WorldWideScience

Sample records for balloon borne apparatus

  1. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  2. Planetary Science with Balloon-Borne Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Cheng, Andy; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    of the residual motion from the gondola that was not addressed by the gondolas coarse pointing systems. The mission met its primary science and engineering objectives. The results of the BOPPS mission will feed into the body of science knowledge but also feed into future planning for more science from balloon-borne platforms. A notional platform called Gondola for High-Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) has been explored and this concept platform can address a number of important decadal questions. This paper provides a summary of the assessment of potential balloon borne observations for planetary science purposes including where potential science contributions can be expected, the necessary performance characteristics of the platform, and other features required or desired. The BOPPS mission is summarized including descriptions of the main elements and key science and engineering results. The paper then briefly describes GHAPS, and the salient features that can make it a valuable tool for future planetary observations.

  3. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Satoru; Group, for the Emulsion Gamma-ray Telescope

    2010-01-01

    By detecting the beginning of electron pairs with nuclear emulsion, precise gamma-ray direction and gamma-ray polarization can be detected. With recent advancement in emulsion scanning system, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming powerful. Now we are developing the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion. Overview and status of our telescope is described.

  4. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-speed, high-capacity digital data storage system has been developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates sophisticated, yet easy to use and economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts

  5. European activities in balloon-borne infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared and submillimeter astronomy contributes essentially to the understanding of basic astrophysical processes (e.g. formation and evolution of stars and galaxies, origin of the universe). Atmospheric emission and absorption place severe constraints on the wavelength range and sensitivity of corresponding ground-based measurements. Since no infrared astronomical satellite is in operation yet, balloon-borne instruments are the ones with the highest sensitivity. Approximately ten European groups are active in this field and have produced important scientific results within the last ten years. Their work can be divided into four groups: investigation of the solar system; stellar evolution; galactic evolution and origin of the universe. (Auth.)

  6. Pointing System for the Balloon-Borne Astronomical Payloads

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmal, K; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle, or in areal photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  7. The balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new detector system developed for high-altitude balloon flights to observe the cosmic-ray electrons above 10 GeV. The Balloon borne Electron Telescope with Scintillating (BETS) fibers instrument is an imaging calorimeter which is capable of selecting electrons against the large background of protons. The calorimeter is composed of a sandwich of scintillating optical-fiber belts and lead plates with a combination of three plastic scintillators for shower trigger. The total thickness of lead is 40 mm (∼ 7.1 r.l.) and the number of fiber belts is nine. In each belt, alternating layers are oriented in orthogonal (x and y) directions. Two sets of an intensified CCD camera are adopted for read-out of the scintillating fibers in the x and y direction, respectively. The accelerator beam tests were carried out to study the performance of detector for electrons in 1996 and for protons in 1997 at CERN-SPS. The instrument was successfully flown aboard high-altitude balloon in 1997 and 1998. It is demonstrated by the flight data that a reliable identification of the electron component has been achieved in 10-100 GeV and the energy spectrum has been obtained

  8. Precision Attitude Control for the BETTII Balloon-Borne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rinehart. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. Operating at wavelengths of 30-90 microns, BETTII will obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets at angular resolutions down to less than half an arcsecond, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This requires attitude control at a level ofless than a tenth of an arcsecond, a great challenge for a lightweight balloon-borne system. We have designed a precision attitude determination system to provide gondola attitude knowledge at a level of 2 milliarcseconds at rates up to 100Hz, with accurate absolute attitude determination at the half arcsecond level at rates of up to 10Hz. A mUlti-stage control system involving rigid body motion and tip-tilt-piston correction provides precision pointing stability to the level required for the far-infrared instrument to perform its spatial/spectral interferometry in an open-loop control. We present key aspects of the design of the attitude determination and control and its development status.

  9. The Balloon-Borne Exoplanet Experiment (EchoBeach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Balloon-Borne Exoplanet Experiment (EchoBeach) is a proposed sub-orbital spectroscopic instrument. Its primary scientific goal is to detect and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets in the Mid-IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 4 to 20 μm using a 1.6m diameter telescope. It is in this wavelength range where the contrast between the star and planet emission grows exponentially, and this spectral region is key to answering important questions about the existence and composition of exp-atmospheres. Due to the Earth atmospheric absorption and emission, bservations at these wavelength are impossible from the ground or even at aircraft altitudes, but become available to balloon-born instrumentation flying in the upper stratosphere. At present we have high fidelity Mid-IR spectra of just two exoplanets of any type. EchoBeach can greatly improve on this by observing a multitude of transiting exoplanets, well in advance of any planned space-mission.

  10. Prototype TIGRE Compton γ-ray balloon-borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; O'Neill, T. J.; Akyüz, A.; Samimi, J.; Zych, A. D.

    2004-02-01

    A prototype balloon-borne telescope is being constructed for γ-ray observations in the MeV energy range. The Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) uses multi-layers of thin silicon detectors to track and measure the energy losses of Compton recoil electrons. When combined with the direction and energy of the Compton scattered γ-ray a unique incident direction for each photon event is determined. This facilitates background rejection, improved sensitivity and image reconstruction. The converter/tracker also serves as an electron-positron pair detector for γ-rays up to 100 MeV. The initial continental US flight will be used to determine the sub-orbital atmospheric backgrounds and search for polarized γ-emission for the Crab pulsar. Longer southern hemisphere flights with an enhanced instrument will map out the 26Al emissions from the galactic center region.

  11. A balloon-borne microwave limb sounder for stratospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balloon-borne microwave limb sounder (BMLS) measures atmospheric thermal emission from millimeter wavelength spectral lines to determine vertical profiles of stratospheric species. The instrument flown to date operates at 205 GHz to measure C10, O3, and H2O2. A 63 GHz radiometer will be added to test the technique for determining tangent point pressure from the MLS experiment on the upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS). Many additional species could also be measured by the BMLS. A radiometer at 270 GHz would provide measurements of HO2, NO2, HNO3, N2O, 16O18O16O, and HCN. With this addition, the BMLS can test the current theory of O3 photochemical balance in the upper stratosphere

  12. The balloon-borne exoplanet spectroscopy experiment (BETSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, E.

    2015-10-01

    The balloon-borne exoplanet spectroscopy experiment (BETSE) is a proposed balloon spectrometer operating in the 1-5 μm band with spectral resolution of R = 100. Using a 50 cm diameter telescope, BETSE is desgnied to have sufficient sensitivity and control of systematics to measure the atmospheric spectra of representative sample of known hot Jupiters, few warm Neptunes, and some of the exoplanets TESS will soon begin to discover. This would for the first time allow us to place strict observational constraints on the nature of exo-atmospheres and on models of planetary formation. In a LDB flight from Antarctica, BETSE would be able to characterize the atmospheres of 20 planets. If a ULDB flight is available, the combination of a longer flight and night time operations would enable BETSE to ground-breakingly characterize the atmospheres of more than 40 planets. Prior to an LDB or ULDB flight, BETSE would be tested in a 24 hr flight from Fort Sumner, NM, in order to test all subsystems, also observing more than 4 planets with SNR greater than 5.

  13. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  14. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  15. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, E; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Marsden, G; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Mauskopf, P; Netterfield, C B; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Wiebe, D V

    2007-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 micron. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 micron. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~<5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. Since a test-flight in ...

  16. A Balloon-borne Telescope for Planetary Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Yuji; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakano, Toshihiko; Fujimura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Mutsumi

    2012-07-01

    This presentation reports the development status of the balloon-borne telescope(BBT) for planetary observations which is scheduled to launch in August 2012. The BBT flies in the stratosphere where the atmosphere is as 1/100 thin as that around the ground, and is higher than the ozone layer. The telescope can receive star light with the band from NIR to UV through less atmospheric distortions. Our project aims to take images of target planets from the BBT in such advantageous environment, and to observe atmospheric phenomena in other planets. As the technology demonstration, a prototype flight system with a 30cm diameter telescope was launched in 2009 in Japan. The second demonstration with an improved system is scheduled to launch in this August. With the improved flight system, the BBT is expected to take images of Venus with the resolution of as high as 0.2 arc-seconds in a few hours. Eventually, the BBT is planned to launch into the polar jet stream and to observe target planets in a few hundreds hours. For the following flight observation, the successor flight system is already being developed. In this presentation, the target planets and its science which the project aims are briefly introduced. And also the development status of the flight system for the next launch is introduced.

  17. EBEX: A balloon-borne CMB polarization experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Ade, Peter; Aubin, Françcois; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grain, Julien; Grainger, William; Hanany, Shaul; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Meng, Xiaofan; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Pascale, Enzo; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Stivoli, Federico; Stompor, Radek; Tran, Huan; Tristram, Matthieu; Tucker, Gregory S; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations will be made using 1432 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric detectors read out with frequency multiplexed SQuIDs. EBEX will observe in three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, with 768, 384, and 280 detectors in each band, respectively. This broad frequency coverage is designed to provide valuable information about polarized foreground signals from dust. The polarized sky signals will be modulated with an achromatic half wave plate (AHWP) rotating on a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and analyzed with a fixed wire grid polarizer. EBEX will observe a patch covering ~1% of the sky with 8' resolution, allowing for observation of the angular power spectrum from \\ell = 20 to 1000. This will allow EBEX to search for both the primordial B-mode signal predicted by inflation and the anticipated lensing B-mode signal. Calculations to predict EBEX constrain...

  18. Demonstration of a Balloon Borne Arc-Second Pointer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Keith D.; Ward, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    Many designs for utilizing stratospheric balloons as low-cost platforms on which to conduct space science experiments have been proposed throughout the years. A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which these vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target. A significant number of scientists have sought the ability to point their instruments with jitter in the arc-second range. This paper presents the design and analysis of a stratospheric balloon borne pointing system that is able to meet this requirement. The test results of a demonstration prototype of the design with similar ability are also presented. Discussion of a high fidelity controller simulation for design analysis is presented. The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis. A multiple controller scheme is utilized for coarse and fine pointing. Coarse azimuth pointing is accomplished by an established pointing system, with extensive flight history, residing above the gondola structure. A pitch-yaw gimbal mount is used for fine pointing, providing orthogonal axes when nominally on target. Fine pointing actuation is from direct drive dc motors, eliminating backlash problems. An analysis of friction nonlinearities and a demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided. A unique bearing hub design is introduced that eliminates static friction from the system dynamics. A control scheme involving linear accelerometers for enhanced disturbance rejection is also presented. Results from a linear analysis of the total system and the high fidelity simulation are given. Results from a generalized demonstration prototype are presented. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware was used to demonstrate the efficacy and performance of the pointer design for a mock instrument. Sub-arcsecond pointing ability from a ground hang test setup

  19. The Cosmic Foreground Explorer (COFE): A balloon-borne microwave polarimeter to characterize polarized foregrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Rodrigo; Williams, Brian; Bersanelli, Marco; Ferreira, Ivan; Lubin, Philip M.; Meinhold, Peter R.; O'Neill, Hugh,; Stebor, Nathan C.; Villa, Fabrizio; Villela, Thyrso; Wuensche, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    The COsmic Foreground Explorer (COFE) is a balloon-borne microwave polarime- ter designed to measure the low-frequency and low-l characteristics of dominant diffuse polarized foregrounds. Short duration balloon flights from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres will allow the telescope to cover up to 80% of the sky with an expected sensitivity per pixel better than 100 $\\mu K / deg^2$ from 10 GHz to 20 GHz. This is an important effort toward characterizing the polarized foregrounds for future...

  20. Design and construction of a carbon fiber gondola for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, J D; Amiri, M; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, C; Contaldi, C C; Crill, B P; Doré, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Gambrel, A E; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; O'Brient, R; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Shariff, J A; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the light-weight carbon fiber and aluminum gondola designed for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope. SPIDER is designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation with unprecedented sensitivity and control of systematics in search of the imprint of inflation: a period of exponential expansion in the early Universe. The requirements of this balloon-borne instrument put tight constrains on the mass budget of the payload. The SPIDER gondola is designed to house the experiment and guarantee its operational and structural integrity during its balloon-borne flight, while using less than 10% of the total mass of the payload. We present a construction method for the gondola based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer tubes with aluminum inserts and aluminum multi-tube joints. We describe the validation of the model through Finite Element Analysis and mechanical tests.

  1. Thermal design and performance of the balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry BLASTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, J D; Angilè, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Mroczkowski, A; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Thomas, N E; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the thermal model of the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). This instrument was successfully flown in two circumpolar flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. During these two flights, BLASTPol obtained unprecedented information about the magnetic field in molecular clouds through the measurement of the polarized thermal emission of interstellar dust grains. The thermal design of the experiment addresses the stability and control of the payload necessary for this kind of measurement. We describe the thermal modeling of the payload including the sun-shielding strategy. We present the in-flight thermal performance of the instrument and compare the predictions of the model with the temperatures registered during the flight. We describe the difficulties of modeling the thermal behavior of the balloon-borne platform and establish landmarks that can be used in the design of future balloon-borne instruments.

  2. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop on balloon-borne experiments with superconducting magnet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Work Shop on Balloon Borne Experiment with a Superconducting Magnet Spectrometer was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan on February 24 - 25, 1992. The main effort for this workshop was focused on the progress of the BESS (Balloon Borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer) experiment and on the scope for scientific investigation with the BESS detector. The progress was reviewed and further investigation was discussed for the BESS further scientific collaboration among Univ. of Tokyo, Kobe University, KEK, ISAS and NMSU. (J.P.N.)

  3. GRAPE: a balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Bancroft, Christopher; Bloser, Peter F.; Connor, Taylor; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James M.

    2009-08-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50 - 500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module that has been calibrated at a polarized hard X-ray beam and flown on an engineering balloon test flight. A full-scale scientific balloon payload, consisting of up to 36 modules, is currently under development. The first flight, a one-day flight scheduled for 2011, will verify the expected scientific performance with a pointed observation of the Crab Nebula. We will then propose long-duration balloon flights to observe gamma-ray bursts and solar flares.

  4. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  5. Balloon-Borne, High-Energy Astrophysics: Experiences from the 1960s to the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2008-01-01

    Observational high-energy astrophysics in the hard-x-ray and gamma-ray regions owes its development and initial successes to the balloon-borne development of detector systems, as well as pioneering observations, primarily in the timeframe from the 1960s to the 1990s. I will describe some of the first observations made by the Rice University balloon group in the 1960s, including the impetus for these observations. The appearance of SN 1987a led to several balloon-flight campaigns, sponsored by NASA, from Alice Springs, Australia in 1987 and 1988. During the 1980s, prototypes of instruments for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory were flown on many balloon flights, which greatly enhanced the success of that mission.

  6. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion : overview and status

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Shigeki; Hamada, Kaname; Hara, Toshio; Iyono, Atsushi; Kawada, Jiro; Kazuyama, Masashi; Kodama, Koichi; Komatsu, Masahiro; Koshiba, Shinichiro; Kubota, Hirotaka; Miyamoto, Seigo; Miyanishi, Motoaki; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Naka, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Nonoyama, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Keita; Rokujo, Hiroki; Sako, Takashi; Sato, Osamu; Sato, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Atsumu; Suzuki, Kazuya; Takahashi, Satoru; Tezuka, Ikuo; Yoshida, Junya; Yoshioka, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the first electron pairs with nuclear emulsion allows a precise measurement of the direction of incident gamma-rays as well as their polarization. With recent innovations in emulsion scanning, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming increasingly powerful. Presently, we are developing a balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope using nuclear emulsion. An overview and a status of our telescope is given.

