Sample records for balloon flight solar

  1. Results of the 1973 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Greenwood, R. F.


    High altitude balloon flights carried 37 standard solar cells for calibration above 99.5 percent of the earth's atmosphere. The cells were assembled into standard modules with appropriate resistors to load each cell at short circuit current. Each standardized module was mounted at the apex of the balloon on a sun tracker which automatically maintained normal incidence to the sun within 1.0 deg. The balloons were launched to reach a float altitude of approximately 36.6 km two hours before solar noon and remain at float altitude for two hours beyond solar noon. Telemetered calibration data on each standard solar cell was collected and recorded on magnetic tape. At the end of each float period the solar cell payload was separated from the balloon by radio command and descended via parachute to a ground recovery crew. Standard solar cells calibrated and recovered in this manner are used as primary intensity reference standards in solar simulators and in terrestrial sunlight for evaluating the performance of other solar cells and solar arrays with similar spectral response characteristics.

  2. Solar Hot Air Balloons: A Low Cost, Multi-hour Flight System for Lightweight Scientific Instrumentation Packages (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Albert, S.; Dexheimer, D.; Murphy, S.; Mullen, M.


    Existing scientific ballooning solutions for multi hour flights in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are expensive and/or technically challenging. In contrast, solar hot air balloons are inexpensive and simple to construct. These balloons, which rely solely on sunlight striking a darkened envelope, can deliver payloads to 22 km altitude and maintain level flight until sunset. We describe an experimental campaign in which five solar hot air balloons launched in 45 minutes created a free flying infrasound (low frequency sound) microphone network that remained in the air for over 12 hours. We discuss the balloons' trajectory, maximum altitude, and stability as well as present results from the infrasound observations. We assess the performance and limitations of this design for lightweight atmospheric instrumentation deployments that require multi-hour flight times. Finally, we address the possibilities of multi day flights during the polar summer and on other planets.

  3. Results of the 1990 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program (United States)

    Anspaugh, Bruce E.; Weiss, Robert S.


    The 1990 solar cell calibration balloon flight consisted of two flights, one on July 20, 1990 and the other on September 6, 1990. A malfunction occurred during the first flight, which resulted in a complete loss of data and a free fall of the payload from 120,000 ft. After the tracker was rebuilt, and several solar cell modules were replaced, the payload was reflown. The September flight was successful and met all the objectives of the program. Forty-six modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 a.u. The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  4. Nationwide network of total solar eclipse high altitude balloon flights (United States)

    Des Jardins, A. C.


    Three years ago we envisioned tapping into the strength of the National Space Grant Program to make the most of a rare astronomical event to engage the general public through education and to create meaningful long-lasting partnerships with other private and public entities. We believe strongly in giving student participants career-making opportunities through the use of the most cutting edge tools, resources, and communication. The NASA Space Grant network was in a unique position to engage the public in the eclipse in an awe-inspiring and educational way at a surprisingly small cost. In addition to public engagement, the multidisciplinary project presented an in-depth hands-on learning opportunity for the thousands of student participants. The project used a network of high altitude ballooning teams positioned along the path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina to conduct coordinated collaborative activities during the eclipse. These activities included 1) capturing and streaming live video of the eclipse from near space, 2) partnering with NASA Ames on a space biology experiment, and 3) conducting high-resolution atmospheric radiosonde measurements. This presentation will summarize the challenges, results, lessons learned, and professional evaluation from developing, training, and coordinating the collaboration. Details of the live streaming HD video and radiosonde activities are described in separate submissions to this session.

  5. Energy from solar balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)


    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  6. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Dake, S.; Oda, H.; Miyamura, O.; Fuki, M.; Jones, W.V.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U.; Tominaga, Y.; Wefel, J.P.; Fountain, W.; Derrickson, J.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J.W.


    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  8. Solar research with stratospheric balloons (United States)

    Vázquez, Manuel; Wittmann, Axel D.

    Balloons, driven by hot air or some gas lighter than air, were the first artificial machines able to lift payloads (including humans) from the ground. After some pioneering flights the study of the physical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere constituted the first scientific target. A bit later astronomers realized that the turbulence of the atmospheric layers above their ground-based telescopes deteriorated the image quality, and that balloons were an appropriate means to overcome, total or partially, this problem. Some of the most highly-resolved photographs and spectrograms of the sun during the 20th century were actually obtained by balloon-borne telescopes from the stratosphere. Some more recent projects of solar balloon astronomy will also be described.

  9. The Second Flight of the Sunrise Balloon-borne Solar Observatory: Overview of Instrument Updates, the Flight, the Data, and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, S. K.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Deutsch, W.; Doerr, H.-P.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Germerott, D.; Gizon, L.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Lagg, A.; Meller, R.; Tomasch, G.; Noort, M. van [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Blesa, J. L. Gasent, E-mail: [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); and others


    The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory, consisting of a 1 m aperture telescope that provides a stabilized image to a UV filter imager and an imaging vector polarimeter, carried out its second science flight in 2013 June. It provided observations of parts of active regions at high spatial resolution, including the first high-resolution images in the Mg ii k line. The obtained data are of very high quality, with the best UV images reaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at 3000 Å after Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution reconstruction accounting for phase-diversity information. Here a brief update is given of the instruments and the data reduction techniques, which includes an inversion of the polarimetric data. Mainly those aspects that evolved compared with the first flight are described. A tabular overview of the observations is given. In addition, an example time series of a part of the emerging active region NOAA AR 11768 observed relatively close to disk center is described and discussed in some detail. The observations cover the pores in the trailing polarity of the active region, as well as the polarity inversion line where flux emergence was ongoing and a small flare-like brightening occurred in the course of the time series. The pores are found to contain magnetic field strengths ranging up to 2500 G, and while large pores are clearly darker and cooler than the quiet Sun in all layers of the photosphere, the temperature and brightness of small pores approach or even exceed those of the quiet Sun in the upper photosphere.

  10. Mars Solar Balloon Lander, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  11. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; hide


    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p(raised bar)'s) collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The p(raised bar) spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary p(raised bar) calculations. Cosmologically primary p(raised bar)'s have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated p(raised bar) spectra. The BESSPolar II result shows no evidence of primary p(raised bar)'s originating from the evaporation of PBH.

  12. Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; hide


    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

  13. Location and data collection for long stratospheric balloon flights (United States)

    Malaterre, P.

    Stratospheric balloons capable of taking a 30 kg scientific payload to an altitude of 22 to 30 km for 1 month or more were developed. In-flight experiments were used to qualify the designs of a pumpkin shaped superpressure balloon and an infrared hot air balloon. Tracking of the flights (location and transmission of the parameters measured on board) was achieved using a telemetry gondola including an ARGOS beacon adapted for operation in the low temperatures encountered.

  14. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.


    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  15. Scientific study in solar and plasma physics relative to rocket and balloon projects (United States)

    Wu, S. T.


    The goals of this research are to provide scientific and technical capabilities in the areas of solar and plasma physics contained in research programs and instrumentation development relative to current rocket and balloon projects; to develop flight instrumentation design, flight hardware, and flight program objectives and participate in peer reviews as appropriate; and to participate in solar-terrestrial physics modeling studies and analysis of flight data and provide theoretical investigations as required by these studies.

  16. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  17. Long duration balloon flights in the middle stratosphere (United States)

    Malaterre, P.


    Research and development performed by the French Space Agency (CNES) over the past 10 years has given the scientific community the Infrared Montgolfiere, a balloon capable of lifting 50-kg payloads into the stratosphere for periods of several weeks. The Infrared Montgolfiere is a hot air balloon that captures infrared radiation using the earth as a heat source. Thirty flights have been launched so far, some lasting more than sixty days and circling the globe twice.

  18. Analysis of Flight of Near-Space Balloon (United States)

    Miller, Zech; Evans, Austin; Seyfert, James; Leadlove, Kyle; Gumina, Kaitlyn; Martell, Eric


    In December 2014, the Electronics class at Millikin University launched a balloon designed to travel into the near-space region of the atmosphere. The balloon was equipped with an instrumentation package including a camera, accelerometer, barometric pressure sensor, temperature probes, as well as a system for tracking using an Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS). The balloon was launched from Decatur, IL, and landed in Marysville, OH, nearly 320 miles away. The students then analyzed the data from the flight and compared results to expectations.

  19. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse. (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A


    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Cosmic and solar gamma-ray x-ray and particle measurements from high altitude balloons in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.


    For measurements of cosmic and solar gamma-rays, hard X-rays, and particles, Antarctica offers the potential for very long, 10--20 day, continuous, twenty-four-hour-a-day observations, with balloon flights circling the South Pole during austral summer. For X-ray/gamma-ray sources at high south latitude the overlying atmosphere is minimized, and for cosmic ray measurements the low geomagnetic cutoff permits entry of low rigidity particles. The first Antarctic flight of a heavy (∼2400 lb.) payload on a large (11.6x10 6 cu. ft.) balloon took place in January, 1988, to search for the gamma-ray lines of 56 Co produced in the new supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The long duration balloon flights presently planned from Antarctica include those for further gamma-ray/hard X-ray studies of SN 1987A and for the NASA Max '91 program for solar flare studies

  1. Solar array flight dynamic experiment (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.


    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  2. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight (United States)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.


    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  3. Potential of balloon payloads for in flight validation of direct and nulling interferometry concepts (United States)

    Demangeon, Olivier; Ollivier, Marc; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel; Cassaing, Frédéric; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Mourard, Denis; Kern, Pierre; Lam Trong, Tien; Evrard, Jean; Absil, Olivier; Defrere, Denis; Lopez, Bruno


    While the question of low cost / low science precursors is raised to validate the concepts of direct and nulling interferometry space missions, balloon payloads offer a real opportunity thanks to their relatively low cost and reduced development plan. Taking into account the flight capabilities of various balloon types, we propose in this paper, several concepts of payloads associated to their flight plan. We also discuss the pros and cons of each concepts in terms of technological and science demonstration power.

  4. Comparative study of proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and a balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Gasset, G.; Planel, H. (Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse-Purpan (France))


    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlesness in the biological responses are discussed.

  5. Comparative study of proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and a balloon flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, Rene; Richoilley, Gerard; Gasset, Gilbert; Planel, Hubert


    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlesness in the biological responses are discussed [fr

  6. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons (United States)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore


    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  7. Solar polarimetry in the K I D2 line : A novel possibility for a stratospheric balloon (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Villanueva, G. L.; Katsukawa, Y.; Solanki, S. K.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Shimizu, T.; Oba, T.; Kubo, M.; Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.


    Of the two solar lines, K I D1 and D2, almost all attention so far has been devoted to the D1 line, as D2 is severely affected by an O2 atmospheric band. This, however, makes the latter appealing for balloon and space observations from above (most of) the Earth's atmosphere. We estimate the residual effect of the O2 band on the K I D2 line at altitudes typical for stratospheric balloons. Our aim is to study the feasibility of observing the 770 nm window. Specifically, this paper serves as a preparation for the third flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory. The results indicate that the absorption by O2 is still present, albeit much weaker, at the expected balloon altitude. We applied the obtained O2 transmittance to K I D2 synthetic polarimetric spectra and found that in the absence of line-of-sight motions, the residual O2 has a negligible effect on the K I D2 line. On the other hand, for Doppler-shifted K I D2 data, the residual O2 might alter the shape of the Stokes profiles. However, the residual O2 absorption is sufficiently weak at stratospheric levels that it can be divided out if appropriate measurements are made, something that is impossible at ground level. Therefore, for the first time with Sunrise III, we will be able to perform polarimetric observations of the K I D2 line and, consequently, we will have improved access to the thermodynamics and magnetic properties of the upper photosphere from observations of the K I lines.

  8. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (United States)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.


    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback

  9. Observing Boundary-Layer Winds from Hot-Air Balloon Flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de E.I.F.; Haan, de S.; Bosveld, F.C.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    High-resolution upper-air wind observations are sparse, and additional observations are a welcome source of meteorological information. In this paper the potential of applying balloon flights for upper-air wind measurements is explored, and the meteorological content of this information is

  10. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model: Overview (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Godfrey, G.; Williams, S. M.; Grove, J. E.; Mizuno, T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Kamae, T.; Ampe, J.; Briber, Stuart; Dann, James; hide


    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (greater than 20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under conditions similar to those expected in orbit. Results from a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, on August 4, 2001, show that the BFEM successfully obtained gamma-ray data in this high-background environment.

  11. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R.L.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rester, A.C.; Trombka, J.I.; Starr, R.; Lasche, G.P.


    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector(GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 degree S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of 56 Co in the Supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software

  12. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight (United States)


    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  13. Getting Started: Using a Global Circumnavigation Balloon Flight to Explore Picosatellite (CubeSat) Technology


    Bennett, Keith; Swartwout, Michael; Tobias, Barry; McNally, Patrick


    Washington University's Project Aria is currently involved in the CubeSat program. Project Aria is a student-led engineering education, research, and K-12 outreach program. The project’s CubeSat goal is the development of a spherical imaging spacecraft, the "Palantir", ready for launch in late 2002. Recently, the Palantir team was offered the opportunity to fly a small payload on a global circumnavigation balloon flight in mid-2001. The payload would collect atmospheric data such as temperatu...

  14. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra (United States)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.


    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  15. High Altitude Balloon Flight Path Prediction and Site Selection Based On Computer Simulations (United States)

    Linford, Joel


    Interested in the upper atmosphere, Weber State University Physics department has developed a High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research team, also known as HARBOR. HARBOR enables Weber State University to take a variety of measurements from ground level to altitudes as high as 100,000 feet. The flight paths of these balloons can extend as long as 100 miles from the launch zone, making the choice of where and when to fly critical. To ensure the ability to recover the packages in a reasonable amount of time, days and times are carefully selected using computer simulations limiting flight tracks to approximately 40 miles from the launch zone. The computer simulations take atmospheric data collected by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to plot what flights might have looked like in the past, and to predict future flights. Using these simulations a launch zone has been selected in Duchesne Utah, which has hosted eight successful flights over the course of the last three years, all of which have been recovered. Several secondary launch zones in western Wyoming, Southern Idaho, and Northern Utah are also being considered.

  16. Electrons in the solar corona. Pt. 3. Coronal streamers analysis from balloon-borne coronagraph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollfus, A; Mouradian, Z [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France)


    During a balloon flight in France on September 13, 1971, at altitude 32 000 m, the solar corona was cinematographed from 2 to 5 Rsub(sun) during 5 hr, with an externally occulted coronagraph. Motions in coronal features, when they occur, exhibit deformations of structures with velocities not exceeding a few 10 km s/sup -1/; several streamers were often involved simultaneously; these variations are compatible with magnetic changes or sudden reorganizations of lines of forces. Intensity and polarization measurements give the electron density with height in the quiet corona above the equator. Electron density gradient for one of the streamers gives a temperature of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ K and comparisons with the on-board Apollo 16 coronal observation of 31 July, 1971 are compatible with the extension of this temperature up to 25 Rsub(sun). Three-dimensional structures and localizations of the streamers are deduced from combined photometry, polarimetry and ground-based K coronametry. Three of the four coronal streamers analysed have their axis bent with height towards the direction of the solar rotation, as if the upper corona has a rotation slightly faster than the chromosphere.

  17. A method of exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. [hot air balloon heated by solar radiation or planetary thermal flux (United States)

    Blamont, J.


    A hot-air balloon, with the air heated by natural sources, is described. Buoyancy is accomplished by either solar heating or by utilizing the IR thermal flux of the planet to heat the gas in the balloon. Altitude control is provided by a valve which is opened and closed by a barometer. The balloon is made of an organic material which has to absorb radiant energy and to emit as little as possible.

  18. Adapted ECC ozonesonde for long-duration flights aboard boundary-layer pressurised balloons (United States)

    Gheusi, François; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clenet, Antoine; Derrien, Solène; Doerenbecher, Alexis; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Fontaine, Alain; Hache, Emeric; Jambert, Corinne; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore


    Since the 1970s, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurised balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport lightweight scientific payloads at isopycnic level and offer a quasi-Lagrangian sampling of the lower atmosphere over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks).Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are widely used under small sounding balloons. However, their autonomy is limited to a few hours owing to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation. An adaptation of the ECC sonde has been developed specifically for long-duration BLPB flights. Compared to conventional ECC sondes, the main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences (with possible remote control during the flight). To increase the ozonesonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min). The rest of the time, the sonde pump is turned off. Results of preliminary ground-based tests are first presented. In particular, the sonde was able to provide correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV-absorption ozone analyser every 15 min for 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched over the western Mediterranean during three summer field campaigns of the ChArMEx project ( TRAQA in 2012, and ADRIMED and SAFMED in 2013. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 h and covered more than 1000 km. Satisfactory data were obtained when compared to independent ozone measurements close in space and time. The quasi-Lagrangian measurements allowed a first look at ozone diurnal evolution in the marine boundary layer as well as in the lower free troposphere. During some flight segments, there was indication of photochemical ozone production in the marine boundary layer or even in the free troposphere, at rates ranging from 1 to 2 ppbv h -1, which

  19. The French balloon and sounding rocket space program (United States)

    Coutin/Faye, S.; Sadourny, I.


    Stratospheric and long duration flight balloon programs are outlined. Open stratospheric balloons up to 1 million cu m volume are used to carry astronomy, solar system, aeronomy, stratosphere, biology, space physics, and geophysics experiments. The long duration balloons can carry 50 kg payloads at 20 to 30 km altitude for 10 days to several weeks. Pressurized stratospheric balloons, and infrared hot air balloons are used. They are used to study the dynamics of stratospheric waves and atmospheric water vapor. Laboratories participating in sounding rocket programs are listed.

  20. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship (United States)

    Pohl, R. A.


    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  1. Optimization of the design of X-Calibur for a long-duration balloon flight and results from a one-day test flight (United States)

    Kislat, Fabian; Abarr, Quin; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Dowkontt, Paul; Tang, Jason; Krawczynski, Henric


    X-ray polarimetry promises exciting insights into the physics of compact astrophysical objects by providing two observables: the polarization fraction and angle as function of energy. X-Calibur is a balloon-borne hard x-ray scattering polarimeter for the 15- to 60-keV energy range. After the successful test flight in September 2016, the instrument is now being prepared for a long-duration balloon (LDB) flight in December 2018 through January 2019. During the LDB flight, X-Calibur will make detailed measurements of the polarization of Vela X-1 and constrain the polarization of a sample of between 4 and 9 additional sources. We describe the upgraded polarimeter design, including the use of a beryllium scattering element, lower-noise front-end electronics, and an improved fully active CsI(Na) anticoincidence shield, which will significantly increase the instrument sensitivity. We present estimates of the improved polarimeter performance based on simulations and laboratory measurements. We present some of the results from the 2016 flight and show that we solved several problems, which led to a reduced sensitivity during the 2016 flight. We end with a description of the planned Vela X-1 observations, including a Swift/BAT-guided observation strategy.

  2. Observations of cosmic ray positrons during the 1993 flight of the NMSU/WiZard-TS93 balloon borne apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.N. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Aversa, F. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)


    As a part of a series of experiments to search for antimatter in the primary cosmic ray, the NMSU balloon borne apparatus was configured for a flight dedicated to the search of positrons. Two completely new instruments were added to the magnetic spectrometer: a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a silicon-tungsten tracking calorimeter. The function of these two instruments complemented one another and the combined action provided a proton rejection factor better than 5x10{sup 5}. The paper shows the results from the analysis on the complete set of data. All the presented spectra are at the level of the spectrometer.

  3. Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra from the BESS-Polar Long-Duration Balloon Flights Over Antarctica (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; hide


    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in December 2004 and December 2007, at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2-160 GeV and helium nuclei 0.15-80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic rigidity ranges are 0.6-160 GV for protons and 1.1-160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 GV to 160 GV and compare to ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Itazaki, A.; Kusumoto, A.; Matsukawa, Y.; Orito, R. [Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kumazawa, T.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Nozaki, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hams, T.; Mitchell, J. W. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Myers, Z. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nishimura, J., E-mail: [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others


    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in 2004 December and 2007 December at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2–160 GeV and helium nuclei in the range 0.15–80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic-rigidity ranges are 0.6–160 GV for protons and 1.1–160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 to 160 GV and compare this to the ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  5. A verified technique for calibrating space solar cells (United States)

    Anspaugh, Bruce


    Solar cells have been flown on high-altitude balloons for over 24 years, to produce solar cell standards that can be used to set the intensity of solar simulators. The events of a typical balloon calibration flight are reported. These are: the preflight events, including the preflight cell measurements and the assembly of the flight cells onto the solar tracker; the activities at the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas, including the preflight calibrations, the mating of the tracker and cells onto the balloon, preparations for launch, and the launch; the payload recovery, which includes tracking the balloon by aircraft, terminating the flight, and retrieving the payload. In 1985, the cells flow on the balloon were also flown on a shuttle flight and measured independently. The two measurement methods are compared and shown to agree within 1 percent.

  6. Flight attendant radiation dose from solar particle events. (United States)

    Anderson, Jeri L; Mertens, Christopher J; Grajewski, Barbara; Luo, Lian; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T


    Research has suggested that work as a flight attendant may be related to increased risk for reproductive health effects. Air cabin exposures that may influence reproductive health include radiation dose from galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events. This paper describes the assessment of radiation dose accrued during solar particle events as part of a reproductive health study of flight attendants. Solar storm data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Weather Prediction Center list of solar proton events affecting the Earth environment to ascertain storms relevant to the two study periods (1992-1996 and 1999-2001). Radiation dose from exposure to solar energetic particles was estimated using the NAIRAS model in conjunction with galactic cosmic radiation dose calculated using the CARI-6P computer program. Seven solar particle events were determined to have potential for significant radiation exposure, two in the first study period and five in the second study period, and over-lapped with 24,807 flight segments. Absorbed (and effective) flight segment doses averaged 6.5 μGy (18 μSv) and 3.1 μGy (8.3 μSv) for the first and second study periods, respectively. Maximum doses were as high as 440 μGy (1.2 mSv) and 20 flight segments had doses greater than 190 μGy (0.5 mSv). During solar particle events, a pregnant flight attendant could potentially exceed the equivalent dose limit to the conceptus of 0.5 mSv in a month recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  7. Balloon-Borne, High Altitude Gravimetry: The Flight of DUCKY Ia (11 October 1983) (United States)


    Figure 3.4 A Photograph of DUCKY la Minutes After Launch. For scale, the balloon-gondola system is about 400 ft from top to bottom 25 10 00 0 I- 0 N...Instituto di Metrologia ŕG. Colonnetti" (IMGC) Italy in 1980,13 and the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astro- physics (JILA) in 1982.14 The absolute

  8. Utilization of solar energy by means of photovoltaic cells on a captive balloon. Sonnenstrahlenenergienutzung durch photovoltaische Zellen auf Fesselballon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, A.


    For the use of solar energy photovoltaic cells are used which are deposited on the envelope of a captive balloon which floats over the ground according to the hot air principle in a sufficient height free of atmospheric influences (about 10 km) and whose stay ropes are used for the transfer of generated electric power. The part of the envelope of the balloon equipped with solar cells is to be made as a plane surface and this solar cell surface can be positioned by means of a variation of the free stay rope lengths controlled automatically in an optimal way according to the sun beam direction. In connection with the absence of atmospheric influences, a generation of maximum energy in great constancy during nearly the whole daytime, is made possible.

  9. A summary of results from solar monitoring rocket flights (United States)

    Duncan, C. H.


    Three rocket flights to measure the solar constant and provide calibration data for sensors aboard Nimbus 6, 7, and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were accomplished. The values obtained by the rocket instruments for the solar constant in SI units are: 1367 w/sq m on 29 June 1976; 1372 w/sq m on 16 November 1978; and 1374 w/sq m on 22 May 1980. The uncertainty of the rocket measurements is + or - 0.5%. The values obtained by the Hickey-Frieden sensor on Nimbus 7 during the second and third flights was 1376 w/sq m. The value obtained by the Active Cavity Radiometer Model IV (ACR IV) on SMM during the flight was 1368 w/sq m.

  10. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P. W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Allison, P. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beatty, J. J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Besson, D. Z. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binns, W. R. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Chen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Clem, J. M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Connolly, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Dowkontt, P. F. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); DuVernois, M. A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Field, R. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Goodhue, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hast, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hebert, C. L. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Hoover, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Israel, M. H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States). et al.


    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  11. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.


    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  12. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca


    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  13. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chapin, Edward L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olmi, Luca [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Physics Department, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); and others


    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  14. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.


    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  15. Cosmic ray nuclei detection in the balloon borne nuclear emulsion gamma ray telescope flight in Australia (GRAINE 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyono Atsushi


    Full Text Available Nuclear emulsion plates for studying elementary particle physics as well as cosmic ray physics are very powerful tracking tools with sub-micron spatial resolutions of charged particle trajectories. Even if gamma rays have to be detected, electron-positron pair tracks can provide precise information to reconstruct their direction and energy with high accuracy. Recent developments of emulsion analysis technology can digitally handle almost all tracks recorded in emulsion plates by using the Hyper Track Selector of the OPERA group at NAGOYA University. On the other hand, the potential of time resolutions have been equipped by emulsion multilayer shifter technology in the GRAINE (Gamma Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion experiments, the aims of which are to detect cosmic gamma rays such as the Vela pulsar stellar object by precise emulsion tracking analysis and to study cosmic ray particle interactions and chemical compositions. In this paper, we focus on the subject of cosmic ray nuclei detection in the GRAINE balloon flight experiments launched at Alice Springs, Australia in May 2015.

  16. New concepts for interplanetary balloons and blimps, particularly for Titan (United States)

    Nott, J.

    This paper proposes novel approaches for balloons for planets Titan BALLUTE A balloon or blimp arriving at a planet or moon with an atmosphere might inflate falling under a parachute or after landing Neither is ideal In both cases the envelope must include qualities needed for inflation as well as those for flight A ballute BALLoon parachUTE could be used thus a ballute is like a hot air balloon with a large mouth Initially it fills by ram pressure descending through an atmosphere As proposed it would then be heated by solid propellant It would stop descending and float level with hot air lift It is now a perfect location for inflation without wind or movement through the atmosphere and away from the uncertainties of the surface A ballute could be used over several bodies in the solar system BALLOONS FOR LOW TEMPERATURES Flight in very low temperatures is also discussed Conditions are so different that it is useful to examine basic factors These apply for any planet with low temperature and weather calm enough for balloons or blimps First for terrestrial hot air balloons thermal radiation is usually the dominant way heat is lost But radiation rises with the 4th power of absolute temperature At Titan radiation will be one or two orders of magnitude smaller Also the dense atmosphere allows small balloons small temperature differences So convection is small It appears a hot air balloon can easily be heated by a radioactive source likely carried to make electricity Pinholes are not important in such a balloon

  17. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurlit


    Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7-418 nm and the visible from 400-652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3 and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance spectrum perfectly agrees within +0.03% with the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.7 in the visible spectral range (415-650 nm, but it is +2.1% larger in the (370-415 nm wavelength interval, and -4% smaller in the UV-A spectral range (316.7-370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. Similar comparisons of the SOLSPEC (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b and SORCE/SIM (Harder et al., 2000 solar spectra with MODTRAN 3.7 confirms our findings with the values being -0.5%, +2%, and -1.4% for SOLSPEC -0.33%, -0.47%, and -6.2% for SORCE/SIM, respectively. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (- re-calibrated by the University of Bremen - with MODTRAN 3.7 indicates an agreement within -0.4% in the visible spectral range (415-585 nm, -1.6% within the 370-415 nm, and -5.7% within 325-370 nm wavelength interval, in agreement with the results of the other sensors. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.

  18. High altitude flights in equatorial regions (United States)

    Redkar, R. T.

    A thorough analysis of balloon flights made from Hyderabad, India (Latitude 17°28'N, Longitude 78°35'E), and other equatorial sites has been made. It has been shown that limited success is expected for flights made from equatorial latitudes with balloons made out of natural colour polyethylene film, since the best known balloon film in the world today viz. Winzen Stratofilm is tested for low temperature brittleness only at -80°C., whereas the tropopause temperatures over equatorial latitudes vary between -80°C and -90°C. The success becomes even more critical when flights are made with heavy payloads and larger balloons particularly at night when in the absence of solar radiation the balloon film becomes more susceptible to low temperature brittle failure. It is recommended that in case of capped balloons longer caps should be used to fully cover the inflated protion of the balloon at the higher level equatorial tropopause. It is also advised that the conditions such as wind shears in the tropopause should be critically studied before launching and a day with the tropopause temperature nearer to -80°C should be chosen. Special care also should be taken while handling the balloon on ground and during launching phase. Properties of Winzen Stratofilm have been critically studied and fresh mandates have been recommended on the basis of limiting values of film stresses which caused balloon failures in the equatorial tropopause. It is also emphasized that the data on such flights is still meagre especially for flights with heavy payloads and larger balloons. It has been also shown that it is safest to use balloons made out of grey coloured film which retains its flexibility with the absorption of solar radiation, the success obtained with such balloons so far being 100%. The drawback, however, is that these balloons cannot be used for night flights. Stratospheric wind regimes over Hyderabad are also discussed with a view to determine the period over which long

  19. Taking the Hot Air Out of Balloons. (United States)

    Brinks, Virgil L.; Brinks, Robyn L.


    Describes how a teacher can give their students the challenge of designing and building model balloons or blimps. The project helps students learn the basics of balloon flight and what it really means to be "lighter than air." (PR)

  20. Use of neural network techniques to identify cosmic ray electrons and positrons during the 1993 balloon flight of the NMSU/Wizard-TS93 instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotti, R.; Castellano, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Candusso, M.; Casolino, M.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Aversa, F.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)


    The detectors used in the TS93 balloon flight produced a large volume of information for each cosmic ray trigger. Some of the data was visual in nature, other portions contained energy deposition and timing information. The data sets are amenable to conventional analysis techniques but there is no assurance that conventional techniques make full use of subtle correlations and relations amongst the detector responses. With the advent of neural network technologies, particularly adept at classification of complex phenomena, it would seem appropriate to explore the utility of neural network techniques to classify particles observed with the instruments. In this paper neural network based methodology for signal/background discrimination in a cosmic ray space experiment is discussed. Results are presented for electron and positron classification in the TS93 flight data set and will be compared to conventional analyses.

  1. Effect of ballooning modes on thermal transport and magnetic field diffusion in the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.


    Presently favored mechanisms of coronal heating: current sheet dissipation and Alfven wave resonant heating: deposit heat in thin layers. Classical thermal conduction cannot explain how heat is transported across the magnetic field. If heating occurs in thin layers, large pressure gradients can be created, which can give rise to ballooning modes. These instabilities are caused by the pressure gradient and the curvature of the magnetic field, and are stabilized by magnetic tension. The modes are broad band in wavelength and should produce turbulence. A mixing length expression for the turbulent heat transport shows that it is more than adequate to rapidly convect heat into much broader layers. Furthermore, the turbulent resistivity implies that heating occurs over most of the width of these broadened layers. The broadening also implies that much shorter time scales are required for heating. The β values in the corona suggest that 1--10 turbulent layers are formed in typical loop or arch structures. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  2. Pioneering Space Research with Balloons (United States)

    Jones, W. V.

    NASA s Scientific Ballooning Planning Team has concluded that ballooning enables significant scientific discoveries while providing test beds for space instruments and training for young scientists Circumpolar flights around Antarctica have been spectacularly successful with fight durations up to 42 days Demand for participation in this Long-Duration Balloon LDB program a partnership with the U S National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs is greater than the current capacity of two flights per campaign Given appropriate international agreements LDB flights in the Northern Hemisphere would be competitive with Antarctic flights and super-pressure balloons would allow comparable flights at any latitude The Balloon Planning Team made several recommendations for LDB flights provide a reliable funding source for sophisticated payloads extend the Antarctic capability to three flights per year and develop a comparable capability in the Arctic provide aircraft for intact-payload recovery develop a modest trajectory modification capability to enable longer flights and enhance super-pressure balloons to carry 1-ton payloads to 38 km Implementation of these recommendations would facilitate frequent access to near-space for cutting-edge research and technology development for a wide range of investigations

  3. A balloon-borne experiment to investigate the Martian magnetic field (United States)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Feldhofer, H.; Koren, W.; Jernej, I.; Stachel, M.; Riedler, W.; Slamanig, H.; Auster, H.-U.; Rustenbach, J.; Fornacon, H. K.; Schenk, H. J.; Hillenmaier, O.; Haerendel, G.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Styashkin, V.; Zaroutzky, A.; Best, A.; Scholz, G.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J.; Pierce, D.; Luhmann, J. G.


    The Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy, of Sciences (Graz, Austria) in cooperation with MPE (Berlin, Germany), GFZ Potsdam (Obs. Niemegk, Germany) IZMIRAN/IOFAN (Moscow, Russian) and IGPP/UCLA (Los Angeles, USA) is designing the magnetic field experiment MAGIBAL (MAGnetic field experiment aboard a martian BALloon) to investigate the magnetic field on the surface of Mars. The dual sensor fluxgate magnetometer is part of the MARS-98/MARS-TOGETHER balloon payload. During a ten days period the balloon will float over a distance of about 2000 km at altitudes between 0 and 4 km. Due to the limited power and telemetry allocation the magnetometer can transmit only one vector per ten seconds and spectral information in the frequency range from 2 - 25 Hz. The dynamic range is +/- 2000 nT. The main scientific objectives of the experiment are: • Determination of the magnetism of the Martian rocks • Investigation of the leakage of the solar wind induced magnetosphere using the correlation between orbiter and balloon observations • Measurement of the magnetic field profile between the orbiter and the surface of Mars during the descent phase of the balloon. Terrestrial test flights with a hot air balloon were performed in order to test the original MAGIBAL equipment under balloon flight conditions.

  4. Scientific Ballooning in India - Recent Developments (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Subbarao, J. V.

    Established in 1972, the National Balloon Facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is is a unique facility in the country, which provides a complete solution in scientific ballooning. It is also one of its kind in the world since it combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. With a large team working through out the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons, the Hyderabad Facility is a unique centre of expertise where the balloon design, Research and Development, the production and launch facilities are located under one roof. Our balloons are manufactured from 100% indigenous components. The mission specific balloon design, high reliability control and support instrumentation, in-house competence in tracking, telemetry, telecommand, data processing, system design and mechanics is a hallmark of the Hyderabad balloon facility. In the past few years we have executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to size of 780,000 M^3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years will be presented along with the plans for new facilities.

  5. Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons (United States)

    Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Schur, Willi W.

    NASA’s development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. Success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and developing of means for the quantitative assessment of design measures that prevent the occurrence of undesired equilibrium. In this paper, we will use the concept of stability to classify cyclically symmetric equilibrium states at full inflation and pressurization. Our mathematical model for a strained equilibrium balloon, when applied to a shape that mimics the Phase IV-A balloon of Flight 517, predicts instability at float. Launched in Spring 2003, this pumpkin balloon failed to deploy properly. Observations on pumpkin shape type super-pressure balloons that date back to the 1980s suggest that within a narrowly defined design class of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons where individual designs are fully described by the number of gores ng and by a single measure of the bulging gore shape, the designs tend to become more vulnerable with the growing number of gores and with the diminishing size of the bulge radius rB Weight efficiency considerations favor a small bulge radius, while robust deployment into the desired cyclically symmetrical configuration becomes more likely with an increased bulge radius. In an effort to quantify this dependency, we will explore the stability of a family of balloon shapes parametrized by (ng, rB) which includes a design that is very similar, but not identical, to the balloon of Flight 517. In addition, we carry out a number of simulations that demonstrate other aspects related to multiple equilibria of pumpkin balloons.

  6. Scientific ballooning. Proceedings of the symposium on the scientific use of balloons and related technical problems, Innsbruck, Austria, May 29-June 10, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedler, W


    The book includes works on operational and technical aspects of balloon launching I and II, cooperative balloon campaigns, and new developments in scientific use of balloons. The specific topics discussed are coordinated balloon and rocket measurements of stratospheric wind shears and turbulence, ballooning in Japan and India, magnetospheric processes investigated with data taken from balloon flights, and remote sensing of middle atmosphere winds from balloon platforms.

  7. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  8. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar


    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  9. A solar infrared photometer for space flight application (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Deming, Drake


    A photometer concept which is capable of nearly simultaneous measurements of solar radiation from 1.6 to 200 microns in seven wavelength bands is described. This range of wavelengths can probe the solar photosphere from below the level of unit optical depth in the visible to the temperature minimum, about 500 km above it. An instrument package including a 20-cm Gregorian telescope and a filter wheel photometer utilizing noncryogenic pyroelectric infrared detectors is described. Approaches to the rejection of the visible solar spectrum in the instrument, the availability of optical and mechanical components, and the expected instrumental sensitivity are discussed. For wavelengths below 35 microns, the projected instrumental sensitivity is found to be adequate to detect the intensity signature of solar p-mode oscillations during 5 min of integration. For longer wavelengths, clear detection is expected through Fourier analysis of modest data sets.

