilatation procedures in 19 patients over a 5-year period, and comparison of those performed for OA repair complications with those due to other diseases. The average radiation dose, per procedure, was calculated by a medical physicist. Ten patients had strictures as a result of primary repair of OA. Three patients had stricture as a result of EB, two from achalasia, two from caustic injury, one due to an oesophageal web and one from reflux oesophagitis. Our results show that the technique can also be curative for the last group and that it may be used intermittently to alleviate symptoms in ongoing diseases. We have not experienced any complications and have also calculated that, even with prolonged use of multiple procedures, the radiation exposure is comparable to other radiological techniques. Patients with alternative causes for oesophageal stricture may be treated to resolution within 2 years using balloon dilatation. Ongoing diseases such as EB require ongoing dilatation, but balloon dilatation of strictures has been successful in alleviating swallowing difficulty. Patients with stricture from OA repair sometimes need ongoing dilatation. Radiation exposure for multiple procedures, over an extended period, is comparable to that from a single

  7. Local Administration of NF-κ B Decoy Oligonucleotides to Prevent Restenosis after Balloon Angioplasty: An Experimental Study in New Zealand White Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of NF-κ B oligonucleotides (ODN) administered by local administration with the channeled balloon catheter to prevent restenosis after balloon angioplasty in restenotic iliac arteries of New Zealand white rabbits. Materials and Methods. In vitro, 8000 rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMC) where transfected with a liposomal carrier (TfX50) with 100 ng of decoy and scrambled ODN. Inhibition of proliferation was measured using a MTT assay after 24 hours in comparison to control. In vivo, 22 male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and received denudation of both common iliac arteries with a 3 mm balloon catheter to induce an arterial stenosis. Four weeks after stenosis induction, local application of NF-κ B in two different concentrations (1 μg: n = 14; 10 μg: n = 8) was performed randomly on one common iliac artery. Scrambled oligonucleotides without specific binding capacities were injected into the contralateral side. The channeled balloon catheter allows simultaneous balloon dilation (8 atm) of the stenosis and local application of a drug solution (2 atm). Four weeks after local drug delivery the animals were killed and the vessels were excised and computerized morphometric measurements were performed. Results. NF-κ B decoy ODN but not scrambled ODN inhibited proliferation of rVSMC in vitro. Following local ODN application in the animals, no acute vascular complications were seen. NF-κ B ODN resulted in a statistically non significant reduction of neointimal area compared to the control group. The neointimal area was 0.97 mm2 using 1 μg NF-κ B ODN compared to 0.98 mm2 in the control group. The higher dose resulted in a neointimal area of 0.97 mm2 compared to 1.07mm2 at the control side. Conclusions. Local drug delivery of NF-κ B ODN using the 'channeled balloon' catheter could not reduce neointimal hyperplasia in stenostic rabbit iliac arteries. Application modalities have to be improved to

  8. A Case Report: Balloon Occlusion Of Vertebral Artery In A Giant Vertebral Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Edraki

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: True aneurysms of extra cranial vertebral arteries are rare. The usual pathogenesis of aneurysms in this location is either penetrating or blunt trauma with resultant pseudo- aneurysm formation. We report a patient with a presumed pseudo-aneurysm of the extra- cranial vertebral artery presenting with painful neck mass, without obvious history of trauma. Case description: A 59-year old man presented with painful left lateral neck mass from 3 month ago with a bruit over it on physical examination. Patient had a history of long term anticoagulant therapy because of chronic lower extremity DVT. Patient was referred to our DSA (Department for angiography. After color Doppler US, CT scan and MR-angiography were performed and a giant aneurysm in left vertebral artery was detected. The lesion was successfully treated by an endovascular technique of balloon occlusion of the verte-bral artery.

  9. Percutaneous micro-balloon compression for treatment of high risk idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and complications of percutaneous micro- balloon compression (PMC) of trigeminal ganglion for high risk idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: To analyze retrospectively the clinical data of 3053 cases of idiopathic trigeminal nemalgia, of which 804 cases were in high risk, who underwent PMC from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2007 in our department. Results: 833 procedures were performed on these 804 patients. The immediate effective rate was 97.3%; with recurrence rate of 6.8%, ipsilateral paresthesia incidence 3.7%; and no keratohelcosis with approximately 2/3 masticator, muscles weakness and diplopia 0.2%. Mean follow-up time was 36 months. Conclusions: PMC procedure is very effective for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia especially in high risk patients, and especially prefer for the pain involved the first branch neuralgia. (authors)

  10. Experiments on ballooning in pressurized and transiently heated Zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-rod burst tests were performed with Atucha I Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in the REBEKA burst equipment of KfK. The objective was to investigate the ballooning and burst behavior of argentine cladding tubes obtained from NRG, Germany and CONVAR, Argentina. The burst data were compared with those of cladding tubes used in german PWR's. It was found that the burst data e.g. burst temperature, circumferential burst strain and its response to azimuthal temperature differences are identical for the Argentine and German tubing quality. The burst data are in good agreement with those of German PWR-Zircaloy tubes. Thus, the fuel rod behavior codes developed for German PWR's can also be used for the Argentine reactor Atucha I. (orig.)

  11. Zodiac: A Balloon Facility for Exoplanet Debris Disk Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Traub, W.; Bryden, G.