  7. A review of infrared and submillimeter astronomy with balloon-borne telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared and submillimeter astronomical observations performed with balloon-borne instruments have produced major contributions to the understanding of many areas of astrophysics. A review of recent results obtained on the cosmic background radiation, galactic structure, star formation processes, the outer planets and the solar atmosphere are presented. (author)

  8. Fine tracking system for balloon-borne telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, M.; Pedichini, F.; Lorenzetti, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study along with a first prototype of a high precision system (? 1 arcsec) for pointing and tracking light (near-infrared) telescopes on board stratospheric balloons. Such a system is essentially composed by a star sensor and by a star tracker, able to recognize the field and to adequately track the telescope, respectively. We present the software aimed at processing the star sensor image and the predictive algorithm that allows the fine tracking of the source at a...

  9. Background Measurements from Balloon-Borne CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J A; Grindlay, J E; Bloser, P F; Stahle, C K; Parker, B; Barthelmy, S D; Jenkins, Johnathan A; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl; Parker, Brad; Barthelmy, Scott

    2002-01-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CZT detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10mm x 10mm x 5mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 $\\times$ 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman material. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40deg field-of-view collimator (comprisinga graded passive shield and plastic scintillator) used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previous detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental back...

  10. A high performance anticoincidence rejection system for balloon borne MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supernova SN1987A have been observed in the range of hard X-rays (15 / 180 KeV) and high energy γ-rays (50 / 500 MeV) with a payload launched from the balloon facility of Alice Springs (Australia) during April 1987 and 1988. The low energy detector based on a MWPC had a sensitive area of 500 cm/sup 2/. In the second flight a complete plastic shield was added for the first time to the Multiwire Proportional Counter (MWPC). In this way, switching on the active shield, the background counting rate dropped from 4.2 to 2.8 x 10/sup -4/ ct/cm/sup 2/ s keV with no change in the dead time of the counter. This clearly demonstrates the advantage of the use of a multitechnique rejection system for this kind of gaseous detectors

  11. Fine tracking system for balloon-borne telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, M; Lorenzetti, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study along with a first prototype of a high precision system (? 1 arcsec) for pointing and tracking light (near-infrared) telescopes on board stratospheric balloons. Such a system is essentially composed by a star sensor and by a star tracker, able to recognize the field and to adequately track the telescope, respectively. We present the software aimed at processing the star sensor image and the predictive algorithm that allows the fine tracking of the source at a sub-pixel level. The laboratory tests of the system are described and its performance is analyzed. We demonstrate how such a device, when used at the focal plane of enough large telescopes (2-4m, F/10), is capable to provide (sub-)arcsec diffraction limited images in the near infrared bands.

  12. The University of Toronto's balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunch, D.; Drummond, J. R.; Midwinter, C.; Taylor, J. R.; Fu, D.; Walker, K. A.; McElroy, C. T.; Strong, K.; Bernath, P.; Fast, H.

    The University of Toronto s Fourier transform spectrometer U of T FTS derived from a Bomem DA5 Michelson-type interferometer was rebuilt and flown on the Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment MANTRA high-altitude balloon platform in September 2004 The U of T FTS has a resolution of 0 02 cm -1 a spectral range covering 1200-5000 cm -1 and InSb and MCT detectors that measure simultaneously The spectrometer was originally built in the 1980s and purchased by the Meteorological Service of Canada To prepare the instrument for flight the original software was replaced with new LabVIEW control software creating a robust and easily-controlled instrument adaptable to either remote control or lab-based work As a result of replacing the software most of the electronics had to be replaced creating a lighter lower-power more robust instrument A description of the refurbishment will be presented Despite balloon launch and gondola pointing system failures during the MANTRA 2004 campaign two spectra were recorded on each detector during sunset from a float height of 35 km The data indicate that the instrument performed well throughout the flight and had the payload pointing been under control would have retrieved a full set of occultation data The data that were acquired will be shown The U of T FTS has since participated in a ground-based FTS inter-comparison campaign with two other FTS instruments the University of Toronto s Toronto Atmospheric Observatory TAO FTS a complementary NDACC station Network for the Detection of

  13. PoGOLino: a scintillator-based balloon-borne neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kole, Merlin; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mozsi; Moretti, Elena; Pearce, Mark; Rydström, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    PoGOLino is a balloon-borne scintillator-based experiment developed to study the largely unexplored high altitude neutron environment at high geomagnetic latitudes. The instrument comprises two detectors that make use of LiCAF, a novel neutron sensitive scintillator, sandwiched by BGO crystals for background reduction. The experiment was launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Centre, Northern Sweden (geomagnetic latitude of $65^\\circ$), for a three hour flight during which the instrument took data up to an altitude of 30.9 km. The detector design and ground calibration results are presented together with the measurement results from the balloon flight.

  14. PoGOLino: A scintillator-based balloon-borne neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kole, Merlin, E-mail: merlin@particle.kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Chauvin, Maxime [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fukazawa, Yasushi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito [Tokuyama Corporation, Shunan, Yamaguchi (Japan); Jackson, Miranda [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kamae, Tune [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corporation, Shunan, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kawano, Takafumi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kiss, Mózsi; Moretti, Elena; Pearce, Mark; Rydström, Stefan [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Takahashi, Hiromitsu [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-01-11

    PoGOLino is a balloon-borne scintillator-based experiment developed to study the largely unexplored high altitude neutron environment at high geomagnetic latitudes. The instrument comprises two detectors that make use of LiCAF, a novel neutron sensitive scintillator, sandwiched by BGO crystals for background reduction. The experiment was launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Centre, Northern Sweden (geomagnetic latitude of 65°), for a three hour flight during which the instrument took data up to an altitude of 30.9 km. The detector design and ground calibration results are presented together with the measurement results from the balloon flight.

  15. The Cosmic Foreground Explorer (COFE): A balloon-borne microwave polarimeter to characterize polarized foregrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Leonardi, Rodrigo; Bersanelli, Marco; Ferreira, Ivan; Lubin, Philip M; Meinhold, Peter R; O'Neill, Hugh; Stebor, Nathan C; Villa, Fabrizio; Villela, Thyrso; Wuensche, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The COsmic Foreground Explorer (COFE) is a balloon-borne microwave polarime- ter designed to measure the low-frequency and low-l characteristics of dominant diffuse polarized foregrounds. Short duration balloon flights from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres will allow the telescope to cover up to 80% of the sky with an expected sensitivity per pixel better than 100 $\\mu K / deg^2$ from 10 GHz to 20 GHz. This is an important effort toward characterizing the polarized foregrounds for future CMB experiments, in particular the ones that aim to detect primordial gravity wave signatures in the CMB polarization angular power spectrum.

  16. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    A balloon borne telescope is one of the effective observation methods for planets under space environment. A telescope is carried up to the stratosphere at an altitude of higher than 32 km where the air density is as thin as 1/100 of that at the ground. The thin atmosphere gives a telescope better observation conditions: fine seeing, stable weather, and high transmittance especially in the infrared region. Moreover there is a chance that a planet can be continuously seen for a window longer than 24 hours from the polar stratosphere. The authors have been developing a balloon borne telescope system for years to take finer images of planets in the solar system., The first object is Venus, of which atmospheric motions are derived by tracking the changes of cloud patterns with bands of UV, visible and NIR. Highly precise pointing control within the error of sub-arcseconds is required so that the balloon borne telescope achieves its diffraction-limited spatial resolution. The flight system is equipped with a three-stage attitude and pointing control system in order to realize the desired pointing control precision. In 2009, the flight system was built and tested in various ground tests and an actual balloon flight. Although the balloon experiment failed due to trouble with an onboard computer, the ground tests before the flight operation have verified that the pointing control system can achieve pointing error of less than 0.2 arcseconds. The balloon borne telescope is being redesigned for a sequential observation of Venus, Mars and Jupiter in the summer of 2011. This flight will be a step for a long-duration observation in the polar stratosphere. Additionally, an observation of the sodium tail of Mercury with a small telescope and a wide field of view has been under consideration. Mercury has very thin atmosphere called a surface-bounded exosphere. Past observations by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes revealed that one of the atmospheric components, gaseous

  17. Analysis of Data from the Balloon Borne Gamma RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasti, Sambid K.; Bloser, Peter F.; Legere, Jason S.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.

    2016-04-01

    The Gamma Ray Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE), a balloon borne polarimeter for 50~300 keV gamma rays, successfully flew in 2011 and 2014. The main goal of these balloon flights was to measure the gamma ray polarization of the Crab Nebula. Analysis of data from the first two balloon flights of GRAPE has been challenging due to significant changes in the background level during each flight. We have developed a technique based on the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to estimate the background for the Crab observation. We found that the background depended mostly on the atmospheric depth, pointing zenith angle and instrument temperatures. Incorporating Anti-coincidence shield data (which served as a surrogate for the background) was also found to improve the analysis. Here, we present the calibration data and describe the analysis done on the GRAPE 2014 flight data.

  18. Near infrared multi-color photometry of red giants by a balloon-borne telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1974, near infrared photometry on fixed stars has been conducted with balloon-borne telescopes. The telescope was 15 cm in diameter. The purpose of the experiment is to observe the infrared spectra of red giants and super red giants at balloon altitude, and to study their atmospheric structure. In this experiment, the physical parameters of red giants and super red giants were determined, comparing the present data with line blanketed model atmosphere. The balloon was launched on September 16, 1977. The detector was PbS, and infrared in the wavelength range from 0.9 to 2.5 μm were observed. α Sco, α Her, epsilon Peg, delta Oph and low temperature stars were observed, and their effective temperature, surface gravity and turbulent velocity were determined. (Yoshimori, M.)

  19. Balloon-borne near-infrared multicolor photometry of late-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15-cm balloon-borne astronomical telescope (BAT-1) was constructed, and four-color near-infrared photometry of five M-type stars (α Sco, α Her, delta Vir, delta Oph, and σ Lib) and α Boo (K2IIIp) was carried out in its third fight during the night of May 29-30, 1976. The nearinfrared energy fluxes of the five M-type stars were derived for the pass bands of J(1.28 μm), H(1.59 μm), Ω(1.87 μm), and K(2.22 μm). The potential advantages of balloon-borne multicolor photometry by the BAT-1 are briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-borne in situ ...

  1. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J. P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh; Weidner, F.; K. Pfeilsticker; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include ( a) balloon-borne in situ...

  2. The Debris Disk Explorer: a balloon-borne coronagraph for observing debris disks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Jr., Lewis C.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Unwin, Stephen; Trauger, John; Krist, John; Aldrich, Jack; Brugarolas, Paul; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Wyatt, Mark; Stuchlik, David; Lanzi, James

    2013-01-01

    The Debris Disk Explorer (DDX) is a proposed balloon-borne investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. DDX will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of tens of disks. These measurements will enable us to place the Solar System in context. By imaging debris disks around nearby stars, DDX will reveal the presence of perturbing planets via their influence on disk struct...

  3. The balloon-borne large-aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry: BLAST-Pol

    OpenAIRE

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angile, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; David H. Hughes; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Marsden, Galen; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLAST-Pol is the reconstructed BLAST telescope, with the addition of linear polarization capability. Using a 1.8 m Cassegrain telescope, BLAST-Pol images the sky onto a focal plane that consists of 280 bolometric detectors in three arrays, observing simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 um. The...

  4. GRAINE project: The first balloon-borne, emulsion gamma-ray telescope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Kamada, Keiki; Mizutani, Saki; Nakagawa, Ryo; Ozaki, Keita; Rokujo, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    The GRAINE project (Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion) has been developed for the observation of cosmic γ-rays in the energy range 10 MeV-100 GeV with a precise (0.08°} at 1-2 GeV), polarization-sensitive, large-aperture-area (˜10 m^2) emulsion telescope by repeated long-duration balloon flights. In 2011, the first balloon-borne experiment was successfully performed with a 12.5 × 10cm^2 aperture area and 4.6 hour flight duration for a feasibility and performance test. Systematic detection, energy reconstruction, and timestamping of γ-ray events were performed across the whole area of the emulsion film, up to 45° incident zenith angle, down to 50 MeV γ-ray energy, with 97% detection reliability, 0.2 sec timestamp accuracy, and 98% timestamp reliability. A γ-ray data checking and calibration method was created using the γ-rays produced in the converter. We measured the atmospheric γ-ray flux in the energy range 50-300 MeV and obtained a first understanding of the cosmic γ-ray background. By combining the attitude data, we established a procedure for determining the γ-ray arrival direction in celestial coordinates. The first flight of the balloon-borne emulsion telescope confirmed its potential as a high-performance cosmic γ-ray detector.

  5. Mitral valve apparatus: echocardiographic features predicting the outcome of percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy

    OpenAIRE

    du Toit, R; Brice, EAW; Van Niekerk, JD; Doubell, AF

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives To evaluate the significance of involvement of subvalvular apparatus in the outcome of percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (PMBV) in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and to determine the predictive value of chordal length compared with current echocardiographic scores. Methods Patients with significant MS were selected according to the Massachusetts General Hospital score (MGHS). Chordal lengths were assessed as additional markers of disease. Standard percutaneous valvo...

  6. Precise Pointing and Stabilization Performance for the Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT): 2015 Test Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Romualdez, L J; Damaren, C J; Galloway, M N; Hartley, J W; Li, L; Massey, R J; Netterfield, C B

    2016-01-01

    Balloon-borne astronomy offers an attractive option for experiments that require precise pointing and attitude stabilization, due to a large reduction in the atmospheric interference observed by ground-based systems as well as the low-cost and short development time-scale compared to space-borne systems. The Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT) is an instrument designed to meet the technological requirements of high precision astronomical missions and is a precursor to the development of a facility class instrument with capabilities similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. The attitude determination and control systems (ADCS) for BIT, the design, implementation, and analysis of which are the focus of this paper, compensate for compound pendulation effects and other sub-orbital disturbances in the stratosphere to within 1-2$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (rms), while back-end optics provide further image stabilization down to 0.05$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (not discussed here). During the inaugural test flight from Timmins, Canada in S...

  7. Far-infared spectroscopic observations with a Balloon-Borne infrared telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first observations of far-infrared celestial objects using the 50-cm Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope were made in Alice Springs, Australia. Far-infrared spectrophotometric data between 45 and 115 μm were taken for the Orion-KL region, Saturn and a southern H II region RCW 38. The data including high excitation transition lines of CO for Orion-KL, O III lines for RCW 38 and a PH3 absorption feature of Saturn will be presented. (author)

  8. Project of Antarctic Balloon-Borne Measurements of the CR spectrum above 1020 EV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, R. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Chernov, D. V.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Sysojeva, T. I.

    Relatively simple detector SPHERE (spherical mirror ˜ 1.5m2 and retina of 100 pixels) is presented for the Antarctic balloon-borne measurements of the CR spectrum. Long time winter flight make it possible to measure the spectrum above 1020 eV . Comparison with satellite and ISS projects of the nearest future show that the efficiency of this detector is sufficiently high. The energy threshold is less (˜ 1018 eV ). The accuracy of the energy definition is high as two methods are together the measurement of the EAS fluorescence track in the atmosphere and the measurement of the full flux of the EAS Cherenkov light.

  9. The TopHat experiment: A balloon-borne instrument for mapping millimeter and submillimeter emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R.F.; Cheng, E.S.; Aguirre, J.E.;

    2005-01-01

    The TopHat experiment was designed to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on angular scales from 0.degrees 3 to 30 degrees and the thermal emission from both Galactic and extragalactic dust. The balloon-borne instrument had five spectral bands spanning frequencies...... from 175 to 630 GHz. The telescope was a compact, 1 m, on-axis Cassegrain telescope designed to scan the sky at a fixed elevation of 78 degrees. The radiometer used cryogenic bolometers coupled to a single feed horn via a dichroic filter system. The observing strategy was intended to efficiently cover...

  10. Low-frequency (f less than about 1 Hz) stratospheric electrical noise measured by balloon-borne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, I. B.; Mohl Madsen, M.; Dangelo, N.

    1983-01-01

    Low-frequency (f less than about 1 Hz) stratospheric electrical noise is occasionally observed by balloon-borne sensors. The phenomenon occurs 1-3 percent of the time, with maximum incidence during the morning hours. It appears to be related to fluctuations of the electrical conductivity of the medium around the balloons, produced by air turbulence due to the wind shear and/or gravity waves.