  10. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope-ProtoEXIST1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, B.; Grindlay, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H. [Washington University in St. Louis and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Apple, J.; Cleveland, W.H. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)


    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8x8 array of closely tiled 2 cmx2 cmx0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8x8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm{sup 2} active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9{sup o}x9{sup o} (and 19{sup o}x19{sup o} for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20'. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cmx26 cmx2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as {>=}100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for {approx}1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4{sup o} off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2{sigma} in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The

  11. Scientific ballooning in India Recent developments (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.

    Established in 1971, the National Balloon Facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India, is a unique facility in the country, which provides a complete solution in scientific ballooning. It is also one of its kind in the world since it combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. With a large team working through out the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons, the Hyderabad Facility is a unique centre of expertise where the balloon design, research and development, the production and launch facilities are located under one roof. Our balloons are manufactured from 100% indigenous components. The mission specific balloon design, high reliability control and support instrumentation, in-house competence in tracking, telemetry, telecommand, data processing, system design and mechanics is its hallmark. In the past few years, we have executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m 3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years will be presented along with the plans for new facilities.

  12. Balloon sinuplasty


    Ahmad, Zahoor


    Balloon sinuplasty is a technique in endoscopic sinus surgery that involves minimally invasive procedures to dilate the obstructed or stenosed anatomical sinus pathways. Procedure is derived from the well-recognized techinique of angioplasty. This article highlights the procedural methods with review of literature and my personal experience in balloon sinupalsty.

  13. The Micro-Instrumentation Package: A Solution to Lightweight Ballooning (United States)

    Juneau, Jill

    This paper discusses the design and testing of an over the horizon (OTH) light weight telemetry and termination system that can be used for small ballooning payloads. Currently, the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provides telemetry for the science payload by integrating one of two types of support packages. The type of support package integrated depends on whether the flight will stay in range of line of sight (LOS) or will exceed LOS requiring the use of over the horizon (OTH) telemetry. The weights of these systems range from 100 pounds to 350 pounds depending upon the use of redundant systems, equipment for high data rates, and batteries and/or solar panels for power requirements. These weight values are not as significant for larger payloads but can be crippling for smaller payloads. In addition, these support package systems are fairly expensive, placing a high importance on recovery. A lightweight and inexpensive telemetry system could be beneficial for various reasons. First, it would allow scientists to fly lightweight payloads on large balloons reaching even higher altitudes. Second, scientists could fly lightweight payloads on less expensive balloons such as meteorological balloons. Depending on the payload, these flights could be fairly inexpensive and even disposable. Third, a compact telemetry system on any balloon will free up more room for the science portion of the payload. In response, a compact telemetry/termination system called the Micro-Instrumentation Package (MIP) was developed. The MIP provides uplink and downlink communications, an interface to the science, housekeeping information including global positioning system (GPS) position, and relays. Instead of a power-hungry microprocessor, the MIP's central consists of a microcontroller. Microcontrollers are lower power, easily programmed, and can be purchased for less than ten dollars. For uplink and downlink telemetry, the MIP uses an LOS serial transceiver and an Iridium unit

  14. Flights of a spacecraft with a solar sail out of ecliptic plane (United States)

    Polyakhova, Elena; Starkov, Vladimir; Stepenko, Nikolai


    Solar sailing is an unique form of spacecraft (SC) propulsion that uses the free and limitless supply of photons from the Sun. The investigation of near-the-Sun space properties is of the great scientific interest. It can be realized by help of solar sailing. We present the numerical simulation of several closed modelled trajectories of a spacecraft with a controlled solar sail to reach out of ecliptic plane, to flight over the Sun north and south poles and return to the Earth.

  15. UltraSail CubeSat Solar Sail Flight Experiment (United States)

    Carroll, David; Burton, Rodney; Coverstone, Victoria; Swenson, Gary


    UltraSail is a next-generation, highrisk, high-payoff sail system for the launch, deployment, stabilization, and control of very large (km2 class) solar sails enabling high payload mass fractions for interplanetary and deep space spacecraft. UltraSail is a non-traditional approach to propulsion technology achieved by combining propulsion and control systems developed for formation- flying microsatellites with an innovative solar sail architecture to achieve controllable sail areas approaching 1 km2, sail subsystem area densities approaching 1 g/m2, and thrust levels many times those of ion thrusters used for comparable deep space missions. UltraSail can achieve outer planetary rendezvous, a deep-space capability now reserved for high-mass nuclear and chemical systems. There is a twofold rationale behind the UltraSail concept for advanced solar sail systems. The first is that sail-andboom systems are inherently size-limited. The boom mass must be kept small, and column buckling limits the boom length to a few hundred meters. By eliminating the boom, UltraSail not only offers larger sail area, but also lower areal density, allowing larger payloads and shorter mission transit times. The second rationale for UltraSail is that sail films present deployment handling difficulties as the film thickness approaches one micrometer. The square sail requires that the film be folded in two directions for launch, and similarly unfolded for deployment. The film is stressed at the intersection of two folds, and this stress varies inversely with the film thickness. This stress can cause the film to yield, forming a permanent crease, or worse, to perforate. By rolling the film as UltraSail does, creases are prevented. Because the film is so thin, the roll thickness is small. Dynamic structural analysis of UltraSail coupled with dynamic control analysis shows that the system can be designed to eliminate longitudinal torsional waves created while controlling the pitch of the blades

  16. Recent Developments in Scientific Research Ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W. Vernon


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program is committed to meeting the need for extended duration scientific investigations by providing advanced balloon vehicles and support systems. A sea change in ballooning capability occurred with the inauguration of 8 - 20 day flights around Antarctica in the early 1990's. The attainment of 28-31 day flights and a record-breaking 42-day flight in, respectively, two and three circumnavigations of the continent has greatly increased the expectations of the scientific users. A new super-pressure balloon is currently under development for future flights of 60-100 days at any latitude, which would bring another sea change in scientific research ballooning

  17. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel


    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  18. Advanced Onboard Energy Storage Solution for Balloons, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Balloon Programs at NASA are looking for a potential 100 day missions at mid-altitudes. These balloons would be powered by solar panels to take advantage of...

  19. InP Solar Cells and their Flight Experiments


    TAKAHASHI, Keiji; YAMAGUCHI, Masafumi; TAKAMOTO, Tatsuya; IKEGAMI, Shingo; OHNISHI, Akira; HAYASHI, Tomonao; USHIROKAWA, Akio; KOHBATA, Masahiko; ARAI, Hidetoshi; HASHIMOTO, Katsumasa; ORH, Takeshi; OKAZAKI, Hitoshi; TAKAMURA, Hideto; URA, Mitsuru; OHMORI, Masamichi


    We have developed high-efficiency homojunction 1 cm × 2 cm InP space solar cells by diffusing In_2S_3 into p type InP substrates and investigated their fundamental characteristics such as electrical and mechnical characteristics and thermal properties. On the radiation resistant mechanism of InP cells, we have studied InP cells fabricated at NTT Laboratories and found superior properties such as room temperture annealing and minority carrier injection enhanced annealing phenomena for radiatio...

  20. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)


    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  1. Solar Cell to Support Perpetual Flight of High Altitude Long Endurance UAV ITB (United States)

    Luqmanul Hakim, Muhammad; Silitonga, Faber Y.; Rosid, Nurhayyan H.; Mochammad Agoes Moelyadi, Ing., Dr.


    Research on a High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is currently being conducted at Bandung Institute of Technology to reach the flight duration needed and to get the solution of today’s challenges, minimizing pollution. Besides the good aerodynamic efficiency needed, energy resource is now becoming important. The energy resource must have a good endurance, easy to get, and of course, less pollution. Discussion in this paper is about the analysis of power needed by HALE UAV while takeoff and cruise flight conditions, and then determine the amount of solar cell and battery needed by the UAV.

  2. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Michael, E-mail:


    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  3. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons (United States)

    Walter, Michael


    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  4. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Michael


    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster

  5. Technologies developed by CNES balloon team (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc; Deramecourt, Arnaud

    CNES balloon team develops and operates all the components of this kind of vehicle: it means envelope and gondola. This abstract will point out only developments done for envelope. Nowadays CNES offers to scientists four types of envelops that cover a large range of mission demands. These envelops are: 1. Zero pressure balloons: Size going from 3,000m3 to 600,000m3, this kind of envelop is ideal for short duration flights (a few hours) but if we use an intelligent management of ballast consumption and if we chose the best launch site, it is possible to perform medium duration flights (10/20 days depending on the ballast on board). Flight train mass starts at 50kg for small balloons and reach 1000kg for larger ones. Zero pressure balloons are inflated with helium gas. 2. Super pressure balloons: Diameter going from 2.5m to 12m, this kind of envelop is ideal for long duration flights (1 to 6 months). Flight train is inside the envelop for small balloons, it means 2.5 diameter meters which is usually called BPCL (Super pressure balloon for Earth boundary layer) and it is about 3kg of mass. Larger ones could lift external flight trains about 50kg of mass. Super pressure balloons are inflated with helium gas. 3. MIR balloons: Size going from 36,000m3 to 46,000m3. Ceiling is reach with helium gas but after three days helium is no longer present inside and lift force is produced by difference of temperature between air inside and air of atmosphere. Flight trains must not be over 50kg. 4. Aero Clipper balloons: A concept to correlate measurements done in oceans and in nearest layers of atmosphere simultaneously. Flight train is made by a "fish" that drags inside water and an atmospheric gondola few meters above "fish", both pushed by a balloon which profits of the wind force. Materials used for construction and assembling depend on balloon type; they are usually made of polyester or polyethylene. Thickness varies from 12 micrometers to 120 micrometers. Balloon assembling

  6. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science (United States)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)


    Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA. The HASP platform was launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and to an altitude of about 36kilometers with flight durations of 15 to 20 hours using a small volume, low pressure balloon. The main objectives of the program, the challenges involved in developing it, and the major achievements and outcomes will be discussed. Future opportunities for the use of high altitude balloons for solar-terrestrial science, such as the diagnosis of radiation belt loss through the flight of alternative X-ray scintillator payloads, on short duration weather balloon flights will also be discussed. The UA-HAB project is undertaken with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  7. Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously unattainable...

  8. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission (United States)

    Newman, P.


    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  9. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane (United States)

    Donohue, Casey


    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  10. Status of the NASA Balloon Program (United States)

    Needleman, H. C.; Nock, R. S.; Bawcom, D. W.


    In the early 1980's the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program was faced with a problem of catastrophic balloon failures. In 1986 a balloon recovery program was initiated. This program included qualification of new balloon films, and investigations into materials, processing, structures and performance of balloons. This recovery program has been very successful. To date, more than 100 balloons manufactured of newly developed films have been flown with unprecedented success. There has been much progress made across the spectrum of balloon related disciplines. A new design philosophy has been developed and is being used for all NASA balloons. An updated balloon reliability and quality assurance program is in effect. The long duration balloon development project has been initiated with the first flight test having been conducted in December 1989 from Antarctica. A comprehensive research and development (R&D) effort has been initiated and is progressing well. The progress, status and future plans for these and other aspects of the NASA program, along with a description of the comprehensive balloon R&D activity, will be presented.

  11. Montgolfiere balloon missions from Mars and Titan (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.


    Montgolfieres, which are balloons that are filled with heated ambient atmospheric gas, appear promising for the exploration of Mars as well as of Saturn's moon, Titan. On Earth, Montgolfieres are also known as 'hot air balloons'. Commercial versions are typically heated by burning propane, although a number of radiant and solar-heated Montgolfieres have been flown on earth by CNES.

  12. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter W.


    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  13. Flight times to the heliopause using a combination of solar and radioisotope electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohndorf, Andreas [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany); Dachwald, Bernd [FH Univ. of Applied Sciences, Aachen (Germany); Seboldt, Wolfgang [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany); Loeb, Horst W.; Schartner, Karl-Heinz [Giessen Univ. (Germany)


    We investigate the interplanetary flight of a low-thrust space probe to the heliopause, located at a distance of about 200 AU from the Sun. Our goal was to reach this distance within the 25 years postulated by ESA for such a mission (which is less ambitious than the 15-year goal set by NASA). Contrary to solar sail concepts and combinations of ballistic and electrically propelled flight legs, we have investigated whether the set flight time limit could also be kept with a combination of solar-electric propulsion and a second, RTG-powered upper stage. The used ion engine type was the RIT-22 for the first stage and the RIT-10 for the second stage. Trajectory optimization was carried out with the low-thrust optimization program InTrance, which implements the method of Evolutionary Neurocontrol, using Artificial Neural Networks for spacecraft steering and Evolutionary Algorithms to optimize the Neural Networks' parameter set. Based on a parameter space study, in which the number of thrust units, the unit's specific impulse, and the relative size of the solar power generator were varied, we have chosen one configuration as reference. The transfer time of this reference configuration was 29.6 years and the fastest one, which is technically more challenging, still required 28.3 years. As all flight times of this parameter study were longer than 25 years, we further shortened the transfer time by applying a launcher-provided hyperbolic excess energy up to 49 km{sup 2}/s{sup 2}. The resulting minimal flight time for the reference configuration was then 27.8 years. The following, more precise optimization to a launch with the European Ariane 5 ECA rocket reduced the transfer time to 27.5 years. This is the fastest mission design of our study that is flexible enough to allow a launch every year. The inclusion of a fly-by at Jupiter finally resulted in a flight time of 23.8 years, which is below the set transfer-time limit. However, compared to the 27.5-year transfer

  14. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    The CNES has been supporting scientific ballooning since its establishment in 1962. The two main parts of the balloon system or aerostat are the balloon itself and the flight train, comprising the house-keeping gondola, for the control of balloon flight (localization and operational telemetry & telecommand - TM/TC), and the scientific gondola with its dedicated telecommunication system. For zero pressure balloon, the development of new TM/TC system for the housekeeping and science data transmission are going on from 1999. The main concepts are : - for balloon house-keeping and low rate scientific telemetry, the ELITE system, which is based on single I2C bus standardizing communication between the different components of the system : trajectography, balloon control, power supply, scientific TM/TC, .... In this concept, Radio Frequency links are developed between the house keeping gondola and the components of the aerostat (balloon valve, ballast machine, balloon gas temperature measurements, ...). The main objectives are to simplify the flight train preparation in term of gondola testing before flight, and also by reducing the number of long electrical cables integrated in the balloon and the flight train; - for high rate scientific telemetry, the use of functional interconnection Internet Protocol (IP) in interface with the Radio Frequency link. The main idea is to use off-the-shelf IP hardware products (routers, industrial PC, ...) and IP software (Telnet, FTP, Web-HTTP, ...) to reduce the development costs; - for safety increase, the adding, in the flight train, of a totally independent house keeping gondola based on the satellite Inmarsat M and Iridium telecommunication systems, which permits to get real time communications between the on-board data mobile and the ground station, reduced to a PC computer with modem connected to the phone network. These GEO and LEO telecommunication systems give also the capability to operate balloon flights over longer distance

  15. Balloon observation of gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Fujii, Masami; Yamagami, Takamasa; Oda, Minoru; Ogawara, Yoshiaki


    Cosmic gamma-ray burst is an interesting high energy astrophysical phenomenon, but the burst mechanism has not been well understood. Since 1975, long duration balloon flight has been conducted to search for gamma-ray bursts and to determine the source locations. A rotating cross-modulation collimator was employed to determine the locations of sources, and four NaI(Tl) scintillation counters were employed to detect hard X-ray with energy from 20 to 200 keV. The balloon light was performed at altitude of 8.3 mb from September 28, 1977, and the observation time of 79 hours was achieved. In this experiment, the monitor counter was not mounted. The count increase was observed at 16 h 22 m 31 s JST on October 1, 1977. The event disappeared after 1 sec. The total flux is estimated to be 1.6 x 10 -6 erg/cm 2 sec at the top of the atmosphere. When this event was observed, the solar-terrestrial environment was also quiet. Thus, this event was attributed to a small gamma-ray burst. Unfortunately, the duration of the burst was so short that the position of the burst source was not able to be determined. (Yoshimori, M.)

  16. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (United States)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.


    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  17. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons (United States)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth


    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  18. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing (United States)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.


    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  19. Overview of the NASA balloon R&D program (United States)

    Smith, I. Steve, Jr.


    The catastrophic balloon failure during the first half of the 1980's identified the need for a comprehensive and continuing balloon research and development (R&D) commitment by NASA. Technical understanding was lacking in many of the disciplines and processes associated with scientific ballooning. A comprehensive balloon R&D plan was developed in 1986 and implemented in 1987. The objectives were to develop the understanding of balloon system performance, limitations, and failure mechanisms. The program consisted of five major technical areas: structures, performance and analysis, materials, chemistry and processing, and quality control. Research activitites have been conducted at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), other NASA centers and government facilities, universities, and the balloon manufacturers. Several new and increased capabilities and resources have resulted from this activity. The findings, capabilities, and plan of the balloon R&D program are presented.

  20. Study of the Most Harmful Solar Energetic Particle for Shielding next Human Space Flights (United States)

    Komei Yamashiro, Bryan


    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections are radiation risks for humans in space on board the International Space Station (ISS), and will be significant obstacles for future long-duration manned space flight missions. This research supported efforts to improve predictions of large solar storms and aimed for a better understanding of Heliophysics. The main objective was to generate a dated catalog of the highest energy range SEPs measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). Using online graphical user interfaces from the satellites, Solar and Heliospeheric Observatory (SOHO) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13, 15), the generated data files from the mounted particle detectors were plotted along a specified energy range. The resulting histograms illustrated the low energy range data from SOHO (4 MeV to 53 MeV) and the low-mid energy range from GOES (0.8 MeV to 500 MeV), which collectively provided a low- to mid-energy range spectrum of the specific event energy ranges versus the SEP proton flux. The high energy range results of the AMS-02 (125 MeV to a few TeV) will eventually be incorporated with the two alternative space satellites of lower energy ranges for a complete analysis across a full SEP energy range. X-ray flux from GOES-15 were then obtained and plotted with the corresponding time to portray initial phenomena of the solar events. This procedure was reproduced for 5 different events determined energetic enough to be measured by AMS-02. The generated plots showed correlation between the different satellite detectors.

  1. Neutron spectrum and dose-equivalent in shuttle flights during solar maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J E; Badhwar, G D; Lindstrom, D J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center


    This paper presents unambiguous measurements of the spectrum of neutrons found in spacecraft during spaceflight. The neutron spectrum was measured from thermal energies to about 10 MeV using a completely passive system of metal foils as neutron detectors. These foils were exposed to the neutron flux bare, covered by thermal neutron absorbers (Gd) and inside moderators (Bonner spheres). This set of detectors was flown on three U.S. Space Shuttle flights, STS-28, STS-36 and STS-31, during the solar maximum. We show that the measurements of the radioactivity of these foils lead to a differential neutron energy spectrum in all three flights that can be represented by a power law, J(E){approx equal}E{sup -0.765} neutrons cm{sup -2} day {sup -1} MeV{sup -1}. We also show that the measurements are even better represented by a linear combination of the terrestrial neutron albedo and a spectrum of neutrons locally produced in a aluminium by protons, computed by a previous author. We use both approximations to the neutron spectrum to produce a worst case and most probable case for the neutron spectra and the resulting dose-equivalents, computed using ICRP-51 neutron fluence-dose conversion tables. We compare these to the skin dose-equivalents due to charged particles during the same flights. (author).

  2. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Flight Dynamics Simulations Using MATLAB (R) (United States)

    Headrick, R. D.; Rowe, J. N.


    This paper describes a study to verify onboard attitude control laws in the coarse Sun-pointing (CSP) mode by simulation and to develop procedures for operational support for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. SOHO was launched on December 2, 1995, and the predictions of the simulation were verified with the flight data. This study used a commercial off the shelf product MATLAB(tm) to do the following: Develop procedures for computing the parasitic torques for orbital maneuvers; Simulate onboard attitude control of roll, pitch, and yaw during orbital maneuvers; Develop procedures for predicting firing time for both on- and off-modulated thrusters during orbital maneuvers; Investigate the use of feed forward or pre-bias torques to reduce the attitude handoff during orbit maneuvers - in particular, determine how to use the flight data to improve the feed forward torque estimates for use on future maneuvers. The study verified the stability of the attitude control during orbital maneuvers and the proposed use of feed forward torques to compensate for the attitude handoff. Comparison of the simulations with flight data showed: Parasitic torques provided a good estimate of the on- and off-modulation for attitude control; The feed forward torque compensation scheme worked well to reduce attitude handoff during the orbital maneuvers. The work has been extended to prototype calibration of thrusters from observed firing time and observed reaction wheel speed changes.

  3. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    A balloon borne telescope is one of the effective observation methods for planets under space environment. A telescope is carried up to the stratosphere at an altitude of higher than 32 km where the air density is as thin as 1/100 of that at the ground. The thin atmosphere gives a telescope better observation conditions: fine seeing, stable weather, and high transmittance especially in the infrared region. Moreover there is a chance that a planet can be continuously seen for a window longer than 24 hours from the polar stratosphere. The authors have been developing a balloon borne telescope system for years to take finer images of planets in the solar system., The first object is Venus, of which atmospheric motions are derived by tracking the changes of cloud patterns with bands of UV, visible and NIR. Highly precise pointing control within the error of sub-arcseconds is required so that the balloon borne telescope achieves its diffraction-limited spatial resolution. The flight system is equipped with a three-stage attitude and pointing control system in order to realize the desired pointing control precision. In 2009, the flight system was built and tested in various ground tests and an actual balloon flight. Although the balloon experiment failed due to trouble with an onboard computer, the ground tests before the flight operation have verified that the pointing control system can achieve pointing error of less than 0.2 arcseconds. The balloon borne telescope is being redesigned for a sequential observation of Venus, Mars and Jupiter in the summer of 2011. This flight will be a step for a long-duration observation in the polar stratosphere. Additionally, an observation of the sodium tail of Mercury with a small telescope and a wide field of view has been under consideration. Mercury has very thin atmosphere called a surface-bounded exosphere. Past observations by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes revealed that one of the atmospheric components, gaseous

  4. High-Fidelity Solar Power Income Modeling for Solar-Electric UAVs: Development and Flight Test Based Verification


    Oettershagen, Philipp


    Solar power models are a crucial element of solar-powered UAV design and performance analysis. During the conceptual design phase, their accuracy directly relates to the accuracy of the predicted performance metrics and thus the final design characteristics of the solar-powered UAV. Likewise, during the operations phase of a solar-powered UAV accurate solar power income models are required to predict and assess the solar power system performance. However, the existing literature on solar-powe...

  5. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons (United States)

    Llado-Gambin, Adriana

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.

  6. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons


    Lladó Gambín, Adriana


    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the mod...

  7. Improved model for solar cosmic ray exposure in manned Earth orbital flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Nealy, J.E.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Shinn, J.L.; Townsend, L.W.


    A calculational model is derived for use in estimating Solar cosmic ray exposure to critical body organs in low-Earth orbit at the center of a large spherical shield of fixed thickness. The effects of the Earth's geomagnetic field and the astronauts' self-shielding are evaluated explicitly. The geomagnetic field model is an approximate tilted eccentric dipole with geomagnetic storms represented as a uniform-impressed field. The storm field is related to the planetary geomagnetic index K(sub p). The code is applied to the Shuttle geometry using the Shuttle mass distribution surrounding two locations on the flight deck. The Shuttle is treated as pure aluminum and the astronaut as soft tissue. Short-term, average fluence over a single orbit is calculated as a function of the location of the lines of nodes or long-term averages over all lines of nodes for a fixed inclination

  8. Stability of the pumpkin balloon (United States)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  9. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice


    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects

  10. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider (United States)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.


    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  11. The International Telecommunications Satellite (INTELSAT) Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) atomic oxgyen flight experiment: Techniques, results and summary (United States)

    Koontz, S.; King, G.; Dunnet, A.; Kirkendahl, T.; Linton, R.; Vaughn, J.


    Techniques and results of the ISAC flight experiment are presented, and comparisons between flight tests results and ground based testing are made. The ISAC flight experiment, one component of a larger INTELSAT 6 rescue program, tested solar array configurations and individual silver connects in ground based facilities and during STS-41 (Space Shuttle Discovery). In addition to the INTELSAT specimens, several materials, for which little or no flight data exist, were also tested for atomic oxygen reactivity. Dry lubricants, elastomers, polymeric materials, and inorganic materials were exposed to an oxygen atom fluence of 1.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms. Many of the samples were selected to support Space Station Freedom design and decision-making.

  12. Performance of the EUSO-Balloon electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillon, P.; Dagoret, S.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Bacholle, S.; Blaksley, C; Gorodetzky, P.; Jung, A.; Prévôt, G.; Prat, P.; Bayer, J.; Blin, S.; Taille, C. De La; Cafagna, F.; Fornaro, C.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Tanco, G. Medina; Osteria, G.; Perfetto, F.; Park, I.


    The 24th of August 2014, the EUSO-Balloon instrument went for a night flight for several hours, 40 km above Timmins (Canada) balloon launching site, concretizing the hard work of an important part of the JEM-EUSO collaboration started 3 years before. This instrument consists of a telescope made of two lenses and a complex electronic chain divided in two main sub-systems: the PDM (Photo Detector Module) and the DP (Data Processor). Each of them is made of several innovative elements developed and tested in a short time. This paper presents their performances before and during the flight

  13. An adaptive dual-optimal path-planning technique for unmanned air vehicles with application to solar-regenerative high altitude long endurance flight (United States)

    Whitfield, Clifford A.


    A multi-objective technique for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) path and trajectory autonomy generation, through task allocation and sensor fusion has been developed. The Dual-Optimal Path-Planning (D-O.P-P.) Technique generates on-line adaptive flight paths for UAVs based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmental influenced optimal condition, known as the driver' determines the condition, within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations and orientation built from the UAV kinematics. The intermittent results are pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This sequential optimization technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals, without requiring additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. An example case-study and additional applications are developed and the results are discussed; including the application to the field of Solar Regenerative (SR) High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV flight. Harnessing solar energy has recently been adapted for use on high altitude UAV platforms. An aircraft that uses solar panels and powered by the sun during the day and through the night by SR systems, in principle could sustain flight for weeks or months. The requirements and limitations of solar powered flight were determined. The SR-HALE UAV platform geometry and flight characteristics were selected from an existing aircraft that has demonstrated the capability for sustained flight through flight tests. The goals were to maintain continual Situational Awareness (SA) over a case-study selected Area of Interest (AOI) and existing UAV power and surveillance systems. This was done for still wind and constant wind conditions at altitude along with variations in latitude. The characteristics of solar flux and the dependence on the surface location and orientation were established along with fixed flight maneuvers for

  14. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon (United States)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide


    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  15. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.


    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  16. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  17. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements (United States)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  18. There is a Text in 'The Balloon'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia


    From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which a supernatu...

  19. Verification of the Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Pointing Algorithm Using Flight Data (United States)

    Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia


    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA spacecraft designed to study the Sun. It was launched on February 11, 2010 into a geosynchronous orbit, and uses a suite of attitude sensors and actuators to finely point the spacecraft at the Sun. SDO has three science instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). SDO uses two High Gain Antennas (HGAs) to send science data to a dedicated ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. In order to meet the science data capture budget, the HGAs must be able to transmit data to the ground for a very large percentage of the time. Each HGA is a dual-axis antenna driven by stepper motors. Both antennas transmit data at all times, but only a single antenna is required in order to meet the transmission rate requirement. For portions of the year, one antenna or the other has an unobstructed view of the White Sands ground station. During other periods, however, the view from both antennas to the Earth is blocked for different portions of the day. During these times of blockage, the two HGAs take turns pointing to White Sands, with the other antenna pointing out to space. The HGAs handover White Sands transmission responsibilities to the unblocked antenna. There are two handover seasons per year, each lasting about 72 days, where the antennas hand off control every twelve hours. The non-tracking antenna slews back to the ground station by following a ground commanded trajectory and arrives approximately 5 minutes before the formerly tracking antenna slews away to point out into space. The SDO Attitude Control System (ACS) runs at 5 Hz, and the HGA Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) run at 200 Hz. There are 40 opportunities for the gimbals to step each ACS cycle, with a hardware limitation of no more than one step every three GCE cycles. The ACS calculates the desired gimbal motion for tracking the ground station or for slewing

  20. Recent activities on the scientific ballooning in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisimura, J.; Hirosawa, H.


    Scientific ballooning is Japan has been organized by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and about 15 balloons have been launched each year from Sanriku Balloon Center that belongs to this Institute. The balloon center is located in the northern part of Japan. The observations cover the field of X-ray, gamma-ray, infrared astronomy, cosmic rays, and atmospheric science. Systems of lon duration flights such as 'Boomerang Balloons', and fine attitude control systems were developed and widely applied to the scientific observations. International collaborative works were performed in Australia and Indonesia last year. Some details of these activities are reported and possible future collaborations with Braziian balloon group are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Wind-Driven Montgolfiere Balloons for Mars (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Lemieux, Aimee; Lachenmeier, Tim; Zubrin, Robert


    Solar Montgolfiere balloons, or solar-heated hot air balloons have been evaluated by use on Mars for about 5 years. In the past, JPL has developed thermal models that have been confirmed, as well as developed altitude control systems to allow the balloons to float over the landscape or carry ground sampling instrumentation. Pioneer Astronautics has developed and tested a landing system for Montgolfieres. JPL, together with GSSL. have successfully deployed small Montgolfieres (<15-m diameter) in the earth's stratosphere, where conditions are similar to a Mars deployment. Two larger Montgolfieres failed, however, and a series of larger scale Montgolfieres is now planned using stronger, more uniform polyethylene bilaminate, combined with stress-reducing ripstitch and reduced parachute deceleration velocities. This program, which is presently under way, is a joint effort between JPL, WFF, and GSSL, and is planned for completion in three years.

  2. TMBM: Tethered Micro-Balloons on Mars (United States)

    Sims, M. H.; Greeley, R.; Cutts, J. A.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Murbach, M.


    The use of balloons/aerobots on Mars has been under consideration for many years. Concepts include deployment during entry into the atmosphere from a carrier spacecraft, deployment from a lander, use of super-pressurized systems for long duration flights, 'hot-air' systems, etc. Principal advantages include the ability to obtain high-resolution data of the surface because balloons provide a low-altitude platform which moves relatively slowly. Work conducted within the last few years has removed many of the technical difficulties encountered in deployment and operation of balloons/aerobots on Mars. The concept proposed here (a tethered balloon released from a lander) uses a relatively simple approach which would enable aspects of Martian balloons to be tested while providing useful and potentially unique science results. Tethered Micro-Balloons on Mars (TMBM) would be carried to Mars on board a future lander as a stand-alone experiment having a total mass of one to two kilograms. It would consist of a helium balloon of up to 50 cubic meters that is inflated after landing and initially tethered to the lander. Its primary instrumentation would be a camera that would be carried to an altitude of up to tens of meters above the surface. Imaging data would be transmitted to the lander for inclusion in the mission data stream. The tether would be released in stages allowing different resolutions and coverage. In addition during this staged release a lander camera system may observe the motion of the balloon at various heights above he lander. Under some scenarios upon completion of the primary phase of TMBM operations, the tether would be cut, allowing TMBM to drift away from the landing site, during which images would be taken along the ground.

  3. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 2: Flight test of Atmospheric Balloon Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2 (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.


    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the Aug. 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks were successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis were made.

  4. GHOST balloons around Antarctica (United States)

    Stearns, Charles R.


    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  5. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate (United States)

    Denny, Mark


    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  6. GRAINE balloon experiment in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokujo Hiroki


    Full Text Available Observations of cosmic gamma rays are important for studying high energy phenomena in the universe. Since 2008, the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite has surveyed the whole gamma-ray sky in the sub-GeV/GeV energy region, and accumurated a large amount of data. However, observations at the low galactic latitude remains difficult because of a lack of angular resolution, increase of background flux originating from galactic diffuse gamma rays, etc. The Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion (GRAINE is a gamma-ray observation project with a new balloon-borne emulsion gamma-ray telescope. Nuclear emulsion is a high-resolution 3D tracking device. It determines the incident angle with 0.1∘ resolution for 1 GeV gamma rays (1.0∘ for 100 MeV, and has linear polarization sensitivity. GRAINE aims at precise observation of gamma-ray sources, especially in the galactic plane, by repeating long-duration balloon flights with large-aperture-area (10 m2 high-resolution emulsion telescopes. In May 2015, we performed a balloon-borne experiment in Alice Springs, Australia, in order to demonstrate the imaging performance of our telescope. The emulsion telescope that has an aperture area of 0.4 m2 was employed in this experiment. It observed the Vela pulsar (the brightest gamma-ray source in the GeV sky at an altitude of 37 km for 6 hours out of the flight duration of 14 hours. In this presentation, we will report the latest results and the status of the GRAINE project.

  7. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G.J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.R.


    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  8. Robotic weather balloon launchers spread in Alaska (United States)

    Rosen, Julia


    Last week, things began stirring inside the truck-size box that sat among melting piles of snow at the airport in Fairbanks, Alaska. Before long, the roof of the box yawned open and a weather balloon took off into the sunny afternoon, instruments dangling. The entire launch was triggered with the touch of a button, 5 kilometers away at an office of the National Weather Service (NWS). The flight was smooth, just one of hundreds of twice-daily balloon launches around the world that radio back crucial data for weather forecasts. But most of those balloons are launched by people; the robotic launchers, which are rolling out across Alaska, are proving to be controversial. NWS says the autolaunchers will save money and free up staff to work on more pressing matters. But representatives of the employee union question their reliability, and say they will hasten the end of Alaska's remote weather offices, where forecasting duties and hours have already been slashed.

  9. Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) for MISSE-5 Verified and Readied for Flight on STS-114 (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.


    The Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) is a space solar cell experiment built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5): Data Acquisition and Control Hardware and Software. It represents a collaborative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the U.S. Naval Academy. The purpose of this experiment is to place current and future solar cell technologies on orbit where they will be characterized and validated. This is in response to recent on-orbit and ground test results that raised concerns about the in-space survivability of new solar cell technologies and about current ground test methodology. The various components of the FTSCE are assembled into a passive experiment container--a 2- by 2- by 4-in. folding metal container that will be attached by an astronaut to the outer structure of the International Space Station. Data collected by the FTSCE will be relayed to the ground through a transmitter assembled by the U.S. Naval Academy. Data-acquisition electronics and software were designed to be tolerant of the thermal and radiation effects expected on orbit. The experiment has been verified and readied for flight on STS-114.

  10. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs (United States)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora


    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  11. Clefting in pumpkin balloons (United States)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  12. Modelling Hot Air Balloons. (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.


    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  13. EOSCOR: a light weight, microprocessor controlled solar neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Albats, P.; Frye, G.M. Jr.; Schindler, S.M.; Denehy, B.V.; Hopper, V.D.; Mace, O.B.


    A light weight high energy neutron detector with vertical detection efficiency of 0.005 at 40 MeV and 1.4 m 2 sensitive area has been developed for long duration super-pressure balloon flight observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays. It consists of two sets of four plastic scintillator hodoscopes separated by a 1 m time-of-flight path to observe n-p, C(n,p), and C(n,d) interactions. The neutron interactions are separated from gamma ray events through TOF measurements. For a large flare, the signal from solar neutrons is expected to be an order of magnitude greater than that of the atmospheric background. The microprocessor controls the data acquisition, accumulation of histograms, and the encoding of data for the telemetry systems. A test flight of the detector was made with a zero-pressure balloon. The expected many-week duration of a super-pressure balloon flight would significantly increase the probability of observing 20-150 MeV neutrons from a medium or large flare. (Auth.)

  14. Role of wing color and seasonal changes in ambient temperature and solar irradiation on predicted flight efficiency of the Albatross. (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Throneberry, G; Ali, M; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A


    Drag reduction of the wings of migrating birds is crucial to their flight efficiency. Wing color impacts absorption of solar irradiation which may affect drag but there is little known in this area. To this end, the drag reduction induced by the thermal effect of the wing color of migrating birds with unpowered flight modes is presented in this study. Considering this natural phenomenon in the albatross as an example of migrating birds, and applying an energy balance for this biological system, a thermal analysis is performed on the wings during the summer and winter to obtain different ranges of air density, viscosity, and wing surface temperature brought about from a range of ambient temperatures and climatic conditions seen in different seasons and to study their effects. The exact shape of the albatross wing is used and nine different wing colors are considered in order to gain a better understanding of the effect different colors' absorptivities make on the change in aerodynamic performances. The thermal effect is found to be more important during the summer than during the winter due to the higher values of solar irradiation and a maximum drag reduction of 7.8% is found in summer changing the wing color from light white to dark black. The obtained results show that albatrosses with darker colored wings are more efficient (constant lift to drag ratio and drag reduction) and have better endurance due to this drag reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ballooning for Biologists: Mission Essentials for Flying Experiments on Large NASA Balloons (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Sowa, Marianne


    Despite centuries of scientific balloon flights, only a handful of experiments have produced biologically-relevant results. Yet unlike orbital spaceflight, it is much faster and cheaper to conduct biology research with balloons, sending specimens to the near space environment of Earths stratosphere. Samples can be loaded the morning of a launch and sometimes returned to the laboratory within one day after flying. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flies large, unmanned scientific balloons from all over the globe, with missions ranging from hours to weeks in duration. A payload in the middle portion of the stratosphere (approx. 35 km above sea level) will be exposed to an environment similar to the surface of Mars: temperatures generally around -36 C, atmospheric pressure at a thin 1 kPa, relative humidity levels <1%, and a harsh illumination of ultraviolet (UV) and cosmic radiation levels (about 100 W/sq m and 0.1 mGy/d, respectively) that can be obtained nowhere else on the surface of the Earth, including environmental chambers and particle accelerator facilities attempting to simulate space radiation effects. Considering the operational advantages of ballooning and the fidelity of space-like stressors in the stratosphere, researchers in aerobiology, astrobiology, and space biology can benefit from balloon flight experiments as an intermediary step on the extraterrestrial continuum (ground, low Earth orbit, and deep space studies). Our presentation targets biologists with no background or experience in scientific ballooning. We will provide an overview of large balloon operations, biology topics that can be uniquely addressed in the stratosphere, and a roadmap for developing payloads to fly with NASA.