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac is a telescope-coronagraph system, operating at visible wavelengths, mounted on a balloon-borne gondola in the stratosphere. The science objective is to image debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks, usually found in the outer reaches of a planetary system, are significant for exoplanet science because (a) they tell us that planet formation did actually get started around a star, (b) they are a contributing source of potentially obscuring dust to the inner part of the disk where we will someday start searching for terrestrial planets, and (c) for a disk with an inner edge, this feature is a signpost for a shepherding planet and thus a sign that planet formation did indeed proceed to completion around that star. The telescope has a 1-m diameter, clear-aperture primary mirror, designed to operate in the cold stratospheric environment. The coronagraph is designed to suppress starlight, including its diffracted and scattered components, and allow a faint surrounding debris disk to be imaged. We will control the speckle background to be about 7 orders of magnitude fainter than the star, with detection sensitivity about one more order of magnitude fainter, in order to comfortably image the expected brightness of typical debris disks. Zodiac will be designed to make scientifically useful measurements on a conventional overnight balloon flight, but would also be fully compatible with future Ultra Long Duration Balloon flights. Zodiac has a technical objective of advancing the technology levels of future mission components from the lab to near-space flight status. These components include deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, coronagraph masks, lightweight mirrors, precision pointing, and speckle rejection by wavefront control. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage. PMID:17385047

  13. Anisotropic Alfven-ballooning modes in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the stability and parallel structure of coupled shear-Alfven and slow-magnetosonic waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere including effects of finite anisotropic plasma pressure. Multiscale perturbation analysis of the anisotropic Grad-Shafranov equation yields an approximate self-consistent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. This MHD equilibrium is used in the numerical solution of a set of eigenmode equations which describe the field line eigenfrequency, linear stability, and parallel eigenmode structure. We call these modes anisotropic Alfven-ballooning modes. The main results are: The field line eigenfrequency can be significantly lowered by finite pressure effects. The parallel mode structure of the transverse wave components is fairly insensitive to changes in the plasma pressure but the compressional magnetic component can become highly peaked near the magnetic equator due to increased pressure, especially when P perpendicular > P parallel. For the isotropic case ballooning instability can occur when the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure, exceeds a critical value βoB ∼ 3.5 at the equator. Compared to the isotropic case the critical beta value is lowered by anisotropy, either due to decreased field-line-bending stabilization when P parallel > P perpendicular, or due to increased ballooning-mirror destabilization when P perpendicular > P parallel. We use a ''β-6 stability diagram'' to display the regions of instability with respect to the equatorial values of the parameters bar β and δ, where bar β = (1/3)(βparallel + 2 β perpendicular) is an average beta value and δ = 1 - P parallel/P perpendicular is a measure of the plasma anisotropy

  14. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Sun, T. T.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less.

  15. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less

  16. European activities in balloon-borne infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared and submillimeter astronomy contributes essentially to the understanding of basic astrophysical processes (e.g. formation and evolution of stars and galaxies, origin of the universe). Atmospheric emission and absorption place severe constraints on the wavelength range and sensitivity of corresponding ground-based measurements. Since no infrared astronomical satellite is in operation yet, balloon-borne instruments are the ones with the highest sensitivity. Approximately ten European groups are active in this field and have produced important scientific results within the last ten years. Their work can be divided into four groups: investigation of the solar system; stellar evolution; galactic evolution and origin of the universe. (Auth.)

  17. Multi object spectrograph of the Fireball balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, R.; Lemaitre, G. R.; Quiret, S.; Milliard, B.; Pascal, S.; Origné, A.

    2014-07-01

    Fireball is a NASA/CNES balloon-borne experiment to study the faint diffuse circumgalactic emission in the ultraviolet around 200 nm. The field of view of the 1 meter diameter parabola is enlarged using a two-mirror field corrector providing 1000 arcmin2 at the slit mask. The 0.1 nm resolution Multi Object Spectrograph is based on two identical Schmidt systems sharing a reflective aspherical grating. The aspherization of the grating is achieved using a double replication technique of a metallic deformable matrix. We will present the F/2.5 spectrograph design and the deformable matrix process to obtain the Schmidt grating with elliptical contours.

  18. Detachable balloon embolization of an aneurysmal gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defreyne, Luc; De Schrijver, Ignace; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Kunnen, Marc [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    Extrahepatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the gastroduodenal artery and the portal venous system are rare and almost always a late complication of gastric surgery. Secondary portal hypertension and mesenteric ischemia may provoke abdominal pain, upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea, and weight loss. Until recently, surgical excision has been the therapy of choice with excellent results. The authors report a case of gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula with a rare large interpositioned aneurysm in a cardiopulmonary-compromised patient who was considered a non-surgical candidate. The gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula was occluded endovascularly by means of a detachable balloon. A survey of the literature of this rare type of arterioportal fistula is included. (orig.)

  19. Effect of externally driven magnetic islands on resistive ballooning turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent transport in the edge region of tokamak plasmas is simulated using a reduced set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. Repetitive and intermittent transport bursts driven by resistive ballooning turbulence with external heating are observed. The effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on turbulent heat transport is examined, where the electromagnetic response of the plasma to the RMP is solved consistently. The penetration of the RMP excites a magnetic island chain and damps the poloidal flow near the magnetic islands. The transport bursts are found to be replaced by more moderate and continuous transport. The change in the transport pattern is associated with the effect of the RMP on nonlinear coupling of fluctuations. (author)

  20. Ion temperature gradient driven ballooning modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion temperature gradient driven ballooning mode is investigated using two-fluid, gyrofluid and gyrokinetic descriptions. The linear eigenmode equation is solved numerically in a model equilibrium with shifted circular magnetic surfaces. The localization of the eigenmodes, which persist in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) second stability region, and the mode structure are displayed. The role of finite-Larmor radius (FLR) and magnetic drift resonance effects on the growth rate are elucidated. Negative magnetic shear is found to have a stabilizing effect on the mode. 24 refs, 7 figs