  11. Development and Application of a Versatile Balloon-Borne DOAS Spectrometer for Skylight Radiance and Atmospheric Trace Gas Profile Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Frank

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a novel balloon-borne DOAS instrument was developed, characterized in the laboratory and employed during 5 stratospheric balloon flights. Its light weight and small size allows versatile applications on different platforms and under several observation geometries (scanning and fixed limb, nadir, and direct sunlight). Skylight radiances in the UV/visible range between 330 and 550 nm are measured, and the recorded spectra are analyzed for column densities of ozo...

  12. Analysis of the Motion Control Methods for Stratospheric Balloon-Borne Gondola Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, gondola platform is one of the stratospheric balloon-borne platforms being in research focus at home and overseas. Comparing to other stratospheric balloon-borne platforms, such as airship platform, gondola platform has advantages of higher stability, rapid in motion regulation and lower energy cost but disadvantages of less supporting capacity and be incapable of fixation. While all platforms have the same goal of keeping them at accurate angle and right pose for the requirements of instruments and objects installed in the platforms, when platforms rotate round the ground level perpendicular. That is accomplishing motion control. But, platform control system has factors of low damper, excessive and uncertain disturbances by the reason of its being hung over balloon in the air, it is hard to achieve the desired control precision because platform is ease to deviate its benchmark motion. Thus, in the controlling procedure in order to get higher precision, it is crucial to perceive the platform's swing synchronously and rapidly, and restrain the influence of disturbances effectively, keep the platform's pose steadily. Furthermore, while the platform in the air regard control center in the ground as reference object, it is ultimate to select a appropriate reference frame and work out the coordinates and implement the adjustment by the PC104 controller. This paper introduces the methods of the motion control based on stratospheric balloon-borne gondola platform. Firstly, this paper compares the characteristic of the flywheel and CMG and specifies the key methods of obtaining two significant states which are 'orientation stability' state and 'orientation tracking' state for platform motion control procedure using CMG as the control actuator. These two states reduce the deviation amplitude of rotation and swing of gondola's motion relative to original motion due to stratospheric intense atmosphere disturbance. We define it as the first procedure. In next

  13. Analysis of the Motion Control Methods for Stratospheric Balloon-Borne Gondola Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H H [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Yuan, Z H [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Wu, J [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China)

    2006-10-15

    At present, gondola platform is one of the stratospheric balloon-borne platforms being in research focus at home and overseas. Comparing to other stratospheric balloon-borne platforms, such as airship platform, gondola platform has advantages of higher stability, rapid in motion regulation and lower energy cost but disadvantages of less supporting capacity and be incapable of fixation. While all platforms have the same goal of keeping them at accurate angle and right pose for the requirements of instruments and objects installed in the platforms, when platforms rotate round the ground level perpendicular. That is accomplishing motion control. But, platform control system has factors of low damper, excessive and uncertain disturbances by the reason of its being hung over balloon in the air, it is hard to achieve the desired control precision because platform is ease to deviate its benchmark motion. Thus, in the controlling procedure in order to get higher precision, it is crucial to perceive the platform's swing synchronously and rapidly, and restrain the influence of disturbances effectively, keep the platform's pose steadily. Furthermore, while the platform in the air regard control center in the ground as reference object, it is ultimate to select a appropriate reference frame and work out the coordinates and implement the adjustment by the PC104 controller. This paper introduces the methods of the motion control based on stratospheric balloon-borne gondola platform. Firstly, this paper compares the characteristic of the flywheel and CMG and specifies the key methods of obtaining two significant states which are 'orientation stability' state and 'orientation tracking' state for platform motion control procedure using CMG as the control actuator. These two states reduce the deviation amplitude of rotation and swing of gondola's motion relative to original motion due to stratospheric intense atmosphere disturbance. We define it as

  14. Large-Area Balloon-Borne Polarized Gamma Ray Observer (PoGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGO), to measure polarization of soft gamma rays (25-200 keV) using asymmetry in azimuth angle distribution of Compton scattering. PoGO will detect 10% polarization in 100mCrab sources in a 6-8 hour observation and bring a new dimension to studies on gamma ray emission/transportation mechanism in pulsars, AGNs, black hole binaries, and neutron star surface. The concept is an adaptation to polarization measurements of well-type phoswich counter technology used in balloon-borne experiments (Welcome-1) and AstroE2 Hard X-ray Detector. PoGO consists of close-packed array of 397 hexagonal well-type phoswich counters. Each unit is composed of a long thin tube (well) of slow plastic scintillator, a solid rod of fast plastic scintillator, and a short BGO at the base. A photomultiplier coupled to the end of the BGO detects light from all 3 scintillators. The rods with decay times 2) strike a fast scintillator, some are Compton scattered. A fraction of the scattered photons are absorbed in another rod (or undergo a second scatter). A valid event requires one clean fast signal of pulse-height compatible with photo-absorption (> 20keV) and one or more compatible with Compton scattering (< 10keV). Studies based on EGS4 (with polarization features) and Geant4 predict excellent background rejection and high sensitivity

  15. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  16. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Benton, S J; Amiri, M; Angilè, F E; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Doré, O P; Dowell, C D; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S R; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and powe...

  17. Far-infrared solar images taken from a balloon-borne platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on far-infrared brightness-temperature maps of the solar atmosphere is presented. They were taken with the aid of a 60 cm-diameter balloon-borne telescope at a height of 39 km in France. Three bandpass filters at the wavelengths 50 μm, 80 μm and 200 μm of 6 to 10% bandwidth were applied. The filters as well as the Au-doped Ge bolometer were cooled by liquid He. An observation on 30.4.83 represents the active Sun, while one on 28.9.84 shows the quiet Sun. The observations at the three wavelengths correspond to three different heights in the solar atmosphere at the transition of the photosphere and chromosphere. Over active regions, average temperature enhancements of 75 K to 250 K are observed relative to the inactive regions depending of the height in the solar atmosphere. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  18. Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large area (1 m x 1 m) double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2 to 100 MeV neutrons and 0.5 to 30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975. (U.S.)

  19. Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, A. D.; Herzo, D.; Koga, R.; Millard, W. A.; Moon, S.; Ryan, J.; Wilson, R.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1975-01-01

    A large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2-100 MeV neutrons and 0.5-30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975.

  20. Pre-flight integration and characterization of the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Rahlin, A S; Amiri, M; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Doré, O; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Gambrel, A E; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M F; Hilton, G; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Megerian, K; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; O'Brient, R; Reintsema, C; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of integration and characterization of the SPIDER instrument after the 2013 pre-flight campaign. SPIDER is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to probe the primordial gravitational wave signal in the degree-scale $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. With six independent telescopes housing over 2000 detectors in the 94 GHz and 150 GHz frequency bands, SPIDER will map 7.5% of the sky with a depth of 11 to 14 $\\mu$K$\\cdot$arcmin at each frequency, which is a factor of $\\sim$5 improvement over Planck. We discuss the integration of the pointing, cryogenic, electronics, and power sub-systems, as well as pre-flight characterization of the detectors and optical systems. SPIDER is well prepared for a December 2014 flight from Antarctica, and is expected to be limited by astrophysical foreground emission, and not instrumental sensitivity, over the survey region.

  1. The Half Wave Plate Rotator for the BLAST-TNG Balloon-Borne Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Hananiel; Ashton, Peter; Novak, Giles; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter; Doyle, Simon; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Tucker, Carole E.

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST-TNG) is an experiment designed to map magnetic fields in molecular clouds in order to study their role in the star formation process. The telescope will be launched aboard a high-altitude balloon in December 2016 for a 4-week flight from McMurdo station in Antarctica. BLAST-TNG will measure the polarization of submillimeter thermal emission from magnetically aligned interstellar dust grains, using large format arrays of kinetic inductance detectors operating in three bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns, with sub-arcminute angular resolution. The optical system includes an achromatic Half Wave Plate (HWP), mounted in a Half Wave Plate rotator (HWPr). The HWP and HWPr will operate at 4 K temperature to reduce thermal noise in our measurements, so it was crucial to account for the effects of thermal contraction at low temperature in the HWPr design. It was also equally important for the design to meet torque requirements while minimizing the power from friction and conduction dissipated at the 4 K stage. We also discuss our plan for cold testing the HWPr using a repurposed cryostat with a Silicon Diode thermometer read out by an EDAS-CE Ethernet data acquisition system.

  2. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.

  3. Ozone loss derived from balloon-borne tracer measurements and the SLIMCAT CTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Robinson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne measurements of CFC-11 (on flights of the DIRAC in situ gas chromatograph and the DESCARTES grab sampler, ClO and O3 were made during the 1999/2000 winter as part of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 campaign. Here we present the CFC-11 data from nine flights and compare them first with data from other instruments which flew during the campaign and then with the vertical distributions calculated by the SLIMCAT 3-D CTM. We calculate ozone loss inside the Arctic vortex between late January and early March using the relation between CFC-11 and O3 measured on the flights, the peak ozone loss (1200 ppbv occurs in the 440–470 K region in early March in reasonable agreement with other published empirical estimates. There is also a good agreement between ozone losses derived from three independent balloon tracer data sets used here. The magnitude and vertical distribution of the loss derived from the measurements is in good agreement with the loss calculated from SLIMCAT over Kiruna for the same days.

  4. The nuclear compton telescope: A balloon-borne soft γ-ray spectrometer, polarimeter, and imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, S. E.; Jean, P.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.; von Ballmoos, P.; Madden, N. W.; Luke, P. N.; Amman, M.; Burks, M. T.; Hull, E. L.; Craig, W.; Ziock, K.

    2001-10-01

    Our collaboration has begun the design and development of a prototype high resolution Compton telescope utilizing 3-D imaging germanium detectors. The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-15 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and polarization. NCT is a prototype design for the Advanced Compton Telescope, to study gamma-ray radiation with very high spectral resolution, moderate angular resolution, and high sensitivity. The instrument has a novel, ultra-compact design optimized for studying nuclear line emission in the critical 0.5-2 MeV range, and polarization in the 0.2-0.5 MeV range. We have proposed to develop and fly NCT on a conventional US balloon flight in Summer of 2004. This first flight will perform gamma-ray polarization measurements the Crab nebula, Crab pulsar, and Cyg X-1, and 26Al emission from the Cygnus Region. This flight will critically test the novel instrument technologies and analysis techniques we have developed for high resolution Compton telescopes, and qualify the payload to begin a series of ~10-day long duration ballon flights from Alice Springs, Australia starting in Spring 2005. .

  5. The Debris Disk Explorer: a balloon-borne coronagraph for observing debris disks

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Lewis C; Traub, Wesley; Unwin, Stephen; Trauger, John; Krist, John; Aldrich, Jack; Brugarolas, Paul; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Wyatt, Mark; Stuchlik, David; Lanzi, James

    2013-01-01

    The Debris Disk Explorer (DDX) is a proposed balloon-borne investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. DDX will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of tens of disks. These measurements will enable us to place the Solar System in context. By imaging debris disks around nearby stars, DDX will reveal the presence of perturbing planets via their influence on disk structure, and explore the physics and history of debris disks by characterizing the size and composition of disk dust. The DDX instrument is a 0.75-m diameter off-axis telescope and a coronagraph carried by a stratospheric balloon. DDX will take high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Two flights are planned; an overnight test flight within the United States followed by a month-long science flight launched from New Zealand. The long flight will fully explore the set of known de...

  6. Fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere with the new balloon-borne instrument LITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Theuerkauf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere for high resolution wind turbulence soundings up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed applying a constant temperature anemometer (CTA with a vertical resolution of ~2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched at any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007 LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 at Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students. We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. First case studies allow a clear distinction between non-turbulent layers and turbulent layers with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.

  7. Computer program design specifications for the Balloon-borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer (BUSS) science data decommutation program (BAPS48)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Balloon-Borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer (BUSS) Science Data Docummutation Program (BAPS48) is a pulse code modulation docummutation program that will format the BUSS science data contained on a one inch PCM tracking tape into a seven track serial bit stream formatted digital tape.

  8. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  9. A Balloon-Borne Telescope System for Planetary Atmosphere and Plasma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kanazawa, T.; Shoji, Y.; Sawakami, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    A telescope floating in the polar stratosphere can continuously monitor planets for more than 24 hours. Thin, clear and stable air of the stratosphere makes it possible to observe planets in a condition free from cloud with fine seeing and high atmospheric transmittance. Moreover, a balloon-borne telescope system is less expensive compared with a huge terrestrial telescope or a direct planetary probe mission. Targets of a balloon-borne telescope system will extend over various atmospheric and plasma phenomena on almost all the planets, i.e., a sodium tail of Mercury, lightning, airglow and aurora in the atmospheres of Venus, Jupiter and Saturn, escaping atmospheres of the Earth-type planets, satellite-induced luminous events in the Jovian atmosphere, etc. The first target is global dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere by detecting cloud motion in UV and NIR imagery. A decoupling mechanism and a pair of control moment gyros (CMGs) are mounted at the top of the gondola. The decoupling mechanism isolates the gondola from a balloon and also transfers an excess angular momentum of the CMGs to the balloon. The attitude of the gondola is stabilized at a constant sun azimuthal angle so that a solar cell panel faces to the sun. A 300 mm F30 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope is installed at the bottom of the gondola. DC/DC converters, a PC, a high voltage power supply for a piezo-electrically moving mirror and digital video recorders are contained in a sealed cell. The azimuthal angle is detected by a sun-sensor. A PC processes sensor output to control DC motors used in the decoupling mechanism and CMGs with an accuracy in azimuthal attitude of about 0.5 deg. The two-axis gimbal mount of the telescope is controlled by the same PC, guiding an object within a field-of-view of a guide telescope. Residual tracking error is detected by a position sensitive photomultiplier tube and corrected by the two-axis moving mirror installed in the optical system. The optical path is divided into

  10. In Situ Balloon-Borne Ice Particle Imaging in High-Latitude Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation, creating a cooling effect. At the same time, these clouds absorb the infrared radiation from the Earth, creating a greenhouse effect. The net effect, crucial for radiative transfer, depends on the cirrus microphysical properties, such as particle size distributions and particle shapes. Knowledge of these cloud properties is also needed for calibrating and validating passive and active remote sensors. Ice particles of sizes below 100 µm are inherently difficult to measure with aircraft-mounted probes due to issues with resolution, sizing, and size-dependent sampling volume. Furthermore, artefacts are produced by shattering of particles on the leading surfaces of the aircraft probes when particles several hundred microns or larger are present. Here, we report on a series of balloon-borne in situ measurements that were carried out at a high-latitude location, Kiruna in northern Sweden (68N 21E). The method used here avoids these issues experienced with the aircraft probes. Furthermore, with a balloon-borne instrument, data are collected as vertical profiles, more useful for calibrating or evaluating remote sensing measurements than data collected along horizontal traverses. Particles are collected on an oil-coated film at a sampling speed given directly by the ascending rate of the balloon, 4 m s-1. The collecting film is advanced uniformly inside the instrument so that an always unused section of the film is exposed to ice particles, which are measured by imaging shortly after sampling. The high optical resolution of about 4 µm together with a pixel resolution of 1.65 µm allows particle detection at sizes of 10 µm and larger. For particles that are 20 µm (12 pixel) in size or larger, the shape can be recognized. The sampling volume, 130 cm3 s-1, is well defined and independent of particle size. With the encountered number concentrations of between 4 and 400 L-1, this required about 90- to 4-s sampling times to

  11. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.8pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument agree to <±50% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations, and tend to show less agreement

  12. BOOMERANG A Balloon-borne Millimeter Wave Telescope and Total Power Receiver for Mapping Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Crill, B P; Artusa, D R; Bhatia, R S; Bock, J J; Boscaleri, A; Cardoni, P; Church, S E; Coble, K; De Bernardis, P; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Haynes, C V; Hivon, E; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jones, W C; Lange, A E; Martinis, L; Masi, S; Mason, P V; Mauskopf, P D; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Paine, C G; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Pongetti, F; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scaramuzzi, F; Sforza, D M; Turner, A D

    2002-01-01

    We describe BOOMERANG; a balloon-borne microwave telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at a resolution of 10' from the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform. The millimeter-wave receiver employs new technology in bolometers, readout electronics, cold re-imaging optics, millimeter-wave filters, and cryogenics to obtain high sensitivity to CMB anisotropy. Sixteen detectors observe in 4 spectral bands centered at 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The wide frequency coverage, the long duration flight, the optical design and the observing strategy provide strong rejection of systematic effects. We report the flight performance of the instrument during a 10.5 day stratospheric balloon flight launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica that mapped ~2000 square degrees of the sky.