  16. Ratioing methods for in-flight response calibration of space-based spectro-radiometers, operating in the solar spectral region (United States)

    Lobb, Dan


    One of the most significant problems for space-based spectro-radiometer systems, observing Earth from space in the solar spectral band (UV through short-wave IR), is in achievement of the required absolute radiometric accuracy. Classical methods, for example using one or more sun-illuminated diffusers as reflectance standards, do not generally provide methods for monitoring degradation of the in-flight reference after pre-flight characterisation. Ratioing methods have been proposed that provide monitoring of degradation of solar attenuators in flight, thus in principle allowing much higher confidence in absolute response calibration. Two example methods are described. It is shown that systems can be designed for relatively low size and without significant additions to the complexity of flight hardware.

  17. Solution for Direct Solar Impingement Problem on Landsat-7 ETM+ Cooler Door During Cooler Outgas in Flight (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    There was a thermal anomaly of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) radiative cooler cold stage during the cooler outgas phase in flight. With the cooler door in the outgas position and the outgas heaters enabled, the cold stage temperature increased to a maximum of 323 K when the spacecraft was in the sunlight, which was warmer than the 316.3 K upper set point of the outgas heater controller on the cold stage. Also, the outgas heater cycled off when the cold stage was warming up to 323 K. A corrective action was taken before the attitude of the spacecraft was changed during the first week in flight. One orbit before the attitude was changed, the outgas heaters were disabled to cool off the cold stage. The cold stage temperature increase was strongly dependent on the spacecraft roll and yaw. It provided evidence that direct solar radiation entered the gap between the cooler door and cooler shroud. There was a concern that the direct solar radiation could cause polymerization of hydrocarbons, which could contaminate the cooler and lead to a thermal short. After outgas with the cooler door in the outgas position for seven days, the cooler door was changed to the fully open position. With the cooler door fully open, the maximum cold stage temperature was 316.3 K when the spacecraft was in the sunlight, and the duty cycle of the outgas heater in the eclipse was the same as that in the sunlight. It provided more evidence that direct solar radiation had entered the gap between the cooler door and cooler shroud. Cooler outgas continued for seven more days, with the cooler door fully open. The corrective actions had prevented overheating of the cold stage and cold focal plane array (CFPA), which could damage these two components. They also minimized the risk of contamination on the cold stage, which could lead to a thermal short.

  18. Lessons Learned in the Flight Qualification of the S-NPP and NOAA-20 Solar Array Mechanisms (United States)

    Helfrich, Daniel; Sexton, Adam


    Deployable solar arrays are the energy source used on almost all Earth orbiting spacecraft and their release and deployment are mission-critical; fully testing them on the ground is a challenging endeavor. The 8 meter long deployable arrays flown on two sequential NASA weather satellites were each comprised of three rigid panels almost 2 meters wide. These large panels were deployed by hinges comprised of stacked constant force springs, eddy current dampers, and were restrained through launch by a set of four releasable hold-downs using shape memory alloy release devices. The ground qualification testing of such unwieldy deployable solar arrays, whose design was optimized for orbital operations, proved to be quite challenging and provides numerous lessons learned. A paperwork review and follow-up inspection after hardware storage determined that there were negative torque margins and missing lubricant, this paper will explain how these unexpected issues were overcome. The paper will also provide details on how the hinge subassemblies, the fully-assembled array, and mechanical ground support equipment were subsequently improved and qualified for a follow-on flight with considerably less difficulty. The solar arrays built by Ball Aerospace Corp. for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) satellite (now NOAA-20) were both successfully deployed on-obit and are performing well.

  19. Two Tethered Balloon Systems (United States)

    Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.


    Systems take meteorological measurements for variety of research projects. Report describes work done by NASA Langley Research Center in atmospheric research using tethered balloon systems composed of commercially available equipment. Two separate tethered balloon systems described in report have payloads and configurations tailored to requirements of specific projects. Each system capable of measuring atmospheric parameter or species in situ and then telemetering this data in real time to ground station. Meteorological data and concentration of ozone typically measured. Indicates instrumented tethered balloon systems have distinct advantages over other systems for gathering data on troposphere.

  20. Ballooning Interest in Science. (United States)

    Kim, Hy


    Presents an activity in which students construct model hot air balloons to introduce the concepts of convection current, the principles of Charles' gas law, and three-dimensional geometric shapes. Provides construction and launching instructions. (MDH)

  1. FLightR: an r package for reconstructing animal paths from solar geolocation loggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, E.; Saveliev, A.; Piersma, T.; Karagicheva, J.


    1. Solar geolocators are relatively cheap and simple tools which are widely used to study the migration of animals,especially birds. The methods to estimate the geographic positions from the light-intensity patterns collectedby these loggers, however, are still under development.2. The accurate

  2. FLightR : An R package for reconstructing animal paths from solar geolocation loggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Saveliev, Anatoly; Piersma, Theunis; Karagicheva, Julia

    Solar geolocators are relatively cheap and simple tools which are widely used to study the migration of animals, especially birds. The methods to estimate the geographic positions from the light-intensity patterns collected by these loggers, however, are still under development. The accurate

  3. FLightR : An R package for reconstructing animal paths from solar geolocation loggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Saveliev, Anatoly; Piersma, Theunis; Karagicheva, Julia


    Solar geolocators are relatively cheap and simple tools which are widely used to study the migration of animals, especially birds. The methods to estimate the geographic positions from the light-intensity patterns collected by these loggers, however, are still under development. The accurate

  4. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.


    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  5. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment (United States)

    Beatty, J. J.


    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  6. Testing in a stratospheric balloon of a semiconductor detector altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, L.; Jourdan, P.


    An altimeter containing a semiconductor detector has been operated on flight. We have used a stratospheric balloon launched from AIRE-SUR-ADOUR with the C.N.E.S. collaboration. During this assay two apparatus have been used. The first allowed to follow the balloon during its ascension and descent, the second to follow its evolution at its maximum altitude. Informations transmitted by radio and recorded on Magnetophon, have been studied after the flight. Results are identical with these given by the barometer used by the C.N.E.S. in this essay. (authors) [fr

  7. Flight Plasma Diagnostics for High-Power, Solar-Electric Deep-Space Spacecraft (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Conroy, David; Lobbia, Robert; Huang, Wensheng; Choi, Maria; Sekerak, Michael J.


    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) project plans included a set of plasma and space environment instruments, the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), to fulfill ARRM requirements for technology extensibility to future missions. The PDP objectives were divided into the classes of 1) Plasma thruster dynamics, 2) Solar array-specific environmental effects, 3) Plasma environmental spacecraft effects, and 4) Energetic particle spacecraft environment. A reference design approach and interface requirements for ARRM's PDP was generated by the PDP team at JPL and GRC. The reference design consisted of redundant single-string avionics located on the ARRM spacecraft bus as well as solar array, driving and processing signals from multiple copies of several types of plasma, effects, and environments sensors distributed over the spacecraft and array. The reference design sensor types were derived in part from sensors previously developed for USAF Research Laboratory (AFRL) plasma effects campaigns such as those aboard TacSat-2 in 2007 and AEHF-2 in 2012.

  8. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  9. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity


    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab


    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ~ 14.50 deg N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) partic...

  10. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons. (United States)

    Kim, Hy


    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  11. Pre-Flight Dark Forward Electrical Testing of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.; Hoffman, David J.


    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. After final assembly in Russia, the MCSA was shipped to the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the summer of 1995 and launched to Mir in November 1995. Program managers were concerned of the potential for MCSA damage during the transatlantic shipment and the associated handling operations. To address this concern, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) developed an innovative dark-forward electrical test program to assess the gross electrical condition of each generator following shipment from Russia. The use of dark test techniques, which allow the array to remain in the stowed configuration, greatly simplifies the checkout of large area solar arrays. MCSA dark electrical testing was successfully performed at KSC in July 1995 following transatlantic shipment. Data from this testing enabled engineers to quantify the effects of potential MCSA physical damage that would degrade on-orbit electrical performance. In this paper, an overview of the principles and heritage of photovoltaic array dark testing is given. The specific MCSA dark test program is also described including the hardware, software, testing procedures and test results. The current-voltage (4) response of both solar cell circuitry and by-pass diode circuitry was obtained. To guide the development of dark test hardware, software and procedures, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the dark 4 responses of generators with a variety of feasible damage modes. By comparing the actual test data with the predictions, the physical condition of the generator could be inferred. Based on this data analysis, no electrical short-circuits or open-circuits were detected. This suggested the MCSA did not sustain physical damage that affected electrical performance during handling and shipment from Russia to the US. Good

  12. Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Images Televised In-Flight with a Rocket-Borne SEC Vidicon System. (United States)

    Tousey, R; Limansky, I


    A TV image of the entire sun while an importance 2N solar flare was in progress was recorded in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation band 171-630 A and transmitted to ground from an Aerobee-150 rocket on 4 November 1969 using S-band telemetry. The camera tube was a Westinghouse Electric Corporation SEC vidicon, with its fiber optic faceplate coated with an XUV to visible conversion layer of p-quaterphenyl. The XUV passband was produced by three 1000-A thick aluminum filters in series together with the platinized reflecting surface of the off-axis paraboloid that imaged the sun. A number of images were recorded with integration times between 1/30 see and 2 sec. Reconstruction of pictures was enhanced by combining several to reduce the noise.

  13. Review of the British scientific sounding rocket and balloon programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.


    This review describes the UK scientific sounding rocket programmes which have utilised Skylarks for 21 years, Petrels for 10 years and Fulmars for 2 years. The SRC's ongoing programme is now based on the Petrel and Fulmar rockets, and approved proposals by 5 UK scientific groups covering 1978 and 1979 are outlined. The British scientific balloon programme, which serves 14 scientific groups within UK universities, involves a planned 10 flights per annum using balloons of 3 M cu ft to 31 M cu ft capacity and payloads up to 2 tons in weight. The review outlines the balloon programme of flights planned mainly from Palestine in Texas and Alice Springs/Mildura in Australia. (author)

  14. JUBA (Joint UAS-Balloon Activities) Final Campaign Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexheimer, Darielle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Apple, Monty [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Callow, Diane Schafer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Longbottom, Casey Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Novick, David K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Using internal investment funds within Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Division 6000, JUBA was a collaborative exercise between SNL Orgs. 6533 & 6913 (later 8863) to demonstrate simultaneous flights of tethered balloons and UAS on the North Slope of Alaska. JUBA UAS and tethered balloon flights were conducted within the Restricted Airspace associated with the ARM AMF3 site at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The Restricted Airspace occupies a 2 nautical mile radius around Oliktok Point. JUBA was conducted at the Sandia Arctic Site, which is approximately 2 km east-southeast of the AMF3. JUBA activities occurred from 08/08/17 – 08/10/17. Atmospheric measurements from tethered balloons can occur for a long duration, but offer limited spatial variation. Measurements from UAS could offer increased spatial variability.

  15. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC) (United States)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.


    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  16. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis


    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  17. Unique Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using large rubber Balloons (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sarkar, Ritabrata; Bhowmick, Debashis; Chakraborty, Subhankar

    Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) has developed a unique capability to pursue space based studies at a very low cost. Here, large rubber balloons are sent to near space (~ 40km) with payloads of less than 4kg weight. These payloads can be cosmic ray detectors, X-ray detectors, muon detectors apart from communication device, GPS, and nine degrees of freedom measuring capabilities. With two balloons in orbiter-launcher configuration, ICSP has been able to conduct long duration flights upto 12 hours. ICSP has so far sent 56 Dignity missions to near space and obtained Cosmic Ray and muon variation on a regular basis, dynamical spectrum of solar flares and gamma ray burst apart from other usual parameters such as wind velocity components, temperature and pressure variations etc. Since all the payloads are retrieved by parachutes, the cost per mission remains very low, typically around USD1000.00. The preparation time is low. Furthermore, no special launching area is required. In principle, such experiments can be conducted on a daily basis, if need be. Presently, we are also incorporating studies relating to earth system science such as Ozone, aerosols, micro-meteorites etc.

  18. Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Errors and Uncertainties During High Altitude Calibrations (United States)

    Snyder, David D.


    High altitude balloon based facilities can make solar cell calibration measurements above 99.5% of the atmosphere to use for adjusting laboratory solar simulators. While close to on-orbit illumination, the small attenuation to the spectra may result in under measurements of solar cell parameters. Variations of stratospheric weather, may produce flight-to-flight measurement variations. To support the NSCAP effort, this work quantifies some of the effects on solar cell short circuit current (Isc) measurements on triple junction sub-cells. This work looks at several types of high altitude methods, direct high altitude meas urements near 120 kft, and lower stratospheric Langley plots from aircraft. It also looks at Langley extrapolation from altitudes above most of the ozone, for potential small balloon payloads. A convolution of the sub-cell spectral response with the standard solar spectrum modified by several absorption processes is used to determine the relative change from AMO, lscllsc(AMO). Rayleigh scattering, molecular scatterin g from uniformly mixed gases, Ozone, and water vapor, are included in this analysis. A range of atmosph eric pressures are examined, from 0. 05 to 0.25 Atm to cover the range of atmospheric altitudes where solar cell calibrations a reperformed. Generally these errors and uncertainties are less than 0.2%

  19. Tethered balloon-based measurements of meteorological variables and aerosols (United States)

    Sentell, R. J.; Storey, R. W.; Chang, J. J. C.; Jacobsen, S. J.


    Tethered balloon based measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol concentrations were taken over a 4-hour period beginning at sunrise on June 29, 1976, at Wallops Island, Virginia. Twelve consecutive profiles of each variable were obtained from ground to about 500 meters. These measurements were in conjuction with a noise propagation study on remotely arrayed acoustic range (ROMAAR) at Wallops Flight Center. An organized listing of these vertical soundings is presented. The tethered balloon system configuration utilized for these measurements is described.

  20. Emergency medical support for a manned stratospheric balloon test program. (United States)

    Blue, Rebecca S; Norton, Sean C; Law, Jennifer; Pattarini, James M; Antonsen, Erik L; Garbino, Alejandro; Clark, Jonathan B; Turney, Matthew W


    Red Bull Stratos was a commercial program that brought a test parachutist, protected by a full-pressure suit, in a stratospheric balloon with pressurized capsule to over 127,582 ft (38,969 m), from which he free fell and subsequently parachuted to the ground. Given that the major risks to the parachutist included ebullism, negative Gz (toe-to-head) acceleration exposure from an uncontrolled flat spin, and trauma, a comprehensive plan was developed to recover the parachutist under nominal conditions and to respond to any medical contingencies that might have arisen. In this report, the project medical team describes the experience of providing emergency medical support and crew recovery for the manned balloon flights of the program. The phases of flight, associated risks, and available resources were systematically evaluated. Six distinct phases of flight from an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) standpoint were identified. A Medical Support Plan was developed to address the risks associated with each phase, encompassing personnel, equipment, procedures, and communications. Despite geographical, communications, and resource limitations, the medical team was able to implement the Medical Support Plan, enabling multiple successful manned balloon flights to 71,615 ft (21,828 m), 97,221 ft (29,610 m), and 127,582 ft (38,969 m). The experience allowed refinement of the EMS and crew recovery procedures for each successive flight and could be applied to other high altitude or commercial space ventures.

  1. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope (United States)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  2. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning (United States)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  3. Galactic and solar radiation exposure to aircrew during a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Green, A.R.; McCall, M.J.; Ellaschuk, B.; Butler, A.; Pierre, M.


    An on-going investigation using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been carried out to measure the ambient dose equivalent rate of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew during a solar cycle. A semi-empirical model has been derived from these data to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position. The model has been extended to an altitude of up to 32 km with further measurements made on board aircraft and several balloon flights. The effects of changing solar modulation during the solar cycle are characterised by correlating the dose rate data to different solar potential models. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between given waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure has been further developed for estimation of the route dose from galactic cosmic radiation exposure. This estimate is provided in units of ambient dose equivalent as well as effective dose, based on E/H*(10) scaling functions as determined from transport code calculations with LUIN and FLUKA. This experimentally based treatment has also been compared with the CARI-6 and EPCARD codes that are derived solely from theoretical transport calculations. Using TEPC measurements taken aboard the International Space Station, ground based neutron monitoring, GOES satellite data and transport code analysis, an empirical model has been further proposed for estimation of aircrew exposure during solar particle events. This model has been compared to results obtained during recent solar flare events. (author)

  4. Investigation of Energy Release in Microflares Observed by the Second Sounding Rocket Flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI-2) (United States)

    Vievering, J. T.; Glesener, L.; Panchapakesan, S. A.; Ryan, D.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Inglis, A. R.; Musset, S.


    Observations of the Sun in hard x-rays can provide insight into many solar phenomena which are not currently well-understood, including the mechanisms behind particle acceleration in flares. RHESSI is the only solar-dedicated imager currently operating in the hard x-ray regime. Though RHESSI has greatly added to our knowledge of flare particle acceleration, the indirect imaging method of rotating collimating optics is fundamentally limited in sensitivity and dynamic range. By instead using a direct imaging technique, the structure and evolution of even small flares and active regions can be investigated in greater depth. FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager), a hard x-ray instrument flown on two sounding rocket campaigns, seeks to achieve these improved capabilities by using focusing optics for solar observations in the 4-20 keV range. During the second of the FOXSI flights, flown on December 11, 2014, two microflares were observed, estimated as GOES class A0.5 and A2.5 (upper limits). Here we present current imaging and spectral analyses of these microflares, exploring the nature of energy release and comparing to observations from other instruments. Additionally, we feature the first analysis of data from the FOXSI-2 CdTe strip detectors, which provide improved efficiency above 10 keV. Through this analysis, we investigate the capabilities of FOXSI in enhancing our knowledge of smaller-scale solar events.

  5. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning (United States)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  6. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview. (United States)

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  7. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  8. Off-The-Shelf and Free Software Technologies for Spacecraft Control & Command: An Example, Balloon-Borne Stabilised Gondolas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurens, Andre


    Balloons are low-cost, short development time space vehicles for science missions and technology in-flight experiments that need out-of-atmosphere or in-situ measurements, thus being complementary to the satellite...

  9. Euso-Balloon: A pathfinder mission for the JEM-EUSO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osteria, Giuseppe, E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Scotti, Valentina [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy)


    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the ISS in 2017. The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies and instrumentation of JEM-EUSO detectors and to prove the entire detection chain. EUSO-Balloon will measure the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background components, in different observational modes, fundamental for the development of the simulations. Through a series of flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from above. EUSO-Balloon will be mounted in an unpressurized gondola of a stratospheric balloon. We will describe the instrument and the electronic system which performs instrument control and data management in such a critical environment.

  10. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons (United States)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.


    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  11. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    Indian Space Research Organization experience that launched a balloon to stratosphere in 2009 and successfully caught particles with organics at an altitude of 42 km. The main aim of the project is to catch cometary particles by using balloons and to make this method steady and reliable. Why are the comet particles interesting? The nature of a comet is full of puzzles; many researchers think that comets may give keys to the origin of the Solar System and origin of life on the Earth. 2014 and 2015 are special years for comet science: mission Rozetta will reach the vicinity of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - 10 years after leaving the Earth. Using astronomic data, one may choose date for ballooning, specify the altitude of comet particles by photometry and laser measurement of particle outburst. After height measurement one may launch a balloon. For example, for Draconids particles (Parent comet: 21PGiacobini-Zinner) the expected time of outburst maximum - hence that for catching is 22:42 UT, October 6, 2014. The best conditions for catching will be in Greenland and extreme north-eastern part of North America. Draconids are very convenient for the initial stage of the project - the altitude of observed Draconids outburst is 10 km. One may catch them above 10 km, e.g. 10500 m. We consider ballooning is quite a good method to get experimental data as an additional technique in comparison with big space missions. Moreover, it might be a part of cosmic mission to other planets such as Mars and Venus. The approach of the project is to make targeting catch of comet particles. The method consists of choosing the right place and time for ballooning.

  12. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a) Identification. An epistaxis balloon is a device consisting of an inflatable balloon intended to control internal...

  13. Calculating Payload for a Tethered Balloon System (United States)

    Charles D. Tangren


    A graph method to calculate payload for a tethered balloon system, with the supporting helium lift and payload equations. is described. The balloon system is designed to collect emissions data during the convective-lift and no-convective-lift phases of a forest fire. A description of the balloon system and a list of factors affecting balloon selection are included....

  14. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6. (United States)

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  15. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations (United States)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)


    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  16. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education (United States)

    Esper, Jaime


    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  17. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob


    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  18. US Daily Pilot Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot Balloon observational forms for the United States. Taken by Weather Bureau and U.S. Army observers. Period of record 1918-1960. Records scanned from the NCDC...

  19. US Air Force Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  20. Anderson localization and ballooning eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Cuthbert, P.


    In solving the ballooning eigenvalue for a low-aspect-ratio stellarator equilibrium it is found that the quasiperiodic behaviour of the equilibrium quantities along a typical magnetic field line can lead to localization of the ballooning eigenfunction (Anderson localization) even in the limit of zero shear. This localization leads to strong field-line dependence of the ballooning eigenvalue, with different branches attaining their maximum growth rates on different field lines. A method is presented of estimating the field-line dependence of various eigenvalue branches by using toroidal and poloidal symmetry operations on the shear-free ballooning equation to generate an approximate set of eigenfunctions. These zero-shear predictions are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the H-1 Heliac and are shown to give a qualitatively correct picture, but finite shear corrections will be needed to give quantitative predictions

  1. Numerical research on the thermal performance of high altitude scientific balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Qiumin; Xing, Daoming; Fang, Xiande; Zhao, Yingjie


    Highlights: • A model is presented to evaluate the IR radiation between translucent surfaces. • Comprehensive ascent and thermal models of balloons are established. • The effect of IR transmissivity on film temperature distribution is unneglectable. • Atmospheric IR radiation is the primary thermal factor of balloons at night. • Solar radiation is the primary thermal factor of balloons during the day. - Abstract: Internal infrared (IR) radiation is an important factor that affects the thermal performance of high altitude balloons. The internal IR radiation is commonly neglected or treated as the IR radiation between opaque gray bodies. In this paper, a mathematical model which considers the IR transmissivity of the film is proposed to estimate the internal IR radiation. Comprehensive ascent and thermal models for high altitude scientific balloons are established. Based on the models, thermal characteristics of a NASA super pressure balloon are simulated. The effects of film IR property on the thermal behaviors of the balloon are discussed in detail. The results are helpful for the design and operation of high altitude scientific balloons.

  2. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.


    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  3. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events (United States)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark


    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  4. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit load, the limit flight load factor must be at least 1.4. ...

  5. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles. (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    hygrometer was installed at the nose of a small GPS-controlled glider, which was lifted by a meteorological balloon into the stratosphere and released by a remote command. GPS-based flight control guides and lands the UAV at the launch point thereby allowing multiple usage of its payload. Another sounding platform allowing for multiple usage of the FLASH instrument is a GPS-guided paraglide. The results of measurements acquired in the test flights using different types of balloon-lifted UAVs are presented.

  6. Balloon pulmonary valvotomy – Not just a simple balloon dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhendu Mohanty


    Full Text Available Balloon pulmonary valvotomy is the preferred mode of treatment in patients with isolated pulmonary valvar stenosis and has shown good long term results. It is generally considered a safe procedure with few complications. There have been however, case reports of potentially fatal acute severe pulmonary edema occurring after the procedure in some patients. The cause of this complication and its pathophysiology is still not clear. Its occurrence is also infrequent with less than 5 cases reported till now. We report a case of pulmonary valvar stenosis which developed acute severe refractory pulmonary edema immediately after balloon pulmonary valvotomy.

  7. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie


    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  8. EUSO-BALLOON a pathfinder for detecting UHECR's from the edge of space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti V.


    Full Text Available EUSO-Balloon has been conceived as a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, to perform an end-to-end test of the subsystems and components, and to prove the global detection chain while improving our knowledge of the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. Through a series of stratospheric balloon flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-BALLOON will serve as an evolutive test-bench for all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers from above, marking a key milestone in the development of UHECR science, and paving the way for any future large scale, space-based UHECR observatory.

  9. Balloon-borne pressure sensor performance evaluation utilizing tracking radars (United States)

    Norcross, G. A.; Brooks, R. L.


    The pressure sensors on balloon-borne sondes relate the sonde measurements to height above the Earth's surface through the hypsometric equation. It is crucial that sondes used to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere do not contribute significant height errors to their measurements of atmospheric constituent concentrations and properties. A series of radiosonde flights was conducted. In most cases, each flight consisted of two sondes attached to a single balloon and each flight was tracked by a highly accurate C-band radar. For the first 19 radiosonde flights, the standard aneroid cell baroswitch assembly used was the pressure sensor. The last 26 radiosondes were equipped with a premium grade aneroid cell baroswitch assembly sensor and with a hypsometer. It is shown that both aneroid cell baroswitch sensors become increasingly inaccurate with altitude. The hypsometer radar differences are not strongly dependent upon altitude and it is found that the standard deviation of the differences at 35 km is 0.179 km.

  10. Balloon dilatation of ureteric strictures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punekar S


    Full Text Available AIMS: Evaluation of dilatation as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of ureteric strictures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated this technique in 16 patients with ureteric and secondary pelviureteric junction strictures from June 1998. Of these, 7 were men and 9 were women. The age range was from 14 to 40 years. RESULTS: Balloon dilatation was successful in 69% of patients. Strictures secondary to previous surgery had nearly 100% success. Of the 8 cases diagnosed as genitourinary tuberculosis, success rate was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Factors affecting success of balloon dilatation are: a age of the stricture b length of the stricture and c etiology of the stricture. In a select group of patients with fresh post-operative or post-inflammatory strictures, balloon dilatation may be an attractive alternative to surgery.

  11. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon (United States)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.


    A lobed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super-pressure balloon. This paper deals with extensions of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes, belts or a strut. When the original pumpkin shape is modified by these systems, the superior characteristics of the 3-D gore design, incorporating large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail. Application for ground structures are also mentioned.

  12. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan


    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  13. Constant volume balloons measurements in the urban Marseille and Fos-Berre industrial ozone plumes during ESCOMPTE experiment (United States)

    Bénech, Bruno; Ezcurra, Agustin; Lothon, Marie; Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Lohou, Fabienne; Durand, Pierre

    ESCOMPTE programme aims at studying the emissions of primary pollutants in industrial and urban areas, their transport, diffusion and transformation in the atmosphere. This experiment, carried out in southeast France, can be used to validate and to improve meteorological and chemical mesoscale models. One major goal of this experiment was to follow the pollutant plumes, and to investigate its thermodynamic and physico-chemical time evolution. This was realized by means of constant volume balloons, located by global position satellite (GPS) and equipped with thermodynamic and ozone sensors, flying at constant density levels. During the two ESCOMPTE campaigns that took place in June and July 2000 and 2001, 40 balloons were launched, 17 of them equipped with ozone sensors during the day from 0800 to 1800 UTC. Balloons' altitudes flight levels ranged between 400 and 1200 m altitude with Mistral (northerly synoptic flow) and Sea Breeze (southerly breeze) conditions. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) topography of the experimental domain is complex and varies strongly from day to day. Its depth presents a large gradient from the sea coast to the north part of the ESCOMPTE domain, and also more complex variability within the domain. The balloons' trajectories describe the evolution of the pollutant plume emitted from the industrial area of Fos-Berre or from the Marseille urban area. Constant volume balloons give a good description of the trajectories of these two plumes. The balloons, which fly at an isopicnic level, cross different atmospheric layers chiefly depending on the ABL height in relation with the constant volume balloons flight level. Thus, each balloon flight is decomposed into different segments that correspond to the same atmospheric layer. In each segment, the ozone content variation is analyzed in relation to other thermodynamical parameters measured by the balloon and mainly to the vapor mixing ratio content. During ESCOMPTE campaign, the mean linear

  14. Detecting Seismic Infrasound Signals on Balloon Platforms (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.


    The determination of the interior structure of a planet requires detailed seismic investigations - a process that entails the detection and characterization of seismic waves due to geological activities (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.). For decades, this task has primarily been performed on Earth by an ever-expanding network of terrestrial seismic stations. However, on planets such as Venus, where the surface pressure and temperature can reach as high as 90 atmospheres and 450 degrees Celsius respectively, placing seismometers on the planet's surface poses a vexing technological challenge. However, the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere are more benign and capable of hosting geophysical payloads for longer mission lifetimes. In order to achieve the aim of performing geophysical experiments from an atmospheric platform, JPL and its partners (ISAE-SUPAERO and California Institute of Technology) are in the process of developing technologies for detection of infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes from a balloon. The coupling of seismic energy into the atmosphere critically depends on the density differential between the surface of the planet and the atmosphere. Therefore, the successful demonstration of this technique on Earth would provide ample reason to expect success on Venus, where the atmospheric impedance is approximately 60 times that of Earth. In this presentation, we will share results from the first set of Earth-based balloon experiments performed in Pahrump, Nevada in June 2017. These tests involved the generation of artificial sources of known intensity using a seismic hammer and their detection using a complex network of sensors, including highly sensitive micro-barometers suspended from balloons, GPS receivers, geophones, microphones, and seismometers. This experiment was the first of its kind and was successful in detecting infrasonic waves from the earthquakes generated by the seismic hammer. We will present the first comprehensive analysis

  15. Laser welding of balloon catheters (United States)

    Flanagan, Aidan J.


    The balloon catheter is one of the principal instruments of non-invasive vascular surgery. It is used most commonly for angioplasty (and in recent years for delivering stents) at a multitude of different sites in the body from small arteries in the heart to the bilary duct. It is composed of a polymer balloon that is attached to a polymer shaft at two points called the distal and proximal bonds. The diverse utility of balloon catheters means a large range of component sizes and materials are used during production; this leads to a complexity of bonding methods and technology. The proximal and distal bonds have been conventionally made using cyanoacrylate or UV curing glue, however with performance requirements of bond strength, flexibility, profile, and manufacturing costs these bonds are increasingly being made by welding using laser, RF, and Hot Jaw methods. This paper describes laser welding of distal and proximal balloon bonds and details beam delivery, bonding mechanisms, bond shaping, laser types, and wavelength choice.

  16. Instrumentation utilisation for risk control in safety operations. [balloons and rockets (United States)

    Swayer, F. R.


    Ways in which instrumentation is utilized for risk control for inherently safe (no control or guidance) and flight programmed launch vehicles is presented. Instrumentation and how it is utilized in the launching and recovery of balloons and payloads is also presented. Wind sensing, computer systems, tracking, and telemetry are discussed.

  17. CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitudes with PoRTIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Gehrels, N.; Naya, J.; Stahle, C.M.; Tueller, J.; Teegarden, B.


    Measurements of the CdZnTe internal background at balloon altitudes are essential to determine which physical processes make the most important background contributions. We present results from CdZnTe background measurements made by PoRTIA, a small CdZnTe balloon instrument that was flown three times in three different shielding configurations. PoRTIA was passively shielded during its first flight from Palestine, Texas and actively shielded as a piggyback instrument on the GRIS balloon experiment during its second and third flights from Alice Springs, Australia, using the thick GRIS NaI anticoincidence shield. A significant CdZnTe background reduction was achieved during the third flight with PoRTIA placed completely inside the GRIS shield and blocking crystal, and thus completely surrounded by 15 cm of NaI. A unique balloon altitude background data set is provided by CdZnTe and Ge detectors simultaneously surrounded by the same thick anticoincidence shield; the presence of a single coaxial Ge detector inside the shield next to PoRTIA allowed a measurement of the ambient neutron flux inside the shield throughout the flight. These neutrons interact with the detector material to produce isomeric states of the Cd, Zn, and Te nuclei that radiatively decay; calculations are presented to determine the relative contribution of these decays to the fully shielded CdZnTe background measured by PoRTIA

  18. Diffuse gamma ray measurement above 20 MeV with a balloon borne experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlier, B.; Forichon, M.; Montmerle, T.; Agrinier, B.; Palmeira, R.


    During two balloon flights of a spark chamber gamma ray telescope launched from Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil) in 1973, the growth of the secondary gamma rays in function of the atmospheric pressure has been monitored. The extrapolation to zero residual atmosphere giving evidence of an extraterrestrial flux is discussed [fr

  19. The development of coastal diffusion observation method with a captive balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaaki; Yamada, Masaharu


    Apparatus whereby the dye cloud in a coastal area in diffusion experiment can be photographed was developed. It consists of a vinyl balloon two meters in diameter, a photographic device with the camera shutter released by wireless signals from the ground, and a winch to raise or lower the balloon. A maximum height of the balloon for taking photographs is 1000 m. During the single balloon flight, thirty photographs can be taken. With the balloon at a certain height, dye as the tracer in diffusion experiment is released at sea surface or a certain sea depth by dye-throwing means or pump, and then taking the photographs is started. Movement and diffusion of the dye are analyzed by means of the photographs taken. The apparatus is simple in mechanism and easy to transport. Dye experiment is possible in the surfe zone where a boat cannot enter. It is impossible, however, to raise the balloon in strong wind or sea breeze. Typical results of the dye diffusion experiment with the apparatus are given. (author)

  20. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  1. Investigation of hot air balloon fatalities. (United States)

    McConnell, T S; Smialek, J E; Capron, R G


    The rising popularity of the sport of hot air ballooning has been accompanied by several recent incidents, both in this country and other parts of the world, where mechanical defects and the improper operation of balloons have resulted in several fatalities. A study was conducted to identify the location and frequency of hot air ballooning accidents. Furthermore, the study attempted to identify those accidents that were the result of improper handling on the part of the balloon operators and those that were related to specific defects in the construction of the balloon. This paper presents a background of the sport of hot air ballooning, together with an analysis of the construction of a typical hot air balloon, pointing out the specific areas where defects may occur that could result in a potential fatal balloon crash. Specific attention is given to the two recent balloon crashes that occurred in Albuquerque, N.M., hot air balloon capital of the world, and that resulted in multiple fatalities.

  2. PEBS - Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, P.; Kirn, T.; Yearwood, G.Roper; Schael, S.


    The best measurement of the cosmic ray positron flux available today was performed by the HEAT balloon experiment more than 10 years ago. Given the limitations in weight and power consumption for balloon experiments, a novel approach was needed to design a detector which could increase the existing data by more than a factor of 100. Using silicon photomultipliers for the readout of a scintillating fiber tracker and of an imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, the PEBS detector features a large geometrical acceptance of 2500 cm^2 sr for positrons, a total weight of 1500 kg and a power consumption of 600 W. The experiment is intended to measure cosmic ray particle spectra for a period of up to 20 days at an altitude of 40 km circulating the North or South Pole. A full Geant 4 simulation of the detector concept has been developed and key elements have been verified in a testbeam in October 2006 at CERN.

  3. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.


    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  4. Study of the capability for rapid warnings of solar flare radiation hazards to aircraft. Part I. Forecasts and warnings of solar flare radiation hazards. Part II. An FAA polar flight solar cosmic radiation forecast/warning communication system study. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.H.; Stonehocker, G.H.


    The first part of the report provides background information on the occurrence of solar activity and the consequent sporadic production of electromagnetic and particle emissions from the sun. A summary is given of the current procedures for the forecasting of solar activity together with procedures used to verify these forecasts as currently available. A summary of current forecasting of radiation hazards as provided in support of the Concorde SST program is also given. The second part of the report describes a forecast message distribution system developed in conjunction with solar cosmic radiation forecasts and warnings of the Space Environment Laboratory of NOAA for the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine. The study analyzes the currently available and future aeronautical telecommunication system facilities to determine an optimum system to distribute forecasts to the preflight planning centers in the international flight service stations for polar-flying subsonic and supersonic transport (SST) type aircraft. Also recommended for the system are timely and reliable distribution of warnings to individual in-flight aircraft in polar areas by the responsible air traffic control authority

  5. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.


    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  6. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.


    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  7. Abdominal cavity balloon for preventing a patient's bleeding


    Naber, E.E.H.; Rutten, H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Moes, C.C.M.; Buzink, S.N.


    The invention relates to an abdominal cavity balloon for preventing a haemorrhage in a patient's pelvic region, comprising an inflatable balloon, wherein the balloon is pro vided with a smooth surface and with a strip that is flex- urally stiff and formed to follow the balloon's shape for po sitioning the balloon.

  8. Hard X-ray balloon observations of compact galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Pietsch, W.; Proctor, R.J.; Reppin, C.; Steinle, H.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.


    A balloon program in hard X-ray astronomy (20-200 keV) is jointly pursued by the Astronomisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen (AIT) and the Max Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik in Garching (MPE). Since 1973 nine succussful balloon flights have been performed from Texas and Australia. Here results on Centaurus A and on several galactic binary X-ray sources are summarized. In particular the high energy photon spectrum of Hercules X-1 and the evidence for the cyclotron line feature which was discovered by us in 1976 is reviewed. (orig.)

  9. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  10. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki


    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  11. Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  12. NASA Langley Research Center tethered balloon systems (United States)

    Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.; Youngbluth, Otto


    The NASA Langley Research Center tethered balloon system operations are covered in this report for the period of 1979 through 1983. Meteorological data, ozone concentrations, and other data were obtained from in situ measurements. The large tethered balloon had a lifting capability of 30 kilograms to 2500 meters. The report includes descriptions of the various components of the balloon systems such as the balloons, the sensors, the electronics, and the hardware. Several photographs of the system are included as well as a list of projects including the types of data gathered.