  13. A Frequency Selective Surface based focal plane receiver for the OLIMPO balloon-borne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mahashabde, Sumedh; Bengtsson, Andreas; Andrén, Daniel; Tarasov, Michael; Salatino, Maria; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Kuzmin, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a focal plane array of Cold-Electron Bolometer (CEB) detectors integrated in a Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) for the 350 GHz detection band of the OLIMPO balloon-borne telescope. In our architecture, the two terminal CEB has been integrated in the periodic unit cell of the FSS structure and is impedance matched to the embedding impedance seen by it and provides a resonant interaction with the incident sub-mm radiation. The detector array has been designed to operate in background noise limited condition for incident powers of 20 pW to 80 pW, making it possible to use the same pixel in both photometric and spectrometric configurations. We present high frequency and dc simulations of our system, together with fabrication details. The frequency response of the FSS array, optical response measurements with hot/cold load in front of optical window and with variable temperature black body source inside cryostat are presented. A comparison of the optical response to the CEB model and estimations...

  14. PULSAR: a balloon-borne experiment to detect variable low energy gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the balloon-borne 'PULSAR' experiment is to observe γ-ray photons of variable sources and pulsars in the energy range 0.1-5.0 MeV. The geometrical arrangement of the telescope has been designed according to detector sensitivity estimations for the pulsed radiation, which have been made by empirical and analytical methods. From the obtained results we expect to achieve a detection sensitivity of 3.7 x 10-7 photons cm-2 s-1 KeV-1 (0.1 - 0.5 MeV) and 4.5 x 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1 KeV-1 (1.0 - 5.0 MeV), for 5 hours integration time at 5 g cm-2 atmospheric depth, with 3σ statistical significance. It was developed an on-board electronics, compatible with the available telemetry capacity, that is able to process the data with a time resolution of approximatelly 4 miliseconds. (Author)

  15. Design of 280~GHz feedhorn-coupled TES arrays for the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER

    CERN Document Server

    Hubmayr, Johannes; Beall, James A; Becker, Daniel T; Benton, Steven J; Bergman, A Stevie; Bond, J Richard; Bryan, Sean; Duff, Shannon M; Duivenvoorden, Adri J; Eriksen, H K; Filippini, Jeffrey P; Fraisse, Aurelien A; Galloway, Mathew; Gambrel, Anne E; Ganga, K; Grigorian, Arpi L; Gualtieri, Riccardo; Gudmundsson, Jon E; Hartley, John W; Halpern, M; Hilton, Gene C; Jones, William C; McMahon, Jeffrey J; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nagy, Johanna M; Netterfield, C B; Osherson, Benjamin; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Racine, B; Ruhl, John; Ruud, T M; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Song, Xue; Ullom, Joel N; Van Lanen, Jeff; Vissers, Michael R; Wehus, I K; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, D V; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe 280 GHz bolometric detector arrays that instrument the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER. A primary science goal of SPIDER is to measure the large-scale B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the cosmic-inflation, gravitational-wave signature. 280 GHz channels aid this science goal by constraining the level of B-mode contamination from galactic dust emission. We present the focal plane unit design, which consists of a 16$\\times$16 array of conical, corrugated feedhorns coupled to a monolithic detector array fabricated on a 150 mm diameter silicon wafer. Detector arrays are capable of polarimetric sensing via waveguide probe-coupling to a multiplexed array of transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers. The SPIDER receiver has three focal plane units at 280 GHz, which in total contains 765 spatial pixels and 1,530 polarization sensitive bolometers. By fabrication and measurement of single feedhorns, we demonstrate 14.7$^{\\circ}$ FHWM Gaussian-shaped beams with $<$1% ellip...

  16. The balloon-borne large-aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry: BLAST-Pol

    CERN Document Server

    Fissel, Laura M; Angile, Francesco E; Benton, Steven J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Gandilo, Natalie N; Gundersen, Joshua O; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L; Marsden, Galen; Matthews, Tristan G; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Netterfield, C Barth; Novak, Giles; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan Diego; Thomas, Nicholas E; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLAST-Pol is the reconstructed BLAST telescope, with the addition of linear polarization capability. Using a 1.8 m Cassegrain telescope, BLAST-Pol images the sky onto a focal plane that consists of 280 bolometric detectors in three arrays, observing simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 um. The diffraction-limited optical system provides a resolution of 30'' at 250 um. The polarimeter consists of photolithographic polarizing grids mounted in front of each bolometer/detector array. A rotating 4 K achromatic half-wave plate provides additional polarization modulation. With its unprecedented mapping speed and resolution, BLAST-Pol will produce three-color polarization maps for a large number of molecular clouds. The instrument provides a much needed bridge in spatial coverage between larger-scale, coarse resolutio...

  17. Large-Area Balloon-Borne Polarized Gamma Ray Observer (PoGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGO), to measure polarization of soft gamma rays (30-200 keV) using asymmetry in azimuth angle distribution of Compton scattering. PoGO is designed to detect 10% polarization in 100mCrab sources in a 6-8 hour observation and bring a new dimension to studies on gamma ray emission/transportation mechanism in pulsars, AGNs, black hole binaries, and neutron star surface. The concept is an adaptation to polarization measurements of well-type phoswich counter consisting of a fast plastic scintillator (the detection part), a slow plastic scintillator (the active collimator) and a BGO scintillator (the bottom anti-counter). PoGO consists of close-packed array of 217 hexagonal well-type phoswich counters and has a narrow field-of-view (∼ 5 deg2) to reduce possible source confusion. A prototype instrument has been tested in the polarized soft gamma-ray beams at Advanced Photon Source (ANL) and at Photon Factory (KEK). On the results, the polarization dependence of EGS4 has been validated and that of Geant4 has been corrected

  18. Studies of interstellar magnesium absorption in the ultraviolet from a balloon-borne platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    51 ultraviolet spectra of 26 early-type stars in the solar neighbourhood have been obtained with a balloon-borne scientific payload, consisting of the UCL Mk 1 primary star-pointing platform carrying an objective grating spectrograph and an associated secondary fine-guidance system. The spectrograms cover the wavelength range 2870 A to 2740 A, with a resolution of approximately 0.1 A (approximately equal to 10 km s-1), and include the absorption lines of Mg0 at lambda2852.13 and of Mg+ at lambdalambda2802.70, 2795.53 formed in the interstellar medium in line of sight to the stars observed. The MgI lines formed in the cold neutral clouds in front of 12 moderately reddened stars have been analysed with models for the velocity dispersion of the gas derived from very high resolution scans of optical lines of Na0, K0, Ca+, and CH+ referring to the same lines of sight. The effects of possible contributions to the MgII doublet from absorbing regions undetected in the lines of the minor species have been considered in detail for four well observed background stars. Estimates of electron density n(e) in interstellar clouds are deduced by combining the measurements of the column densities of Mg+ and Mg0, and assuming ionization equilibrium. (author)

  19. ISOMAX: a balloon-borne instrument to measure cosmic ray isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Isotope Magnet Experiment (ISOMAX) is a new balloon-borne instrument developed to measure the isotopic composition of the light elements in the cosmic radiation, in particular to obtain the ratio of the radioactive 10Be to stable 9Be. ISOMAX was first flown in August 4-5, 1998, from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada. ISOMAX has a geometry factor of 450 cm2 sr and was configured for this flight with a large, Helmholtz-like, superconducting magnet in combination with a drift-chamber tracking system, a state-of-the-art time-of-flight system and two aerogel Cherenkov detectors to measure light isotopes with a mass resolution of better than 0.25 amu. In the 1998 flight the obtained maximum detectable rigidity of the magnetic spectrometer was 970 GeV/c for helium at 60% of the full magnetic field. ISOMAX took data for more than 16 h at float altitudes above 36 km. We here present the performance of the individual detectors and initial isotopic results of the instrument

  20. PoGOLite - A High Sensitivity Balloon-Borne Soft Gamma-ray Polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Arimoto, Makoto; Axelsson, Magnus; Bettolo, Cecilia Marini; Björnsson, Claes-Ingvar; Bogaert, Gilles; Carlson, Per; Craig, William; Ekeberg, Tomas; Engdegård, Olle; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Gunji, Shuichi; Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea; Iwan, Bianca; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Kataoka, Jun; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kazejev, Jaroslav; Kiss, Mózsi; Klamra, Wlodzimierz; Larsson, Stefan; Madejski, Grzegorz; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Ng, Johnny; Pearce, Mark; Ryde, Felix; Suhonen, Markus; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Takuya; Thurston, Timothy; Ueno, Masaru; Varner, Gary; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Yamashita, Yuichiro; Ylinen, Tomi; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGOLite) capable of detecting 10% polarisation from 200mCrab point-like sources between 25 and 80keV in one 6 hour flight. Polarisation measurements in the soft gamma-ray band are expected to provide a powerful probe into high-energy emission mechanisms as well as the distribution of magnetic fields, radiation fields and interstellar matter. At present, only exploratory polarisation measurements have been carried out in the soft gamma-ray band. Reduction of the large background produced by cosmic-ray particles has been the biggest challenge. PoGOLite uses Compton scattering and photo-absorption in an array of 217 well-type phoswich detector cells made of plastic and BGO scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence shield and a thick polyethylene neutron shield. The narrow FOV (1.25msr) obtained with well-type phoswich detector technology and the use of thick background shields enhance the detected S/N ratio. Event selections based on recorded phototube wavefor...

  1. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  2. A new project, SPIRALE. Balloon-borne in situ multi-component measurement using infrared diode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, G.; Pirre, M.; Robert, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France); Rosier, B.; Louvet, Y.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Peyret, C.C. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Macleod, Y. [Universite Pierreet Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Courtois, D. [Reims Univ., 51 (France). Faculte des Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The scientific goals and the description of a new experiment for stratospheric studies SPIRALE are presented which is a balloon-borne instrument, able to measure in situ several air components (up to 10). Infrared diode laser spectroscopy is applied for monitoring simultaneously atmospheric trace gases at high rate. Its specificity, sensitivity, and wide range of compounds to which it can be applied is described. (R.P.) 5 refs.

  3. Case Studies of Stratospheric Nitrogen, Chlorine and Iodine Photochemistry Based on Balloon Borne UV/visible and IR Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, André

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen and halogen bearing compounds play an important role in catalytic loss of stratospheric ozone. Balloon borne spectroscopic measurements of the vertical distribution of the most important nitrogen, chlorine and iodine containing species are used to estimate the quality of state-of-the-art instruments and retrieval algorithms and to gain new insights into stratospheric photochemistry. A comparison study between observations of O3 and NO2 in the UV/visible and infrared spectral ranges i...

  4. Development of new-type nuclear emulsion for a balloon-borne emulsion gamma-ray telescope experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports a new-type of nuclear emulsion that improves the track-finding efficiency of charged particle detection. The emulsion is applied to the GRAINE project, a balloon-borne experiment that observes cosmic γ-rays through an emulsion γ-ray telescope. The new emulsion film dramatically improves the detection efficiency for γ-rays. The nuclear emulsion gel and films for the second GRAINE balloon-borne experiment (GRAINE-2015) were fully self-produced by ourselves. New handling methods for the novel emulsion film have also been developed. Over time, the stored films gradually become desensitized to minimum ionizing particles, but the original sensitivity can be restored by a resetting process. Moreover, the fading of latent images can be arrested by a drying process. To sensitize the new-type films and avoid their fading, emulsion preprocessing was applied immediately prior to GRAINE-2015. A balloon flight with the emulsion γ-ray telescope was successfully completed in Australia on 12th May 2015. By scanning with automated optical microscopes and analyzing the penetrated tracks, we confirmed the high track-finding efficiency (97%) of the mounted films. The analysis of γ-ray event detection, aims at detecting Vela pulsar, is in progress

  5. The direct photograph of solar faculae and sunspots with a balloon-borne 10 cm telescope, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the flight in September, 1977, of a balloon-borne 10 cm solar telescope, direct photographs of faculae and sunspots were successfully taken at wavelength near 5300 A. (1) In the measurement of brightness of 662 faculae in the places closer to the photosphere center (two regions at 76% and 87% of the radius), the valves were 9.2% and 16.2% respectively brighter in comparison of the surrounding photosphere. The faculae are at higher temperature than the photosphere, 500 k (facula diameter of 1 sec angle) to 1000 k (facula diameter of 0.2 sec angle). (2) At a place close to the umbra within the penumbra of sunspots, there is brightness equal to that of the photosphere. (3) As the result of comparing the polar-region faculae by balloon observation and the soft X-ray bright points by sky-lab observation in 1973, it was found that both were not shining simultaneously. (Mori, K.)

  6. Approaching the knee-balloon-borne observations of cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Below the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum, balloon and spacecraft experiments offer the capability of direct composition and energy measurements on the primary particles. A major difficulty is obtaining enough exposure to extend the range of direct measurements sufficiently high in energy to permit overlap with ground-based observations. Presently, balloon and space measurements extend only up to ∼100 TeV, well below the range of groundbased experiments. The prospect of Ultra-Long Duration Balloon missions offers the promise of multiple long flights that can build up exposure. The status of balloon measurements to measure the high energy proton and nuclear composition and spectrum is reviewed, and the statistical considerations involved in searching for a steepening in the spectrum are discussed. Given the very steeply falling spectrum, it appears unlikely that balloon experiments will be able to extend the range of direct measurements beyond 1000 TeV any time in the near future. Especially given the recent suggestions from KASCADE that the proton spectrum steepens only at 4000-5000 TeV, the chance of detecting the knee with direct measurements of protons to iron on balloons is not likely to occur without significant increases in the payload and flight duration capabilities of high altitude balloons

  7. Near Space Observations: Planetary Science from a Balloon-Borne Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E.; Hibbitts, C.; Cheng, A.; Dolloff, M.; Kremic, T.

    2015-10-01

    On 25-SEP-2014, the BOPPS balloon mission (Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science) launched from Ft Sumner, NM. During its 17-hour flight, BOPPS observed three comets in wavelengths from 0.8 to 4.6 μm with its infrared camera and demonstrated 66 mas image stability with its visible- UV cameras. The BOPPS payload was intended to develop and demonstrate two key capabilities of balloonborne telescopes: the ability to acquire IR wavelengths that are obscured from the ground or from SOFIA, and the ability to obtain diffraction-limited images at wavelengths shortward of 1 μm, where ground-based adaptive optics systems typically provide poor Strehl ratios. Now that the successful BOPPS mission is behind us, there is the potential to re-use the BOPPS instrumentation for additional long-duration balloon missions to address other planetary science investigations: a planetary observatory in the stratosphere, with the possibility of performing observations that are proposed and competed by the planetary community. NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility just flew a record-setting 32-day circumglobal super-pressure balloon mission at southern mid-latitudes. Unlike previous long-duration flights from Antarctica (zeropressure balloons flying in constant daylight), this recent flight launched from New Zealand and passed through day/night cycles, demonstrating the ability of balloons to carry science payloads weighing up to 3000 lb and provide hundreds of hours of dark time above 99.5 % of the atmosphere. We will provide an overview of the BOPPS payload and a review of the BOPPS flight. We will highlight the recommended changes that would allow BOPPS to become a general purpose infrared and visible/UV observatory.

  8. Subvalvular apparatus and adverse outcome of balloon valvotomy in rheumatic mitral stenosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalgat, Parag; Karlekar, Shrivallabh; Modani, Santosh; Agrawal, Ashish; Lanjewar, Charan; Nabar, Ashish; Kerkar, Prafulla; Agrawal, Nandu; Vaideeswar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background Balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) is a well-established therapeutic modality for rheumatic mitral stenosis (RMS). However, there are chances of procedural failure and the more ominous post-procedural severe mitral regurgitation. There are only a few prospective studies, which have evaluated the pathogenic mechanisms for these major complications of BMV, especially in relation to the subvalvular apparatus (SVA) pathology. Methods All symptomatic patients of RMS suitable for BMV by echocardiographic criteria in a span of 1 year were selected. In addition to the standard echocardiographic assessment of RMS (Wilkins score and score by Padial et al.), a separate grading and scoring system was assigned to evaluate the severity of the SVA pathology. The SVA score was ‘I’, when none of the two SVAs had severe disease, ‘II’ when one of the two SVAs has severe disease, and ‘III’ when both SVAs had severe disease. With these scoring systems, the outcomes of BMV (successful procedure, failure, and post-procedural mitral regurgitation) were analyzed. Emergency valve replacement was performed depending on clinical situation, and in cases of replacement, the pathology of the excised mitral valves were compared with echocardiographic findings. Results Of the 356 BMVs performed in a year, 43 patients had adverse outcomes in the form of failed procedure (14 patients) and mitral regurgitation (29 patients). Forty-one among these had a SVA score of III. The sensitivity and specificity of the MR score was lesser than the SVA score (sensitivity 0.34 vs. 1.00, specificity 0.92 vs. 0.99, respectively). The mitral valvular morphology in 39 patients who underwent post-procedural valve replacements correlated well with echocardiography findings. Conclusion It is important to assess the degree of SVA pathology in the conventional echocardiographic assessment for RMS, as BMV would have adverse events when both SVAs were severely diseased. PMID:26432729

  9. Balloon-Borne Hard X-Ray Imaging and Future Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Grindlay, J E

    1997-01-01

    Several payloads for hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging with coded aperture telescopes have been developed for balloon flight observations of cosmic x-ray sources. We briefly review the characteristics of these, particularly the EXITE2 system. The recent NASA program to develop an extended long duration (100d) balloon flight capability employing super-pressure balloons would allow a qualitatively new hard x-ray imaging experiment: the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope-Long Integration Time Experiment (EXIST-LITE). The longer continuous viewing times (per source) available from an LDB platform than from low earth orbit would enable both surveys and objectives complementary to the EXIST mission proposed for a MIDEX satellite. We summarize the scientific objectives of EXIST-LITE, a possible instrumentation approach incorporating a large area array of Cd-Zn-Te (CZT) detectors, and our program for the development and balloon flight testing of relatively thick (5mm) CZT detector arrays.

  10. Balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimetry with PoGOLite

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    PoGOLite is a hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-100 keV energy band. The instrument design is optimised for the observation of compact astrophysical sources. Observations are conducted from a stabilised stratospheric balloon platform at an altitude of approximately 40 km. The primary targets for first balloon flights of a reduced effective area instrument are the Crab and Cygnus-X1. The polarisation of incoming photons is determined using coincident Compton scattering and photo-absorption events reconstructed in an array of plastic scintillator detector cells surrounded by a bismuth germanate oxide (BGO) side anticoincidence shield and a polyethylene neutron shield. A custom attitude control system keeps the polarimeter field-of-view aligned to targets of interest, compensating for sidereal motion and perturbations such as torsional forces in the balloon rigging. An overview of the PoGOLite project is presented and the outcome of the ill-fated maiden balloon flight is discussed.

  11. Note: A balloon-borne accelerometer technique for measuring atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlton, Graeme J.; Giles Harrison, R.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Williams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    A weather balloon and its suspended instrument package behave like a pendulum with a moving pivot. This dynamical system is exploited here for the detection of atmospheric turbulence. By adding an accelerometer to the instrument package, the size of the swings induced by atmospheric turbulence can be measured. In test flights, strong turbulence has induced accelerations greater than 5g, where g = 9.81 m s-2. Calibration of the accelerometer data with a vertically orientated lidar has allowed eddy dissipation rate values of between 10-3 and 10-2 m2 s-3 to be derived from the accelerometer data. The novel use of a whole weather balloon and its adapted instrument package can be used as a new instrument to make standardized in situ measurements of turbulence.

  12. The Ultraviolet Filter Imager (SuFI) onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory: Instrument description and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandorfer, Achim; Barthol, Peter; Feller, Alex; Grauf, Bianca; Hirzberger, Johann; Riethmueller, Tino; Solanki, Sami K.; Berkefeld, Thomas; Knoelker, Michael; Martinez Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan

    We describe the design of the near UV filter imager SuFi onboard Sunrise, which was successfully flown in the stratosphere in June 2009. During its five days flight SuFI captured the highest contrast images of solar granulation ever. SuFI is a diffraction limited filter imager with an effective focal length of 121m, working in 5 distinct wavelength bands between 210nm and 397nm. It is based on a two mirror modified Schwarzschild microscope, which is integral part of the central Image stabilization and light Distribution unit (ISLiD) of Sunrise, which acts as the reimaging optics between the 1m telescope and the science instruments. The key technical features of the instrument are presented under the view of the specific demands of balloon-borne optical systems. First results obtained with the instrument are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  13. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry-BLASTPol: Performance and results from the 2012 Antarctic flight

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, N; Angilé, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment, designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLASTPol observes polarized light using a total power instrument, photolithographic polarizing grids, and an achromatic half-wave plate to modulate the polarization signal. During its second flight from Antarctica in December 2012, BLASTPol made degree scale maps of linearly polarized dust emission from molecular clouds in three wavebands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The instrumental performance was an improvement over the 2010 BLASTPol flight, with decreased systematics resulting in a higher number of confirmed polarization vectors. The resultant dataset allows BLASTPol to trace magnetic fields in star-forming regions at scales ranging from cores to entire molecular cloud complexes.

  14. A balloon-borne Ge(Li) spectrometer for observation of cyclotron line emissions from neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A balloon-borne high-resolution Ge(Li) spectrometer for observation of electron cyclotron line emissions in the hard X-ray spectra of neutron stars is described. The spectrometer consists of four planar type Ge(Li) crystals and operates in the energy range of 20-200keV. The Ge(Li) crystals are housed in vacuum cryostats and cooled by liquid nitrogen. A total effective area of the spectrometer is 120 cm2 and an energy resolution is 2keV fwhm at 60 keV. A 2 mm thick lead honeycomb collimator provides background rejection and collimation, defining a field of view 200x200 fwhm. The sensitivity of the spectrometer to line emissions from cosmic point sources is 10-3 photons cm-2 s-1 over the energy range. The Ge(Li) spectrometer is scheduled for balloon-flight in September 1979. Electron cyclotron line emissions from Her X-1 and Crab Nebula are to be searched. (orig.)

  15. LITOS – a new balloon-borne instrument for fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Theuerkauf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere for high resolution wind turbulence soundings in the stratosphere up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA with a vertical resolution of ~2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit, the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched from any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007, LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students. We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. A first case study allows a clear distinction between non-turbulent regions and a turbulent layer with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.

  16. Constraints on JN2O5 from balloon-borne limb scanning measurements of NO2 in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritten, Lena; Butz, Andre; Deutschmann, Tim; Dorf, Marcel; Kreycy, Sebastian; Prados-Roman, Cristina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    The NOx ozone cycle (NOx = NO + NO2) is of great importance for the budget of stratospheric ozone and in future may even become more important due to increasing stratospheric N2O concentrations (Ravishankara et al., 2009). A regulating process for the amount of stratospheric NOx and thus for the efficiency of the NOx mediated ozone loss cycle is photolytic release of N2O5 at daytime since N2O5 acts as a nighttime reservoir gas for stratospheric NOx radicals. Observations of UV/vis scattered skylight by balloon-borne limb scanning spectrometry support the detection of time dependent trace gas and radical profiles, in particular of NO2. Here we present balloon borne measurements of time dependent NO2 profiles from the tropical stratosphere - taken at north-eastern Brazil (5° S, 43° W) in June 2005 - where excess stratospheric ozone is produced and transported to higher latitudes by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. The photolysis rate of N2O5 - uncertain by a factor of 2 (JPL-2006) - is constrained from the comparison of the measured and modelled diurnal variation of NO2. For the photochemical model initial conditions are based on our own observations of O3 and NO2, MIPAS-B measurements and on output of the 3-D SLIMCAT model. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and absorption cross-sections are taken from the JPL-2006 compilation (Sander et. al, 2006). Overall it is found that, the observed rate of diurnal NO2 increase requires a N2O5 photolysis frequency at the upper limit of values possible according to the uncertainty range given by the JPL-2006 compilation. In conclusion it suggested that the NOx mediated ozone loss in the tropical stratosphere is probably larger than assumed by many photochemical models, and in future may even relatively become more important.

  17. The Filter Imager SuFI and the Image Stabilization and Light Distribution System ISLiD of the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Observatory: Instrument Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandorfer, A.; Grauf, B.; Barthol, P.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Chares, B.; Deutsch, W.; Ebert, S.; Feller, A.; Germerott, D.; Heerlein, K.; Heinrichs, J.; Hirche, D.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Meller, R.; Müller, R.; Schäfer, R.; Tomasch, G.; Knölker, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Schmidt, W.; Berkefeld, T.; Feger, B.; Heidecke, F.; Soltau, D.; Tischenberg, A.; Fischer, A.; Title, A.; Anwand, H.; Schmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) and the Image Stabilization and Light Distribution (ISLiD) unit onboard the Sunrise balloon borne solar observatory. This contribution provides the necessary information which is relevant to understand the instruments' working principles, the relevant technical data, and the necessary information about calibration issues directly related to the science data.

  18. The Filter Imager SuFI and the Image Stabilization and Light Distribution System ISLiD of the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Observatory: Instrument Description

    OpenAIRE

    Gandorfer, A.; Grauf, B.; Barthol, P.; Riethmüller, T.; Solanki, S.; Chares, B.; Deutsch, W.; Ebert, S.; Feller, A; Germerott, D.; Heerlein, K.; Heinrichs, J.; Hirche, D.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design of the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) and the Image Stabilization and Light Distribution (ISLiD) unit onboard the Sunrise balloon borne solar observatory. This contribution provides the necessary information which is relevant to understand the instruments’ working principles, the relevant technical data, and the necessary information about calibration issues directly related to the science data.

  19. The Filter Imager SuFI and the Image Stabilization and Light Distribution System ISLiD of the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Observatory: Instrument Description

    CERN Document Server

    Gandorfer, A; Barthol, P; Riethmueller, T L; Solanki, S K; Chares, B; Deutsch, W; Ebert, S; Feller, A; Germerott, D; Heerlein, K; Heinrichs, J; Hirche, D; Hirzberger, J; Kolleck, M; Meller, R; Mueller, R; Schaefer, R; Tomasch, G; Knoelker, M; Pillet, V Martinez; Bonet, J A; Schmidt, W; Berkefeld, T; Feger, B; Heidecke, F; Soltau, D; Tischenberg, A; Fischer, A; Title, A; Anwand, H; Schmidt, E

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design of the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) and the Image Stabilization and Light Distribution (ISLiD) unit onboard the Sunrise balloon borne solar observatory. This contribution provides the necessary information which is relevant to understand the instruments working principles, the relevant technical data, and the necessary information about calibration issues directly related to the science data.

  20. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B-MINE is a concept for a balloon mission designed to probe the deepest regions of a supernova explosion by detecting 44Ti emission at 68 keV with spatial and spectral resolutions that are sufficient to determine the extent and velocity distribution of the 44Ti emitting region. The payload introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band. This combination provides a reduced background, an energy resolution of 50 eV and a 3σ sensitivity in 106 s of 3.3x10-7 ph cm-2 s-1 at 68 keV. During the course of a long duration balloon flight, B-MINE could carry out a detailed study of the 44Ti emission line centroid and width in CAS A

  1. Space-quality data from balloon-borne telescopes: the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO)

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, Jason; Booth, Jeffrey; Massey, Richard; Liewer, Kurt; Smith, Roger; Amara, Adam; Aldrich, Jack; Berge, Joel; Bezawada, Naidu; Brugarolas, Paul; Clark, Paul; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M; Ellis, Richard; Frenk, Carlos; Gallie, Angus; Heavens, Alan; Henry, David; Jullo, Eric; Kitching, Thomas; Lanzi, James; Lilly, Simon; Lunney, David; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morris, David; Paine, Christopher; Peacock, John; Pellegrino, Sergio; Pittock, Roger; Pool, Peter; Refregier, Alexandre; Seiffert, Michael; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Alexandra; Stuchlik, David; Taylor, Andy; Teplitz, Harry; Vanderveld, R Ali; Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for attaining sub-arcsecond pointing stability during sub- orbital balloon flights, as designed for in the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO) concept. The pointing method presented here has the potential to perform near-space quality optical astronomical imaging at 1-2% of the cost of space-based missions. We also discuss an architecture that can achieve sufficient thermomechanical stability to match the pointing stability. This concept is motivated by advances in the development and testing of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights which promise to allow observation campaigns lasting more than three months. The design incorporates a multi-stage pointing architecture comprising: a gondola coarse azimuth control system, a multi-axis nested gimbal frame structure with arcsecond stability, a telescope de-rotator to eliminate field rotation, and a fine guidance stage consisting of both a telescope mounted angular rate sensor and guide CCDs in the focal plane to drive a fast-steering ...

  2. B-MINE: The Balloon-Borne Microcalorimeter Nuclear Line Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.; Bandler, S.; Murray, S.; Romaine, S.; Slane, P.; Grindlay, J.; Madden, N.

    2001-01-01

    B-MINE is a concept for a balloon mission designed to probe the deepest regions of a supernova explosion by detecting 44Ti emission at 68 keV with spatial and spectral resolutions that are sufficient to determine the extent and velocity distribution of the 44Ti emitting region. The payload introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band. This combination provides a reduced background, an energy resolution of 50 eV and a 3 sigma sensitivity in 10 (exp 6) s of 3.3 x 10(exp -7) ph cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at 68 keV. During the course of a long duration balloon flight, B-MINE could carry out a detailed study of the 44Ti emission line centroid and width in CAS A.

  3. SMILE-II: Balloon-Borne Telescope for Background-Suppressed Soft Gamma-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, T.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Sonoda, S.; Mizumura, Y.; Tomono, D.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Komura, S.; Sato, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Iwaki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for an all-sky survey at the MeV gamma-ray band. The ETCC consists of a gaseous tracker and a position sensitive scintillation camera to measure the momentum of the Compton-recoil electron and the scattering gamma ray so that we can reconstruct the energy and momentum of the incident gamma ray photon by photon. Also the ETCC has strong background rejection methods using tracking information such as the dE/dx particle identification and theCompton kinematics test. To confirm feasibility of observing celestial objects in space, we performed a balloon experiment to successfully observe the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays, which confirmed the effectiveness of the background rejection capability. Based on the first balloon experiment result, we are developing a large ETCC and plan to launch it for the test of the imaging property. The performance of the SMILE-II ETCC is simulated and then it will obtain an effective area of 1.1 cm2 for 200 keV by improving the electron track reconstruction efficiency by a factor of about 10, which results in the detection of Crab nebula at >5σ level for several-hour observation in the middle latitude with an altitude of 40 km.