  13. Polar Balloon Experiment for Astrophysics Research (Polar BEAR) (United States)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Bashindzhagyan, P.; Chilingarian, A.; Donnelly, J.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Grebenyuk, V.; Kalinin, A.; hide


    A new balloon experiment is proposed for a long duration flight around the North Pole. The primary objective of the experiment is to measure the elemental energy spectra of high-energy cosmic rays in the region up to 10(exp 15) eV. The proposed instrument involves the combination of a large collecting area (approximately 1 x 1 square m) KLEM (Kinematic Lightweight Energy Meter) device with an ionization calorimeter having a smaller collecting area (approximately 0.5 x 0.5 square m) and integrated beneath the KLEM apparatus. This combination has several important advantages. Due to the large aperture (greater than 2 square m sr) of the KLEM device a large exposure factor can be achieved with a long duration balloon flight (2-4 weeks). The calorimeter will collect about 10% of the events already registered by KLEM and provide effective cross-calibration for both energy measurement methods. Details of the experiment and its astrophysical significance will be presented.

  14. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De


    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used

  15. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used.

  16. Cosmic ray modulation and radiation dose of aircrews during the solar cycle 24/25 (United States)

    Miyake, Shoko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko


    Weak solar activity and high cosmic ray flux during the coming solar cycle are qualitatively anticipated by the recent observations that show the decline in the solar activity levels. We predict the cosmic ray modulation and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude by using the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic ray modulation. Our galactic cosmic ray (GCR) model is based on the variations of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field, and the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet. We reproduce the 22 year variation of the cosmic ray modulation from 1980 to 2015 taking into account the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs. The energy spectra of GCR protons obtained by our model show good agreement with the observations by the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting magnetic rigidity Spectrometer (BESS) and the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) except for a discrepancy at the solar maximum. Five-year annual radiation dose around the solar minimum at the solar cycle 24/25 will be approximately 19% higher than that in the last cycle. This is caused by the charge sign dependence of the cosmic ray modulation, such as the flattop profiles in a positive polarity.

  17. Direct Observation of Long-Range Transport Using Continuously Sounding Balloons and Near-Real-Time Trajectory Modeling (United States)

    Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.; Berkowitz, C. M.


    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons have been used in several recent studies to measure long-range transport over periods as long as 30 hours and distances up to 1000 kilometers. By repeatedly performing shallow soundings as they drift, CMET balloons can quantify evolving atmospheric structure, mixing events, shear advection, and dispersion during transport. In addition, the quasi-Lagrangian wind profiles can be used to drive a multi-layer trajectory model in which the advected air parcels follow the underlying terrain, or are constrained by altitude, potential temperature, or tracer concentration. Data from a coordinated balloon-aircraft study of long range transport over Texas (SETTS 2005) show that the reconstructed trajectories accurately track residual-layer urban outflow (and at times even its fine-scale structure) over distances of many hundreds of kilometers. The reconstructed trajectories and evolving profile visualizations are increasingly being made available in near-real time during balloon flights, supporting data-driven flight planning and sophisticated process studies relevant to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Multilayer trajectories (black grids) derived from CMET balloon flight paths (grey lines) for a transport event across Texas in 2005.

  18. Numerical and experimental simulation of the mechanical behavior of super-pressure balloon subsystems (United States)

    Siguier, J.-M.; Guigue, P.; Karama, M.; Mistou, S.; Dalverny, O.; Granier, S.


    Long duration super-pressure balloons constitute a great challenge in scientific ballooning. For any type of balloons (spherical, pumpkin, …), it is necessary to have a good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of envelopes regarding the level and the lifetime of the flight. For this reason CNES, ONERA and ENIT are carrying out a research program of modelization and experimentation in order to predict the envelope shape of a balloon in different conditions of temperature and differential pressure. This study was conducted in two parts. During the first one, we defined, with parameters obtained from unidirectional tests, the mechanical laws (elasticity, plasticity and viscosity properties of polymers) of materials involved in the envelope. These laws are introduced in a finite element code, which predicts the stress and strain status of a complex envelope structure. During the second one, we developed an experimental set-up to measure the 3D strain on a balloon subsystem, which includes envelope, assemblies and apex parts, in real flight conditions. This facility, called NIRVANA, is a 1 m 3 vacuum chamber with cooled screens equipped with a stereoscopic CCD measurement system. A 1.5 m diameter sample can be tested under differential pressure, regulated temperature (from +20 to -120 °C) and a load (up to 6 tonnes) applied on tendons. This paper presents the first results obtained from the modelizations and measurements done on an envelope sample submitted to axisymmetrical stress due to the differential pressure. This sample consists of a 50 μm multilayer polymer film with an assembly, used in 10 m diameter STRATEOLE super-pressure balloons. The modelization gives results in good accordance with the experiments and will enable us to follow this work with cold conditions, time dependence (creeping) and more complex structures.

  19. Balloon dilatation of iatrogenic urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acunas, B.; Acunas, G.; Gokmen, E.; Celik, L.


    Balloon dilatation of the urethra was performed in five patients with iatrogenic urethral strictures. The urethral strictures were successfully negotiated and dilated in all patients. Redilatation became necessary in a period ranging from 3 to 10 months. The authors believe that balloon dilatation of the urethra can be safely and successfully performed; the procedure produces minimal trauma and immediate relief of symptoms. (orig.)

  20. Paraplegia following intraaortic balloon circulatory assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benício Anderson


    Full Text Available Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is frequently used in patients experiencing severe ventricular dysfunction following maximal drug therapy. However, even with the improvement of percutaneous insertion techniques, the procedure has always been followed by vascular, infectious, and neurological complications. This article describes a case of paraplegia due to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

  1. Miracle Flights (United States)

    ... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...

  2. High latitude stratospheric electrical measurements in fair and foul weather under various solar conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzworth, R.H.


    Stratospheric electric field and conductivity measurements during a wide variety of weather and solar conditions are presented. These data are all from high latitude sites in the months of either April or August. The vector electric field is determined by orthogonal double probes connected through high impedance inputs to differential electrometers. The direct conductivity measurement involves determining the relaxation time constant of the medium after refloating a shorted pair of separated probes. Vertical electric field data from several balloon flights with average duration of 18 h at ceiling in fair weather are shown to be well modeled by a simple exponential altitude dependent equation. Examples of solar flare and magnetospheric effects on stratospheric electric fields are shown. Data collected over electrified clouds and thunderstorms are presented along with a discussion of the thunderstorm related electric currents. Lightning stroke signatures in the stratosphere during a large thunderstorm are identified in the electric field data. Current surges through the stratosphere due to DC currents as well as the sferic are calculated. In nearly 1000 h of balloon data no direct solar influence is identified in these data except during major flares. (author)

  3. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf


    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  4. A balloon-borne prototype for demonstrating the concept of JEM-EUSO (United States)

    von Ballmoos, P.; Santangelo, A.; Adams, J. H.; Barrillon, P.; Bayer, J.; Bertaina, M.; Cafagna, F.; Casolino, M.; Dagoret, S.; Danto, P.; Distratis, G.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Evrard, J.; Gorodetzky, Ph.; Haungs, A.; Jung, A.; Kawasaki, Y.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mot, B.; Osteria, G.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Picozza, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Roudil, G.; Scotti, V.; Szabelski, J.; Takizawa, Y.; Tusno, K.


    EUSO-BALLOON has been conceived as a pathfinder for JEM-EUSO, a mission concept for a space-borne wide-field telescope monitoring the Earth's nighttime atmosphere with the objective of recording the ultraviolet light from tracks initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Through a series of stratospheric balloon flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-BALLOON will serve as a test-bench for the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. EUSO-BALLOON shall perform an end-to-end test of all subsystems and components, and prove the global detection chain while improving our knowledge of the atmospheric and terrestrial ultraviolet background. The balloon-instrument also has the potential to detect for the first time UV-light generated by atmospheric air-shower from above, marking a milestone in the development of UHECR science, and paving the way for any future large scale, space-based ultra-high energy cosmic ray observatory.

  5. Proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia in balloon-borne experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Rousseille, R.; Planel, H.


    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effect of cosmic radiation, at a balloon-flight ceiling of about 36,500 m (120,000 ft) on single-cell organism proliferation. Paramecium tetraurelia were placed in air-tight containers and maintained at 25 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C. Cellular growth was determined by cell count, either after recovery or during the flight, by means of an automatic fixation device. Dosimetry was performed by a tissue equivalent proportional counter and was of about 0.5 mrad/h. Flight ceiling duration ranged from 48 min - 22 h. A secondary stimulating effect of growth rate, preceded by a temporary decrease, was observed after recovery. Because of the high bacterial concentration in the trans-Mediterranean flight culture medium, the temporary drop of the growth rate, due to the radiolysis products, disappears. Researchers consider that the stimulating effect can be the result of enzymatic intracellular scavenging of radiolysis products generated in the cell

  6. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  7. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young


    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia

  8. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon (United States)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.


    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  9. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine


    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular…

  10. Looners: Inside the world of balloon fetishism


    McIntyre, Karen E


    In the spring of 1997, Shaun had just broken up with a boyfriend, and his roommate had moved out. Living alone for the first time and relieved of the fear that someone might walk in the door, he was finally able to indulge his fantasy. The young man sat on his couch and started blowing up balloons. Shaun had loved playing with balloons since he was a child. When he hit puberty, he felt his first orgasm rubbing against a balloon. It was then that his relationship with the object took ...

  11. Balloon observations of auroral X-rays at Esrange, Sweden and related phenomena


    Hirasima,Yo; Murakami,Hiroyuki; Okudaira,Kiyoaki; Fujii,Masami; Nishimura,Jun; Yamagami,Takamasa; Ejiri,Masaki; Miyaoka,Hiroshi; Ono,Takayuki; Kodama,Masahiro


    Balloon observations of auroral X-rays using different detector systems were carried out twice over Esrange, Sweden, in November and December 1982,in order to examine spatial and temporal characteristics of the energetic component of auroral electrons. One detector is a telescope system consisting of four scintillation counters whose fields of view are different with each other as well as with the viewing directions. It is shown from the first flight carrying the telescope system that a limit...

  12. Modular and Reusable Power System Design for the BRRISON Balloon Telescope (United States)

    Truesdale, Nicholas A.

    High altitude balloons are emerging as low-cost alternatives to orbital satellites in the field of telescopic observation. The near-space environment of balloons allows optics to perform near their diffraction limit. In practice, this implies that a telescope similar to the Hubble Space Telescope could be flown for a cost of tens of millions as opposed to billions. While highly feasible, the design of a balloon telescope to rival Hubble is limited by funding. Until a prototype is proven and more support for balloon science is gained, projects remain limited in both hardware costs and man hours. Thus, to effectively create and support balloon payloads, engineering designs must be efficient, modular, and if possible reusable. This thesis focuses specifically on a modular power system design for the BRRISON comet-observing balloon telescope. Time- and cost-saving techniques are developed that can be used for future missions. A modular design process is achieved through the development of individual circuit elements that span a wide range of capabilities. Circuits for power conversion, switching and sensing are designed to be combined in any configuration. These include DC-DC regulators, MOSFET drivers for switching, isolated switches, current sensors and voltage sensing ADCs. Emphasis is also given to commercially available hardware. Pre-fabricated DC-DC converters and an Arduino microcontroller simplify the design process and offer proven, cost-effective performance. The design of the BRRISON power system is developed from these low-level circuits elements. A board for main power distribution supports the majority of flight electronics, and is extensible to additional hardware in future applications. An ATX computer power supply is developed, allowing the use of a commercial ATX motherboard as the flight computer. The addition of new capabilities is explored in the form of a heater control board. Finally, the power system as a whole is described, and its overall

  13. Retained intraaortic balloon. Case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Grande, A M; Martinelli, L; Graffigna, A; Viganò, M


    We report a case of intraaortic balloon entrapment in a 70-year-old man who underwent emergency triple coronary bypass. Intraaortic balloon rupture caused the formation of a clot inside the balloon that eventually was responsible for the balloon's entrapment at the aortic bifurcation. The patient had severe atherosclerosis of the aorta and iliac arteries. Balloon removal required aorto-iliac exposure and aorto-bifemoral bypass. After 16 months, he is symptom free and at home.

  14. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V


    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  15. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  16. Gigantic balloon type artificial lightning generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii; kenji


    This paper outlines a hot-air balloon type Van de Graaf 50-MV generator which can generate a 50,000,000 V, 0.2 to 0.3 coulomb artificial lightning comparable to natural lightning discharge and reports the results of investigation on discharging experiments conducted using this apparatus. The subjects covered are as follows: (1) Outline of the hot-air balloon type Van de Graaf 50-MV generator, (2) electric characteristics of the Van de Graaf 50-MV generator, (3) charge transfer with film and balloon charging, (4) the load of the balloon and buoyancy calculation, (5) leakage of charges, (6) study of charging experiments, and (7) evaluation of the apparatus and its method and problems to be solved. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 4 refs)

  17. The UK sounding rocket and balloon programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.


    The UK civil science balloon and rocket programmes for 1979/80/81 are summarised and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981/85 mentioned. In the main the facilities available are 10 in number balloons up to 40 m cu ft launched from USA or Australia and up to 10 in number 7 1/2'' diameter Petrel rockets. This paper outlines the 1979 and 1980 programmes and explains the longer term plans covering the next 5 years. (Auth.)

  18. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.


    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs

  19. Trace gas measurements from tethered balloon platforms (United States)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Bandy, Terese L.; Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.


    Instrumentation and chemical sampling and analysis procedures are described for making measurements of atmospheric carbon disulfide in the concentration range 1-1000 pptv from tethered balloon platforms. Results of a study on the CS2 composition of air downward of a saltwater marsh are reported. A method for obtaining the necessary data for solving the budget equations for surface fluxes, chemical formation rates and chemical destruction rates using data acquired from tethered balloon platforms is presented.

  20. 14 CFR 61.411 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a... (United States)


    ... airship that is a light-sport aircraft. (e) Lighter-than-air category and balloon class privileges, (1) 35... apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.411 Section 61.411 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating...

  1. A new TDRSS Compatible Transceiver for Long Duration HIgh Altitude Scientific Balloon Missions (United States)

    Stilwell, B.; Siemon, M.

    High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to near space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based or sounding rocket experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to several weeks. Longer missions with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra-Long) are on the drawing board. An enabling technology for the growth of the scientific balloon missions is the use of the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for telemetering the health, status, position and payload science data to mission operations personnel. The TDRSS system provides global coverage by relaying the data through geostationary relay satellites to a single ground station in White Sands New Mexico. Data passes from the White Sands station to the user via commercial telecommunications services including the Internet. A forward command link can also be established to the balloon for real- time command and control. Early TDRSS communications equipment used by the National Scientific Balloon Facility was either unreliable or too expensive. The equipment must be a le tob endure the rigors of space flight including radiation exposure, high temperature extremes and the shock of landing and recovery. Since a payload may occasionally be lost, the cost of the TDRSS communications gear is a limiting factor in the number of missions that can be supported. Under sponsorship of the NSBF, General Dynamics Decision Systems has developed a new TDRSS compatible transceiver that reduces the size, weight and cost to approximately one half that of the prior generation of hardware. This paper describes the long and ultra-long balloon missions and the role that TDRSS communications plays in mission success. The new transceiver design is described, along with its interfaces, performance characteristics, qualification and production status. The transceiver can also be used in other space, avionics or

  2. Analysis of tethered balloon data from San Nicolas Island on 8 July 1987 (United States)

    Cox, Stephen K.; Duda, David P.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Johnson-Pasqua, Christopher M.; Schubert, Wayne H.; Snider, Jack B.


    Analysis of the 8 July 1987 (Julian Day 189) tethered balloon flight from San Nicolas Island is summarized. The flight commenced at about 14:30 UTC (7:30 Pacific Daylight Time) and lasted six and one-half hours. The position of the Colorado State University (CSU) instrument package as a function of time is shown. For the purpose of presentation of results, researchers divided the flight into 13 legs. These legs consist of 20 minute constant level runs, with the exception of leg 1, which is a sounding from the surface to just above 930 mb. The laser ceilometer record of cloud base is also shown. The cloud base averaged around 970 mb during much of the flight but was more variable near the end. Before the tethered balloon flight commenced, a Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS) sounding was released at 12:11 UTC (5:11 PDT). Temperature and moisture data below 927 mb for this sounding is shown. The sounding indicates a cloud top around 955 mb at this time.

  3. The atmospheric nightglow in the 300-400 nm wavelength Results by the balloon-borne experiment 'BABY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Celi, F.; Di Raffaele, R.; Giarrusso, S.; Linsley, J.; La Rosa, G.; Lo Bue, A.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.


    The balloon-borne experiment, named BAckground BYpass (BABY) belongs to a wider program that has as its final goal the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays from space (satellite, Space Station). An information of fundamental importance for this class of projects concerns the nighttime background light. The instrument designed to detect fluorescence photons is basically composed of two collimated photomultipliers: a single photon-counting PMT and a charge integration PMT. We briefly report the details of the design, operation and performance of the detector, which was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR Institute in Palermo. Preliminary analysis and results of the nocturnal background in the range of 300-400 nm are presented for the whole duration of the flight during the 1998 Mediterranean balloon flight campaign. A substantial part of the flight was at night over the sea

  4. The atmospheric nightglow in the 300-400 nm wavelength Results by the balloon-borne experiment 'BABY'

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, O; Biondo, B; Celi, F; Di Raffaele, R; Giarrusso, S; Linsley, J; Lo Bue, A; Mangano, A; Russo, F


    The balloon-borne experiment, named BAckground BYpass (BABY) belongs to a wider program that has as its final goal the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays from space (satellite, Space Station). An information of fundamental importance for this class of projects concerns the nighttime background light. The instrument designed to detect fluorescence photons is basically composed of two collimated photomultipliers: a single photon-counting PMT and a charge integration PMT. We briefly report the details of the design, operation and performance of the detector, which was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR Institute in Palermo. Preliminary analysis and results of the nocturnal background in the range of 300-400 nm are presented for the whole duration of the flight during the 1998 Mediterranean balloon flight campaign. A substantial part of the flight was at night over the sea.

  5. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems. (United States)

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt


    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  6. Use of monorail PTCA balloon catheter for local drug delivery. (United States)

    Trehan, Vijay; Nair, Girish M; Gupta, Mohit D


    We report the use of monorail coronary balloon as an infusion catheter to give bailout abciximab selectively into the site of stent thrombosis as an adjunct to plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) in a patient of subacute stent thrombosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The balloon component (polyamide material) of the monorail balloon catheter was shaved off the catheter so that abciximab injected through the balloon port of the catheter exited out the shaft of the balloon catheter at the site from where the balloon material was shaved off. We believe that selective infusion with abciximab along with POBA established antegrade flow and relieved the patient's ischemia. In the absence of essential hardware to give intracoronary drugs in an emergency situation, one may employ our technique of infusion through a monorail balloon catheter after shaving the balloon component from the catheter.

  7. Low-cost Citizen Science Balloon Platform for Measuring Air Pollutants to Improve Satellite Retrieval Algorithms (United States)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Beck-Winchatz, B.; Ritter, P.


    High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for citizen science and formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere, including measuring atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer. With a large number of citizen scientist flights, these data can be used to constrain satellite retrieval algorithms. In this poster presentation, we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT trackers for hikers) that do not require a radio license. Our scientific goal is to measure air quality in the lower troposphere. For example, particulate matter (PM) is an air pollutant that varies on small spatial scales and has sources in rural areas like biomass burning and farming practices such as tilling. Our HAB platform test flight incorporates an optical PM sensor, an integrated single board computer that records the PM sensor signal in addition to flight parameters (pressure, location and altitude), and a low-cost tracking system. Our goal is for the entire platform to cost less than $500. While the datasets generated by these flights are typically small, integrating a network of flight data from citizen scientists into a form usable for comparison to satellite data will require big data techniques.

  8. Designing gondola using satcom services and solar cell energy (United States)

    Cau, M.; Dezen, P.

    flight an Inmarsat mini M was also used to provide a scientific telemetry and telecomand channel. A lighter version (15 Kg) of this gondola is currently involved in the Hibiscus project (launch of Infrared montgolfieres from Brazil ). This gondola fitted with the new terminal "Ec track" which taking advantage of better RF budget link offered by Inmarsat spacecraft third generation, requires 50% : launch of hundred pressurized balloons from south pole. The target being to decrease the gondola weight to less than 10 Kg. Expecting a life duration of three months, the energy to heat and power the electronic will be only provided from solar cells and Li Ion secondary battery. Plans for the future : Until now all the terminals we have used with Narcisse have a data rate limited to 2400 bit/s. We are now considering to transmit the data from scientific stratospheric balloons gondolas , by using a high speed terminal (64kbit/s) linked to a mechanically pointed antenna under a pressurized radome.

  9. Cosmic Radiation Dose Measurements from the RaD-X Flight Campaign (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Hayes, Bryan M.; Lusby, Terry C.; Straume, Tore; Tobiska, W. Kent; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Benton, Eric; hide


    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission obtained measurements for improving the understanding of cosmic radiation transport in the atmosphere and human exposure to this ionizing radiation field in the aircraft environment. The value of dosimetric measurements from the balloon platform is that they can be used to characterize cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. The RaD-X balloon was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 degrees North, 104.2 degrees West) on 25 September 2015. Over 18 hours of flight data were obtained from each of the four different science instruments at altitudes above 20 kilometers. The RaD-X balloon flight was supplemented by contemporaneous aircraft measurements. Flight-averaged dosimetric quantities are reported at seven altitudes to provide benchmark measurements for improving aviation radiation models. The altitude range of the flight data extends from commercial aircraft altitudes to above the Pfotzer maximum where the dosimetric quantities are influenced by cosmic ray primaries. The RaD-X balloon flight observed an absence of the Pfotzer maximum in the measurements of dose equivalent rate.

  10. Gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from project loon balloon trajectories (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Jensen, E.; Podglajen, A.; Coy, L.; Lodha, C.; Candido, S.; Carver, R.


    Project Loon has been launching superpressure balloons since January 2013 to provide worldwide Internet coverage. These balloons typically fly between 18 and 21 km and provide measurements of winds and pressure fluctuations in the lower stratosphere. We divide 1560 Loon flights into 3405 two-day segments for gravity wave analysis. We derive the kinetic energy spectrum from the horizontal balloon motion and estimate the temperature perturbation spectrum (proportional to the potential energy spectrum) from the pressure variations. We fit the temperature (and kinetic energy) data to the functional form T'2 = T'o2[ω/ωο)α, where ω is the wave frequency, ωο is daily frequency, T'o is the base temperature amplitude, and α is the spectral slope. Both the kinetic energy and temperature spectra show -1.9 ± 0.2 power-law dependence in the intrinsic frequency window 3-50 cycles/day. The temperature spectrum slope is weakly anticorrelated with the base temperature amplitude. We also find that the wave base temperature distribution is highly skewed. The tropical modal temperature is 0.77 K. The highest amplitude waves occur over the mountainous regions, the tropics, and the high southern latitudes. Temperature amplitudes show little height variation over our 18-21 km domain. Our results are consistent with other limited superpressure balloon analyses. The modal temperature is higher than the temperature currently used in high-frequency gravity wave parameterizations.

  11. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)


    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  12. Balloon cell nevus of the iris. (United States)

    Morcos, Mohib W; Odashiro, Alexandre; Bazin, Richard; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; O'Meara, Aisling; Burnier, Miguel N


    Balloon cell nevus is a rare histopathological lesion characterized by a predominance of large, vesicular and clear cells, called balloon cells. There is only 1 case of balloon cell nevus of the iris reported in the literature. A 55 year-old man presented a pigmented elevated lesion in the right iris since the age of 12 years old. The lesion had been growing for the past 2 years and excision was performed. Histopathological examination showed a balloon cell nevus composed of clear and vacuolated cells without atypia. A typical spindle cell nevus of the iris was also observed. The differential diagnosis included xanthomatous lesions, brown adipocyte or other adipocytic lesions, clear cell hidradenoma, metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and clear cell sarcoma. The tumor was positive for Melan A, S100 protein and HMB45. Balloon cell nevus of the iris is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions of the iris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Telescopes in Near Space: Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BigBENI) (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Mauk, Robin


    A significant and often overlooked path to advancing both science and technology for direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exosolar planets is to fly "near space" missions, i.e. balloon borne exosolar missions. A near space balloon mission with two or more telescopes, coherently combined, is capable of achieving a subset of the mission science goals of a single large space telescope at a small fraction of the cost. Additionally such an approach advances technologies toward flight readiness for space flight. Herein we discuss the feasibility of flying two 1.2 meter telescopes, with a baseline separation of 3.6 meters, operating in visible light, on a composite boom structure coupled to a modified visible nulling coronagraph operating to achieve an inner working angle of 60 milli-arcseconds. We discuss the potential science return, atmospheric residuals at 135,000 feet, pointing control and visible nulling and evaluate the state-or-art of these technologies with regards to balloon missions.

  14. The HXR80M-balloon experiment: a microprocessor-controlled transatlantic payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.


    Following the results obtained from the succesful transatlantic flight launched during the summer 1976 from the CNR Milo Base, Sicily, the Laboratorio di Astrofisica Spaziale has started a new program in the hard X-ray astronomy field. It basically consists in the development of high resolution large area Multiwire Proportional Chambers to be employed in long duration balloon flights to study and monitor galactic and extragalactic sources. This note will describe the flight configuration and performances of the HXR80M payload. The experiment is expected to fly during July 1980 from the Milo Base in the framework of the CNR experimental balloon campaign. The note will analyze the main characteristics of the detectors employed, of the data handling electronics and in particular of the hardware and the software of the on-board microprocessor controlled multichannel analyzer. In fact the limitation due to the low bit rate HF link (1.2kbit/s) and the long flight duration (about one week) make imperative the use of an on-board microprocessor system to handle and select in real time the scientific data and to control the housekeeping and the telecommand systems

  15. Long-Duration, Balloon-Borne Observations of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy (United States)


    Funds from this grant were used to support the continuing development of BOOMERANG, a 1.3 m, balloon-borne, attitude-stabilized telescope designed to measure the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on angular scales of 12 min to 10 degrees. By the end of the funding period covered by this grant, the fabrication of most of the BOOMERANG sub-systems was completed, and integration and test of the payload at Caltech had begun. The project was continued under a new grant from NASA and continuing funding from the NSF. Payload integration and test was completed in April, 1997. A campaign to Palestine, Texas, resulted in two test flights during 1997. A flight on August 12, 1997 was terminated on ascent due to a leaky balloon. The payload was successfully recovered, refurbished, and flown again on August 29, 1997. The second flight was completely successful, and qualified the payload for an LDB flight from McMurdo Stn., Antarctica, in December 1998.

  16. Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Singleton, D B [Australian National Univ., ANU Supercomputing Facility, Canberra (Australia); Dewar, R L [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences


    The recent revival of interest in the application of the `ballooning formalism` to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs.

  17. Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.A.; Singleton, D.B.; Dewar, R.L.


    The recent revival of interest in the application of the 'ballooning formalism' to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs

  18. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.


    The current diffusive ballooning mode is analysed in the tokamak plasma. This mode is destabilized by the current diffusivity (i.e., the electron viscosity) and stabilized by the thermal conductivity and ion viscosity. By use of the ballooning transformation, the eigenmode equation is solved. Analytic solution is obtained by the strong ballooning limit. Numerical calculation is also performed to confirm the analytic theory. The growth rate of the mode and the mode structure are analysed. The stability boundary is derived in terms of the current diffusivity, thermal conductivity, ion viscosity and the pressure gradient for the given shear parameter. This result is applied to express the thermal conductivity in terms of the pressure gradient, magnetic configurational parameters (such as the safety factor, shear and aspect ratio) and the Prandtl numbers. (author)

  19. Balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Cheol Soo


    We analyzed the result of transurethral balloon dilatation in 11 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia with double lumen balloon catheter at 4 atmosphere for 10 minutes. After dilatation, the prostatism symptom scores improved in 10 out of 11 patients and the mean diameter of the prostatic urethra significantly increased form 4.3 mm to 10.2 mm (ρ < 0.005). The procedures were successful not only in lateral lobe hypertrophy but also in median lobe hypertrophy of the prostate. Postdilatation MRI of 1 patient showed an intact prostatic capsule and no periprostatic hematoma. Complications did not develop except in 1 patient with mild hematuria and incontinence. These preliminary results suggest that transurethral balloon dilatation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for benign prostatic hypertrophy

  20. Unconventional ballooning structures for toroidal drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hua-sheng; Xiao, Yong


    With strong gradients in the pedestal of high confinement mode (H-mode) fusion plasmas, gyrokinetic simulations are carried out for the trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes. A broad class of unconventional mode structures is found to localize at arbitrary poloidal positions or with multiple peaks. It is found that these unconventional ballooning structures are associated with different eigen states for the most unstable mode. At weak gradient (low confinement mode or L-mode), the most unstable mode is usually in the ground eigen state, which corresponds to a conventional ballooning mode structure peaking in the outboard mid-plane of tokamaks. However, at strong gradient (H-mode), the most unstable mode is usually not the ground eigen state and the ballooning mode structure becomes unconventional. This result implies that the pedestal of H-mode could have better confinement than L-mode

  1. Innovations in Balloon Catheter Technology in Rhinology. (United States)

    D'Anza, Brian; Sindwani, Raj; Woodard, Troy D


    Since being introduced more than 10 years ago, balloon catheter technology (BCT) has undergone several generations of innovations. From construction to utilization, there has been a myriad of advancements in balloon technology. The ergonomics of the balloon dilation systems have improved with a focus on limiting the extra assembly. "Hybrid" BCT procedures have shown promise in mucosal preservation, including treating isolated complex frontal disease. Multiple randomized clinical trials report improved long-term outcomes in stand-alone BCT, including in-office use. The ever-expanding technological innovations ensure BCT will be a key component in the armamentarium of the modern sinus surgeon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. False coronary dissection with the new Monorail angioplasty balloon catheter. (United States)

    Esplugas, E; Cequier, A R; Sabaté, X; Jara, F


    During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, the appearance of persistent staining in the vessel by contrast media suggests coronary dissection. We report seven patients in whom a false image of severe coronary dissection was observed during angioplasty performed with the new Monorail balloon catheter. This image emerges at the moment of balloon inflation, is distally located to the balloon, and disappears with balloon catheter deflation. No complications were associated with the appearance of this image.

  3. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures.

  4. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon


    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures

  5. Exponential Growth of Nonlinear Ballooning Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.


    Recent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that a perturbation evolving from a linear ballooning instability will continue to grow exponentially in the intermediate nonlinear phase at the same linear growth rate. This prediction is confirmed in ideal MHD simulations. When the Lagrangian compression, a measure of the ballooning nonlinearity, becomes of the order of unity, the intermediate nonlinear phase is entered, during which the maximum plasma displacement amplitude as well as the total kinetic energy continues to grow exponentially at the rate of the corresponding linear phase.

  6. Science Results From The ARCADE Open-Aperture Cryogenic Balloon Payload (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.


    The Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse Galactic foregrounds at centimeter wavelengths. ARCADE greatly reduces measurement uncertainties compared to previous balloon-borne or ground-based instrument using a double-nulled design that features fully cryogenic optics with no windows between the atmosphere and the 2.7 K instrument. A four-hour flight in 2006 achieved sensitivity comparable to the COBE/FIRAS satellite measurement while providing new insights for emission ranging from spinning dust in the interstellar medium to an unexpectedly bright extragalactic radio background. I will discuss scientific results from the ARCADE program and implications of the ARCADE cold optics for millimeter and sub-mm astronomy.

  7. Angry Birds realized: water balloon launcher for teaching projectile motion with drag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Boyd F; Sam, David D; Christiansen, Michael A; Booth, William A; Jessup, Leslie O


    A simple, collapsible design for a large water balloon slingshot launcher features a fully adjustable initial velocity vector and a balanced launch platform. The design facilitates quantitative explorations of the dependence of the balloon range and time of flight on the initial speed, launch angle, and projectile mass, in an environment where quadratic air drag is important. Presented are theory and experiments that characterize this drag, and theory and experiments that characterize the nonlinear elastic energy and hysteresis of the latex tubing used in the slingshot. The experiments can be carried out with inexpensive and readily available tools and materials. The launcher provides an engaging way to teach projectile motion and elastic energy to students of a wide variety of ages. (paper)

  8. VLF and X-ray Instruments for Stratospheric Balloons: ABOVE2 and EPEx (United States)

    Cully, C. M.; Galts, D.; Patrick, M.; Duffin, C.; Jang, A. C.; Pitzel, J.; Trumpour, T.; McCarthy, M.; Milling, D. K.


    The ABOVE2 (2016) and EPEx (2018) stratospheric balloon missions are designed to study energetic electrons precipitating from the radiation belts into the atmosphere. The payloads include instruments that measure Very Low Frequency (VLF) magnetic and electric fields, and bremsstrahlung X-rays. The ABOVE2 VLF instrument is an FPGA-based design with >200 kHz sampling rates, sub-microsecond timing accuracy and onboard spectral processing, designed in a Cubesat-friendly format. The EPEx X-ray instrument is a hard X-ray imaging system, also in a Cubesat-friendly format, incorporating a commercially-available Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride module. The imager is sufficiently lightweight that we can launch it on-demand with low-volume latex balloons. I will discuss the design and performance of both instruments, and present data from the ABOVE2 flights.

  9. Clinical experience with the Monorail balloon catheter for coronary angioplasty. (United States)

    Finci, L; Meier, B; Roy, P; Steffenino, G; Rutishauser, W


    The Monorail balloon catheter is distinctly different from other current balloon catheters: the guidewire passes through the balloon itself, exits the catheter proximal to the balloon, and runs alongside its small shaft (3 French) through the guiding catheter. Monorail coronary angioplasty was attempted in 61 patients on 73 lesions with balloons from 2.0 to 3.7 mm. Angiographic success was obtained in 66 lesions (90%). For 15 lesions, balloon exchanges were needed. In three lesions, the Monorail balloon failed to cross the lesion, while a standard balloon succeeded; two lesions could not be crossed with any balloon. Vessel occlusion occurred in four patients: two had emergency surgery without infarct (one died suddenly 4 days later and one had a stroke 1 day later), one was recanalized with a standard balloon, and one had a myocardial infarct. Continuous infusion of urokinase was used until patient 3 in whom problems with the delivery system led to cardiocerebral air embolization (with complete recovery). No thrombotic complications were observed in the subsequent 58 patients with only a bolus of 10,000 U of heparin. The Monorail balloon facilitates contrast injections and balloon exchanges but appears more difficult to pass through tight lesions. Omission of the previously recommended infusion with a thrombolytic agent proved safe.

  10. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...

  11. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M.J. Lee


    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  12. Effects of annular solar eclipse of 15 January 2010 on meteorological parameters in the 0 to 65 km region over Thumba, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, K.V.S.; Dileep, P.K.; Mammen, Koshy [Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram (India). Meteorology Facility; Ramkumar, Geetha; Kiran Kumar, N.V.P. [Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram (India). Space Physics Lab.; Sreenivasan, S.; Suneel Kumar, B.; Manchanda, R.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Hyderabad (India). Balloon Facility


    Surface meteorological observations along with high altitude balloon and rocket flights provided various meteorological parameters in the 0 to 65 km height region, (over the peninsular Indian coastal station Thumba) which could be utilized to investigate variations associated with the annular solar eclipse of 15 January 2010. Parameters like surface and soil temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, turbulence, surface scalar wind speed and direction were analysed to look into the solar eclipse induced perturbations. Surface and soil temperature dip, diminished surface layer turbulence, reduction of surface wind speed and veering in wind direction, temperature increase in the stratospheric levels, Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) relative humidity hike, wind enhancements at different heights, tropospheric wind shear reduction and ozone decrease are the prominent features observed from the present study. (orig.)

  13. How to perform combined cutting balloon and high pressure balloon valvuloplasty for dogs with subaortic stenosis. (United States)

    Kleman, Mandi E; Estrada, Amara H; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Prošek, Robert; Pogue, Brandon; Shih, Andre; Paolillo, Joseph A


    Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the most common congenital cardiac malformations in dogs. Unfortunately, the long term success rate and survival data following either open heart surgery or catheter based intervention has been disappointing in dogs with severe subaortic stenosis. Medical therapy is currently the only standard recommended treatment option. A cutting balloon dilation catheter has been used successfully for resistant coronary artery and peripheral pulmonary arterial stenoses in humans. This catheter is unique in that it has the ability to cut, or score, the stenotic region prior to balloon dilatation of the stenosis. The use of cutting balloon valvuloplasty combined with high pressure valvuloplasty for dogs with severe subaortic stenosis has recently been reported to be a safe and feasible alternative therapeutic option. The following report describes this technique, outlines the materials required, and provides some 'tips' for successful percutaneous subaortic balloon valvuloplasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fasting and meal-suppressed ghrelin levels before and after intragastric balloons and balloon-induced weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Eichenberger, R. I.