  4. The BALLOON-borne and PAMELA experiments for the study of the antimatter component in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spillantini, Piero E-mail: piero.spillantini@fi.infn.it

    2004-01-01

    The PAMELA experiment is based on a satellite-borne equipment actually in the final integration phase. It will be installed on board of the Russian satellite Resurs DK1 and launched in a quasi-polar orbit from the Baikonur cosmodrom at the beginning of next year. PAMELA will measure the antiproton and positron fluxes in cosmic rays with high statistics and in a large energy range (80 MeV-190 GeV for antiprotons and 50 MeV-270 GeV for positrons), extending to never investigated energies the measurements of several balloon borne experiments performed by the same PAMELA collaboration in last decade. This will make achievable sensitive tests of cosmic ray propagation models in the Galaxy and the search, in an energy range never investigated before, of possible structures in the fluxes. These structures, related to the presence of primary antiparticle sources, could be signals of 'new physics', connected with open problems like dark matter existence and matter/antimatter symmetry in the Universe. The detector consists of a very precise magnetic spectrometer, several scintillation counter hodoscopes to measure the energy losses and times of flight, and a high granularity and deep Si-W calorimeter, augmented by a very compact transition radiation detector and a He3 neutron detector hodoscope, and protected around and on the top by an anticoincidence system.

  5. Near infrared multicolor photometry of late type stars with the balloon borne astronomical telescope BAT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new star follower has been developed for observing the near infrared emission of late type stars. The sensor of the follower consists of a semicircular rotating sector and a photomultiplier. The practical accuracy of the angle of tracing was about 1 minute. A photometer was installed at the focus point of the main telescope. The infrared photometer consists of a filter turret, a chopper, an infrared detector and a synchronous amplifier. Five flights of balloons were made since September 13, 1974. The height of the flights was about 25 km. The type of observed spectra ranges from A0 to M6. The results of analysis was compared with the atmospheric model by Tsuji. The physical parameters, such as effective temperature, logarithm of surface gravity and velocity of turbulent flow, of late type stars (K5 - M6) were determined. (Kato, T.)

  6. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, E; Schnopper, H; Jones, C;

    2001-01-01

    introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band....... This combination provides a reduced background, an energy resolution of 50 eV and a 3sigma sensitivity in 10(6) s of 3.3 x 10(-7) ph cm(-2) s(-1) at 68 keV. During the course of a long duration balloon flight, B-MINE could carry out a detailed study of the Ti-44 emission line centroid and width in CAS A....

  7. Flight performance of EXAM - a balloon-borne detector to search for extragalactic antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the performance of the EXAM detector during its five hour balloon flight in 1988. EXAM is an experiment designed to search for cosmic rays of extragalactic origin which are made of antimatter. The EXAM technique to identify antinuclei is unique, being based on higher order corrections to electronic stopping power of charged particles, and on the response characteristics of CR-39 track-etch detectors, plastic scintillators, and Cherenkov radiators. Included in the present paper are the completed analysis of the electronic detectors, and preliminary results of the analysis of the track-etch detectors, including a demonstration of our ability to match particles identified with the drift tube tracking elements during the flight with their tracks found in the passive CR-39 detectors. When the CR-39 analysis is complete, we will have approximately 10 000 events for which antimatter analysis can be made. ((orig.))

  8. Gamma Ray and Very Low Frequency Radio Observations from a Balloon-Borne Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, C.; Sheldon, A.; Cully, C. M.; Davalos, A.; Osakwe, C.; Galts, D.; Delfin, J.; Duffin, C.; Mansell, J.; Russel, M.; Bootsma, M.; Williams, R.; Patrick, M.; Mazzino, M. L.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Calgary's Student Organization for Aerospace Research (SOAR) built an instrument to participate in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP) initiative organized by Louisiana State University and supported by the NASA Balloon Program Office (BPO) and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSPACE). The HASP platform will be launched in early September 2015 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico and will reach heights of 36 kilometers with a flight duration of 15 to 20 hours. The instrument, Atmospheric Phenomenon Observer Gamma/VLF Emissions Experiment (APOGEE), measures Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and sferics from lightning strikes with the use of Geiger tubes and a VLF detector. TGFs, which are quick bursts of high energy radiation that can occur alongside lightning, are believed to be the result of Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA). RREA occurs when a large number of relativistic electrons overcome atmospheric frictional forces and accelerate to relativistic velocities which excite secondary electrons that collide with the atmosphere causing bremsstrahlung radiation. Lightning strikes also produce sferics within the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) bands which can be detected and used to locate the strikes. The goal of APOGEE is to further investigate the link between TGFs and RREA. These phenomena are very difficult to measure together as Bremsstrahlung radiation is easily detected from space but ionospheric reflection facilitates surface detection of sferics. A high altitude balloon provides a unique opportunity to study both phenomena using one instrument because both phenomena can easily be detected from its altitude. APOGEE has been designed and built by undergraduate students at the University of Calgary with faculty assistance and funding, and is equipped with three devices for data collection: a camera to have visual conformation of events, a series of Geiger Tubes to obtain directional gamma readings, and

  9. The BOOMERANG North America Instrument a balloon-borne bolometric radiometer optimized for measurements of cosmic background radiation anisotropies from 0.3 to 4 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Piacentini, F; Bathia, R; Bock, J J; Boscaleri, A; Cardoni, P; Crill, B P; De Bernardis, P; Castillo, H D; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Giacometti, M; Hivon, E F; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Lange, A E; Masi, S; Mauskopf, P D; Miglio, L; Netterfield, C B; Palangio, P; Pascale, E; Raccanelli, A; Rao, S; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scaramuzzi, F

    2001-01-01

    We describe the BOOMERANG North America (BNA) instrument, a balloon-borne bolometric radiometer designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation with 0.3 deg resolution over a significant portion of the sky. This receiver employs new technologies in bolometers, readout electronics, millimeter-wave optics and filters, cryogenics, scan and attitude reconstruction. All these subsystems are described in detail in this paper. The system has been fully calibrated in flight using a variety of techniques which are described and compared. It has been able to obtain a measurement of the first peak in the CMB angular power spectrum in a single balloon flight, few hours long, and was a prototype of the BOOMERANG Long Duration Balloon (BLDB) experiment.

  10. Balloon-borne Limb profiling of UV/vis skylight radiances, O3, NO2 and BrO: technical set-up and validation of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel light-weight, elevation scanning and absolutely calibrated UV/vis spectrometer and its application to balloon-borne Limb radiance and trace gas measurements is described. Its performance and the novel method of balloon-borne UV/vis Limb trace gas measurements has been tested against simultaneous observations of the same atmospheric parameters available from either (a in-situ instrumentation (cf., by an electrochemical cell (ECC ozone sonde also deployed aboard the gondola or (b trace gas profiles from inferred UV/vis/near IR solar occultation measurements performed on the same payload. The novel technique is also cross validated with radiative transfer modelling. Reasonable agreement is found (a between measured and simulated Limb radiances and (b inferred Limb O3, NO2 and BrO and otherwise measured profiles when properly accounting for all relevant atmospheric parameters (temperature T, pressure P, aerosol extinction, and major absorbers.

  11. Balloon-borne limb profiling of UV/vis skylight radiances, O3, NO2, and BrO: technical set-up and validation of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Weidner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel light-weight, elevation scanning and absolutely calibrated UV/vis spectrometer and its application to balloon-borne limb radiance and trace gas profile measurements is described. Its performance and the novel method of balloon-borne UV/vis limb trace gas measurements has been tested against simultaneous observations of the same atmospheric parameters available from either (a in-situ instrumentation (cf., by an electrochemical cell (ECC ozone sonde also deployed aboard the gondola or (b trace gas profiles inferred from UV/vis/near IR solar occultation measurements performed on the same payload. The novel technique is also cross validated with radiative transfer modeling. Reasonable agreement is found (a between measured and simulated limb radiances and (b inferred limb O3, NO2, and BrO and correlative profile measurements when properly accounting for all relevant atmospheric parameters (temperature, pressure, aerosol extinction, and major absorbers.

  12. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Lind, J.; Strömberg, J.-E.; Welin, O.; Iyudin, A.; Shifrin, D.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the three Crab observations conducted. The signal-to-background ratio for the observations is shown to be 0.25 ±0.03 and the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (99 % C.L.) is (28.4 ±2.2) %. A strategy for the continuation of the PoGOLite programme is outlined based on experience gained during the 2013 maiden flight.

  13. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Tristan G; Angilè, Francesco E; Benton, Steven J; Chapin, Edward L; Chapman, Nicholas L; Devlin, Mark J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N; Gundersen, Joshua O; Hargrave, Peter C; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Netterfield, Calvin B; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 {\\mu}m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.). The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I,...

  14. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chapin, Edward L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olmi, Luca [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Physics Department, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  15. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  16. High-resolution ultraviolet observations of interstellar lines toward Zeta Persei observed with the balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer payload has been used to obtain high-resolution data on interstellar absorption lines toward Zeta Per. The only lines clearly present in the 2150-2450 region were several Fe II features, which show double structure. The two velocity components were sufficiently well separated that it was possible to construct separate curves of growth to derive the Fe II column densities for the individual components. These column densities and the component velocity separation were then used to compute a realistic two-component curve of growth for the line of sight to Zeta Per, which was then used to reanalyze existing ultraviolet data from Copernicus. The results were generally similar to an earlier two-component analysis of the Copernicus data, with the important exception that the silicon depletion increased from near zero to about 1 dex. This makes the Zeta Per depletion pattern quite similar to those derived for other reddened lines of sight, supporting the viewpoint that the general diffuse interstellar medium has a nearly constant pattern of depletions. 31 references

  17. A Balloon-borne Measurement of High Latitude Atmospheric Neutrons Using a LiCAF Neutron Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kole, Merlin; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mózsi; Moretti, Elena; Salinas, Maria Fernanda Muñoz; Pearce, Mark; Rydström, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    PoGOLino is a scintillator-based neutron detector. Its main purpose is to provide data on the neutron flux in the upper stratosphere at high latitudes at thermal and nonthermal energies for the PoGOLite instrument. PoGOLite is a balloon borne hard X-ray polarimeter for which the main source of background stems from high energy neutrons. No measurements of the neutron environment for the planned flight latitude and altitude exist. Furthermore this neutron environment changes with altitude, latitude and solar activity, three variables that will vary throughout the PoGOLite flight. PoGOLino was developed to study the neutron environment and the influences from these three variables upon it. PoGOLino consists of two Europium doped Lithium Calcium Aluminium Fluoride (Eu:LiCAF) scintillators, each of which is sandwiched between 2 Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) scintillating crystals, which serve to veto signals produced by gamma-rays and charged particles. This allows the neutron flux to be measured even in high rad...

  18. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, M; Jackson, M; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kiss, M; Kole, M; Mikhalev, V; Moretti, E; Olofsson, G; Rydström, S; Takahashi, H; Lind, J; Strömberg, J -E; Welin, O; Iyudin, A; Shifrin, D; Pearce, M

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25 - 240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the...

  19. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  20. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  1. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements : comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Marcel; Bösch, Hartmut; BUTZ Andre; Camy-Peyret, Claude C.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Engel, Andreas; Goutail, Florence; Grunow, Katja; Hendrick, François; Hrechanyy, Serhiy; Naujokat, Barbara; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stroh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  2. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Marcel; Bösch, Hartmut; BUTZ Andre; Camy-Peyret, Claude C.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Engel, Andreas; Goutail, Florence; Grunow, Katja; Hendrick, François; Hrechanyy, Serhiy; Naujokat, Barbara; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stroh, Fred

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  3. The design and development of a high-resolution visible-to-near-UV telescope for balloon-borne astronomy: SuperBIT

    CERN Document Server

    Romualdez, L Javier; Clark, Paul; Damaren, Christopher J; Eifler, Tim; Fraisse, Aurelien A; Galloway, Mathew N; Hartley, John W; Jones, William C; Li, Lun; Lipton, Leeav; Luu, Thuy Vy T; Massey, Richard J; Netterfield, C Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rhodes, Jason D; Schmoll, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Balloon-borne astronomy is unique in that it allows for a level of image stability, resolution, and optical backgrounds that are comparable to space-borne systems due to greatly reduced atmospheric interference, but at a fraction of the cost and over a significantly reduced development time-scale. Instruments operating within visible-to-near-UV bands ($300$ - $900$ um) can achieve a theoretical diffraction limited resolution of $0.01"$ from the stratosphere ($35$ - $40$ km altitude) without the need for extensive adaptive optical systems required by ground-based systems. The {\\it Superpressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope} ("SuperBIT") is a wide-field imager designed to achieve 0.02$"$ stability over a 0.5$^\\circ$ field-of-view, for deep single exposures of up to 5 minutes. SuperBIT is thus well-suited for many astronomical observations, from solar or extrasolar planetary observations, to resolved stellar populations and distant galaxies (whether to study their morphology, evolution, or gravitational lensi...

  4. Analysis of charge transport during lightning using balloon-borne electric field sensors and Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, William W.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Aslan, Beyza Caliskan; Lu, Gaopeng; Winn, William P.; Boeck, William L.

    2007-09-01

    Recently, wide band measurements of the electric field near a lightning flash have been obtained by a balloon-borne electric field sonde or Esonde. This paper develops new techniques for analyzing lightning-associated charge transport in a thundercloud by using both the Esonde data and simultaneous Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) measurements of VHF pulses emitted during lightning breakdown processes. Innovations in this paper include the following: (1) A filtering procedure is developed to separate the background field associated with instrument rotation and cloud charging processes from the lightning-induced electric field change. Because of the abrupt change in the signal caused by lightning, standard filtering techniques do not apply. A new mathematical procedure is developed to estimate the background electric field that would have existed if the lightning had not occurred. The estimated background field is subtracted from the measured field to obtain the lightning-induced field change. (2) Techniques are developed to estimate the charge transport due to lightning. At any instant of time during a cloud-to-ground (CG) flash, we estimate the charge transport by a monopole. During an intracloud (IC) flash, we estimate the charge transport by a dipole. Since the location of the monopole and dipole changes with time, they are referred to as a dynamic monopole and a dynamic dipole. The following physical constraints are used to achieve a unique fit: charge conservation during an IC flash, separation (distance between the CG monopole charge center and the ground and separation between IC dipole charge centers both exceed a minimum threshold), location (charge is placed on lightning channel), and likelihood (after a statistical analysis based on instrument uncertainty, highly unlikely charge locations are excluded). To implement the constraint that the charge is located on the lightning channel, we develop a mathematical object called the "pulse graph." Vertices in the

  5. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2005-01-01

    International audience For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observat...

  6. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2006-01-01

    International audience For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include ...

  7. A 16 channel frequency-domain-modulation readout system with custom superconducting LC filters for the SWIPE instrument of the balloon-borne LSPE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, G.; Baldini, A. M.; Bemporad, C.; Biasotti, M.; Cei, F.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Fontanelli, F.; Galli, L.; Gallucci, G.; Gatti, F.; Incagli, M.; Grassi, M.; Nicolò, D.; Spinella, F.; Vaccaro, D.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design, implementation and first tests of the superconducting LC filters for the frequency domain readout of spiderweb TES bolometers of the SWIPE experiment on the balloon-borne LSPE mission which aims at measuring the linear polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background at large angular scales to find the imprint of inflation on the B-mode CMB polarization. LC filters are designed, produced and tested at the INFN sections of Pisa and Genoa where thin film deposition and cryogenic test facilities are present, and where also the TES spiderweb bolometers are being produced.

  8. A balloon-borne high-resolution spectrometer for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, development, and balloon-flight verification of a payload for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares are reported here. The payload incorporates a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, standard NIM and CAMAC electronics modules, a thermally stabilized pressure housing, and regulated battery power supplies. The flight system is supported on the ground with interactive data-handling equipment comprised of similar electronics hardware. The modularity and flexibility of the payload, together with the resolution and stability obtained throughout a 30 h flight, make it readily adaptable for high-sensitivity, long-duration balloon flight applications. (orig.)

  9. Overview of balloon-borne aerosol measurements with the aerosol counter LOAC, with focus on the ChArMEx 2013 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, François; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) is a new small optical particle counter/sizer of 250 grams designed to fly under all kinds of balloons. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles: the first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.2-100 mm; the second angle, at 60°, is used to discriminate between different types of particles dominating different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, mineral dust, soot carbon particles and salts. Comparisons with measurements from other sensors at the surface are shown. We shall give a quick review of balloon-borne experiences since 2011 with LOAC under all kinds of balloons including tethered, sounding, open stratospheric, and new boundary-layer pressurized drifting balloons (BLBP) from CNES. Observation domains include the atmospheric surface layer, the boundary layer, the free troposphere and the lower stratosphere up to more than 35 km in altitude. Operations encompass a variety of environments including the Arctic (Reykjavik, Island, and Kiruna, Sweden), Brazil (Sao Paolo), the western Mediterranean Basin, southwestern France, peri-urban (Ile de France) and urban areas (Paris and Vienna). Results from the various campaigns will be illustrated including the study of fog events, urban aerosols, Saharan dust transport over France, stratospheric soot... Emphasis will be put on the ChArMEx campaign (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) performed in summer 2013 in the Mediterranean basin: 19 LOAC flights have been performed under meteorological balloons and 12 under low altitude drifting balloons, most of them from Minorca Island (Spain) in June and early July and others from Levant Island (south of France) in late July and early August. Most of the flights were coupled with ozone concentration measurements (see presentation by F. Gheusi et al.). LOAC balloons were especially, but not

  10. Planetary Science with Balloon-Borne Telescopes: A Summary of the BOPPS Mission and the Planetary Science that may be Possible Looking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, T.; Cheng, A.; Hibbitts, K.; Young, E. F.

    2015-09-01

    well as some of the residual motion from the gondola that was not addressed by the gondola's coarse pointing systems. The mission met its primary science and engineering objectives. The results of the BOPPS mission will feed into the body of science knowledge, but also feed into future planning for more science from balloon-borne platforms. A notional platform called Gondola for High-Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) has been explored, and this concept platform can address a number of important decadal questions. This paper provides a summary of the assessment of potential balloon borne observations for planetary science purposes including where potential science contributions can be expected, the necessary performance/characteristics of the platform, and other features required or desired. The BOPPS mission is summarized including descriptions of the main elements and key science and engineering results. The paper then briefly describes GHAPS, and the salient features that can make it a valuable tool for future planetary observations.

  11. Optimising a balloon-borne polarimeter in the hard X-ray domain: from the PoGOLite Pathfinder to PoGO+

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, Maxime; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mózsi; Kole, Merlin; Mikhalev, Victor; Moretti, Elena; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Pearce, Mark

    2016-01-01

    PoGOLite is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter dedicated to the study of point sources. Compton scattered events are registered using an array of plastic scintillator units to determine the polarisation of incident X-rays in the energy range 20 - 240 keV. In 2013, a near circumpolar balloon flight of 14 days duration was completed after launch from Esrange, Sweden, resulting in a measurement of the linear polarisation of the Crab emission. Building on the experience gained from this Pathfinder flight, the polarimeter is being modified to improve performance for a second flight in 2016. Such optimisations, based on Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations, take into account the source characteristics, the instrument response and the background environment which is dominated by atmospheric neutrons. This paper describes the optimisation of the polarimeter and details the associated increase in performance. The resulting design, PoGO+, is expected to improve the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (MDP) for the Crab from ...

  12. Development of balloon-borne CO2 sonde: CO2 vertical profile (0-10km) observations and comparison with the air craft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, M.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration has drastically increased since the Industrial Revolution due to the mass consumption of fossil fuels and natural gas by human activities. CO2 is considered to be a major factor of global warming; therefore it is important to measure CO2 correctly. CO2 vertical profile measurement is the key to estimate CO2 sources and sinks in high precision. However, current CO2 monitoring sites are limited and there are few CO2 vertical profile measurements. We have been developing a balloon-borne instrument that can measure the vertical distribution of CO2 in any place in the world under any kind of weather conditions (CO2 sonde). The target specifications of altitude range is from surface to 10 km. Time resolution is 1min. The CO2 sensor, originally developed for upper air sounding by our team, is based on the non-dispersed infrared absorption spectroscopy technique (NDIR) at the wavelengths of 4.0 and 4.3 micrometer. The data of the optical infrared absorption are transmitted through a GPS sonde with temperature, humidity and GPS data every second. In this study, we will show simultaneous measurement campaigns of the balloon-borne instruments and in-situ aircraft measurements in January and February 2011 in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan. We will present the comparisons between the results of CO2 sonde (5 flights) and two types of aircraft measurements. One is observed by the CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner) and the other is chartered flight measurements operated by NIES/JAXA.

  13. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  14. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penacchioni, A. V., E-mail: ana.penacchioni@inpe.br; Braga, J., E-mail: joao.braga@inpe.br; Castro, M. A., E-mail: manuel.castro@inpe.br; Sacahui, J. R., E-mail: rodrigo.sacahui@inpe.br; D’Amico, F., E-mail: flavio.damico@inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) São José dos Campos (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modelled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galactic Centre (CG) region during balloon flights in Brazil (∼ −23° of latitude and an altitude of ∼40 km) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the GC: 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  15. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penacchioni, A. V.; Braga, J.; Castro Avila, M. A.; Amico, F. D.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modelled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galactic Centre (GC) region during balloon flights in Brazil (∽ -23° of latitude and ∽ 40 km of altitude) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the GC region: IE 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  16. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Penacchioni, A V; Castro, M A; D'Amico, F

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modeled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galatic Centre region during balloon flights in Brazil ($\\sim -23^{\\circ}$ of latitude and an altitude of $\\sim 40 \\thinspace$ km) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the Galactic Centre region: 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  17. PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, R; Ade, P; Andre, Y; deBernardis, P; Bouzit, M; Charra, M; Crane, B; Dubois, J P; Engel, C; Griffin, M; Hargrave, P; Leriche, B; Longval, Y; Maes, S; Marty, C; Marty, W; Masi, S; Mot, B; Narbonne, J; Pajot, F; Pisano, G; Ponthieu, N; Ristorcelli, I; Rodriguez, L; Roudil, G; Salatino, M; Savini, G; Tucker, C

    2014-01-01

    Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project which will aim at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarization of the dust continuum emission in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment will also constitute a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. We present the results of ground tests obtained just before the first flight of the instrument.

  18. Resolving the surface details on Venus in the balloon- or lander-borne images with a computer modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekonomov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Due to the presence of opaque clouds at high altitudes, it is difficult to survey the surface of Venus in the optical spectral range. At the same time, in the under-cloud layer, there are transparency windows at the wavelengths λ = 1.08, 0.85, and 0.65 μm. At these wavelengths, the gaseous absorption (in the whole atmosphere rather than only in the under-cloud layer) is weaker, and the atmospheric transparency is mainly determined by the scattering on molecules. The paper presents the results of the Monte-Carlo computer modeling of the imaging of the surface from a balloon or a lander. It has been shown that the imaging from the lower boundary of the clouds is possible.

  19. Observations of a gamma-ray burst and other sources with a large-area, balloon-borne detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. B.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of a weak cosmic gamma ray burst of integrated intensity 2 x 10 to the -6th erg/sq cm, two solar flare events, and pulsed emission profiles of A0535+26 and NP0532 are reported for several energy intervals in the energy range from 45 to 520 keV. The measurements were made with a NaI(Tl) detector array flown on a balloon to 4 g/sq cm residual atmosphere from Palestine, Texas, on October 6-8, 1980, for 28 hours. The detector is a prototype of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) to be flown on the Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO).

  20. Validation of atmospheric chemistry measurements from MIPAS,SCIAMACHY,GOMOS onboard ENVISAT by observations of balloon-borne MIPAS-B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WETZEL; G; OELHAF; H; FRIEDL-VALLON; F; KLEINERT; A; LENGEL; A; MAUCHER; G; NORDMEYER; H; GRUNOW; K; FISCHER; H

    2010-01-01

    In order to validate the atmospheric chemistry measurements by MIPAS,SCIAMACHY,and GOMOS onboard the ENVISAT,three flights of the balloon-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Sounding(MIPAS-B) were carried out in 2002 and 2003 at Aire sur l’Adour(France 44°N,0°E) and Esrange,Kiruna(Sweden 68°N,21°E).The validation campaign activities are summarized in this paper.The MIPAS-B instrument and its data processing procedure as well as the validation approaches are discussed in detail.The satellite and balloon measurements are matched with high coincidence in time and space,allowing a coincident approach to be applied for their comparisons.Further,a trajectory model is used to confirm and enhance the statistical significance of the validation.The validation results show that MIPAS measurements of accuracy for temperature,H2O,O3,HNO3,CH4,N2O,and NO2 are good in the altitude range of 8-39 km(No2,22-39 km).And the precision is good between the altitudes of 15-33 km(No2,22-23 km).However,some exceptions were also found for temperature,H2O,HNO3,and NO2.The SCIAMACHY data of accuracy for O3 and NO2 are within expectations between the altitudes 9-38 km except for O3 in 28-38 km.The GOMOS data about O3 and NO2 are promising according to the preliminary comparison results.

  1. X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R. M.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.; Lorentzen, K. R.; McCarthy, M. P.

    2002-12-01

    The high-resolution germanium detector aboard the MAXIS (MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) balloon payload detected nine X-ray bursts with significant flux extending above 0.5 MeV during an 18 day flight over Antarctica. These minutes-to-hours-long events are characterized by an extremely flat spectrum (~E-2) similar to the first MeV event discovered in 1996, indicating that the bulk of parent precipitating electrons is at relativistic energies. The MeV bursts were detected between magnetic latitudes 58°-68° (L-values of 3.8-6.7) but only in the late afternoon/dusk sectors (14:30-00:00 MLT), suggesting scattering by EMIC (electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves as a precipitation mechanism. We estimate the average flux of precipitating E >= 0.5 MeV electrons to be ~360 cm-2s-1, corresponding to about 5 × 1025 such electrons precipitated during the eight days at L = 3.8-6.7, compared to ~2 × 1025 trapped 0.5-3.6 MeV electrons estimated from dosimeter measurements on a GPS spacecraft. These observations show that MeV electron precipitation events are a primary loss mechanism for outer zone relativistic electrons.

  2. Test of far-infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon-borne measurements of the upwelling radiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectroscopy of the constituents of the Earth's atmosphere that are active in the far infrared spectral region, among which the water vapour is the main one, has been validated through the analysis of wide-band nadir-looking spectra acquired with the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared-Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) Fourier transform spectroradiometer. The spectra, covering from 100 to 1400cm-1 with a 0.475cm-1 unapodized resolution, were acquired during a balloon flight performed in a tropical region in 2005. Atmospheric variables, namely water vapour and temperature vertical profiles, were retrieved from the REFIR-PAD data, and the residuals of the fitting are here critically analysed for the search of systematic effects that can be ascribed to spectroscopic errors. In the spectral interval between 150 and 600cm-1 nosignificant inconsistency is detected between the residuals and the measurement uncertainty, proving the good quality of the radiative transfer model and of the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Significant difference are instead observed when the HITRAN 2000 database is used

  3. The TopHat Experiment: A Balloon-Borne Instrument for Mapping Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Cheng, E. S.; Aguirre, J. E.;

    2005-01-01

    The TopHat experiment was designed to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on angular scales from 03 to 30° and the thermal emission from both Galactic and extragalactic dust. The balloon‐borne instrument had five spectral bands spanning frequencies from 175 to 630...... GHz. The telescope was a compact, 1 m, on‐axis Cassegrain telescope designed to scan the sky at a fixed elevation of 78°. The radiometer used cryogenic bolometers coupled to a single feed horn via a dichroic filter system. The observing strategy was intended to efficiently cover a region 48° in...

  4. Balloon-Borne Submillimeter Polarimetry of the Vela C Molecular Cloud: Systematic Dependence of Polarization Fraction on Column Density and Local Polarization-Angle Dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Fissel, Laura M; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N; Klein, J R; Li, Zhi-Yun; Korotkov, Andrei L; Martin, Peter G; Matthews, Tristan G; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, C Barth; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan D; Thomas, Nicholas E; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    We present results for Vela C obtained during the 2012 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). We mapped polarized intensity across almost the entire extent of this giant molecular cloud, in bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 {\\mu}m. In this initial paper, we show our 500 {\\mu}m data smoothed to a resolution of 2.5 arcminutes (approximately 0.5 pc). We show that the mean level of the fractional polarization p and most of its spatial variations can be accounted for using an empirical three-parameter power-law fit, p = p_0 N^(-0.4) S^(-0.6), where N is the hydrogen column density and S is the polarization-angle dispersion on 0.5 pc scales. The decrease of p with increasing S is expected because changes in the magnetic field direction within the cloud volume sampled by each measurement will lead to cancellation of polarization signals. The decrease of p with increasing N might be caused by the same effect, if magnetic field disorder increases for high colum...

  5. SPECIES: a versatile spectrometer based on optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption for in situ balloon-borne and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Patrick; Catoire, Valery; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Huret, Nathalie; Desbois, Thibault; Marocco, Nicola; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Eric; Romanini, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Over the last twenty years, thanks to significant technological advances in measurement techniques, our understanding of the chemistry and dynamics of the upper troposphere and stratosphere has progressed significantly. However some key questions remain unsolved, and new ones arise in the changing climate context. The full recovery of the ozone layer and the delay of recovery, the impact of the climate change on the stratosphere and the role of this one as a feedback are almost unknown. To address these challenges, one needs instruments able to measure a wide variety of trace gas species simultaneously with a wide vertical range. In this context, LPC2E and LIPHY are developing a new balloon-borne and airborne instrument: SPECIES (SPECtromètre Infrarouge à lasErs in Situ, i.e. in-Situ Infrared lasEr SPECtrometer). Based on the Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy technique, combined with mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, this instrument will offer unprecedented performances in terms of the vertical extent of the measurements, from ground to the middle stratosphere, and the number of molecular species simultaneously measured with sub-ppb detection limits (among others: NO, N2O, HNO3, H2O2, HCl, HOCl, CH3Cl, COF2, HCHO, HCOOH, O3, NH3 NO2, H2O, OCS, SO2). Due to high frequency measurement (>0.5 Hz) it shall offer very high spatial resolution (a few meters).

  6. Simultaneous balloon-borne measurements of the key inorganic bromine species BrO and BrONO2 in the stratosphere: DOAS and MIPAS-B evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarski, Sebastian; Maucher, Guido; Ebersoldt, Andreas; Butz, André; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Höpfner, Michael; Kleinert, Anne; Nordmeyer, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Wetzel, Gerald; Orphal, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic bromine contributes to a loss of stratospheric ozone of about 25 - 30%. Past studies have demonstrated several uncertainties in the photochemistry of stratospheric bromine, especially by considering the three body reaction (kBrONO2) BrO + NO2 + M → BrONO2 + M, and the photolysis frequencies of BrONO2 (jBrONO2). Hence, an improved knowledge of the ratio jBrONO2/kBrONO2 is crucial to better assess the bromine-related loss of ozone as well as the total amount of bromine in the stratosphere. Here, we report on the first simultaneous balloon-borne measurements of NO2, BrO, and BrONO2 in the stratosphere, performed over Timmins (Ontario, 49 °N, Canada) on Sept., 7th and 8th, 2014. During the flight the targeted species were monitored by remote sensing in the UV, visible and mid-IR spectral ranges by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B), respectively. The analysis and interpretation of the measurements involves radiative transfer as well as photochemical modelling. Major features of the applied techniques are reported and first results of the DOAS as well as MIPAS-B evaluation are discussed. Further investigations address inter-comparisons of the retrieved NO2, BrO, and O3 concentrations and volume mixing ratios, to demonstrate validations of both evaluation methods.