    Intragastric balloons may be an option for obese patients with weight loss failure. Its mode of action remains enigmatic. We hypothesised depressed fasting ghrelin concentrations and enhanced meal suppression of ghrelin secretion by the gastric fundus through balloon contact and balloon-induced

  15. Intercomparison of meteorological analyses and trajectories in the Antarctic lower stratosphere with Concordiasi superpressure balloon observations (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Hertzog, Albert; Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf; Wu, Xue


    In this study we compared temperatures and horizontal winds of meteorological analyses in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, a region of the atmosphere that is of major interest regarding chemistry and dynamics of the polar vortex. The study covers the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis, the ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 1 and 2 (MERRA and MERRA-2), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The comparison was performed with respect to long-duration observations from 19 superpressure balloon flights during the Concordiasi field campaign in September 2010 to January 2011. Most of the balloon measurements were conducted at altitudes of 17-18.5 km and latitudes of 60-85° S. We found that large-scale state temperatures of the analyses have a mean precision of 0.5-1.4 K and a warm bias of 0.4-2.1 K with respect to the balloon data. Zonal and meridional winds have a mean precision of 0.9-2.3 m s-1 and a bias below ±0.5 m s-1. Standard deviations related to small-scale fluctuations due to gravity waves are reproduced at levels of 15-60 % for temperature and 30-60 % for the horizontal winds. Considering the fact that the balloon observations have been assimilated into all analyses, except for NCEP/NCAR, notable differences found here indicate that other observations, the forecast models, and the data assimilation procedures have a significant impact on the analyses as well. We also used the balloon observations to evaluate trajectory calculations with our new Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC), where vertical motions of simulated trajectories were nudged to pressure measurements of the balloons. We found relative horizontal transport deviations of 4-12 % and error growth rates of 60-170 km day-1 for 15-day trajectories. Dispersion

  16. Percutaneous balloon dilation of pulmonary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Yangde; Huang Ming; Li Jinkang; Qian Jinqing; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Siyuan


    Objective: Review our experience of balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis in 32 cases. Methods: Totally 32 cases of pulmonary stenosis admitted from 1995-2001 with age of 1.5-13 yrs mean 6.8. Diagnosis was made by clinical manifestations, EKG, ECHO and angiocardiography. Results: Before dilation, the mean systolic pressure of right ventricle was (93.5 ± 28.5) mmHg, after the procedure it reduced to (42 ± 9.0) mmHg. The pressure gradient between right ventricle and pulmonary artery before dilation was (76 ± 30) mmHg and become (24.5 ± 8.5) mmHg after dilation. The gradient pressure after dilation was less than 25 mmHg in 90.6% cases. A case of Noonan syndrome showed no response to balloon dilation and died during valvulectomy from accompanying left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: Balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis is effective and safe. The selection of proper diameter of pulmonary valvular rings and sized of the balloon are the major factors

  17. Viscoresistive g-modes and ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.; Paris, R.B.


    The resistive G-mode and its particular form, the resistive ballooning mode, are treated as limits of a single simple model. MHD theory including parallel and perpendicular viscosity, finite shear, and finite beta is employed to study their linear stability

  18. Teacher's Guide for Balloons and Gases. (United States)

    Griffith, Joe H.; And Others

    This guide was developed to provide children with an opportunity to prepare and collect several common gases and to discover and work with some of their properties. The guide is divided into five major sections: (1) introduction, (2) materials, (3) activities, (4) balloons aloft, and (5) an appendix. The introduction provides information…

  19. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Zaharia, S.


    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum

  20. Teaching Earth Science Using Hot Air Balloons (United States)

    Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen


    Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…

  1. Balloon-borne radiometer profiler: Field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.J.; Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Hubbe, J.M.; Scott, K.A.


    This project involves the development of the capability of making routine soundings of broadband radiative fluxes and radiative flux divergences to heights of 1500m AGL. Described in this document are radiometers carried on a stabilized platform in a harness inserted in the tetherline of a tethered balloon meteriological sounding system. Field test results are given

  2. Modified jailed balloon technique for bifurcation lesions. (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Shishido, Koki; Moriyama, Noriaki; Ochiai, Tomoki; Mizuno, Shingo; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Sugitatsu, Kazuya; Tobita, Kazuki; Matsumi, Junya; Tanaka, Yutaka; Murakami, Masato


    We propose a new systematic approach in bifurcation lesions, modified jailed balloon technique (M-JBT), and report the first clinical experience. Side branch occlusion brings with a serious complication and occurs in more than 7.0% of cases during bifurcation stenting. A jailed balloon (JB) is introduced into the side branch (SB), while a stent is placed in the main branch (MB) as crossing SB. The size of the JB is half of the MB stent size. While the proximal end of JB attaching to MB stent, both stent and JB are simultaneously inflated with same pressure. JB is removed and then guidewires are recrossed. Kissing balloon dilatation (KBD) and/or T and protrusion (TAP) stenting are applied as needed. Between February 2015 and February 2016, 233 patients (254 bifurcation lesions including 54 left main trunk disease) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using this technique. Procedure success was achieved in all cases. KBD was performed for 183 lesions and TAP stenting was employed for 31 lesions. Occlusion of SV was not observed in any of the patients. Bench test confirmed less deformity of MB stent in M-JBT compared with conventional-JBT. This is the first report for clinical experiences by using modified jailed balloon technique. This novel M-JBT is safe and effective in the preservation of SB patency during bifurcation stenting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  4. Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris; Keyes, Edward; Belt, Todd; Bowen, Oliver; Brinkley, Devin; Csonka, Paul; Eglington, Michael; Kazmierski, Andrei; Kim, Nam-hyong; Moody, John; Tu, Thanh; Vermeer, William


    Internet connectivity is limited and in some cases non-existent for a significant part of the world's population. Project Loon aims to address this with a network of high-altitude balloons traveling in the stratosphere, at an altitude of approximately 20 km. The balloons navigate by using the stratified wind layers at different altitudes, adjusting the balloon's altitude to catch winds in a desired direction. Data transfer is achieved by 1) uplinking a signal from an Internet-connected ground station to a balloon terminal, 2) crosslinking the signal through the balloon network to reach the geographic area of the users, and 3) downlinking the signal directly to the end-users' phones or other LTE-enabled devices. We describe Loon's progress on utilizing free-space optical communications (FSOC) for the inter-balloon crosslinks. FSOC, offering high data rates and long communication ranges, is well-suited for communication between high-altitude platforms. A stratospheric link is sufficiently high to be above weather events (clouds, fog, rain, etc.), and the impact of atmospheric turbulence is significantly weaker than at ground level. In addition, being in the stratosphere as opposed to space helps avoid the typical challenges faced by space-based systems, namely operation in a vacuum environment with significant radiation. Finally, the angular pointing disturbances introduced by a floating balloon-based platform are notably less than any propelled platform, which simplifies the disturbance rejection requirements on the FSOC system. We summarize results from Project Loon's early-phase experimental inter-balloon links at 20 km altitude, demonstrating full duplex 130 Mbps throughput at distances in excess of 100 km over the course of several-day flights. The terminals utilize a monostatic design, with dual wavelengths for communication and a dedicated wide-angle beacon for pointing, acquisition, and tracking. We summarize the constraints on the terminal design, and the

  5. Flight Planning (United States)


    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  6. Development of indigenous linear low-density polyethylene film and other related techniques for heavy-load balloons in India (United States)

    Redkar, R. T.


    A new grade of balloon film extruded out of LLDPE resin with Butene as comonomer and Cold Brittle Point (CBP) at -88°C was extruded and successfully flight tested with a 25 micron single shell 53,000 Cu.M. balloon carrying 330 Kg. payload to 33 Km. altitude. We have also produced superior LLDPE film out of Dowlex 2045 Dow Chemicals resin with Octene as comonomer, which has the cold brittle point lower than -90°C and superior mechanical properties at low temperatures. A high pressure hydrogen filling system capable of delivering 2200 Cu.Ft. of hydrogen per minute has been commissioned and successfully utilised in 11 flights. With this new filling system, the inflation time is drastically reduced by over 50% thereby reducing the duration of pre-launch stresses on the ground bubble. After the acceptance of our revised design criteria for balloons to be flown from equatorial latitudes by M/s.Winzen International Inc., U.S.A., 41 flights have been made, out of which 36 have been successful giving us a success record of 88%. Out of the 5 failures, 3 have been float failures with gross inflations exceeding 1950 kg, for which launch spool damage is a suspect. To reduce the spool damage, the shell thickness of the subsequent balloon was increased to 20.32 microns from 17.78 microns and the flight was a success. For further reducing the possibility of launch spool damage, a larger diameter spool is being designed.

  7. Design considerations and practical results with long duration systems for manned world flights (United States)

    Nott, Julian


    This paper describes development of three balloon types by the author, all proposed for piloted flights around the world. The first was a superpressure pumpkin used to cross Australia. However, the balloon took up an incorrect shape when inflated. Because of this and other problems, the pumpkin was abandoned and the author built a combined helium-hot air balloon. This in turn was abandoned because it was cumbersome and costly. The author then developed an entirely new system, carrying cryogenic liquid helium to create lift in flight. Two very successful 24-h flights were made. In addition several inventions were developed for crew safety. Perhaps the most important is an entirely new way to protect pilots against sudden cabin pressure loss, with potentially broad use.

  8. In vitro analysis of balloon cuffing phenomenon: inherent biophysical properties of catheter material or mechanics of catheter balloon deflation? (United States)

    Chung, Eric; So, Karina


    To investigates the different methods of balloon deflation, types of urinary catheters and exposure to urine media in catheter balloon cuffing. Bardex®, Bard-Lubri-Sil®, Argyle®, Releen® and Biocath® were tested in sterile and E.Coli inoculated urine at 0, 14 and 28 days. Catheter deflation was performed with active deflation; passive deflation; passive auto-deflation; and excision of the balloon inflow channel. Balloon cuffing was assessed objectively by running the deflated balloon over a plate of agar and subjectively by 3 independent observers. Bardex®, Argyle® and Biocath® showed greater degree of catheter balloon cuffing (p deflation was the worst method (p 0.05). Linear regression model analysis confirmed time as the most significant factor. The duration of catheters exposure, different deflation methods and types of catheters tested contributed significantly to catheter balloon cuffing (p < 0.01).

  9. Widget: A data acquisition system for a balloon borne Si particle calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, A.; Aversa, F.; Venkataraman, S.; Battaiotto, P.


    We describe Widget; a complete data acquisition system (DAS) designed for a balloon-borne calorimeter using silicon strip detectors. The design includes a general purpose CPU as well as five to twenty Digital Signal Processors in order to control the acquisition of the data. This local intelligence also allows the instrument to re-calibrate itself, to perform calculations on the data and to control the functionality of the instrumentation. The DSPs filter the data to avoid overflowing the radio link to ground. In principle the system could control the instruments, without direct intervention from the ground, on flights with durations of several days. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  10. Characterizing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer using in situ balloon measurements: the BATAL campaigns of 2014-2017 (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J. P.; Deshler, T.; Pandit, A. K.; Ratnam, M. V.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Liu, H.; Natarajan, M.; Jayaraman, A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Wienhold, F.; Vignelles, D.; Bedka, K. M.; Avery, M. A.


    We present in situ balloon observations of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), associated with Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM). The ATAL was first revealed by CALIPSO satellite data, and has been linked with deep convection of boundary layer pollution into the UTLS. The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, radiative transfer, and chemical processes in the UTLS. The "Balloon measurements of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL)" field campaigns to India and Saudi Arabia in were designed to characterize the physical and optical properties of the ATAL, to explore its composition, and its relationship with clouds in the UTLS. We launched 55 balloon flights from 4 locations, in summers 2014-2016. We return to India to make more balloon flights in summer 2017. Balloon payloads range from 500g to 50 kg, making measurements of meteorological parameters, ozone, water vapor, aerosol optical properties, concentration, volatility, and composition in the UTLS region. This project represents the most important effort to date to study UTLS aerosols during the ASM, given few in situ observations. We complement the in situ data presented with 3-d chemical transport simulations, designed to further explore the ATAL's chemical composition, the sensitivity of such to scavenging in parameterized deep convection, and the relative contribution of regional vs. rest-of-the-world pollution sources. The BATAL project has been a successful partnership between institutes in the US, India, Saudi Arabia, and Europe, and continues for the next 3-4 years, sponsored by the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research program. This partnership may provide a foundation for potential high-altitude airborne measurement studies during the ASM in the future.

  11. Investigating the Impact of a Solar Eclipse on Atmospheric Radiation (United States)

    Fender, Josh; Morse, Justin; Ringler, John; Galovich, Cynthia; Kuehn, Charles A.; Semak, Matthew


    We present a project that measured atmospheric muon flux as a function of altitude during a total solar eclipse. An auxiliary goal was to design and build a cost-effective muon detection device that is simple enough for those with minimal training to build. The detector is part of a self-contained autonomous payload that is carried to altitude aboard a weather balloon. The detection system consists of three Geiger counters connected to a coincidence circuit. This system, along with internal and external temperature sensors and an altimeter, are controlled by an onboard Arduino Mega microcontroller. An internal frame was constructed to house and protect the payload components using modular 3D-printed parts. The payload was launched during the 2017 solar eclipse from Guernsey, Wyoming, along the path of totality. Initial data analysis indicates that line-of-sight blockage of the sun due to a total eclipse produces a negligible difference in muon flux when compared to the results of previous daytime flights. The successful performance of the payload, its low overall cost, and its ease of use suggest that this project would be well-suited for individuals or groups such as high school or undergraduate science students to reproduce and enhance.

  12. Data Citation in Solar Physics: 2015 Update & Recommendations (United States)

    Hourclé, Joseph


    Last year's Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles has triggered much discussion about the best ways to handle citation of data across research disciplines. Many communities have gotten together to design solutions to the issues of giving proper credit and attribution, although many fields, including solar physics, have yet to implement them. Issues still exist regarding data citation as a record for scientific reproducability.Solar physics data is particularly difficult to cite due to the nature of our collection methods and the method in which our data are used. Other than sounding rocket or balloon flights, our data collection from a given instrument spans years or decades but observing modes, cadence and field of view may vary daily. Researchers may only analyze a short timespan of the data, only given observing modes, at a slower cadence, and/or only a portion of each image; this reduction should be described to ensure that the analysis is reproducible.Many archives keep only the current, best calibrated data, making updates in place. It can be difficult to determine if the data used in a publication is the same as the currently available data.We discuss the current progress by the Research Data Alliance's Dynamic Data Citation Working Group, and tools and services that would be useful to identify when data may have been changed by an archive. As it may be some time before standards can be developed, we include a checklist for authors to improve reproducibility of their published articles.

  13. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.


    The authors performed retrograde prostatic urethroplasty in 18 patients using a 25-mm urethroplasty balloon catheter. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. Voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, rectal US, and MRE imaging were performed before and immediately after the procedure and at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Long-term results at 18 months and possible clinical implications are discussed

  14. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.


    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  15. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability (United States)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  16. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager Small Explorer Concept Mission (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Dennis, Brian R.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian


    We present the FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager) small explorer (SMEX) concept, a mission dedicated to studying particle acceleration and energy release on the Sun. FOXSI is designed as a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit making use of state-of-the-art grazing incidence focusing optics combined withpixelated solid-state detectors, allowing for direct imaging of solar X-rays. The current design being studied features multiple telescopes with a 14 meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom.FOXSI will observe the Sun in the 3-100 keV energy range. The FOXSI imaging concept has already been tested on two sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014 and on the HEROES balloon payload flight in 2013. FOXSI will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 5'', a spectral resolution of 0.5 keV, and sub-second temporal resolution. FOXSI is a direct imaging spectrometer with high dynamic range and sensitivity and will provide a brand-new perspective on energy release on the Sun. We describe the mission and its science objectives.

  17. Near space radiation dosimetry in Australian outback using a balloon borne energy compensated PIN diode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Wu, Xiaofeng; Maczka, Tomasz; Kwan, Trevor; Huang, Yijun; Mares, Vladimir


    This paper reports the near space ballooning experiment carried out at Australian outback town West Wyalong (33°51′S, 147°24′E) on 19 July 2015. Several dedicated electronic detectors including digital temperature and acceleration (vibration) sensors and an energy compensated PIN-diode gamma ray dosimeter were installed in a thermally insulated Styrofoam payload box. A 9 V Lithium-Polymer battery powered all the devices. The payload box was attached to a helium-filled latex weather balloon and set afloat. The balloon reached a peak burst altitude of 30 km and then soft-landed aided by a self-deploying parachute 66.2 km away form the launch site. The payload box was retrieved and data collected from the electronic sensors analysed. The integrated cosmic ray induced photon ambient dose equivalent recorded by the PIN diode detector was evaluated to be 0.36 ± 0.05 μSv. Furthermore, a high-altitude extended version of commercially available aviation dosimetry package EPCARD.Net (European Program package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) was used to calculate the ambient dose equivalents during the balloon flight. The radiation environment originated from the secondary cosmic ray shower is composed of neutrons, protons, electrons, muons, pions and photons. The photon ambient dose equivalent estimated by the EPCARD.Net code found to be 0.47 ± 0.09 μSv. The important aspects of balloon based near-space radiation dosimetry are highlighted in this paper. - Highlights: • Near space ballooning experiment in Australian outback. • A PIN diode based gamma dosimeter was sent to an altitude of 30 km. • Ambient photon dose equivalent was evaluated as a function of altitude. • Results agreed well with the simulated data delivered by EPCARD.Net Code. • The atmospheric temperature and payload jerks were also assessed.

  18. Crosstalk in solar polarization measurements (United States)

    West, E. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.


    The instrumental crosstalk associated with the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and the solar crosstalk created by the magnetic field are described and their impact on the reconstruction of the solar vector magnetic field is analyzed. It is pointed out that identifying and correcting the crosstalk is important in the development of realistic models describing the solar atmosphere. Solar crosstalk is spatially dependent on the structure of the magnetic field while instrumental crosstalk is dependent on the position of the analyzer.

  19. Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz


    Full Text Available Stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances measured by different remote sensing instruments are inter-compared: (1 Line-of-sight absorptions and vertical profiles inferred from solar spectra in the ultra-violet (UV, visible and infrared (IR wavelength ranges measured by the LPMA/DOAS (Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere/Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloon payload during balloon ascent/descent and solar occultation are examined with respect to internal consistency. (2 The balloon borne stratospheric profiles of O3 and NO2 are compared to collocated space-borne skylight limb observations of the Envisat/SCIAMACHY satellite instrument. The trace gas profiles are retrieved from SCIAMACHY spectra using different algorithms developed at the Universities of Bremen and Heidelberg and at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. A comparison scheme is used that accounts for the spatial and temporal mismatch as well as differing photochemical conditions between the balloon and satellite borne measurements. It is found that the balloon borne measurements internally agree to within ±10% and ±20% for O3 and NO2, respectively, whereas the agreement with the satellite is ±20% for both gases in the 20 km to 30 km altitude range and in general worse below 20 km.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful.

  1. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won


    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful

  2. Stabilized platform for tethered balloon soundings of broadband long- and short-wave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Whiteman, C.D.


    Changes in the composition of trace gases in the earth's atmosphere have been reported by many observers, and a general concern has been expressed regarding possible changes to the earth's climate that may be caused by radiatively active gases introduced into the earth's atmosphere by man's activities. Radiatively active trace gases produce temperature changes in the earth's atmosphere through changes in radiative flux divergence. Our knowledge of and means of measuring radiative flux divergence is very limited. A few observations of vertical radiative flux divergences have been reported from aircraft from radiometersondes from towers and from large tethered balloons. These measurement techniques suffers from one or more drawbacks, including shallow sounding depths (towers), high cost (aircraft), complicated logistics (large tethered balloons), and limitation to nighttime hours (radiometersondes). Changes in radiative flux divergence caused by anthropogenic trace gases are expected to be quite small, and will be difficult to measure with existing broadband radiative flux instruments. The emphasis of present research in global climate change is thus being focused on improving radiative transfer algorithms in global climate models. The radiative parameterizations in these models are at an early stage of development and information is needed regarding their performance, especially in cloudy conditions. The impetus for the research reported in this paper is the need for a device that can supplement existing means of measuring vertical profiles of long- and short-wave irradiance and radiative flux divergence. We have designed a small tethered-balloon-based system that can make radiometric soundings through the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper discusses the concept, the design considerations, and the design and construction of this sounding system. The performance of the system will be tested in a series of balloon flights scheduled for the fall and winter of 1992

  3. Hot air balloons fill gap in atmospheric and sensing platforms (United States)

    Watson, Steven M.; Price, Russ

    Eric Edgerton was having a problem he could not solve: how to noninvasively collect in situ incinerator plume data. So he called in the Air Force and learned about its Atmospheric and Sensor Test Platform program; its platform is a manned hot air balloon. Many investigators are discovering the advantages of hot air balloons as stable, inexpensive platforms for performing in situ atmospheric measurements. Some are also using remote sensing capabilities on the balloon platforms.

  4. The role of scientific ballooning for exploration of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.; Lazutin, L.L.; Riedler, W.


    The magnetosphere is explored in situ by satellites, but measurements near the low altitude magnetospheric boundary by rockets, balloons and groundbased instruments play a very significant role. The geomagnetic field provides a frame with anisotropic wave and particle propagation effects, enabling remote sensing of the distant magnetosphere by means of balloon-borne and groundbased instruments. Examples will be given of successful studies, with coordinated satellite and balloon observations, of substorm, pulsation and other phenomena propagating both along and across the geomagnetic field. Continued efforts with sophisticated balloon-borne instrumentations should contribute substantially to our understanding of magnetospheric physics. (Author)

  5. Deflation of gastric band balloon in pregnancy for improving outcomes. (United States)

    Jefferys, Amanda E; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Draycott, Tim; Akande, Valentine A; Fox, Robert


    In line with the rise in the prevalence of obesity, an increasing number of women of childbearing age are undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), resulting in an increasing number of pregnancies with a band in place. Currently, there is no consensus on optimal band management in pregnancy. Some clinicians advocate leaving the band balloon inflated to reduce gestational weight gain and associated adverse perinatal outcomes. However, there are concerns that maintaining balloon inflation during pregnancy might increase the risk of band complications and adversely affect fetal development and/or growth as a result of reduced nutritional intake. To compare maternal and perinatal outcomes for elective gastric band balloon deflation versus intention to maintain balloon inflation during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012) and the Web of Science database (1940 to September 2012). Randomised-controlled trials comparing elective deflation of the gastric band balloon with intention to maintain balloon inflation in pregnant women who have undergone LAGB. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. No studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. To date no randomised controlled trials exist that compare elective deflation of the gastric band balloon in pregnancy versus intention to maintain balloon inflation. Further research is needed to define the optimum management of the gastric band balloon in pregnancy.

  6. An Overview of Current and Future Stratospheric Balloon Mission Capabilities (United States)

    Smith, Michael

    The modern stratospheric balloon has been used for a variety of missions since the late 1940's. Capabilities of these vehicles to carry larger payloads, fly to higher altitudes, and fly for longer periods of time have increased dramatically over this time. In addition to these basic performance metrics, reliability statistics for balloons have reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Balloon technology developed in the United States in the last decade has the potential to open a new era in economical space science using balloons. As always, the advantage of the balloon platform is the fact that missions can be carried out at a fraction of the cost and schedule of orbital missions. A secondary advantage is the fact that instruments can be re-flown numerous times while upgrading sensor and data processing technologies from year to year. New mission capabilities now have the potential for enabling ground breaking observations using balloons as the primary platform as opposed to a stepping stone to eventual orbital observatories. The limit of very high altitude balloon missions will be explored with respect to the current state of the art of balloon materials and fabrication. The same technological enablers will also be applied to possibilities for long duration missions at mid latitudes with payloads of several tons. The balloon types and their corresponding mission profiles will be presented in a performance matrix that will be useful for potential scientific users in planning future research programs.

  7. [Balloon cell nevi of the conjunctiva (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Schlageter, P E; Daicker, B


    The clinical and histological features of three cases of conjunctival balloon cell nevi are described. This peculiar form of nevus is very rare in the conjunctiva. The findings are compared with the descriptions in the literature of dermal balloon cell nevi. They demonstrate, that the conjunctival and dermal tumours are of idential histological structure. The proliferations of the conjunctival epithelium often found in conjunctival nevi do not modify the balloon cell nevi. These can not be diagnosed clinically. The problems of the pathogenesis of the balloon cell nevi are discussed.

  8. Near infrared multicolor photometry of late type stars with the balloon borne astronomical telescope BAT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Keiichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Onaka, Takashi


    A new star follower has been developed for observing the near infrared emission of late type stars. The sensor of the follower consists of a semicircular rotating sector and a photomultiplier. The practical accuracy of the angle of tracing was about 1 minute. A photometer was installed at the focus point of the main telescope. The infrared photometer consists of a filter turret, a chopper, an infrared detector and a synchronous amplifier. Five flights of balloons were made since September 13, 1974. The height of the flights was about 25 km. The type of observed spectra ranges from A0 to M6. The results of analysis was compared with the atmospheric model by Tsuji. The physical parameters, such as effective temperature, logarithm of surface gravity and velocity of turbulent flow, of late type stars (K5 - M6) were determined. (Kato, T.)

  9. Towards routine measurements of meteorological and aerosol parameters using small unmanned aerial and tethered balloon systems (United States)

    Mei, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; deBoer, G.; Schmid, B.; Ivey, M.; Longbottom, C.; Carroll, P.


    The Inaugural Campaigns for ARM Research using Unmanned Systems (ICARUS) had been launched in 2016 and then the effort has been continued in 2017. ICARUS centered on Oliktok Point, Alaska focusses on developing routine operations of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Tethered Balloon Systems (TBS). The operation routine practiced during ICARUS 2016 provided valuable guidance for the ICARUS 2017 deployment. During two intensive operation periods in 2017, a small DataHawk II UAS has been deployed to collect data for two weeks each in May and August. Coordinated with DataHawk flights, the TBS has been launched with meteorology sensors such as iMet and Tethersondes, therefore vertical profiles of the basic atmospheric state (temperature, humidity, and horizontal wind) were observed simultaneously by UAS and TBS. In addition, an aerosol payload was attached and launched with 2 TBS flights in April and 7 TBS flights in May, which include a condensation particle counter (CPC, TSI 3007) and two printed optical particle spectrometers (POPS, Handix TBS version). The two POPS were operated at different inlet temperatures. This approach provided potential measurements for aerosol optical closure in future. Measured aerosol properties include total particle number concentrations, particle size distribution, at different ambient temperature and relative humidity. Vertical profiles of atmospheric state and aerosol properties will be discussed based on the coordinated flights. Monthly variation will be assessed with data from the upcoming August flights.

  10. Measuring the vertical electrical field above an oceanic convection system using a meteorological sounding balloon (United States)

    Chen, A. B.; Chiu, C.; Lai, S.; Chen, C.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.


    The vertical electric field above thundercloud plays an important role in the generation and modeling of transient luminous events. For example, Pasko [1995] proposed that the high quasi-static E-field following the positive cloud-to-ground lightning could accelerate and input energy to ambient electrons; as they collide and excite nitrogen and oxygen molecules in upper atmosphere, sprites may be induced. A series of balloon experiments led by Holzworth have investigated the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the electric field and conductivity in the upper atmosphere at different sites [Holzworth 2005, and references in]. But the strength and variation of the vertical electric field above thundercloud, especially oceanic ones, are not well documented so far. A lightweight, low-cost measurement system including an electric field meter and the associated aviation electronics are developed to carry out the in-situ measurement of the vertical electric field and the inter-cloud charge distribution. Our measuring system was first deployed using a meteorological sounding balloon from Taitung, Taiwan in May 2012. The measured electric field below 3km height shows an exponential decay and it is consistent with the expected potential gradient variation between ionosphere and the Earth surface. But the background strength of the measured E-field grows up exponentially and a violent fluctuations is also observed when the balloon flew over a developing oceanic convection cell. The preliminary results from this flight will be reported and discussed. This low-cost electric field meter is developed within one year. In the coming months, more flights will be performed with the aim to measure the rapid variation of the electric field above thundercloud as well as the E-field that may induce transient luminous events. Our ground campaigns show that the occurrence rates of blue and gigantic jet are relatively high in the vicinity of Taiwan. Our experiment can be used to diagnose

  11. Tethered Balloon Operations at ARM AMF3 Site at Oliktok Point, AK (United States)

    Dexheimer, D.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Ivey, M.


    Oliktok Point has been the home of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) third ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3, since October 2013. The AMF3 is operated through Sandia National Laboratories and hosts instrumentation collecting continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. The Arctic region is warming more quickly than any other region due to climate change and Arctic sea ice is declining to record lows. Sparsity of atmospheric data from the Arctic leads to uncertainty in process comprehension, and atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) are understood to underestimate low cloud presence in the Arctic. Increased vertical resolution of meteorological properties and cloud measurements will improve process understanding and help AGCMs better characterize Arctic clouds. SNL is developing a tethered balloon system capable of regular operation at AMF3 in order to provide increased vertical resolution atmospheric data. The tethered balloon can be operated within clouds at altitudes up to 7,000' AGL within DOE's R-2204 restricted area. Pressure, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are recorded at multiple altitudes along the tether. These data were validated against stationary met tower data in Albuquerque, NM. The altitudes of the sensors were determined by GPS and calculated using a line counter and clinometer and compared. Wireless wetness sensors and supercooled liquid water content sensors have also been deployed and their data has been compared with other sensors. This presentation will provide an overview of the balloons, sensors, and test flights flown, and will provide a preliminary look at data from sensor validation campaigns and test flights.

  12. NRL tethered balloon measurements at San Nicolas Island during FIRE IFO 1987 (United States)

    Gerber, Hermann; Gathman, Stuart; James, Jeffrey; Smith, Mike; Consterdine, Ian; Brandeki, Scott


    An overview is given of the tethered balloon measurements made during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) marine stratocumulus intensive field observations (IFO) at San Nicolas Island in 1987. The instrument utilized on the balloon flights, the 17 flights over a 10 day period, the state of the data analysis, and some preliminary results are described. A goal of the measurements with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) balloon was to give a unique and greatly improved look at the microphysics of the clear and cloud-topped boundary layer. For this goal, collocated measurements were made of turbulence, aerosol, cloud particles, and meteorology. Two new instruments which were expected to make significant contributions to this effort were the saturation hygrometer, capable of measuring 95 percent less than RH 105 percent (with an accuracy of 0.05 percent near 100 percent) and used for the first time in clouds; and the forward scatter meter which gives in situ LWC measurements at more than 10 Hz. The data set, while unfortunately only partially simultaneous with the bulk of the FIRE stratocumulus observations, is unique and worthwhile in its own right. For the first time accurate RH measurements near 100 percent have been made in-cloud; although, the use of the saturation hygrometer reflected a learning experience which will result is substantially better performance the next time. These measurements were made in conjunction with other microphysical measurements such as aerosol and cloud droplet spectra, and perhaps most important of all, they were all collocated with bivane turbulence measurements thus permitting flux calculations. Thus the analysis of this data set, which consisted of about 50 percent stratocumulus cases including increasing and decreasing partial cloud cover, should lead to new insights on the physical mechanisms which drive the boundary-layer/cloud/turbulence system.

  13. Application of Electrocautery Needle Knife Combined with Balloon Dilatation versus Balloon Dilatation in the Treatment of Tracheal Fibrotic Scar Stenosis. (United States)

    Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Chen, Min; Mu, Deguang; Jin, Faguang

    Electrocautery needle knives can largely reduce scar and granulation tissue hyperplasia and play an important role in treating patients with benign stricture. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation versus balloon dilatation alone in the treatment of tracheal stenosis caused by tracheal intubation or tracheotomy. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 43 patients with tracheal stenosis caused by tracheotomy or tracheal intubation in our department from January 2013 to January 2016. Among these 43 patients, 23 had simple web-like stenosis and 20 had complex steno sis. All patients were treated under general anaesthesia, and the treatment methods were (1) balloon dilatation alone, (2) needle knife excision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation, and (3) needle knife radial incision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation. After treatment the symptoms, such as shortness of breath, were markedly improved immediately in all cases. The stenosis degree of patients who were treated with the elec-trocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation had better improvement compared with that of those treated with balloon dilatation treatment alone after 3 months (0.45 ± 0.04 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05, p knife combined with balloon dilatation is an effective and safe treatment for tracheal fibrotic stenosis compared with balloon dilatation alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Original monitoring of desert dust in African air masses transported over the Mediterranean Sea by quasi-Lagrangian drifting balloons and sounding balloons during the summer 2013 ChArMEx field campaign (United States)

    Dulac, F.; Renard, J. B.; Durand, P.; Denjean, C.; Bourgeois, Q.; Vignelles, D.; Jeannot, M.; Mallet, M.; Verdier, N.


    This study focuses on in situ balloon-borne measurements of mineral dust from summer regional field campaigns in the western Mediterranean basin performed in the framework of ChArMEx (the Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; see special issue Due to long-range transport from Africa, the lower troposphere over this regional sea is subject to high levels of desert dust with a maximum during the long dry and sunny Mediterranean summer season. Based on developments of boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPBs) and of a dedicated optical particle counter named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter/sizer), we were able to perform original quasi-Lagrangian monitoring of desert dust aerosols over the sea. The strategy combined classical sounding balloons and drifting BLPBs to document both the vertical distribution and long-range transport. A total of 27 LOAC flights were successfully conducted from Minorca Isl. (Spain) or Levant Isl. (France), during 4 Saharan dust transport events, including 10 flights with BLPBs at drifting altitudes between 2.0 and 3.3 km above sea level. The longest flight exceeded 700 km and lasted more than 25 h. Numerous tests and validations of LOAC measurements were performed to qualify the instrument, including comparisons with concurrent airborne measurements, sounding balloons, and remote sensing measurements with an AERONET sun-photometer, and a ground-based and the CALIOP lidar systems. Aerosol optical depths in the balloon vicinity did not exceed about 0.4 but the presence of turbid dust layers was confirmed thanks to dual scattering angle measurements by LOAC allowing the identification of dust particles. LOAC data could generally be fitted by a 3-mode lognormal distribution at roughly 0.2, 4 and 30 µm in modal diameter. Up to about 10-4 dust particles larger than 40 µm per cm3 are reported and no significant evolution of the size distribution was observed during the

  15. Elemental Spectra from the CREAM-I Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Hoseok; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Boyle, P J; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S; Nutter, S; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Swordy, S; Wakely, S P; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y


    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays of charge Z = 1 to 26 up to an energy of ∼1015 eV. CREAM had two successful flights on long-duration balloons (LDB) launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2004 and December 2005. CREAM achieves a substantial measurement redundancy by employing multiple detector systems, namely a Timing Charge Detector (TCD), a Silicon Charge Detector (SCD), and a Cherenkov Detector (CD) for particle identification, and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and a sampling tungsten/scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter (CAL) for energy measurement. In this paper, preliminary energy spectra of various elements measured with CAL/SCD during the first 42-day flight are presented.

  16. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sheshagiri Rao


    Full Text Available Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate?

  17. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon. (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva


    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrograde transurethral balloon dilation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Wasserman, N.F.; Lund, G.; Hulbert, J.; Hunter, D.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.


    A series of patients with documented benign prostatic hypertrophy evaluated by urodynamic studies, voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, and MR imaging underwent dilation performed using a retrograde transurethral approach with 25-mm balloon dilators inflated at a pressure of 3-4 atm for 10 minutes. Immediately after the procedure, retrograde and voiding cystourethrography as well as MR imaging were performed. A Foley catheter was left in place for 24 hours. Complete relief of symptoms has occurred in all of the patients during the follow-up period. No significant complications other than transient hematuria resulted from the procedure. Results of the comparison studies and of MR imaging are discussed

  19. Untangling the methane chemistry in interstellar and solar system ices toward ionizing radiation: a combined infrared and reflectron time-of-flight analysis. (United States)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J; Jones, Brant M; Kaiser, Ralf I


    Pure methane (CH 4 /CD 4 ) ices were exposed to three ionizing radiation sources at 5.5 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to compare the complex hydrocarbon spectrum produced across several interstellar environments. These irradiation sources consisted of energetic electrons to simulate secondary electrons formed in the track of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), Lyman α (10.2 eV; 121.6 nm) photons simulated the internal VUV field in a dense cloud, and broadband (112.7-169.8 nm; 11.0-7.3 eV) photons which mimic the interstellar ultra-violet field. The in situ chemical evolution of the ices was monitored via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and during heating via mass spectrometry utilizing a quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electron impact ionization source (EI-QMS) and a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a photoionization source (PI-ReTOF-MS). The FTIR analysis detected six small hydrocarbon products from the three different irradiation sources: propane [C 3 H 8 (C 3 D 8 )], ethane [C 2 H 6 (C 2 D 6 )], the ethyl radical [C 2 H 5 (C 2 D 5 )], ethylene [C 2 H 4 (C 2 D 4 )], acetylene [C 2 H 2 (C 2 D 2 )], and the methyl radical [CH 3 (CD 3 )]. The sensitive PI-ReTOF-MS analysis identified a complex array of products with different products being detected between experiments with general formulae: C n H 2n+2 (n = 4-8), C n H 2n (n = 3-9), C n H 2n-2 (n = 3-9), C n H 2n-4 (n = 4-9), and C n H 2n-6 (n = 6-7) from electron irradiation and C n H 2n+2 (n = 4-8), C n H 2n (n = 3-10), C n H 2n-2 (n = 3-11), C n H 2n-4 (n = 4-11), C n H 2n-6 (n = 5-11), and C n H 2n-8 (n = 6-11) from broadband photolysis and Lyman α photolysis. These experiments show that even the simplest hydrocarbon can produce important complex hydrocarbons such as C 3 H 4 and C 4 H 6 isomers. Distinct isomers from these groups have been shown to be important reactants in the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like indene (C 9 H 8 ) and naphthalene (C 10 H 8

  20. Simultaneous stent expansion/balloon deflation technique to salvage failed balloon remodeling. (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Froehler, Michael T; Mocco, J


    Herniation, with possible embolization, of coils into the parent vessel following aneurysm coiling remains a frequent challenge. For this reason, balloon or stent assisted embolization remains an important technique. Despite the use of balloon remodeling, there are occasions where, on deflation of the balloon, some coils, or even the entire coil mass, may migrate. We report the successful use of a simultaneous adjacent stent deployment bailout technique in order to salvage coil prolapse during balloon remodeling in three patients. Case No 1 was a wide neck left internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm, measuring 9 mm×7.9 mm×6 mm with a 5 mm neck. Case No 2 was a complex left superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm, measuring 5.3 mm×4 mm×5 mm with a 2.9 mm neck. Case No 3 was a ruptured right posterior communicating artery aneurysm, measuring 4 mm×4 mm×4.5 mm with a 4 mm neck. This technique successfully returned the prolapsed coil mass into the aneurysm sac in all cases without procedural complications. The closed cell design of the Enterprise VRD (Codman and Shurtleff Inc, Raynham, Massachusetts, USA) makes it ideal for this bailout technique, by allowing the use of an 0.021 inch delivery catheter (necessary for simultaneous access) and by avoiding the possibility of an open cell strut getting caught on the deflated balloon. We hope this technique will prove useful to readers who may find themselves in a similar predicament. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. Arc-Second Pointer for Balloon-Borne Astronomical Instrument (United States)

    Ward, Philip R.; DeWeese, Keith


    A control system has been designed to keep a balloon-borne scientific instrument pointed toward a celestial object within an angular error of the order of an arc second. The design is intended to be adaptable to a large range of instrument payloads. The initial payload to which the design nominally applies is considered to be a telescope, modeled as a simple thin-walled cylinder 24 ft (approx.= 7.3 m) long, 3 ft (approx.= 0.91 m) in diameter, weighing 1,500 lb (having a mass of .680 kg). The instrument would be mounted on a set of motor-driven gimbals in pitch-yaw configuration. The motors on the gimbals would apply the control torques needed for fine adjustments of the instrument in pitch and yaw. The pitch-yaw mount would, in turn, be suspended from a motor mount at the lower end of a pair of cables hanging down from the balloon (see figure). The motor in this mount would be used to effect coarse azimuth control of the pitch-yaw mount. A notable innovation incorporated in the design is a provision for keeping the gimbal bearings in constant motion. This innovation would eliminate the deleterious effects of static friction . something that must be done in order to achieve the desired arc-second precision. Another notable innovation is the use of linear accelerometers to provide feedback that would facilitate the early detection and counteraction of disturbance torques before they could integrate into significant angular-velocity and angular-position errors. The control software processing the sensor data would be capable of distinguishing between translational and rotational accelerations. The output of the accelerometers is combined with that of angular position and angular-velocity sensors into a proportional + integral + derivative + acceleration control law for the pitch and yaw torque motors. Preliminary calculations have shown that with appropriate gains, the power demand of the control system would be low enough to be satisfiable by means of storage

  2. External caps: An approach to stress reduction in balloons (United States)

    Hazlewood, K. H.

    Recent findings of the catastrophic balloon failures investigation in the U.S.A. indicate that very large gross inflations, in balloons using present design philosophy, over-stress currently available materials. External caps are proposed as an economic approach to reducting those stresses to an acceptable level.

  3. Paraspinal arteriovenous malformation Onyx embolization via an Ascent balloon. (United States)

    Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Rodriguez-Arias, Carlos A; Utiel, Elena; Arreba, Emilio; Gonzalo, Miguel; Arenillas, Juan F


    Purely extradural lumbar spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that have diverse presentations and imaging features. The treatment of a symptomatic high flow paraspinal AVM with multiple feeders remains a challenge. We report the first use of an Ascent balloon (dual lumen balloon catheter) to deliver Onyx with excellent penetration to a paraspinal AVM.

  4. Balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumberge, J.F.


    The isotopic compositions of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen have been measured at energies near 300 MeV amu -1 , using a balloon-borne instrument at an atmospheric depth of approx. 5 g cm -2 . The calibrations of the detectors comprising the instrument are described. The saturation properties of the cesium iodide scintillators used for measurement of particle energy are studied in the context of analyzing the data for mass. The achieved rms mass resolution varies from approx. 0.3 amu at boron to approx. 0.5 amu at nitrogen, consistent with a theoretical analysis of the contributing factors. A model of galactic propagation and solar modulation is described. Assuming a cosmic ray source composition of solar-like isotopic abundances, the model predicts abundances near earth consistent with the measurements

  5. Correlation Of Terrestrial gamma flashes, Electric fields, and Lightning strikes (COTEL) in thunderstorms using networked balloon payloads developed by university and community college students (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Blair, D.; Causey, J.; Collins, J.; Davis, A.; Fernandez-Kim, V.; Kennedy, J.; Pate, N.; Kearney, C.; Schayer, C.; Turk, E.; Cherry, M. L.; Fava, C.; Granger, D.; Stewart, M.; Guzik, T. G.


    High energy gamma ray flashes from terrestrial sources have been observed by satellites for decades, but the actual mechanism, assumed to be thunderstorm lightning, has yet to be fully characterized. The goal of COTEL, funded by NASA through the University Student Instrument Project (USIP) program, is to correlate in time TGF events, lightning strikes, and electric fields inside of thunderstorms. This will be accomplished using a small network of balloon-borne payloads suspended in and around thunderstorm environments. The payloads will detect and timestamp gamma radiation bursts, lightning strikes, and the intensity of localized electric fields. While in flight, data collected by the payloads will be transmitted to a ground station in real-time and will be analyzed post-flight to investigate potential correlations between lightning, TGFs, and electric fields. The COTEL student team is in its second year of effort having spent the first year developing the basic balloon payloads and ground tracking system. Currently the team is focusing on prototype electric field and gamma radiation detectors. Testing and development of these systems will continue into 2018, and flight operations will take place during the spring 2018 Louisiana thunderstorm season. The presentation, led by undergraduate Physics student Brad Landry, will cover the student team effort in developing the COTEL system, an overview of the system architecture, balloon flight tests conducted to date, preliminary results from prototype detectors, lessons learned for student-led science projects, and future plans.

  6. Steady state model for the thermal regimes of shells of airships and hot air balloons (United States)

    Luchev, Oleg A.


    A steady state model of the temperature regime of airships and hot air balloons shells is developed. The model includes three governing equations: the equation of the temperature field of airships or balloons shell, the integral equation for the radiative fluxes on the internal surface of the shell, and the integral equation for the natural convective heat exchange between the shell and the internal gas. In the model the following radiative fluxes on the shell external surface are considered: the direct and the earth reflected solar radiation, the diffuse solar radiation, the infrared radiation of the earth surface and that of the atmosphere. For the calculations of the infrared external radiation the model of the plane layer of the atmosphere is used. The convective heat transfer on the external surface of the shell is considered for the cases of the forced and the natural convection. To solve the mentioned set of the equations the numerical iterative procedure is developed. The model and the numerical procedure are used for the simulation study of the temperature fields of an airship shell under the forced and the natural convective heat transfer.

  7. The ballooning of fuel cladding tubes: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewfelt, R.S.W.


    Under some conditions, fuel clad ballooning can result in considerable strain before rupture. If ballooning were to occur during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the resulting substantial blockage of the sub-channel would restrict emergency core cooling. However, circumferential temperature gradients that would occur during a LOCA may significantly limit the average strain at failure. Understandably, the factors that control ballooning and rupture of fuel clad are required for the analysis of a LOCA. Considerable international effort has been spent on studying the deformation of Zircaloy fuel cladding under conditions that would occur during a LOCA. This effort has established a reasonable understanding of the factors that control the ballooning, failure time, and average failure strain of fuel cladding. In this paper, both the experimental and theoretical studies of the fuel clad ballooning are reviewed. (author)

  8. Balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guoping; Yu Juming; Zhong Weixing; Zhu Ming; Wu Yeming; Shi Chengren


    Objective: To evaluate the methods and effect of balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children. Methods: 9 cases had an anastomotic stenosis after surgical correction of esophageal atresia; 11 cases of esophageal stenosis due to ingestion of caustics; one case had an lower esophageal stenosis after Nissen surgery and one case after gastro-esophagoplasty. Age ranged from 17 days to 7 years. Each case had a barium esophagram before balloon dilation. The balloon size varied from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Results: 21 cases were successful after dilation of balloon catheter. There were no esophageal perforation and complications. The satisfactory results maintained from six months to thirty months. Conclusions: Balloon catheter dilation is a simple, safe and reliable method for the treatment of benign esophageal strictures in children as the first choice

  9. A Rare and Serious Unforeseen Complication of Cutting Balloon Angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vemula


    Full Text Available Cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA is one of the adept ways of treating “in-stent restenosis.” Various complications related to cutting balloon angioplasty have been reported including arterial rupture, delayed perforation and fracture of microsurgical blades. Here we report a very unusual and inadvertent extraction of a stent previously deployed in the ramus intermedius coronary branch by a cutting balloon catheter. This required repeat stenting of the same site for an underlying dissection. Even though stent extraction is a rare complication it can be serious due to dissection, perforation, and closure of the artery. Physicians performing coronary artery interventions would need to be aware of this rare and serious complication especially if any difficulty is encountered while withdrawing the cutting balloon. Therefore, after removal, cutting balloon should be examined thoroughly for possible stent dislodgment or extraction when used for “in-stent restenosis.”

  10. Spectrum of the ballooning Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.


    The ballooning Schroedinger equation (BSE) is a model equation for investigating global modes that can, when approximated by a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) ansatz, be described by a ballooning formalism locally to a field line. This second order differential equation with coefficients periodic in the independent variable θ k is assumed to apply even in cases where simple WKB quantization conditions break down, thus providing an alternative to semiclassical quantization. Also, it provides a test bed for developing more advanced WKB methods: e.g. the apparent discontinuity between quantization formulae for open-quotes trappedclose quotes and open-quotes passingclose quotes modes, whose ray paths have different topologies, is removed by extending the WKB method to include the phenomena of tunnelling and reflection. The BSE is applied to instabilities with shear in the real part of the local frequency, so that the dispersion relation is inherently complex. As the frequency shear is increased, it is found that trapped modes go over to passing modes, reducing the maximum growth rate by averaging over θ k

  11. New Heights with High-Altitude Balloon Launches for Effective Student Learning and Environmental Awareness (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Dailey, J. F.; Takehara, D.; Krueger, J. M.


    Over a seven-year period Taylor University, an undergraduate liberal art school, has successfully launched and recovered over 200 sophisticated student payloads to altitudes between 20-33 km (100% success with rapid recovery) with flight times between 2 to 6 hrs. All of the payloads included two GPS tracking systems, cameras and monitors, a 110 kbit down link, an uplink command capability for educational experiments (K-12 and undergrad). Launches were conducted during the day and night, with multiple balloons, with up to 10 payloads for experiments, and under varying weather and upper atmospheric conditions. The many launches in a short period of time allowed the payload bus design to evolve toward increased performance, reliability, standardization, simplicity, and modularity for low-cost launch services. Through NSF and NASA grants, the program has expanded leading to over 50 universities trained at workshops to implement high altitude balloon launches in the classroom. A spin-off company (StraoStar Systems LLC) now sells the high-altitude balloon system and facilitates networking between schools. This high-altitude balloon program helps to advance knowledge and understanding across disciplines by giving students and faculty rapid and low-cost access to earth/ecology remote sensing from high altitude, insitu and limb atmospheric measurements, near-space stratosphere measurements, and IR/UV/cosmic ray access to the heavens. This new capability is possible by exposing students to recent advances in MEMS technology, nanotechnology, wireless telecommunication systems, GPS, DSPs and other microchip miniaturizations to build collaboration among science faculty, and provides quantitative assessment of the learning outcomes. Furthermore this program has generated many front page news reports along with significant TV coverage because of its connection to hands-on learning for students and adults of all ages, connection to understanding climate change and ways to mitigate

  12. Are drug-coated balloons cost effective for femoropopliteal occlusive disease? A comparison of bare metal stents and uncoated balloons. (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Fisette, Jean-François


    To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to help hospital decision-makers with regard to the use of drug-coated balloons compared with bare metal stents and uncoated balloons for femoropopliteal occlusive disease. Clinical outcomes were extracted from the results of meta-analyses already published, and cost units are those used in the Quebec healthcare network. The literature review was limited to the last four years to obtain the most recent data. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on a 2-year perspective, and risk factors of reintervention were considered. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that drug-coated balloons were generally more efficient than bare metal stents, particularly for patients with higher risk of reintervention (up to CAD$1686 per patient TASC II C or D). Compared with uncoated balloons, results indicated that drug-coated balloons were more efficient if the reintervention rate associated with uncoated balloons is very high and for patients with higher risk of reintervention (up to CAD$3301 per patient). The higher a patient's risk of reintervention, the higher the savings associated with the use of a drug-coated balloon will be. For patients at lower risk, the uncoated balloon strategy is still recommended as a first choice for endovascular intervention.

  13. Solar research and photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.


    The first photograph of a solar eclipse was taken as early as 1887. Since that time, the phenomena taking place on the sun have not only been observed through telescopes, they have also been photographed using the most various methods. Apart from black-and-white pictures and colour photographs, there are also X-ray solar photographs, radio pictures, spectroheliograms, digital photographs, etc. To overcome the atmospheric barrier, balloons and rockets have been used, and since the beginning of space research satellites help to take photographs of the sun. These photographs of the sun help the astronomes to get a better understanding of the phenomena going on at the sun and to come to more precise conclusions as far as their influences on the earth are concerned. (author)

  14. All about Flight. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape]. (United States)


    Up, up and away! A hot air balloon, an airplane and even the space shuttle all defy the force of gravity, but they all do it in different ways. Children will learn about the basic concepts that make flight possible. With clear demonstrations and a hands-on project, students will be able to understand more easily the basic concepts behind various…

  15. An Undergraduate-Built Prototype Altitude Determination System (PADS) for High Altitude Research Balloons. (United States)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Abot, J.; Casarotto, V.; Dichoso, J.; Doody, E.; Esteves, F.; Morsch Filho, E.; Gonteski, D.; Lamos, M.; Leo, A.; Mulder, N.; Matubara, F.; Schramm, P.; Silva, R.; Quisberth, J.; Uritsky, G.; Kogut, A.; Lowe, L.; Mirel, P.; Lazear, J.


    In this project a multi-disciplinary undergraduate team from CUA, comprising majors in Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Biology, design, build, test, fly, and analyze the data from a prototype attitude determination system (PADS). The goal of the experiment is to determine if an inexpensive attitude determination system could be built for high altitude research balloons using MEMS gyros. PADS is a NASA funded project, built by students with the cooperation of CUA faculty, Verner, Bruhweiler, and Abot, along with the contributed expertise of researchers and engineers at NASA/GSFC, Kogut, Lowe, Mirel, and Lazear. The project was initiated through a course taught in CUA's School of Engineering, which was followed by a devoted effort by students during the summer of 2014. The project is an experiment to use 18 MEMS gyros, similar to those used in many smartphones, to produce an averaged positional error signal that could be compared with the motion of the fixed optical system as recorded through a string of optical images of stellar fields to be stored on a hard drive flown with the experiment. The optical system, camera microprocessor, and hard drive are enclosed in a pressure vessel, which maintains approximately atmospheric pressure throughout the balloon flight. The experiment uses multiple microprocessors to control the camera exposures, record gyro data, and provide thermal control. CUA students also participated in NASA-led design reviews. Four students traveled to NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas to integrate PADS into a large balloon gondola containing other experiments, before being shipped, then launched in mid-August at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The payload is to fly at a float altitude of 40-45,000 m, and the flight last approximately 15 hours. The payload is to return to earth by parachute and the retrieved data are to be analyzed by CUA undergraduates. A description of the instrument is presented

  16. Effect of intra-aortic balloon pump on coronary blood flow during different balloon cycles support: A computer study. (United States)

    Aye, Thin Pa Pa; Htet, Zwe Lin; Singhavilai, Thamvarit; Naiyanetr, Phornphop


    Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been used in clinical treatment as a mechanical circulatory support device for patients with heart failure. A computer model is used to study the effect on coronary blood flow (CBF) with different balloon cycles under both normal and pathological conditions. The model of cardiovascular and IABP is developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK. The effect on coronary blood flow has been studied under both normal and pathological conditions using different balloon cycles (balloon off; 1:4; 1:2; 1:1). A pathological heart is implemented by reducing the left ventricular contractility. The result of this study shows that the rate of balloon cycles is related to the level of coronary blood flow.

  17. A Solar Sailcraft Simulation Application (United States)

    Celeda, Tomáš


    An application was created to encourage students' practical knowledge of gravitational fields, the law of conservation of energy and other phenomena, such as gravitational slingshots. The educational software simulates the flight of a solar sail spacecraft between two planets of the Solar System using the laws of gravity and radiation…

  18. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Flight Mission (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.


    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 N, 104.2 W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  19. Flight Experiments for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS-SET): Relationship to Technology (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana A.


    This viewgraph presentation provides information on flight validation experiments for technologies to determine solar effects. The experiments are intended to demonstrate tolerance to a solar variant environment. The technologies tested are microelectronics, photonics, materials, and sensors.

  20. Spatial distribution of meteorological parameters around 900 hPa level over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean regions during the IFP-99 of the INDOEX programme as revealed from the constant altitude balloon experiments conducted from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Appu, K.S.; Nair, S.M.; Kunhikrishnan, P.K.; Moorthy, K.K.; Sarode, P.R.; Rao, L.V.G.; Bajpai, S.R.; Prakash, L.H.; Viswanathan, G.; Mitra, A.P.; Sadourny, R.; Basdevant, C.; Ethe, C.; Ovarlez, H.; Chapuis, R.; Dartiguelongue, B.; Vianeys, P.

    of the payload Operational life Electric power Helium ~ 900 hPa 100?5hPa 1350?20g ~3kg ~3kg Several days to a week Lithium batteries INDIAN OCEAN EXPERIMENT duct such experiments as was demonstrated from the balloon flights carried out during the FFP-98...

  1. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianguo; Song Jinwen; Yang Yan; Liu Xiaohong; Fu Zhiming; Zhang Yaqin


    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  2. Rectal Balloon for the Immobilization of the Prostate Internal Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Beak, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Jeon, Byong Chul; Cho, Jeong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Tae Soo; Cho, Jae Ho; Na, Soo Kyong


    The using of endo-rectal balloon has proposed as optimal method that minimized the motion of prostate and the dose of rectum wall volume for treated prostate cancer patients, so we make the customized rectal balloon device. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of the Self-customized rectal balloon in the aspects of its reproducibility. In 5 patients, for treatment planning, each patient was acquired CT slice images in state of with and without rectal balloon. Also they had CT scanning same repeated third times in during radiation treatment (IMRT). In each case, we analyzed the deviation of rectal balloon position and verified the isodose distribution of rectum wall at closed prostate. Using the rectal balloon, we minimized the planning target volume (PTV) by decreased the internal motion of prostate and overcome the dose limit of radiation therapy in prostate cancer by increased the gap between the rectum wall and high dose region. The using of rectal balloon, although, was reluctant to treat by patients. View a point of immobilization of prostate internal motion and dose escalation of GTV (gross tumor volume), its using consider large efficient for treated prostate cancer patients.

  3. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.


    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  4. Ballooning modes on open magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.


    The ballooning instability on open magnetic field lines is given a thorough mathematical analysis. It is shown that resistive bounding ends (endplates) induce the same stability properties as insulating ends. When unstable, the maximal growth rate increases monotonically with boundary resistivity. An interchange instability may be present, and one necessary condition for its stability is that ∫dl/B be constant on pressure surfaces. (This is an equilibrium existence condition for systems with closed magnetic field lines.) Another necessary condition for interchange stability has the same form as in the closed line case. Precise necessary and sufficient stability criteria are given for various types of bounding ends, including insulating, resistive, and perfectly conducting. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Balloon-tipped flow-directed catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, P.; Swan, H.J.C.; Ganz, W.


    Diagnostic catheterization of the right side of the heart with semirigid cardiac catheters requires fluoroscopic guidance and substantial skill. Abnormal positions of the heart chambers and of the great vessels associated with cardiac dilatation or with congenital malformation present difficulties even to experienced laboratory cardiologists. These problems have been largely overcome by the introduction of balloon tipped flow directed catheters, which allow for rapid and relatively safe catheterization of the pulmonary artery without fluoroscopy. It was through the application of these catheters in the intensive care unit that the many pitfalls in the clinical assessment of hemodynamic disturbances became apparent. Although S3 gallop sounds may be useful in the clinical recognition of chronic ventricular failure, their presence or absence has limited predictive value in estimating left ventricular filling pressure in myocardial infarction. Information derived from right heart catheterization is often pivotal in the evaluation of hemodynamic disorders, in directing treatment, and in monitoring the results of therapy in critically ill patients

  6. Ballooning instabilities in toroidally linked mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastie, R.J.; Watson, C.J.H.


    This paper examines the stability against ballooning modes of plasma equilibria in toroidally linked mirror configurations consisting of a number of quadrupole minimum-B mirrors linked toroidally. On the basis of the Kruskal-Oberman energy principle, a class of displacements is identified which are potentially unstable, and a necessary criterion for stability is derived. The criterion is obtained from the eigenvalues of an ordinary differential equation, which determines the variation of the displacement along a field line. The coefficients in the equation are determined by the configuration, and by inserting various model configurations, estimates are obtained of the maximum value of β consistent with stability. In cases of interest, quite high β-values are obtained. (author)

  7. N-dependence of ballooning instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Manickam, J.; Grimm, R.C.; Chance, M.S.


    The critical β for stability against ideal hydromagnetic internal ballooning modes as a function of toroidal mode number, n, is calculated for two different equilibrium sequences by use of a finite element technique (n less than or equal to 20), and a WKB formalism (n greater than or equal to 5). The agreement between the two methods is good in the overlap region 5 approx.less than or equal to n approx. less than or equal to 20. The WKB formula reduces to the 1/n correction at very high n, but is much more accurate at moderate n. The critical β vs n curves exhibit oscillatory structure at low n, but in both sequences the lower bound on β/sub c/ approx. 5%. For reactor parameters, finite Larmor radius effects are not expected to have a large effect on this β-limitation

  8. Percutaneous balloon dilatation for transplant ureteral strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Taechun (Korea, Republic of); Banner, Marc P [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)


    We report 10 kidney allografted patients treated for 11 ureteral strictures with standard endourlogic balloon catheter dilatation and internal stenting between August 1979 and December 1991. They have been followed until 2 to 140 months (mean 42). We compared and analyzed the 6 successful strictures (54%) and 5 unsuccessful strictures. There was no statistically significant difference of demographic, clinical and radiologic interventional techniques between two groups. But there was slightly higher success rate in abruptly narrowed shorter fibrotic strictures in ureteroneocystomy sites than smoothly taped longer ones in other sites of the ureter. Longterm stenting by the transplantation team with cystoscopic removal of internal ureteral stents by urologists resulted in 3 cases of stent occlusion, encrustation or fracture. Exact early diagnosis of ureteral stricture with continued close follow up and proper radiologic interventional procedure with optimal stenting period may increase the success rate and still provide an alternative to surgery.

  9. Angiographic assessment of initial balloon angioplasty results. (United States)

    Gardiner, Geoffrey A; Sullivan, Kevin L; Halpern, Ethan J; Parker, Laurence; Beck, Margaret; Bonn, Joseph; Levin, David C


    To determine the influence of three factors involved in the angiographic assessment of balloon angioplasty-interobserver variability, operator bias, and the definition used to determine success-on the primary (technical) results of angioplasty in the peripheral arteries. Percent stenosis in 107 lesions in lower-extremity arteries was graded by three independent, experienced vascular radiologists ("observers") before and after balloon angioplasty and their estimates were compared with the initial interpretations reported by the physician performing the procedure ("operator") and an automated quantitative computer analysis. Observer variability was measured with use of intraclass correlation coefficients and SD. Differences among the operator, observers, and the computer were analyzed with use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and analysis of variance. For each evaluator, the results in this series of lesions were interpreted with three different definitions of success. Estimation of residual stenosis varied by an average range of 22.76% with an average SD of 8.99. The intraclass correlation coefficients averaged 0.59 for residual stenosis after angioplasty for the three observers but decreased to 0.36 when the operator was included as the fourth evaluator. There was good to very good agreement among the three independent observers and the computer, but poor correlation with the operator (P definition of success was used. Significant differences among the operator, the three observers, and the computer were not present when the definition of success was based on less than 50% residual stenosis. Observer variability and bias in the subjective evaluation of peripheral angioplasty can have a significant influence on the reported initial success rates. This effect can be largely eliminated with the use of residual stenosis of less than 50% to define success. Otherwise, meaningful evaluation of angioplasty results will require independent panels of evaluators or

  10. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)


    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  11. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Caly, A.


    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  12. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E.; Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L.


    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  13. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  14. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog. (United States)

    Treseder, Julia R; Jung, SeungWoo


    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented.

  15. Science Flight Program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (United States)

    Boggs, Steven

    This is the lead proposal for this program. We are proposing a 5-year program to perform the scientific flight program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), consisting of a series of three (3) scientific balloon flights. NCT is a balloon-borne, wide-field telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky (0.2-5 MeV), performing high-resolution spectroscopy, wide-field imaging, and polarization measurements. NCT has been rebuilt as a ULDB payload under the current 2-year APRA grant. (In that proposal we stated our goal was to return at this point to propose the scientific flight program.) The NCT rebuild/upgrade is on budget and schedule to achieve flight-ready status in Fall 2013. Science: NCT will map the Galactic positron annihilation emission, shedding more light on the mysterious concentration of this emission uncovered by INTEGRAL. NCT will survey Galactic nucleosynthesis and the role of supernova and other stellar populations in the creation and evolution of the elements. NCT will map 26-Al and positron annihilation with unprecedented sensitivity and uniform exposure, perform the first mapping of 60-Fe, search for young, hidden supernova remnants through 44-Ti emission, and enable a host of other nuclear astrophysics studies. NCT will also study compact objects (in our Galaxy and AGN) and GRBs, providing novel measurements of polarization as well as detailed spectra and light curves. Design: NCT is an array of germanium gamma-ray detectors configured in a compact, wide-field Compton telescope configuration. The array is shielded on the sides and bottom by an active anticoincidence shield but is open to the 25% of the sky above for imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The instrument is mounted on a zenith-pointed gondola, sweeping out ~50% of the sky each day. This instrument builds off the Compton telescope technique pioneered by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. However, by utilizing modern germanium semiconductor strip detectors

  16. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for δ13C and 119 samples for δD, increasing the previously published dataset for balloon borne samples by an order of magnitude, and more than doubling the total available stratospheric data (including aircraft samples published to date. The samples also cover a large range in mixing ratio from tropospheric values near 1800 ppb down to only 250 ppb, and the strong isotope fractionation processes accordingly increase the isotopic composition up to δ13C = −14‰ and δD = +190‰, the largest enrichments observed for atmospheric CH4 so far. When analyzing and comparing kinetic isotope effects (KIEs derived from single balloon profiles, it is necessary to take into account the residence time in the stratosphere in combination with the observed mixing ratio and isotope trends in the troposphere, and the range of isotope values covered by the individual profile. The isotopic composition of CH4 in the stratosphere is affected by both chemical and dynamical processes. This severely hampers interpretation of the data in terms of the relative fractions of the three important sink mechanisms (reaction with OH, O(1D and Cl. It is shown that a formal sink partitioning using the measured data severely underestimates the fraction removed by OH, which is likely due to the insensitivity of the measurements to the kinetic fractionation in the lower stratosphere. Full quantitative interpretation of the CH4 isotope data in terms of the three sink reactions requires a global model.

  17. Radiations and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.


    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  18. Development of a New Coaxial Balloon Catheter System for Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoue, Shuichi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Matsumoto, Shunro; Hori, Yuzo; Okahara, Mika; Kashiwagi, Junji; Mori, Hiromu


    Purpose. To develop a new coaxial balloon catheter system and evaluate its clinical feasibility for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Methods. A coaxial balloon catheter system was constructed with 9 Fr guiding balloon catheter and 5 Fr balloon catheter. A 5 Fr catheter has a high flexibility and can be coaxially inserted into the guiding catheter in advance. The catheter balloons are made of natural rubber and can be inflated to 2 cm (guiding) and 1 cm (5 Fr) maximum diameter. Between July 2003 and April 2005, 8 consecutive patients (6 men, 2 women; age range 33-72 years, mean age 55.5 years) underwent B-RTO using the balloon catheter system. Five percent ethanolamine oleate iopamidol (EOI) was used as sclerosing agent. The procedures, including maneuverability of the catheter, amount of injected sclerosing agent, necessity for coil embolization of collateral draining veins, and initial clinical results, were evaluated retrospectively. The occlusion rate was assessed by postcontrast CT within 2 weeks after B-RTO. Results. The balloon catheter could be advanced into the proximal potion of the gastrorenal shunt beyond the collateral draining vein in all cases. The amount of injected EOI ranged from 3 to 34 ml. Coil embolization of the collateral draining vein was required in 2 cases. Complete obliteration of gastric varices on initial follow-up CT was obtained in 7 cases. The remaining case required re-treatment that resulted in complete obstruction of the varices after the second B-RTO. No procedure-related complications were observed. Conclusion. B-RTO using the new coaxial balloon catheter is feasible. Gastric varices can be treated more simply by using this catheter system

  19. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells. For...

  20. Detection of organic compound signatures in infra-red, limb emission spectra observed by the MIPAS-B2 balloon instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Remedios


    Full Text Available Organic compounds play a central role in troposphere chemistry and increasingly are a viable target for remote sensing observations. In this paper, infra-red spectral features of three organic compounds are investigated in thermal emission spectra recorded on a flight on 8 May 1998 near Aire sur l'Adour by a balloon-borne instrument, MIPAS-B2, operating at high spectral resolution. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that PAN and acetone can be detected in infra-red remote sensing spectra of the upper troposphere; detection results are presented at tangent altitudes of 10.4 km and 7.5 km (not acetone. In addition, the results provide the first observation of spectral features of formic acid in thermal emission, as opposed to solar occultation, and confirm that concentrations of this gas are measurable in the mid-latitude upper troposphere, given accurate spectroscopic data. For PAN, two bands are observed centred at 794 cm−1 and 1163 cm−1. For acetone and formic acid, one band has been detected for each so far with band centres at 1218 cm−1 and 1105 cm−1 respectively. Mixing ratios inferred at 10.4 km tangent altitude are 180 pptv and 530 pptv for PAN and acetone respectively, and 200 pptv for formic acid with HITRAN 2000 spectroscopy. Accuracies are on the order of 15 to 40%. The detection technique applied here is verified by examining weak but known signatures of CFC-12 and HCFC-22 in the same spectral regions as those of the organic compounds, with results confirming the quality of both the instrument and the radiative transfer model. The results suggest the possibility of global sensing of the organic compounds studied here which would be a major step forward in verifying and interpreting global tropospheric model calculations.

  1. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.; Bandler, S.; Murray, S.; Romaine, S.; Slane, P.; Grindlay, J.; Madden, N.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E.E.; Smith, D.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Christensen, F.; Ramsey, B.; Woosley, S.; Diehl, R.; Tucker, G.


    B-MINE is a concept for a balloon mission designed to probe the deepest regions of a supernova explosion by detecting 44 Ti emission at 68 keV with spatial and spectral resolutions that are sufficient to determine the extent and velocity distribution of the 44 Ti emitting region. The payload introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band. This combination provides a reduced background, an energy resolution of 50 eV and a 3σ sensitivity in 10 6 s of 3.3x10 -7 ph cm -2 s -1 at 68 keV. During the course of a long duration balloon flight, B-MINE could carry out a detailed study of the 44 Ti emission line centroid and width in CAS A

  2. Special considerations for qualifying thin films for super pressure pumpkin ultra long duration balloon missions (United States)

    Said, Magdi A.


    The assessment of creep and dynamic response behaviors on materials intended for ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) applications is essential. The first provides needed information for design and fabrication. The second ensures that the film is sufficiently tough to survive the dynamic events during launch and ascent. Characterization and assessment of these two important parameters are discussed in this paper. Visco-elastic behavior of materials in a loaded structure, such as the ULDB film change their geometry significantly over time under load causing possible changes in the load path and the stress distribution. These changes must be held in check to satisfy the functional requirements of the structure over its service life. Typically, the balloon experiences during its service life various environmental conditions each with a different creep response. These are characterized by a simplified load temperature history for the purpose of lifetime response assessment. At mid-latitudes a significant portion of the service life is spent at night, i.e., at low temperature and low load; for the ULDB film this night-time contribution to creep is negligible. By contrast, flight exposure in an Antarctic summer is at an almost constant high temperature and corresponding high pressure. This paper presents the creep behavior of the ULDB film as a function of load, temperature, and time along with an overview of its implementation in the design. In addition, it presents a quantitative assessment on the toughness of the material under dynamic "Snatch" loading.

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Corona (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. A battery-operated pilot balloon time-signal generator (United States)

    Ralph H. Moltzau


    Describes the design and construction of a 1-pound, battery-operated, time-signal transmitter, which is usable with portable radio or field telephone circuits for synchronizing multi-theodolite observation of pilot balloons.

  8. OCT evaluation of directional atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Lendel, Vasili; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet


    Directional atherectomy (DA) is one of the most commonly used modalities for the treatment of obstructive femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in patients with large and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of directional atherectomy to the vascular wall compared to balloon angioplasty by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been previously described. We present the first case of OCT after directional atherectomy with SilverHawk followed by angiosculpt balloon angioplasty. - Highlights: • Directional atherectomy avoids the vascular mechanical damage caused by angioplasty balloons and the exposure of stent struts or the potential of stent fracture with stents. • OCT can accurately assess the effect of endovacular interventions to the vessel wall. • Although angiographic results after directional atherectomy are acceptable, OCT use demonstrated suboptimal improvement of the MLA requiring additional balloon angioplasty. • Longer studies are needed to define whether the improved OCT results with angioplasty compared to DA may offer better clinical outcomes.

  9. OCT evaluation of directional atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos [Citizens Memorial Hospital Heart and Vascular Institute, Bolivar, MO (United States); Lendel, Vasili [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Koc University, School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Directional atherectomy (DA) is one of the most commonly used modalities for the treatment of obstructive femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in patients with large and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of directional atherectomy to the vascular wall compared to balloon angioplasty by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been previously described. We present the first case of OCT after directional atherectomy with SilverHawk followed by angiosculpt balloon angioplasty. - Highlights: • Directional atherectomy avoids the vascular mechanical damage caused by angioplasty balloons and the exposure of stent struts or the potential of stent fracture with stents. • OCT can accurately assess the effect of endovacular interventions to the vessel wall. • Although angiographic results after directional atherectomy are acceptable, OCT use demonstrated suboptimal improvement of the MLA requiring additional balloon angioplasty. • Longer studies are needed to define whether the improved OCT results with angioplasty compared to DA may offer better clinical outcomes.

  10. Ballooning stability analysis of JET H-mode discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.P.; Galvao, R.; Keilhacker, M.; Lazzaro, E.; Watkins, M.L.


    Previous studies of the stability of a large aspect ratio model equilibrium to ideal MHD ballooning modes have shown that across the bulk of the plasma there exist two marginally stable values of the pressure gradient parameter α. These define an unstable zone which separates the first (small α) stable region from the second (large α) stable region. Close to the separatrix, however, the first and second regions can coalesce when the surface averaged current density, Λ, exceeds a critical value. The plasma in this region is then stable to ballooning modes at all values of the pressure gradient. In this paper we extend these results to JET H-mode equilibria using a finite aspect ratio ballooning formalism, and assess the relevance of ideal ballooning stability in these discharges. In particular we analyse shot 15894 at time 56 sec. which is 1.3 s into the H-phase. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  11. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of ballooning modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.


    A ballooning mode equation that includes full finite Larmor radius effects has been derived from the Vlasov equation for a circular tokamak equilibrium. Numerical solution of this equation shows that finite Larmor radius effects are stabilizing

  12. Design Evolution and Methodology for Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloons (United States)

    Farley, Rodger

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program has had many technical development issues discovered and solved along its road to success as a new vehicle. It has the promise of being a sub-satellite, a means to launch up to 2700 kg to 33.5 km altitude for 100 days from a comfortable mid-latitude launch point. Current high-lift long duration ballooning is accomplished out of Antarctica with zero-pressure balloons, which cannot cope with the rigors of diurnal cycles. The ULDB design is still evolving, the product of intense analytical effort, scaled testing, improved manufacturing, and engineering intuition. The past technical problems, in particular the s-cleft deformation, their solutions, future challenges, and the methodology of pumpkin balloon design will generally be described.

  13. SMEX02 Balloon-borne Radiosonde Data, Iowa (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes radiosonde measurements of upper air temperature and pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed during the balloons' ascent to...

  14. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.


    Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The s-α diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, ω A =V A /qR. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Properties of ballooning modes in the Heliotron configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, N.; Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.


    The stability of ballooning modes is influenced by the local and global magnetic shear and local and global magnetic curvature so significantly that it is fairly difficult to get those general properties in the three dimensional configurations with strong flexibility due to the external coil system. In the case of the planar axis heliotron configurations allowing a large Shafranov shift, like LHD, properties of the high-mode-number ballooning modes have been intensively investigated. It has been analytically shown that the local magnetic shear comes to disappear in the stellarator-like global magnetic shear region, as the Shafranov shift becomes large. Based on this mechanism and the characteristics of the local and global magnetic curvature, it is numerically shown that the destabilized ballooning modes have strong three-dimensional properties (both poloidal and toroidal mode couplings) in the Mercier stable region, and that those are fairly similar to ballooning modes in the axisymmetric system in the Mercier unstable region. As is well known, however, no quantization condition is applicable to the ballooning modes in the three-dimensional system without symmetry, and so the results of the high-mode-number ballooning modes in the covering space had to be confirmed in the real space. Such a confirmation has been done in the Mercier stable region and also in the Mercier unstable region by using three dimensional linearized ideal MHD stability code cas3d. Confirming the relation between high-mode-number ballooning analyses by the global mode analyses, the method of the equilibrium profile variations has been developed in the tree dimensional system, giving dt/dψ - dP/dψ stability diagram corresponding to the s - α diagram in tokamaks. This method of profile variation are very powerful to investigate the second stability of high-mode-number ballooning modes and has been more developed. Recently it has been applied to the plasma in the inward-shifted LHD

  16. Criteria for Second Stability for Ballooning Modes in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.


    An expression determining how variations in the pressure-gradient and average magnetic shear affect ballooning stability for a stellarator equilibrium is presented. The procedure for determining the marginal stability boundaries, for each field line, depends only on the equilibrium and a single ballooning eigenfunction calculation. This information is sufficient to determine if increasing pressure-gradient is stabilizing or destabilizing and to predict whether the configuration possess a second stable region

  17. OCT evaluation of directional atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty. (United States)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Lendel, Vasili; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet


    Directional atherectomy (DA) is one of the most commonly used modalities for the treatment of obstructive femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in patients with large and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of directional atherectomy to the vascular wall compared to balloon angioplasty by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been previously described. We present the first case of OCT after directional atherectomy with SilverHawk followed by angiosculpt balloon angioplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.


    The effect of finite gyroradius on the current diffusive ballooning mode is examined. Starting from the reduced MHD equations including turbulent transports, coupling with drift motion and finite gyroradius effect of ions, we derive a ballooning mode equation with complex transport coefficients. The eigenfrequency, saturation level and thermal diffusivity are evaluated numerically from the marginal stability condition. Preliminary results of their parameter dependence is presented. (author)

  19. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog


    Treseder, Julia R.; Jung, SeungWoo


    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a...

  20. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System:. [Aerial Vehicle Reconnaissance and Exploration Options (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.


    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or helium 4 may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants. Outer planet atmospheric properties, atmospheric storm data, and mission planning for future outer planet UAVs are presented.

  1. An Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) to Develop New Instrument Technology to Study the Auroral Ionosphere and Stratospheric Ozone Layer Using Ultralight Balloon Payloads (United States)

    Nowling, M.; Ahmad, H.; Gamblin, R.; Guala, D.; Hermosillo, D.; Pina, M.; Marrero, E.; Canales, D. R. J.; Cao, J.; Ehteshami, A.; Bering, E. A., III; Lefer, B. L.; Dunbar, B.; Bias, C.; Shahid, S.


    This project is currently engaging twelve undergraduate students in the process of developing new technology and instrumentation for use in balloon borne geospace investigations in the auroral zone. Motivation stems from advances in microelectronics and consumer electronic technology. Given the technological innovations over the past 20 years it now possible to develop new instrumentation to study the auroral ionosphere and stratospheric ozone layer using ultralight balloon payloads for less than 6lbs and $3K per payload. The University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) team has built ten such payloads for launch using 1500 gm latex weather balloons deployed in Houston, TX, Fairbanks, AK, and as well as zero pressure balloons launched from northern Sweden. The latex balloon project will collect vertical profiles of wind velocity, temperature, electrical conductivity, ozone, and odd nitrogen. This instrument payload will also produce profiles of pressure, electric field, and air-earth electric current. The zero pressure balloons will obtain a suite of geophysical measurements including: DC electric field, electric field and magnetic flux, optical imaging, total electron content of ionosphere via dual-channel GPS, X-ray detection, and infrared/UV spectroscopy. Students flew payloads with different combinations of these instruments to determine which packages are successful. Data collected by these instruments will be useful in understanding the nature of electrodynamic coupling in the upper atmosphere and how the global earth system is changing. Twelve out of the launched fifteen payloads were successfully launched and recovered. Results and best practices learned from lab tests and initial Houston test flights will be discussed.

  2. ISOMAX: a balloon-borne instrument to measure cosmic ray isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, M.; Bremerich, M.; Goebel, H.; Hams, T.; Menn, W.; Simon, M.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.; Geier, S.; Gupta, S.K.; Krizmanic, J.F.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ormes, J.F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Davis, A.J.; Nolfo, G.A. de; Mewaldt, R.A.; Schindler, S.M.


    The Isotope Magnet Experiment (ISOMAX) is a new balloon-borne instrument developed to measure the isotopic composition of the light elements in the cosmic radiation, in particular to obtain the ratio of the radioactive 10 Be to stable 9 Be. ISOMAX was first flown in August 4-5, 1998, from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada. ISOMAX has a geometry factor of 450 cm 2 sr and was configured for this flight with a large, Helmholtz-like, superconducting magnet in combination with a drift-chamber tracking system, a state-of-the-art time-of-flight system and two aerogel Cherenkov detectors to measure light isotopes with a mass resolution of better than 0.25 amu. In the 1998 flight the obtained maximum detectable rigidity of the magnetic spectrometer was 970 GeV/c for helium at 60% of the full magnetic field. ISOMAX took data for more than 16 h at float altitudes above 36 km. We here present the performance of the individual detectors and initial isotopic results of the instrument

  3. Upper gastrointestinal strictures: The results of balloon dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, In Wook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal strictures is an accepted mode of therapy. The authors report the balloon dilatation in 11 consecutive patients. The lesions treated included 10 benign strictures, and 1 esophageal cancer. Esophageal balloon were ranged from 2 mm in diameter, 4 cm in length, to 30 mm in diameter, 8 cm in length. Inflation was held for from 30 to 60 seconds and then repeated two or three times during each session. The balloons were inflated to pressure of from 2 to 12 atmospheres. There were from 1 to 13 dilatations. Two esophageal perforations were occurred in one esophagitis patient and other lye stricture patient. Two perforations were not required any surgical repair. All dilatation were performed without anesthesia. All strictures were responded immediately to dilatation. Prolonged course of treatment were needed with chronic severe esophagitis, lye stricture, gastrojejunostomy with chemotherapy, as a result, all patients, except esophageal cancer, could take regular diet after balloon catheter dilatation. Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal stenosis was effective and safe. It should be considered before other methods of treatment applicable.

  4. Introduction (Special Issue on Scientific Balloon Capabilities and Instrumentation) (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.


    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3,000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science.) Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  5. Ballooning Stability of the Compact Quasiaxially Symmetric Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Canik, J.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.; Klasky, S.; Cooper, W.A.; Kerbichler, W.


    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability of a compact, quasiaxially symmetric stellarator (QAS), expected to achieve good stability and particle confinement is examined with a method that can lead to estimates of global stability. Making use of fully 3D, ideal-MHD stability codes, the QAS beta is predicted to be limited above 4% by ballooning and high-n kink modes. Here MHD stability is analyzed through the calculation and examination of the ballooning mode eigenvalue isosurfaces in the 3-space [s, alpha, theta(subscript ''k'')]; s is the edge normalized toroidal flux, alpha is the field line variable, and theta(subscript ''k'') is the perpendicular wave vector or ballooning parameter. Broken symmetry, i.e., deviations from axisymmetry, in the stellarator magnetic field geometry causes localization of the ballooning mode eigenfunction, with new types of nonsymmetric, eigenvalue isosurfaces in both the stable and unstable spectrum. The isosurfaces around the most unstable points i n parameter space (well above marginal) are topologically spherical. In such cases, attempts to use ray tracing to construct global ballooning modes lead to a k-space runaway. Introduction of a reflecting cutoff in k(perpendicular) to model numerical truncation or finite Larmor radius (FLR) yields chaotic ray paths ergodically filling the allowed phase space, indicating that the global spectrum must be described using the language of quantum chaos theory. However, the isosurface for marginal stability in the cases studied are found to have a more complex topology, making estimation of FLR stabilization more difficult

  6. Reaching High Altitudes on Mars with an Inflatable Hypersonic Drag Balloon (Ballute)

    CERN Document Server

    Griebel, Hannes


    The concept of probing the atmosphere of planet Mars by means of a hypersonic drag balloon, a device known as a “ballute”, is a novel approach to planetary science. In this concept, the probe deploys an inflatable drag body out in space and may then enter the atmosphere either once or several times until it slowly descends towards the ground, taking continuous atmospheric and other readings across a large altitude and ground range. Hannes Griebel discusses the theory behind such a mission along with experience gained during its practical implementation, such as mission design, manufacturing, packing and deployment techniques as well as ground and flight tests. The author also studies other ballute applications, specifically emergency low Earth orbit recovery and delivering payloads to high altitude landing sites on Mars.

  7. A transition radiation detector for positron identification in a balloon-borne particle astrophysics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Mongelli, M.; Marangelli, B.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.


    We have built and tested a transition radiation detector of about 76x80 cm 2 active surface to discriminate positrons from protons in an experiment performed on a balloon flight to search for primordial antimatter. The TRD is made of ten modules each consisting of a carbon fiber radiator followed by a multiwire proportional chamber. In order to achieve a proton-electron rejection factor of the order of 10 -3 with a strict limitation on power consumption to about 40 mW per chamber channel, as required by experimental constraints, we have developed a low power consumption ''cluster counting'' electronics. Different analysis procedures of calibration data are shown. In addition, comparisons of the performances of this detector are also made with a previous similar prototype equipped with standard fast electronics and similar detectors from other authors. ((orig.))

  8. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, E; Schnopper, H; Jones, C


    introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band....... This combination provides a reduced background, an energy resolution of 50 eV and a 3sigma sensitivity in 10(6) s of 3.3 x 10(-7) ph cm(-2) s(-1) at 68 keV. During the course of a long duration balloon flight, B-MINE could carry out a detailed study of the Ti-44 emission line centroid and width in CAS A....

  9. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Jones, C.


    introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band....... This combination provides a reduced background, an energy resolution of 50 eV and a 3σ sensitivity in 106 s of 3.3 × 10-7 ph cm-2 s-1 at 68 keV. During the course of a long duration balloon flight. B-MINE could carry out a detailed study of the 44Ti emission line centroid and width in CASA....

  10. Joint US-USSR Long duration Antarctic Mars calibration Balloon (LAMB) mission (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Trombka, J. I.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Squyres, S. W.; Surkov, Iu. A.; Moskaleva, L. P.; Shcheglov, O.; Mitugov, A. G.; Rester, A. C.


    The Long duration Antarctic Mars calibration Balloon (LAMB) project has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the evaluation and cross calibration of U.S. and USSR remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron detectors. These detectors are analogs of those flown on the Soviet Phobos mission around Mars and those to be flown on the upcoming U.S. Mars Observer mission. Cosmic rays, which are normally filtered out by the atmosphere, and the earth's magnetic field, will induce gamma-ray and neutron emissions from about a half ton of simulated Mars soil aboard the gondola. The cross calibration of these instruments should greatly facilitate the data analysis from both missions and play a role in U.S.-USSR cooperation in space.

  11. A balloon-borne solid state cosmic X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, R.; Pietsch, W.; Reppin, C.


    On 9th May 1980 a MPI/AIT hard X-ray balloon payload successfully observed numerous cosmic X-ray sources. The payload consisted of a 2400 cm 2 Phoswich detector and a 114 cm 2 solid state detector. The solid state detector is described in this report. It consists of six intrinsic germanium planar crystals in a vacuum cryostat cooled by liquid nitrogen. The detector operates in the hard X-ray energy range of 20-150 keV and had in-flight a mean energy resolution of 2.75 keV at 60 keV. A hexagonal molybdenum collimator defined the field of view as approximately 4 0 fwhm. A CsI(Na) and plastic active shield and passive shielding provided background rejection. Mean background values of 1.3 X 10 -3 counts/(sec x cm 2 x keV) at 60 keV were obtained. (orig.)

  12. Gamma radiation measurement, through a spark chamber put aboard of a stratospheric balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, C.M.E.; Rao, K.R.


    For determining the diffuse component of gamma rays in the 15 to 75 Mev range arriving from near the galactic center, a digitized spark chamber was launched aboard two balloons from Resende, Brazil, on 19 November and 3 December 1975. In each flight the detector reached an altitude of 2,2 g/cm 2 . Based on these data, a diffuse gamma ray flux 6,0x10 - 5 , 2,0x10 - 5 , 4,6x10 - 6 and 1,3x10 - 6 photons (cm 2 .s.sterad.Mev) at energies of 21, 36, 52, 67 Mev respectively was obtained. These values give a power law spectrum with spectral index equal to -3,3. The dependence of this radiation with the galactic latitude and longitude in the interval -5 0 0 and 325 0 0 was also obtained. Finally, our results were compared with other experiments' results. (Author) [pt

  13. A double Gerdien instrument for simultaneous bipolar air conductivity measurements on balloon platforms. (United States)

    Nicoll, K A; Harrison, R G


    A bipolar air conductivity instrument is described for use with a standard disposable meteorological radiosonde package. It is intended to provide electrical measurements at cloud boundaries, where the ratio of the bipolar air conductivities is affected by the presence of charged particles. The sensors are two identical Gerdien-type electrodes, which, through a voltage decay method, measure positive and negative air conductivities simultaneously. Voltage decay provides a thermally stable approach and a novel low current leakage electrometer switch is described which initiates the decay sequence. The radiosonde supplies power and telemetry, as well as measuring simultaneous meteorological data. A test flight using a tethered balloon determined positive (sigma(+)) and negative (sigma(-)) conductivities of sigma(+)=2.77+/-0.2 fS m(-1) and sigma(-)=2.82+/-0.2 fS m(-1), respectively, at 400 m aloft, with sigma(+)sigma(-)=0.98+/-0.04.

  14. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro


    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  15. Max '91: Flare research at the next solar maximum (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Canfield, Richard; Bruner, Marilyn; Emslie, Gordon; Hildner, Ernest; Hudson, Hugh; Hurford, Gordon; Lin, Robert; Novick, Robert; Tarbell, Ted


    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.

  16. Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.


    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided

  17. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in mitral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Oh, Byung Hee; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Young Woo; Han, Man Chung


    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty(PBV) was successfully performed in 8 mitral stenosis patients for recent 3 months. Five patients have aortic insufficiencies also and two patients have mitral regurgitations below grade II/IV. All patients showed sinus rhythm on EKG, and had no mitral valvular calcification on echocardiography and fluoroscopy. PBV resulted in an increase in mitral valve area from 1.22±0.22 to 2.57±0.86 cm 2 , a decrease in mean left atrial pressure from 23.4±9.6 to 7.5±3.4 mmHg and a decrease in mean mitral pressure gradient from 21.3±9.4 to 6.8±3.1 mmHg. There were no significant complications except 2 cases of newly appeared and mildly aggravated mitral regurgitation. We believe that PBV will become a treatment modality of choice replacing surgical commissurotomy or valve replacement in a group of mitral stenosis patients, because of its effectiveness and safety

  18. Mechanism of prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Maynar, M.; Hulbert, J.


    A series of 60 patients have undergone prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheters at our institution. The follow-up of these patients has ranged from more than 3 years to not less than 6 months. The preliminary results have been excellent, with a success rate of 75% in patients with predominant lateral lobe hypertrophy. This success rate drops to 25% in patients with predominant middle lobe hypertrophy. In previous communications the authors have proposed that the mechanism of prostatic urethral relief of obstruction is due to stretching of the prostatic capsule, tissue compression, and possible subsequent atrophy, as suggested by findings of transrectal US, MR imaging, voiding and retrograde urethrography, and urinary flow studies. Recent clinical information that has led to further animal research has shown that in addition to the previously supposed mechanism of action, separation of the prostatic lobes occurs by splitting of the anterior and posterior commissures of the prostatic gland tissue. This separation of the prostatic lobes is therefore the goal of the procedure. As more experience is gained, the already high success rate can probably be improved

  19. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, L.; Cavallo, A.; Perin, B.; Bighi, G.


    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  20. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci


    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  1. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with a balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.


    Twenty-five patients with prostatism and documented BPH who were candidates for transurethral resection of the prostate were dilated for 10 minutes with 25-mm urethroplasty balloons using a retrograde transurethral approach. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia using 2% viscous lidocaine on an outpatient basis. A mild discomfort was experienced by all patients with a moderate urgency sensation. Mild transient hematuria was present in all, which cleared in 4 to 6 hours. Dysuria usually lasted for 72 hours. Significant improvement has been seen in the relief of symptoms in patients without middle-lobe hypertrophy as documented by uroflow studies, voiding cystourethrograms, and retrograde urethrograms. In patients with middle-lobe hypertrophy, moderate improvement in uroflow studies was observed, which correlated well with symptomatic improvement. Rectal US and MR studies have shown no evidence of intraprostatic or periprostatic abnormalities. No complications have been encountered so far. The longest current follow-up is 20 months, with a mean of 10 months

  2. First results of balloon dacryoplasty in dacryostenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya L’vovna At’kova


    Full Text Available Background. Outpatient care is not widely spread in modern dacryology. At the same time, its necessity increases. There are no evidences of balloon dacryoplasty (BDP application in Russian periodical literature. Material and methods. 50 surgical procedures in 30 patients with partial nasolacrimal duct obliteration were performed, among them 30 BDP without lacrimal pathways intubation (group 1 and 20 with bicanalicular Ritleng intubation of lacrimal pathways (group 2. Lacrimal scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography, combined with X-ray computed tomography, subjective tearing estimation in points, and health depending quality of life evaluation wre performed in all cases. Same tests were repeated in 3 months after surgery. Results. A positive outcome rate was 90 % in both groups. There were no complications in group 1. A single case of stent dislocation was recorded in group 2. Conclusion. BDP is an effective procedure in dacryostenosis of the lacrimal pathways vertical part obliteration. This procedure helps to avoid complications associated with long stent retention. It is possible to get good functional results even at short term after BDP surgery, and there is a possibility for this procedure to be carried out in an outpatient setting.

  3. Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs

  4. Special Considerations for Qualifying Thin Films for Supper Pressure Pumpkin Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions (United States)

    Said, M.

    Pumpkin type super pressure balloons require much less stringent mechanical requirements on the envelope film material when compared to spherical super pressure type balloons. However, since suitable thin films are typically viscoelastic in nature, their creep characteristics must be fully characterized and must not exceed specific and predetermined design limits. Proper assessment of materials limits to meet these design limits requires creep-load-temperature data that characterizes the performance of the material over a time that exceeds the duration of the design service life by some specified margin. Contrary to the behavior of materials with purely elastic response, visco-elastic materials such as these considered for the ULDB design, change their geometry under sustained loading over time. This change is usually reflected by exhibiting a significant visco-elastic component over the service life of the mission. For that regime of large visco-elastic response, where the material is highly nonlinear, a certain load-temperature threshold can be reached where the creep is limited by an asymptote that depends on both the temperature and load level. Such creep is recoverable, although the recovery period may be much longer than the 100 day design service life of the ULDB structure plus the factor of safety required for the design. For a typical flight, the most significant creep occurs at the highest temperature, which also produces the highest internal pressure. At mid- latitudes a significant portion of the service life is spent at night, i.e. at low temperature and low load; for the ULDB film, this nighttime contribution to creep is insignificant in comparison to any daytime contribution. By contrast, flight exposure in an Antarctic summer is at an almost constant high temperature and corresponding high pressure. This response behavior must be sufficiently characterized to serve the needs of the structural design and performance predictions of the vehicle in

  5. A model for asymmetric ballooning and analyses of ballooning behaviour of single rods with probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keusenhoff, J.G.; Schubert, J.D.; Chakraborty, A.K.


    Plastic deformation behaviour of Zircaloy cladding has been extensively examined in the past and can be described best by a model for asymmetric deformation. Slight displacement between the pellet and cladding will always exist and this will lead to the formation of azimuthal temperature differences. The ballooning process is strongly temperature dependent and, as a result of the built up temperature differences, differing deformation behaviours along the circumference of the cladding result. The calculated ballooning of cladding is mainly influenced by its temperature, the applied burst criterion and the parameters used in the deformation model. All these influencing parameters possess uncertainties. In order to quantify these uncertainties and to estimate distribution functions of important parameters such as temperature and deformation the response surface method was applied. For a hot rod the calculated standard deviation of cladding temperature amounts to 50 K. From this high value the large influence of the external cooling conditions on the deformation and burst behaviour of cladding can be estimated. In an additional statistical examination the parameters of deformation and burst models have been included and their influence on the deformation of the rod has been studied. (author)

  6. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.


    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  7. Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Song, Ho Young


    Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

  8. Gastric emptying and intragastric balloon in obese patients. (United States)

    Bonazzi, P; Petrelli, M D; Lorenzini, I; Peruzzi, E; Nicolai, A; Galeazzi, R


    Intragastric balloons have been proposed to induce weight loss in obese subjects. The consequences of the balloon on gastric physiology remain poorly studied. We studied the influence of an intragastric balloon on gastric emptying in obese patients. 12 patients were included in the study, with BMI (mean +/- SD) of 38.51 +/- 4.32 kg/m2. The balloon was inserted under light anaesthesia and endoscopic control, inflated with 700 ml saline, and removed 6 months later. Body weight and gastric emptying (T1/2 and T lag) using 13C-octanoic acid breath test were monitored before balloon placement, during its permanence and 2 months after removal. Mean weight loss was: 6.2 +/- 2.3 kg after one month; 12.4 +/- 5.8 kg after 3 months; 14.4 +/- 6.6 kg after 6 months and 10.1 +/- 4.3 kg two months after BIB removal. Gastric emptying rates were significantly decreased in the first periods with balloon in place, and returned to pre-implantation values after balloon removal. T1/2 was: 87 +/- 32 min before BIB positioning, 181 +/- 91 min after 1 month, 145 +/- 99 min after 3 months, 104 +/- 50 min after 6 months and 90 +/- 43 min 2 months after removal. T lag was 36 +/- 18 min before BIB positioning, 102 +/- 82 min after 1 month, 77 +/- 53 min after 3 months, 59 +/- 28 min after 6 months and 40 +/- 21 min. 2 months after removal. BIB in obese patients seems to be a good help in following the hypo caloric diet, especially during the first three months when the gastric emptying is slower and the sense of repletion is higher. After this period gastric emptying starts to return to normal and the stomach adapts to BIB loosing efficacy in weight loss.

  9. Scientific ballooning. Proceedings. PSB Meeting of the COSPAR Panel on Technical Problems Related to Scientific Ballooning which was held during the Thirtieth COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Hamburg (Germany), 11 - 21 Jul 1994. (United States)

    Riedler, W.; Torkar, K.


    This issue is grouped into sections on materials, design, performance and analysis of balloons, reviews of major national and international balloon programmes, novel instrumentation and systems for scientific ballooning, and selected recent scientific observations.

  10. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Flight Dynamics Test-1 Flight Design and Targeting (United States)

    Ivanov, Mark


    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) program was established to identify, develop, and eventually qualify to Test [i.e. Technology] Readiness Level (TRL) - 6 aerodynamic decelerators for eventual use on Mars. Through comprehensive Mars application studies, two distinct Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) designs were chosen that afforded the optimum balance of benefit, cost, and development risk. In addition, a Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute design was chosen that satisfied the same criteria. The final phase of the multi-tiered qualification process involves Earth Supersonic Flight Dynamics Tests (SFDTs) within environmental conditions similar to those that would be experienced during a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) mission. The first of these flight tests (i.e. SFDT-1) was completed on June 28, 2014 with two more tests scheduled for the summer of 2015 and 2016, respectively. The basic flight design for all the SFDT flights is for the SFDT test vehicle to be ferried to a float altitude of 120 kilo-feet by a 34 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) heavy lift helium balloon. Once float altitude is reached, the test vehicle is released from the balloon, spun-up for stability, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a Star48 solid rocket motor. After burnout of the Star48 motor the vehicle decelerates to pre-flight selected test conditions for the deployment of the SIAD system. After further deceleration with the SIAD deployed, the SSDS parachute is then deployed stressing the performance of the parachute in the wake of the SIAD augmented blunt body. The test vehicle/SIAD/parachute system then descends to splashdown in the Pacific Ocean for eventual recovery. This paper will discuss the development of both the test vehicle and the trajectory sequence including design trade-offs resulting from the interaction of both engineering efforts. In addition, the SFDT-1 nominal trajectory design and associated sensitivities will be discussed

  11. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for Hypersonic Engine Using High-Altitude Balloon (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.

  12. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for a Hypersonic Engine Using a High-Altitude Balloon (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.

  13. Analysis of tethered balloon, ceilometer and class sounding data taken on San Nicolas Island during the FIRE project (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne H.; Ciesielski, Paul E.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Mckee, Thomas B.


    During the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Program on San Nicolas Island, Colorado State University (CSU) and the British Meteorological Office (BMO) operated separate instrument packages on the NASA tethered balloon. The CSU package contained instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud droplet concentration, and long and short wave radiation. Eight research flights, performed between July 7 and July 14, are summarized. An analysis priority to the July 7, 8 and 11 flights was assigned for the purposes of comparing the CSU and BMO data. Results are presented. In addition, CSU operated a laser ceilometer for the determination of cloud base, and a CLASS radiosonde site which launched 69 sondes. Data from all of the above systems are being analyzed.

  14. Solar building


    Zhang, Luxin


    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  15. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  16. Atmospheric Sampling of Aerosols to Stratospheric Altitudes using High Altitude Balloons (United States)

    Jerde, E. A.; Thomas, E.


    Although carbon dioxide represents a long-lived atmospheric component relevant to global climate change, it is also understood that many additional contributors influence the overall climate of Earth. Among these, short-lived components are more difficult to incorporate into models due to uncertainties in the abundances of these both spatially and temporally. Possibly the most significant of these short-lived components falls under the heading of “black carbon” (BC). There are numerous overlapping definitions of BC, but it is basically carbonaceous in nature and light absorbing. Due to its potential as a climate forcer, an understanding of the BC population in the atmosphere is critical for modeling of radiative forcing. Prior measurements of atmospheric BC generally consist of airplane- and ground-based sampling, typically below 5000 m and restricted in time and space. Given that BC has a residence time on the order of days, short-term variability is easily missed. Further, since the radiative forcing is a result of BC distributed through the entire atmospheric column, aircraft sampling is by definition incomplete. We are in the process of planning a more comprehensive sampling of the atmosphere for BC using high-altitude balloons. Balloon-borne sampling is a highly reliable means to sample air through the entire troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Our system will incorporate a balloon and a flight train of two modules. One module will house an atmospheric sampler. This sampler will be single-stage (samples all particle sizes together), and will place particles directly on an SEM sample stub for analysis. The nozzle depositing the sample will be offset from the center of the stub, placing the aerosol particles toward the edge. At various altitudes, the stub will be rotated 45 degrees, providing 6-8 sample “cuts” of particle populations through the atmospheric column. The flights will reach approximately 27 km altitude, above which the balloons

  17. Ideal ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; O'Rourke, J.; Smeulders, P.; Schmidt, G.


    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, discharges with β approaching the Troyon-Sykes-Wesson critical value β c for optimised pressure profiles have been produced at low toroidal fields (B T =1.5T). In the second type, extremely high pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injection in the current rise phase of the discharge followed by strong additional heating. The stability of these discharges has been studied with the stability code HBT coupled to the equilibrium identification code IDENTC. The equilibrium pressure and diamagnetic function profiles are determined in IDENTC by an optimisation procedure to fit the external magnetic measurements. The resulting pressure profile in the equatorial plane is then compared with the profile derived from 'direct' measurements, i.e. electron density and temperature profiles measured by the LIDAR diagnostic system, ion-temperature profile measured by the charge-exchange diagnostic system, and ion density profile calculated from the Z eff and electron density profiles. Furthermore, the value of the safety factor q on axis is compared with that determined from polarimetry. When good agreement is found, the output data from IDENTC is passed directly to HBT to carry out the stability analysis. When there is not a good agreement, as in the case of pellet discharges with highly peaked pressure profiles, the equilibrium is reevaluated using the 'experimental' profile and the data from polarimetry. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  18. Identification of new solar OH lines in the 10--12 micron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F.J.; Gillis, J.R.; Murcray, D.G.


    High-resolution (0.02 cm -1 ) infrared solar spectra obtained with a balloon-borne interferometer reveal new solar absorption features, which appear as regularly spaced quartets, in the 825--960 cm -1 region. The lines are interpreted as high N'' (25--33) pure rotation lines of solar OH. An effective amount of approx.8 x 10 15 molecules cm -2 of OH is estimated from the spectra

  19. Intrarectal pressures and balloon expulsion related to evacuation proctography. (United States)

    Halligan, S; Thomas, J; Bartram, C


    Seventy four patients with constipation were examined by standard evacuation proctography and then attempted to expel a small, non-deformable rectal balloon, connected to a pressure transducer to measure intrarectal pressure. Simultaneous imaging related the intrarectal position of the balloon to rectal deformity. Inability to expel the balloon was associated proctographically with prolonged evacuation, incomplete evacuation, reduced anal canal diameter, and acute anorectal angulation during evacuation. The presence and size of rectocoele or intussusception was unrelated to voiding of paste or balloon. An independent linear combination of pelvic floor descent and evacuation time on proctography correctly predicted maximum intrarectal pressure in 74% of cases. No patient with both prolonged evacuation and reduced pelvic floor descent on proctography could void the balloon, as maximum intrarectal pressure was reduced in this group. A prolonged evacuation time on proctography, in combination with reduced pelvic floor descent, suggests defecatory disorder may be caused by inability to raise intrarectal pressure. A diagnosis of anismus should not be made on proctography solely on the basis of incomplete/prolonged evacuation, as this may simply reflect inadequate straining. PMID:7672656

  20. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of

  1. Cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images (United States)

    Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Brost, Alexander; Jakob, Carolin; Mewes, Philip W.; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert


    Minimally invasive catheter ablation has become the preferred treatment option for atrial fibrillation. Although the standard ablation procedure involves ablation points set by radio-frequency catheters, cryo-balloon catheters have even been reported to be more advantageous in certain cases. As electro-anatomical mapping systems do not support cryo-balloon ablation procedures, X-ray guidance is needed. However, current methods to provide support for cryo-balloon catheters in fluoroscopically guided ablation procedures rely heavily on manual user interaction. To improve this, we propose a first method for automatic cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images based on a blob detection algorithm. Our method is evaluated on 24 clinical images from 17 patients. The method successfully detected the cryoballoon in 22 out of 24 images, yielding a success rate of 91.6 %. The successful localization achieved an accuracy of 1.00 mm +/- 0.44 mm. Even though our methods currently fails in 8.4 % of the images available, it still offers a significant improvement over manual methods. Furthermore, detecting a landmark point along the cryo-balloon catheter can be a very important step for additional post-processing operations.

  2. Solar radiation alert system : final report. (United States)


    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  3. EBEX: A Balloon-Borne Telescope for Measuring Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel


    EBEX is a long-duration balloon-borne (LDB) telescope designed to probe polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is designed to measure or place an upper limit on the inflationary B-mode signal, a signal predicted by inflationary theories to be imprinted on the CMB by gravitational waves, to detect the effects of gravitational lensing on the polarization of the CMB, and to characterize polarized Galactic foreground emission. The payload consists of a pointed gondola that houses the optics, polarimetry, detectors and detector readout systems, as well as the pointing sensors, control motors, telemetry sytems, and data acquisition and flight control computers. Polarimetry is achieved with a rotating half-wave plate and wire grid polarizer. The detectors are sensitive to frequency bands centered on 150, 250, and 410 GHz. EBEX was flown in 2009 from New Mexico as a full system test, and then flown again in December 2012 / January 2013 over Antarctica in a long-duration flight to collect scientific data. In the instrumentation part of this thesis we discuss the pointing sensors and attitude determination algorithms. We also describe the real-time map making software, "QuickLook", that was custom-designed for EBEX. We devote special attention to the design and construction of the primary pointing sensors, the star cameras, and their custom-designed flight software package, "STARS" (the Star Tracking Attitude Reconstruction Software). In the analysis part of this thesis we describe the current status of the post-flight analysis procedure. We discuss the data structures used in analysis and the pipeline stages related to attitude determination and map making. We also discuss a custom-designed software framework called "LEAP" (the LDB EBEX Analysis Pipeline) that supports most of the analysis pipeline stages.

  4. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) SMEX Mission (United States)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Krucker, S.; Glesener, L.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Caspi, A.; Allred, J. C.; Battaglia, M.; Chen, B.; Drake, J. F.; Gary, D. E.; Goetz, K.; Gburek, S.; Grefenstette, B.; Hannah, I. G.; Holman, G.; Hudson, H. S.; Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Kontar, E.; Kowalski, A. F.; Massone, A. M.; Piana, M.; Ramsey, B.; Schwartz, R.; Steslicki, M.; Turin, P.; Ryan, D.; Warmuth, A.; Veronig, A.; Vilmer, N.; White, S. M.; Woods, T. N.


    We present FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager), a Small Explorer (SMEX) Heliophysics mission that is currently undergoing a Phase A concept study. FOXSI will provide a revolutionary new perspective on energy release and particle acceleration on the Sun. FOXSI is a direct imaging X-ray spectrometer with higher dynamic range and better than 10x the sensitivity of previous instruments. Flown on a 3-axis-stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit, FOXSI uses high-angular-resolution grazing-incidence focusing optics combined with state-of-the-art pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of solar hard X-rays for the first time. FOXSI is composed of a pair of x-ray telescopes with a 14-meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom. Making use of a filter-wheel and high-rate-capable solid-state detectors, FOXSI will be able to observe the largest flares without saturation while still maintaining the sensitivity to detect x-ray emission from weak flares, escaping electrons, and hot active regions. This mission concept is made possible by past experience with similar instruments on two FOXSI sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014, and on the HEROES balloon flight in 2013. FOXSI's hard X-ray imager has a field of view of 9 arcminutes and an angular resolution of better than 8 arcsec; it will cover the energy range from 3 up to 50-70 keV with a spectral resolution of better than 1 keV; and it will have sub-second temporal resolution.

  5. International Living With a Star (ILWS), a new collaborative space program in Solar, Heliospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics (United States)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Guhathakurta, M.; Liu, W.; Kosugi, T.; Zelenyi, L.


    research in solar-terrestrial studies, including all relevant data sources as well as theory and modeling. The future ILWS program will be supervised by an international steering committee, involving representatives from the 4 main space agencies NASA, ESA, ISAS, RSA, and, emphasising the importance of ground-based instrumentation in the systematic approach of the ILWS programme, also from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). More specific work will be carried out through an IWLS Working Group, membership to which is open to space organizations committed to contribute to ILWS over the next decade. Adequate contributions to ILWS can include any of the following: - Space Flight Missions - Mission payloads or subsystems - Mission launch or tracking services - Additional data sources supporting S/C (sounding rockets, balloon, or ground-based) - Data dissemination, storage, distribution and value adding systems In addition topical ILWS Task Groups will be established as necessary to support specific ILWS-WG projects/studies. This poster will biefly summarize the origins, objectives, and provisional organizational structure for ILWS and how this program can benifit from and contribute to international collaborative efforts towards International Heliospheric Year (IHY).

  6. BETTII: The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (Phase 2a)- High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Far-Infrared Wavelengths (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an eight-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. The combination of the long baseline with a double-Fourier instrument allows BETTII to simultaneously gain both spatial and spectral information; BETTII is designed for spatially-resolved spectroscopy. The unique data obtained with BETTII will be valuable for understanding how stars form within dense clusters, by isolating individual objects that are unresolved by previous space telescopes and my measuring their spectral energy distributions. BETTII will be also used in future flights to understand the processes in the cores of Active Galactic Nuclei. In addition to these scientific goals, BETTII serves as a major step towards achieving the vision of space-based interferometry. BETTII was first funded through the 2010 APRA program; last year, the proposal also fared well in the APRA review, but for programmatic reasons was only awarded one year of funding. With the current funding, we will complete the BETTII experiment and conduct a Commissioning Flight in August/September 2016. The effort proposed includes full analysis of data from the Commissioning Flight, which will help us determine the technical and scientific capabilities of the experiment. It also includes two science flights, one in each 2017 and 2018, with full data analysis being completed in 2019.

  7. [Valvuloplasty with balloon catheter in biologic prosthesis. Reality or illusion]. (United States)

    Ledesma Velasco, M; Verdín Vázquez, R; Acosta Valdez, J L; Munayer Calderón, J; Salgado Escobar, J L; Arias Monroy, L; Flores Mendoza, J


    We performed catheter balloon valvuloplasty (CBV) on 8 stenotic operatively-excised bioprosthetic valves (2 Hancock and 6 Ionescu Shiley). Pathology of valves before CBV included degenerative changes: commissural fusion by mounds of calcific deposits (2 valves), fibrotic and focally calcified leaflets (7 valves) and stiff and thick valves (1 valve). Inflation of the balloon resulted in commissural splitting (2 valves), leaflet cracks and fractures (3 valves). Removal of the deflated balloon catheter was associated with debris dislodgement (3 valves). In one case the valve was unable to close with potential for acute regurgitation. Thus, CBV of bioprosthetic valves can split fused commissures by similar mechanisms as in native valves. CBV may fracture calcific deposits causing acute emboli. It can also disrupt the leaflets causing acute insufficiency. The findings suggest a limited role of CBV in the treatment of stenotic bioprosthetic valves in mitral and aortic position.

  8. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration. (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun


    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  9. High n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.


    An analytic study of stability against high n ballooning modes in highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that the local shear plays an important role on the stability of elongated and shifted plasma, and that high elongation deteriorates the stability by decreasing the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation and shift for strongly ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). The computational study of high n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for β/sub p/ less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for β/sub p/ larger than unity

  10. Balloon dilatation for the treatment of stricture of gastrojejunostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Hwa [Lee Rha Hospital, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Min; Chon, Su Bin; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)


    Enteroenteric anastomotic strictures of UGI tract are common and require treatment if significant obstruction occurs. We performed fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation in 6 patients who had symptomatic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. The stricture was successfully resolved in 4 patients with benign stricture. But 2 patients with malignant stricture had recurrence of obstructive symptoms 2 weeks later, and they required a stent. Asymptomatic balloon rupture was seen in one patients, but other procedural complications did not occur. We found that fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation is an effective and safe method in the treatment of anastomotic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. We also found transient effect in malignant gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures, which required an interventional procedure, such as placement of a stent.

  11. Prognostic factors for the success of thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M. Y.; Mol, B. W. J.; Brölmann, H. A. M.


    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive factors that will ensure successful menorrhagia treatment using hot fluid balloon endometrial ablation. METHODS: This is a prospective study on patients referred for menorrhagia and treated with hot fluid thermal balloon ablation. Potential prognostic factors for

  12. Balloon-Borne, High Altitude Gravimetry: The Flight of DUCKY II (October 1985) (United States)


    PAGEREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE ’ OMB NO. 0704-01Ř la . REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATIONI lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified N/A 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Istituto di Metrologia tG. Colonnetti" (IMGC) Italy in 1980, 8 and the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in 1982.9 The absolute

  13. A local network integrated into a balloon-borne apparatus (United States)

    Imori, Masatosi; Ueda, Ikuo; Shimamura, Kotaro; Maeno, Tadashi; Murata, Takahiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Anraku, Kazuaki; Matsui, Nagataka; Yamagami, Takamasa

    A local network is incorporated into an apparatus for a balloon-borne experiment. A balloon-borne system implemented in the apparatus is composed of subsystems interconnected through a local network, which introduces modular architecture into the system. The network decomposes the balloon-borne system into subsystems, which are similarly structured from the point of view that the systems is kept under the control of a ground station. The subsystem is functionally self-contained and electrically independent. A computer is integrated into a subsystem, keeping the subsystem under the control. An independent group of batteries, being dedicated to a subsystem, supplies the whole electricity of the subsystem. The subsystem could be turned on and off independently of the other subsystems. So communication among the subsystems needs to be based on such a protocol that could guarantee the independence of the individual subsystems. An Omninet protocol is employed to network the subsystems. A ground station sends commands to the balloon-borne system. The command is received and executed at the system, then results of the execution are returned to the ground station. Various commands are available so that the system borne on a balloon could be controlled and monitored remotely from the ground station. A subsystem responds to a specific group of commands. A command is received by a transceiver subsystem and then transferred through the network to the subsystem to which the command is addressed. Then the subsystem executes the command and returns results to the transceiver subsystem, where the results are telemetered to the ground station. The network enhances independence of the individual subsystems, which enables programs of the individual subsystems to be coded independently. Independence facilitates development and debugging of programs, improving the quality of the system borne on a balloon.

  14. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons. (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz


    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  15. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty. (United States)

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael


    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  16. Severe Sunburn After a Hot Air Balloon Ride: A Case Report and Literature Review. (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin


    Hot air balloon tours are very popular among travelers worldwide. Preventable burn injuries associated with hot air balloon rides have been reported during crashes into power lines, in propane burner explosions, and following contact with the propane burner tanks. We present a case of severe repeated sunburn, which poses another risk of preventable injury during hot air balloon rides, and briefly discuss the injury epidemiology of hot air balloon rides. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalh, A.F.


    This report contains information on the sounding rocket projects: experiment preparation for spacelab (astronomy), aeronomy, magnetosphere, and material science. Except for material science the scientific balloon projects are performed in the some scientific fields, but with a strong emphasis on astronomical research. It is tried to provide by means of tables a survey as complete as possible of the projects for the time since the last symposium in Elmau and of the plans for the future until 1981. The scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects form a small succesful part of the German space research programme. (author)

  18. Ballooning Representation Approach to Low-Frequency Instabilities in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Gardner, H.J.; Lewandowski, J.; Persson, M.


    Local ideal MHD ballooning eigenvalues have been calculated on many field lines for heliac and torsatron cases using a parallel implementation of a ballooning code on a Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5 Global eigenvalues have been estimated for the torsatron test case using the ray tracing method of Dewar and Glasser and also by using the TERPSI-CHORE global eigenvalue code, with good agreement. As a preliminary to detailed study of H-1, 3-D visualizations of stability-related quantities have been produced. 6 refs

  19. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, A.F.


    This report contains information on sounding rocket projects in the scientific field of astronomy, aeronomy, magnetosphere, and material science under microgravity. The scientific balloon projects are performed with emphasis on astronomical research. By means of tables it is attempted to give a survey, as complete as possible, of the projects the time since the last symposium in Ajaccio, Corsica, and of preparations and plans for the future until 1983. The scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects form a small successful part of the German space research programme. (Auth.)

  20. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs (United States)

    Bognar, John A.


    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  1. A tethered balloon system for observation of atmospheric temperature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Kakuta, Michio


    In environmental assessment of near-shore nuclear plants, information is often required on the development of internal boundary layer (IBL) and associated fumigation condition. Single tower data is not sufficient to clarify the site-dependent IBL structure that affects the atmospheric diffusion in shoreline-stack-site boundary complex. A tethered balloon system has been developed, which comprises a fixed point kitoon and a car-borne small balloon. The system enables us to measure the detailed time-space distribution of temperature without much man-power. The system and example of field observations with it are described. (author)

  2. Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Detachable Silicone Balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D


    ) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not available...

  3. 78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose connectors, part numbers HS6139 and HS6144, installed... follows: * * * * * (c) Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME...

  4. 77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female... identified in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury Road, Oswestry, Shropshire...

  5. 75 FR 63086 - Great Mississippi Balloon Race and Fireworks Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker... (United States)


    ... flying hot air balloons transiting across the Lower Mississippi River. Entry into this zone is prohibited... mariners from the safety hazards associated with a fireworks display and low flying hot air balloons... mariners from the safety hazards associated with a fireworks display and low flying hot air balloons...

  6. 78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose connectors...., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd...

  7. Inexpensive Demonstration of Diffraction-Limited Telescope from NASA Stratospheric Balloons (United States)

    Young, Elliot

    NASA s Balloon Program often flies payloads to altitudes of 120,000 ft or higher, above 99.5% of the atmosphere. At those altitudes, the imaging degradation due to atmospheric- induced wavefront errors is virtually zero. In 2009, the SUNRISE balloon mission quantified the wavefront errors with a Shack-Hartmann array and found no evidence of wavefront errors. This means that a large telescope on a balloon should be able to achieve diffraction-limited performance, provided it can be stabilized at a level that is finer than the diffraction limit. At visible wavelengths, the diffraction limit of a 1 or 2 m telescope is 0.1 arcsec or 0.05 arcsec, respectively. NASA recently demonstrated WASP (the Wallops Arc-Second Pointing system) on a balloon flight in October 2011, a coarse pointing system that kept a dummy telescope (24 ft long, 1500 lbs) stabilized at the 0.25 arcsec level. We propose to use an orthogonal transfer CCD (OTCCD) from MIT Lincoln Laboratory to improve the pointing to 0.05 arcsec, an order of magnitude better than the coarse pointing alone and sufficient to provide long integrations at the diffraction limit of a 2-m telescope. Imaging in visible wavelengths is an important new capability. Ground-based adaptive optics (AO) systems on 8-m and 10-m class telescope cannot effectively correct for atmospheric turbulence at wavelengths shorter than 1 μm; the atmospheric wavefront errors are larger at these wavelengths than in the infrared J-H-K bands. At present, only the Hubble Space Telescope can achieve 0.05 arcsec resolution images in visible wavelengths, a capability that is dramatically oversubscribed. With a camera based on an MIT/LL OTCCD, a 2-m balloon-borne telescope could match the spatial resolution of HST. Under this project (and in conjunction with a SWRI Internal Research proposal), we will perform ground tests of a motion-compensation camera based on an MIT/LL Orthogonal Transfer CCD (OTCCD). This device can shift charge in four directions

  8. The next generation balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope (BLAST-TNG) (United States)

    Dober, Bradley Jerald

    Large areas of astrophysics, such as precision cosmology, have benefited greatly from large maps and datasets, yielded by telescopes of ever-increasing number and ability. However, due to the unique challenges posed by submillimeter polarimetry, the study of molecular cloud dynamics and star formation remain stunted. Previously, polarimetry data was limited to a few vectors on only the brightest areas of molecular clouds. This made drawing statistically-driven conclusions a daunting task. However, the successful flight of the Balloon-born Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) generated maps with thousands of independent polarization measurements of molecular clouds, and ushered in a new era of empirical modeling of molecular cloud dynamics. Now that the potential benefits from large-scale maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds had been identified, a successor that would truly unlock the secrets must be born. The Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST-TNG), the successor to BLASTPol, has the ability to make larger and more detailed maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds. It will push the field of star formation into a statistics-driven, empirical realm. With these large, detailed datasets, astronomers will be able to find new relationships between the dust dynamics and the magnetic fields. The field will surge to a new level of understanding. One of the key enabling technologies of BLAST-TNG is its three arrays of polarization-sensitive Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting RLC circuits with a resonant frequency that shifts proportionally to the amount of incident radiation. The key feature of MKIDs is that thousands of detectors, each with their own unique resonant frequency, can be coupled to the same readout line. This technology will be able to drive the production of large-scale monolithic arrays, containing tens or hundreds of thousands of detectors

  9. MC2: A Power Conditionning and Distribution Unit for Stratospherics Balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bonnet


    Full Text Available For long duration scientific missions with stratospheric balloons (objective of 3 month duration, renewable energy is used. Solar panels with mono crystalline silicon solar cells are mounted on both scientific and avionic gondola. A power conditioning board with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is designed and currently tested. This board is called MC2: Communicant Conditioning Module. It allows controlling a Li Ion battery charge through PWM regulators. Moreover, outlets ON/OFF commutations associated to overcurrent’s protections are implemented in this board. The battery active thermal control is made by MC2 autonomously. The main design drivers are mass, costs and efficiency. A CAN Bus between MC2 and On Board Computer allows to have a commandability and observability of MC2 through OBC. The overall avionic gondola is designed to be Single Points Failure free by using two segregated chains in order to be compatible with safety rules. The nominal chain is the main chain and use MC2 with renewable energy. The secondary chain uses a primary electrochemical cell which feeds loads in case of undervoltage of the main chain. This overall architecture allows both chains to be designed without SPF free constrains. This paper describes the overall requirements and the design of MC2. The main innovation described in this paper is the way to implement MPPT: the MPPT algorithm is performed at the output of the power converter. This MPPT extracts maximum power of both solar panel characteristics and power converter. The main advantage is that this MPPT uses only one existing sensor (output current of boost converter instead of using current and voltage sensor of each solar panel.

  10. Early developments in solar cooling equipment (United States)

    Price, J. M.


    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  11. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Future Hypersonic Flight Missions. (United States)

    Koops, L


    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, aircrews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Cosmic radiation exposure of future hypersonic flight missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koops, L.


    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, air crews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. (author)

  13. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  14. Measurement of a Peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum from the North American test flight of BOOMERANG

    CERN Document Server

    Mauskopf, P D; De Bernardis, P; Bock, J J; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Crill, B P; De Gasperis, G; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ferreira, P G; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Hanany, S; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jaffe, A H; Lange, A E; Lee, A T; Masi, S; Melchiorri, A; Melchiorri, F; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Richards, P L; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scannapieco, E S; Scaramuzzi, F; Stompor, R; Vittorio, N


    We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.3 degrees to ~10 degrees from the North American test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotropies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of ~1 degree with an amplitude ~70 uK.

  15. Measurement of a peak in the cosmic microwave background power spectrum from the North American test flight of Boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauskopf, P.D.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; Bernardis, P. de; DeGasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scannapieco, E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Stompor, R.; Vittorio, N.


    We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotrophies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.2 deg to approx. 10 deg. from the test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotrophies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of approx. 1 deg. with an amplitude of approx. 70-muKcmb

  16. Solar Features - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  17. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Gi Jae; Yu, Pil Mun


    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively

  18. Malfunctioning Plastic Biliary Endoprosthesis: Percutaneous Transhepatic Balloon Pulling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto G. Rossi


    Full Text Available Percutaneous transhepatic removal techniques for malfunctioning plastic biliary endoprosthesis are considered safe and efficient second-line strategies, when endoscopic procedures are not feasible. We describe the percutaneous transhepatic balloon pulling technique in a patient with an unresectable malignant hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. Balloon dacryocystoplasty study in the management of adult epiphora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, S


    PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of dacryocystoplasty with balloon dilation in the treatment of acquired obstruction of the nasolacrimal system in adults. METHODS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty was performed in 52 eyes of 42 patients under general anaesthetic. A Teflon-coated guidewire was introduced through the canaliculus and manipulated through the nasolacrimal system and out of the nasal aperture. A 4 mm wide 3 cm coronary angioplasty balloon catheter was threaded over the guidewire in a retrograde fashion and dilated at the site of obstruction. RESULTS: There was complete obstruction in 30% of cases and partial obstruction in 70%. The most common site of obstruction was the nasolacrimal duct. The procedure was technically successful in 94% of cases. The overall re-obstruction rate was 29% within 1 year of the procedure. There was an anatomical failure rate of 17% for partial obstruction and 69% for complete obstruction within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty has a high recurrence rate. There may be a limited role for this procedure in partial obstructions. Further refinements of the procedure are necessary before it can be offered as a comparable alternative to a standard surgical dacryocystorhinostomy.

  20. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung [Seoul Natioal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Jae [Inje University Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively.

  1. Balloon-assisted coiling through a 5-French system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J. Bradley; Layton, Kennith F.; Kallmes, David F.; Cloft, Harry J.


    We present a catheter technique that utilizes a 5F system for the purpose of balloon-assisted coiling in the setting of intracranial aneurysms. A standard 5F short sheath is placed in the common femoral artery, and a 5F diagnostic catheter is placed through the sheath and used for selective vessel angiography. When endovascular intervention is pursued, the diagnostic catheter is placed in the appropriate vessel and systemic heparinization is ensured. Over an exchange length wire, the 5F vertebral catheter and 5F short sheath are exchanged for a 5F Shuttle (Cook) sheath. We then routinely place a 10, 14 or 18 microcatheter over an appropriately gauged microguidewire into the aneurysm. As needed, balloon catheters are then placed across the neck of the aneurysm for remodeling purposes. During the course of the procedure, control angiography is performed through the Shuttle sheath. Following the placement of coils, the microcatheter and balloon catheter are removed and a final biplane image is obtained via the 5F Shuttle sheath. This technique has been employed in 15 patients who required balloon-assisted coiling of an intracranial aneurysm. There were no technical difficulties or arterial access site complications from the procedures. Catheter mobility and torque were not affected, nor was the quality of our imaging. We conclude that this small-diameter system provides ample ''room'' for catheter placement and interventional treatment while reducing the known risks of postprocedural complications. Angiographic images remain excellent and are comparable to those obtained by larger catheters. (orig.)

  2. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program (United States)


    ...[supreg] portable document format at the following address: over 25 years. Balloons are used to collect scientific data and conduct research on the atmosphere and... has seen a dramatic increase in sophistication of experiments and demands for service. Due to the...

  3. Achilles tests finally nail PWR fuel clad ballooning fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, P.; McMinn, K.


    A conclusive series of experiments carried out by AEA Reactor Services at its Achilles rig in the UK has finally allayed fears that fuel clad ballooning is a major safety problem for Sizewell B, Britain's first Pressurized Water Reactor. The experiments are described in this article. (author)

  4. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program (United States)


    ... Proposed Action are not anticipated. Air Quality: Vehicular travel by research scientists and students to... year during balloon campaigns at CSBF Fort Sumner from the purchase of food, supplies, and lodging by CSBF staff and research scientists and students. An adequate supply of restaurants and lodging...

  5. Balloon observations of galactic and extragalactic objects at 100 microns. (United States)

    Hoffmann, W. F.


    Recent far-infrared balloon-borne instruments have yielded observations of a number of bright sources at 100 microns. Many of these coincide with HII regions where molecular line emision has been detected. There is some indication of 100 micron emission which does not coincide with radio measurements.

  6. Meshed-Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloon Design (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Yavrouian, Andre


    An improved, lightweight design has been proposed for super-pressure balloons used to carry scientific instruments at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Earth for times as long as 100 days. [A super-pressure balloon is one in which the pressure of the buoyant gas (typically, helium) is kept somewhat above ambient pressure in order to maintain approximately constant density and thereby regulate the altitude.] The proposed design, called "meshed pumpkin," incorporates the basic concept of the pumpkin design, which is so named because of its appearance. The pumpkin design entails less weight than does a spherical design, and the meshed-pumpkin design would reduce weight further. The basic idea of the meshed-pumpkin design is to reinforce the membrane of a pumpkin balloon by attaching a strong, lightweight fabric mesh to its outer surface. The reinforcement would make it possible to reduce the membrane mass to one-third or less of that of the basic pumpkin design while retaining sufficient strength to enable the balloon to remain at approximately constant altitude for months.

  7. 28. Critical pulmonary valve stenosis: Medical management beyond balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Khan


    Conclusion: Phentolamine and/or Captopril have a therapeutic role in neonates with critical PVS who remain oxygen dependent after balloon dilation. Both medicationslead to vasodilatation of pulmonary and systemic vascularity. They facilitate inflowto the right ventricle. Right to left shunt across a PFO or/ ASD minimizesand saturation improves leading to a significantreduction in length of hospitalization.

  8. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.


    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  9. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van


    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  10. Ozone profiles from tethered balloon measurements in an urban plume experiment (United States)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.; Storey, R. W.; Clendenin, C. G.; Jones, S.; Leighty, B.


    NASA Langley Research Center used two tethered balloon systems to measure ozone in the general area of Norfolk, Va. The large balloon system which has an altitude range of 1,500 meters was located at Wallops Island, Va., and the smaller balloon which has an altitude range of 900 meters was located at Chesapeake, Va. Each balloon system measured ozone, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction from ground to its maximum altitude. From these measurements and from the location of the balloon sites, areas of ozone generation and ozone transport may be inferred. The measurements which were taken during August 1979 are discussed as well as the measurement techniques.

  11. A study on usefulness of balloon cholangiography in operating ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soon Yong


    Purpose of this paper is to extend help for clinical application in balloon cholangiography on patients who have undergone endoscopic sphincterotomy, impacted stones of intrahepatic duct, and missed bile duct because of other diseases in operating endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography. This study was done for the patients who had clinical signs of biliary diseases from January to December in 1996. We studied 45 patients who had endoscopic sphincterotomy, re-examination after interventional treatment of the endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography, and uncertain diagnosis due to common bile duct and intrahepatic duct those are not filled with contrast media. Balloon cholangiography was performed in case of uncertain diagnosis while operating endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography. First of all, we insert balloon catheter into the working channel of treatment jejunofiberscope and remove treatment jejunofiberscope after ballooning, and lastly take biliary tract X-ray after injection and changing position of patient. The results of this study were as follows. (1) In classification of diseases, stones of gall bladder, those of common bile duct, and those of intrahepatic duct were 30 cases, fistula was 1 case. (2) In total cases of 45, only diagnosis were 25 cases, interventional treatment were 20 cases. (3) In case of interventional treatment, endoscopic sphincterotomy and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, and stone removal were about the same, 7, 7, 6 respectively. Balloon cholangiography will be useful to prevent patients from having repeated and unnecessary studies for the cases above explained. It is considered that this study will be useful for clinical application in terms of reducing medical expenses, pain while examination, and consultation hours

  12. Immediate balloon deflation for prevention of persistent phrenic nerve palsy during pulmonary vein isolation by balloon cryoablation. (United States)

    Ghosh, Justin; Sepahpour, Ali; Chan, Kim H; Singarayar, Suresh; McGuire, Mark A


    Persistent phrenic nerve palsy is the most frequent complication of cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation and can be disabling. To describe a technique-immediate balloon deflation (IBD)-for the prevention of persistent phrenic nerve palsy, provide data for its use, and describe in vitro simulations performed to investigate the effect of IBD on the atrium and pulmonary vein. Cryoballoon procedures for atrial fibrillation were analyzed retrospectively (n = 130). IBD was performed in patients developing phrenic nerve dysfunction (n = 22). In vitro simulations were performed by using phantoms. No adverse events occurred, and all patients recovered normal phrenic nerve function before leaving the procedure room. No patient developed persistent phrenic nerve palsy. The mean cryoablation time to onset of phrenic nerve dysfunction was 144 ± 64 seconds. Transient phrenic nerve dysfunction was seen more frequently with the 23-mm balloon than with the 28-mm balloon (11 of 39 cases vs 11 of 81 cases; P = .036). Balloon rewarming was faster following IBD. The time to return to 0 and 20° C was shorter in the IBD group (6.7 vs 8.9 seconds; P = .007 and 16.7 vs 37.6 seconds; Pphrenic nerve palsy. Simulations suggest that IBD is unlikely to damage the atrium or pulmonary vein. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula using a silicone balloon and a tracker-catheter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Yong; Cho, Kil Ho; Park, Bok Hwan


    With the recent introduction and development of the detachable balloon system, it has become the treatment of choice in the management of carotid cavernous fistulas(CCFs). But, since most delivery systems for embolization of CCF mainly depend on flow guidance for balloon delivery, in case of small fistula, pseudo aneurysm and arterialized venous collaterals, failure of balloon embolization can occur. To overcome these limitation, the authors designed and used a new versatile, steerable, and flow-guided detachable balloon system by using a Tracker catheter system with silicone or latex balloons. Using this maneuver, we could get successful fistula occlusion in 7 out of 8 patients (silicone balloon). But in one case, we had to occlude the internal carotid artery at the fistula site, proximal and distal cervical portions of the internal carotid artery. This balloon delivery system proved to provide high selectivity for fistula and relatively ease of handing

  14. Stability analysis and trend study of a balloon tethered in a wind, with experimental comparisons (United States)

    Redd, L. T.; Bland, S. R.; Bennett, R. M.


    A stability analysis and trend study for a balloon tethered in a steady wind are presented. The linearized, stability-derivative type analysis includes balloon aerodynamics, buoyancy, mass (including apparent mass), and static forces resulting from the tether cable. The analysis has been applied to a balloon 7.64 m in length, and the results are compared with those from tow tests of this balloon. This comparison shows that the analysis gives reasonable predictions for the damping, frequencies, modes of motion, and stability boundaries exhibited by the balloon. A trend study for the 7.64-m balloon was made to illustrate how the stability boundaries are affected by changes in individual stability parameters. The trends indicated in this study may also be applicable to many other tethered-balloon systems.

  15. Multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit applications (United States)


    The multi-kW solar array program is concerned with developing the technology required to enable the design of solar arrays required to power the missions of the 1990's. The present effort required the design of a modular solar array panel consisting of superstrate modules interconnected to provide the structural support for the solar cells. The effort was divided into two tasks: (1) superstrate solar array panel design, and (2) superstrate solar array panel-to-panel design. The primary objective was to systematically investigate critical areas of the transparent superstrate solar array and evaluate the flight capabilities of this low cost approach.

  16. Examining the eastern Amazon Basin breeze circulations, channeling and boundary layer properties using altitude controlled meteorological balloons (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Voss, P. B.; Silva, R. D.; Callahan, S.; Dewald, A.; do Vale, R. S.


    During the period August 24-28, 2016, in a delayed component the GO-Amazon Project, we launched nine altitude-controlled free balloons (CMET). Smaller than typical rawinsondes, CMET are equipped with altitude control, global communication via Iridium satellite, and aspirated sensors. The aims of our effort were to examine the interactions among convective boundary layer and dual river breeze circulations near the confluence of the Tapajos and Amazon Rivers in the eastern Basin. The week-long field campaign was timed to examine the reestablishment of the breeze circulations shortly after the passage of a strong instability line on August 22. Nine CMET were launched at the Curua-Una hydroelectric dam (2.8S; 54.3W), timed to encounter the Tapajos river breeze front by late afternoon. Soundings were made to establish the thickness of interface between the easterly trade and westerly Tapajos breeze circulation. Careful use of sounding strategies allowed these free balloons to track along the northerly channeled flow in the lowest 300 m above the River. Following the river encounter, balloons tracked to the west, sounding to describe the diurnal course of boundary layer in the forest west of the Tapajos River. The longest flight traveled more than 770 km over three days and twice rested overnight in the rain forest canopy. Ancillary data from surface climate and flux stations as well as the Santarem radiosonde, satellite images will be used to illustrate how the breeze circulations are seen near the surface and how they were disrupted by larger-scale events. Comparisons with HYSPLIT trajectories will illustrate how sensitive real trajectories are to the refraction that the encounter with the breeze effects.

  17. Solar Probe Cup: Laboratory Performance (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.


    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Paker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun at as close as 9.86 solar radii. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  18. Optimizing logistics for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices by doing away with the indwelling balloon: concept and techniques. (United States)

    Saad, Wael E; Nicholson, David B


    Since the conception of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices 25 years ago, the placement of an indwelling balloon for hours has been central to the BRTO procedure. Numerous variables and variations of the BRTO procedure have been described, including methods to reduce sclerosant, combining percutaneous transhepatic obliteration, varying sclerosant, and using multiple sclerosants within the same procedure. However, the consistent feature of BRTO has always remained the indwelling balloon. Placing an indwelling balloon over hours for the BRTO procedure is a logistical burden that taxes the interventional radiology team and hospital resources. Substituting the balloon with hardware (coils or Amplatzer vascular plugs [AVPs] or both) is technically feasible and its risks most likely correlate with gastrorenal shunt (GRS) size. The current authors use packed 0.018- or 0.035-in coils or both for small gastric variceal systems (GRS size A and B) and AVPs for GRS sizes up to size E (from size A-E). The current authors recommend an indwelling balloon (no hardware substitute) for very large gastric variceal system (GRS size F). Substituting the indwelling balloon for hardware in size F and potentially size E GRS can also be risky. The current article describes the techniques of placing up to 16-mm AVPs through balloon occlusion guide catheters and then deflating the balloon once it has been substituted with the AVPs. In addition, 22-mm AVPs can be placed through sheaths once the balloon occlusion catheters are removed to further augment the 16-mm Amplatzer occlusion. To date, there are no studies describing, let alone evaluating, the clinical feasibility of performing BRTO without indwelling balloons. The described techniques have been successfully performed by the current authors. However, the long-term safety and effectiveness of these techniques is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Resource Capturing, Exploration, and Exploitation (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system (AMOSS) has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high-energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (He-3) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. 3He and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest, with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of AMOSS. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and helium 4 (He-4) are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential exists for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer-planet atmosphere to investigate cloud formation dynamics, global weather, localized storms or other disturbances, wind speeds, the poles, and so forth. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or 4He may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants.

  20. Solar Energy. (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  1. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system (United States)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.


    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  2. Solar energy (United States)

    Rapp, D.


    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  3. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander


    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  4. Solar Systems (United States)


    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  5. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.


    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  6. An analysis of the deployment of a pumpkin balloon at Mars (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Phillips, M. L.


    The design of large superpressure balloons has received significant attention in recent years due to the successful demonstration of various enabling technologies and materials. Of particular note is the "pumpkin" shaped balloon concept, which allows the stress in the envelope to be limited by the surface geometry. Unlike a sphere, where the radius used to determine the stress is determined by the volume of the balloon, the pumpkin utilizes a system of meridional tendons to react the loading in one direction, and form a number of lobes, which limit the stress in the circumferential direction. A suitable superpressure balloon has been designed using this technology which will carry 2 kg in the atmosphere of Mars. The deployment of this balloon is assumed to occur while falling on a decelerator suitably designed for the Mars atmosphere. The inflation is accomplished by a 10 kg system suspended at the nadir of the balloon. As the system falls toward the surface of the planet, helium gas is transferred into the balloon, forming a partially inflated system very similar to an ascending zero pressure balloon. This analysis incorporates the flow of the planetary gas around the inflating balloon which alters the pressure distribution and shape. As a result, stresses are seen to increase beyond the design values which will require the balloon to be redesigned to accommodate this type of dynamic deployment.

  7. Development of a Super-Pressure Balloon with an Improved Design (United States)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Akita, Daisuke; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Kato, Yoichi; Kawada, Jiro; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Mizuta, Eiichi; Nakada, Takashi; Nonaka, Naoki; Saito, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi; Tamura, Keisuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    A zero-pressure balloon used for scientific observation in the stratosphere has an unmanageable limitation that its floating altitude decreases during a nighttime because of temperature drop of the lifting gas. Since a super-pressure balloon may not change its volume, the lifetime can extend very long. We had introduced so called the ‘lobed-pumpkin’ type of super-pressure balloon that can realize a full-scale long-duration balloon and it will be in practical use in the very near future. As for larger super-pressure balloons, however, we still have some potential difficulties to be resolved. We here propose a new design suitable for a larger super-pressure balloon, which is roughly ‘lobed pumpkin with lobed cylinder’ and can adapt a single design for balloons of a wide range of volumes. Indoor inflation tests were successfully carried out with balloons designed and made by the method. It has been shown that the limit of the resisting pressure differential for a new designed balloon is same as that of a normal lobed-pumpkin balloon.

  8. Stability of Balloon-Retention Gastrostomy Tubes with Different Concentrations of Contrast Material: In Vitro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera, Jorge E.; Alvarez, Alex; Trimmer, Clayton; Josephs, Shellie; Anderson, Matthew; Dolmatch, Bart


    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of two balloon-retention-type gastrostomy tubes when the balloons are inflated with two types of contrast materials at different concentrations. Two commonly used balloon-retention-type tubes (MIC and Tri-Funnel) were inflated to the manufacturer's recommended volumes (4 and 20 cm 3 , respectively) with normal saline or normal saline plus different concentrations of contrast material. Five tubes of each brand were inflated with normal saline and 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% contrast material dilutions, using either nonionic hyperosmolar contrast, or nonionic iso-osmolar contrast. The tubes were submerged in a glass basin containing a solution with a pH of 4. Every week the tubes were visually inspected to determine the integrity of the balloons, and the diameter of the balloons was measured with a caliper. The tests were repeated every week for a total of 12 weeks. The MIC balloons deflated slightly faster over time than the Tri-Funnel balloons. The Tri-Funnel balloons remained relatively stable over the study period for the different concentrations of contrast materials. The deflation rates of the MIC balloons were proportionally related to the concentration of saline and inversely related to the concentration of the contrast material. At high contrast material concentrations, solidification of the balloons was observed. In conclusion, this in vitro study confirms that the use of diluted amounts of nonionic contrast materials is safe for inflating the balloons of two types of balloon-retention feeding tubes. High concentrations of contrast could result in solidification of the balloons and should be avoided.

  9. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.


    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  10. Flight code validation simulator (United States)

    Sims, Brent A.


    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which Inertial Measurement Unit data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System in January of 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  11. Flight control actuation system (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)


    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  12. Transjugular balloon mitral valvotomy in a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Joseph


    Full Text Available Balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV performed by the conventional transfemoral approach can be difficult or even impossible in the presence of structural impediments such as severe kyphoscoliosis, gross cardiac anatomic distortion and inferior vena caval anomalies. A 25-year-old woman with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis due to poliomyelitis presented with symptomatic rheumatic mitral valve stenosis. After the failure of transfemoral BMV, the procedure was attempted from the right jugular access, using a modified septal puncture technique. The left atrium was entered from the jugular access and the mitral valve was crossed and dilated successfully using over the wire balloon technique. Transjugular BMV is an effective alternative in patients with kyphoscoliotic spine that preclude transfemoral approach. The detailed technique used for the procedure, its advantages as well as the other percutaneous treatment options are also discussed.

  13. [Adherence and fidelity in patients treated with intragastric balloon]. (United States)

    Mazure, R A; Cancer, E; Martínez Olmos, M A; De Castro, M L; Abilés, V; Abilés, J; Bretón, I; Álvarez, V; Peláez, N; Culebras, J M


    A correct treatment of obesity needs a program of habits modification regardless of the selected technique, especially if it is minimally invasive as the intragastric balloon (BIG). The adherence of the obese patients with regard to recommended drugs measures to medium- and long-term is less than 50%. Given that the results obtained using the technique of gastric balloon must be seen influenced by adherence to the modification of habits program and its fulfillment, we reviewed series published in attention to the program proposed with the BIG. The series published to date provide few details about the used Therapeutic Programs as well as the adherence of patients to them, and even less concerning the Monitoring Plan and the loyalty of the patient can be seen. We conclude the convenience to agree on a follow-up strategy, at least the 6 months during which the BIG remain in the stomach.

  14. Observations of volcanic plumes using small balloon soundings (United States)

    Voemel, H.


    Eruptions of volcanoes are very difficult to predict and for practical purposes may occur at any time. Any observing system intending to observe volcanic eruptions has to be ready at any time. Due to transport time scales, emissions of large volcanic eruptions, in particular injections into the stratosphere, may be detected at locations far from the volcano within days to weeks after the eruption. These emissions may be observed using small balloon soundings at dedicated sites. Here we present observations of particles of the Icelandic Grimsvotn eruption at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Germany in the months following the eruption and observations of opportunity of other volcanic particle events. We also present observations of the emissions of SO2 from the Turrialba volcano at San Jose, Costa Rica. We argue that dedicated sites for routine observations of the clean and perturbed atmosphere using small sounding balloons are an important element in the detection and quantification of emissions from future volcanic eruptions.

  15. Ballooning instabilities in tokamaks with sheared toroidal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.; Chen, L.


    The stability of ballooning modes in the presence of sheared toroidal flows is investigated. The eigenmodes are shown to be related by a Fourier transformation to the non-exponentially growing Floquet solutions found by Cooper. It is further shown that the problem cannot be reduced further than to a two dimensional partial differential equation. Next, the generalized ballooning equation is solved analytically for a circular tokamak equilibrium with sonic flows, but with a small rotation shear compared to the sound speed. With this ordering, the centrifugal forces are comparable to the pressure gradient forces driving the instability, but coupling of the mode with the sound wave is avoided. A new stability criterion is derived which explicitly demonstrates that flow shear is stabilizing at constant centrifugal force gradient. 34 refs

  16. Dosimetry of beta emitting radionuclides for use in balloon angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.A.


    The dose at varying distances from the surface of an infinite cylinder containing 90 Y, 32 P and 188 Re respectively is calculated using published scaled point dose kernels for these three radionuclides. It is shown that all are suitable radionuclides for use in the irradiation of arteries subsequent to balloon angioplasty. All three may be used as a radioactive liquid in the angioplasty balloon, thereby simplifying the procedure and enabling a uniform radiation dose to be given to the arterial wall. It is however shown that there is a rapid reduction in dose with distance from the arterial wall which demands careful specification of the prescribed radiation dose. A similar rapid reduction with distance is also found with a central radioactive wire or with a radioactive stent containing the same radionuclides. (author)

  17. Star camera aspect system suitable for use in balloon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.D.; Baker, R.G.


    A balloon-borne experiment containing a star camera aspect system was designed, built, and flown. This system was designed to provide offset corrections to the magnetometer and inclinometer readings used to control an azimuth and elevation pointed experiment. The camera is controlled by a microprocessor, including commendable exposure and noise rejection threshold, as well as formatting the data for telemetry to the ground. As a background program, the microprocessor runs the aspect program to analyze a fraction of the pictures taken so that aspect information and offset corrections are available to the experiment in near real time. The analysis consists of pattern recognition of the star field with a star catalog in ROM memory and a least squares calculation. The performance of this system in ground based tests is described. It is part of the NASA/GSFC High Energy Gamma-Ray Balloon Instrument (2)

  18. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.W.; Lao, L.L.; Taylor, T.S.


    A new code demonstrates the stabilization of MHD ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation. A shifted model is used to elucidate the physics and numerically reconstructed equilibria are used to analyze DIII-D discharges. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and, in the shifted circle model, direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is a fraction of the Alfven frequency ω A = V A /qR. Shear stabilization is also demonstrated for an equilibrium reconstruction of a DIII-D VH-mode

  19. Accelerated partial breast irradiation utilizing balloon brachytherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Jonathan B.; Dickler, Adam


    To overcome the barriers to BCT, methods of PBI in the setting of breast conservation have been explored. The method of PBI with the longest published follow-up is multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy. Balloon-based brachytherapy with the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator was designed to simplify the brachytherapy procedure for PBI, enhance the reproducibility of the dosimetry, and improve patient comfort. The rates of local recurrence following PBI with the MammoSite applicator have been low, but there are few published reports and follow-up has been relatively short. The cosmetic outcomes and toxicity of MammoSite PBI are comparable to those seen after multicatheter-based PBI. Additional methods of balloon brachytherapy, including Xoft and SenoRx Contura have been developed. Finally, long-term follow-up after PBI is important for the welfare of individual patients and in order to establish the efficacy, late toxicity and cosmetic outcomes of this technique.

  20. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi


    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.