  7. Validation of Refractivity Profiles Retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation Soundings: Preliminary Results of Statistical Comparisons Utilizing Balloon-Borne Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The GPS radio occultation (RO soundings by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC _ Formosa Satellite Misssion #3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate satellites launched in mid-April 2006 are compared with high-resolution balloon-borne (radiosonde and ozonesonde observations. This paper presents preliminary results of validation of the COSMIC RO measurements in terms of refractivity through the troposphere and lower stratosphere. With the use of COSMIC RO soundings within 2 hours and 300 km of sonde profiles, statistical comparisons between the collocated refractivity profiles are erformed for some tropical regions (Malaysia and Western Pacific islands where moisture-rich air is expected in the lower troposphere and for both northern and southern polar areas with a very dry troposphere. The results of the comparisons show good agreement between COSMIC RO and sonde refractivity rofiles throughout the troposphere (1 - 1.5% difference at most with a positive bias generally becoming larger at progressively higher altitudes in the lower stratosphere (1 - 2% difference around 25 km, and a very small standard deviation (about 0.5% or less for a few kilometers below the tropopause level. A large standard deviation of fractional differences in the lowermost troposphere, which reaches up to as much as 3.5 - 5%at 3 km, is seen in the tropics while a much smaller standard deviation (1 - 2% at most is evident throughout the polar troposphere.

  8. Time dependent profile retrieval of UV/vis absorbing radicals from balloon-borne limb measurements – a case study on NO2 and O3

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kritten; A. Butz; Dorf, M.; Deutschmann, T.; Kühl, S.; C. Prados-Roman; J. Puķīte; Rozanov, A.(CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France); Schofield, R.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2010-01-01

    A new "Bayesian" minimization algorithm for the retrieval of the diurnal variation of UV/vis absorbing radicals (O3, NO2, BrO, OClO and HONO) from balloon-borne limb scattered skylight observations is discussed. The method evaluates spectroscopic measurements in combination with radiative transfer calculations to drive a mathematical inversion on a discrete time and height grid. Here, the proposed method is applied to data obtained during two deployments of the mini-DOAS instrument on differe...

  9. Investigation of the Stratospheric Bromine Chemistry by Balloon-Borne Spectroscopic Observations and Photochemical Modelling: A Case Study of J(BrONO2) / k[BrO][NO2

    OpenAIRE

    Kreycy, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Besides chlorine, bromine is the second most important halogen when it comes to the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Although 150 times more chlorine than bromine is transported into the stratosphere, the higher ozone-depleting efficiency of bromine (by a factor of 45) makes it very important for catalytic cycles. In this study, balloon-borne DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements of direct sunlight and limb measurements of scattered skylight, recorded...

  10. Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter (PoGO) to Study Black Holes, Pulsars, and AGN Jets: Design and Calibration(SULI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization measurements at X-ray and gamma-ray energies can provide crucial information on the emission region around massive compact objects such as black holes and neutron stars. The Polarized Gamma-ray Observer (PoGO) is a new balloon-borne instrument designed to measure polarization from such astrophysical objects in the 30-100 keV range, under development by an international collaboration with members from United States, Japan, Sweden and France. The PoGO instrument has been designed by the collaboration and several versions of prototype models have been built at SLAC. The purpose of this experiment is to test the latest prototype model with a radioactive gamma-ray source. For this, we have to polarize gamma-rays in a laboratory environment. Unpolarized gamma-rays from Am241 (59.5 keV) were Compton scattered at around 90 degrees for this purpose. Computer simulation of the scattering process in the setup predicts a 86% polarization. The polarized beam was then used to irradiate the prototype PoGO detector. The data taken in this experiment showed a clear polarization signal, with a measured azimuthal modulation factor of 0.35 ± 0.02. The measured modulation is in very close agreement with the value expected from a previous beam test study of a polarized gamma-ray beam at the Argonne National Laboratories Advanced Photon Source. This experiment has demonstrated that the PoGO instrument (or any other polarimeter in the energy range) can be tested in a libratory with a simple setup to a similar accuracy

  11. Balloon-Borne Submillimeter Polarimetry of the Vela C Molecular Cloud: Systematic Dependence of Polarization Fraction on Column Density and Local Polarization-Angle Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Diego Soler, Juan; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2016-06-01

    We present results for Vela C obtained during the 2012 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry. We mapped polarized intensity across almost the entire extent of this giant molecular cloud, in bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 μm. In this initial paper, we show our 500 μm data smoothed to a resolution of 2.‧5 (approximately 0.5 pc). We show that the mean level of the fractional polarization p and most of its spatial variations can be accounted for using an empirical three-parameter power-law fit, p \\propto {{\\boldsymbol{N}}}-0.45 {{\\boldsymbol{S}}}-0.60, where N is the hydrogen column density and S is the polarization-angle dispersion on 0.5 pc scales. The decrease of p with increasing S is expected because changes in the magnetic field direction within the cloud volume sampled by each measurement will lead to cancellation of polarization signals. The decrease of p with increasing N might be caused by the same effect, if magnetic field disorder increases for high column density sightlines. Alternatively, the intrinsic polarization efficiency of the dust grain population might be lower for material along higher density sightlines. We find no significant correlation between N and S. Comparison of observed submillimeter polarization maps with synthetic polarization maps derived from numerical simulations provides a promising method for testing star formation theories. Realistic simulations should allow for the possibility of variable intrinsic polarization efficiency. The measured levels of correlation among p, N, and S provide points of comparison between observations and simulations.

  12. Feature of Dust Particles in the Spring Free Troposphere over Dunhuang in Northwestern China: Electron Microscopic Experiments on Individual Particles Collected with a Balloon-borne Impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free tropospheric aerosol particles were collected using a balloon-borne particle impactor in August of 2002 and March of 2003 at Dunhuang in northwestern China (40o00'N, 94o30'E), and the morphology and elemental composition of the aerosol particles were analyzed in order to understand the mixing state of coarse dust particles (diameter >1 μm) over the desert areas in the Asian continent in spring. Electron microscopic experiments on the particles revealed that dust particles were major constituents of coarse mode particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert in spring and summer.Si-rich or Ca-rich particles are major components of dust particles collected in the free troposphere over dunhuang and the values of [number of Ca-rich particles]/[number of Si-rich particles] differs markedly between spring and summer, being about 0.3 in the spring of 2003 and about 1.0 in the summer of 2002 at heights 3-5 km above sea level. It is likely that the condition of the ground surface and the strength of vertical mixing in source areas of Asian dust are potential factors causing the difference in the chemical types of dust particles.Comparison of the elemental compositions of these particles with those of particles collected over Japan strongly suggests that these particles were chemically modified during their long-range transport in the free troposphere. Analysis of wind systems shows that both the predominating westerly wind in the free troposphere and the surface wind strongly controlled by the geographical structure of the Tarim Basin are important in the long-range transport of KOSA particles originating in the Taklamakan Desert

  13. Balloon Borne Soundings of Water Vapor, Ozone and Temperature in the Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratosphere as Part of the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voemel, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of our work was to provide in situ water vapor and ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as reference measurements for the validation of SAGE III water vapor and ozone retrievals. We used the NOAA/CMDL frost point hygrometer and ECC ozone sondes on small research balloons to provide continuous profiles between the surface and the mid stratosphere. The NOAA/CMDL frost point hygrometer is currently the only lightweight balloon borne instrument capable of measuring water vapor between the lower troposphere and middle stratosphere. The validation measurements were based in the arctic region of Scandinavia for northern hemisphere observations and in New Zealand for southern hemisphere observations and timed to coincide with overpasses of the SAGE III instrument. In addition to SAGE III validation we also tried to coordinate launches with other instruments and studied dehydration and transport processes in the Arctic stratospheric vortex.

  14. Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    OpenAIRE

    A. Butz; H. Bösch; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M.; Dorf, M.; G. Dufour; Grunow, K.; Jeseck, P.; Kühl, S.; Payan, S.; Pepin, I.; Pukite, J.; Rozanov, A.(CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France); Savigny, C.; Sioris, C.

    2006-01-01

    Stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances measured by different remote sensing instruments are inter-compared: (1) Line-of-sight absorptions and vertical profiles inferred from solar spectra in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges measured by the LPMA/DOAS (Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere/Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) balloon payload during balloon ascent/descent and solar occultation are examined with respect to interna...

  15. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Gurlit, W.; Bösch, H.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J.P.; A. Butz; Camy-Peyret, C.; Dorf, M.; Gerilowski, K.; Lindner, A.; S. Noël; U. Platt; F. Weidner; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7–418 nm and the visible from 400–652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively) from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh...

  16. Balloon-borne and ground-based aerosol measurements with the aerosol counter LOAC during the ChArMEx 2013 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Vignelles, Damien; Jeannot, Matthieu; Durand, Pierre; Mallet, Marc; Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Sciare, Jean; Barret, Brice; Jambert, Corrine; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) is a small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams that can fly under all kinds of balloons. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles: the first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of ~0.2-100 micrometers. The second angle is at 60°, is used to discriminate between the different types of particles dominating the different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, mineral dust and carbon particles. 30 flights of LOAC have been conducted during the ChAMEx campaign (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) on summer 2013, from Minorca Island (Spain) and Ile du Levant (south of France): 19 flights under meteorological balloons and 12 flights under low altitude drifting balloons. Most of the flights were also coupled with ozone concentration measurements. LOAC balloons were especially, but not only, dedicated to study the various Saharan dust events that occurred during the campaign. In particular, flights were conducted every 12 hours during the 15-19 June dust event. Turbid air masses from North America were also sampled in late June over Minorca. The flights allow us to determine the vertical extent of the dust plume and various aerosol layers, and to follow the particle size distribution and the concentration evolution along the vertical. The low altitude drifting balloons, which stayed at constant altitude (between 0.4 and 3 km) for several hours, allow us to study the time-evolution of the aerosol concentrations in the same air mass. Under both balloon types, LOAC has detected larges particles up to ~30 micrometers in diameter. The flights drifting within dust layers indicate that there is a relatively stable particle size distribution during transport over the sea, with no clear sedimentation loss of large particles. LOAC is used to tentatively identify the various kinds of particles (marine

  17. Original sounding and drifting balloon-borne measurements in the western Mediterranean with the aerosol counter/sizer LOAC during summer ChArMEx campaigns, with a focus on desert dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Vignelles, Damien; Jeannot, Matthieu; Verdier, Nicolas; Chazette, Patrick; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Totems, Julien; Durand, Pierre; Barret, Brice; Jambert, Corinne; Mallet, Marc; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2015-04-01

    LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) is a new small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams designed to fly under all kinds of balloons. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles (12° and 60°), allowing the determination of the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of ~0.2-100 µm and some identification of the nature of particles dominating different size classes. Following laboratory calibration, the sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, mineral dust, soot carbon particles and salts. Comparisons with other in situ sensors at the surface and with remote sensing measurements on the vertical were performed to give confidence in measurements. The instrument has been operated at the surface, under all kinds of balloons up to more than 35 km in altitude, including tethered, sounding, open stratospheric and new boundary-layer pressurized drifting balloons (BLPB) from CNES, and was tested on board a small UAV. Operations encompass a variety of environments including the Arctic (Reykjavik, Island, and Kiruna, Sweden), Brazil (Sao Paolo), the western Mediterranean Basin, southwestern France, peri-urban (Ile de France) and urban areas (Paris and Vienna). Presented results are focused on the LOAC balloon-borne measurements performed in the western Mediterranean basin during MISTRALS/ChArMEx campaigns (Mediterranean Integrated Studies aT Regional And Local Scales/the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://www.mistrals-hjome.org; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), with a focus on African dust events. Two test flights with a first version of LOAC under sounding balloons were first successfully performed in late June 2012 near Marseille during an intense dust event. In 2013, 19 LOAC flights have been performed under meteorological balloons and 12 under low altitude drifting balloons, most of them from Minorca Island (Spain) in June and early July and others from Levant Island (south of France

  18. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurlit

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7–418 nm and the visible from 400–652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3, and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance is +1.6% larger than the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.5 in the visible spectral range (435–650 nm, +1.5% larger in the (370–415 nm wavelength interval, but −4% smaller in the UV spectral range (316.7–370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. The same comparison with the SOLSPEC solar spectrum (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b confirms the somewhat larger solar irradiance (+1.7% measured by the balloon instrument from 435–500 nm, but not from 500–650 nm, where the SOLSPEC is −1.3% lower than MODTRAN 3.5. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (– re-calibrated by the University of Bremen – with MODTRAN 3.5 indicates an agreement of +0.2% in the visible spectral range (435–585 nm. With this calibration, the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum is congruent with the balloon observations (−1% in the 316.7–370 nm wavelength range, but both are up to −5%/−3% smaller than MODTRAN 3.5 and SOLSPEC, respectively. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.

  19. Intercomparison of in situ water vapor balloon-borne measurements from Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B in the tropical UTLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghysels

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare water vapor mixing ratio measurements from two quasi-parallel flights of the Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B hygrometers. The measurements were made on 10 February 2013 and 13 March 2012, respectively, in the tropics near Bauru, Sao Paulo St., Brazil during an intense convective period. Both flights were performed as part of a French scientific project, TRO-Pico, to study the impact of the deep-convection overshoot on the water budget. Only a few instruments that permit the frequent sounding of stratospheric water vapor can be flown within a small volume weather balloons. Technical difficulties preclude the accurate measurement of stratospheric water vapor with conventional in situ techniques. The instruments described here are simple and lightweight, which permits their low-cost deployment by non-specialists aboard a small weather balloon. We obtain mixing ratio retrievals which agree above the cold-point tropopause to within 1.9 and 0.5 % for the first and second flights, respectively. This level of agreement for measured stratospheric water mixing ratio is among the best ever reported in the literature. Because both instruments show similar profiles within their combined uncertainties, we conclude that the Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B datasets are mutually consistent.

  20. Cosmic-ray positrons from 10 to 20 GeV - a balloon-borne measurement using the geomagnetic east-west asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported for cosmic-ray positrons obtained in a balloon flight of the University of Chicago electron telescope in Hawaii in April 1984. Making use of the east-west asymmetry in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, cosmic-ray positrons and negatrons were separated over the range 10-20 GeV. The resulting positron to electron ratio is 12-22 percent, significantly higher than the ratio measured in the 1-10 Gev range by other experiments. This increase appears to suggest that either a primary component of positrons becomes significant above 10 GeV or that the spectrum of primary negatrons decreases above 10 GeV more sharply than that of secondary positrons. 26 references

  1. Cosmic-ray positrons from 10 to 20 GeV - A balloon-borne measurement using the geomagnetic east-west asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dietrich; Tang, Kwork-Kwong

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for cosmic-ray positrons obtained in a balloon flight of the University of Chicago electron telescope in Hawaii in April 1984. Making use of the east-west asymmetry in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, cosmic-ray positrons and negatrons were separated over the range 10-20 GeV. The resulting positron to electron ratio is 12-22 percent, significantly higher than the ratio measured in the 1-10 Gev range by other experiments. This increase appears to suggest that either a primary component of positrons becomes significant above 10 GeV or that the spectrum of primary negatrons decreases above 10 GeV more sharply than that of secondary positrons.

  2. Evaluating the Use of MODIS AOD for Air Quality Determination by Comparison with the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Light Scattering Coefficient Obtained with a Balloon-Borne Nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumlin, B.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites provide aerosol optical depth information for the entire Earth on a daily basis. Ideally, satellite measurements should correlate with ground-based measurements in order to be useful for air quality applications. Reno, Nevada, USA is a high desert city situated in the Great Basin. Its unique geography and proximity to urban and biomass burning aerosol sources make it an ideal candidate for aerosol research. In August 2011, the Reno Aerosol Characterization Experiment measured atmospheric aerosols with a ground-based Cimel CE-318 sun-photometer and in situ photoacoustic instrumentation to quantify aerosol concentrations at the surface and in the column. However, the results of these measurements indicated the existence of a more complex system of aerosol mixing above the atmospheric boundary layer than previously thought. In order to validate these measurements, an autonomous suite of instrumentation has been developed. This device is carried aloft by a weather balloon and utilizes a reciprocal nephelometer to obtain a high-resolution profile of the vertical distribution of aerosol light scattering coefficient, as well as instrumentation to record atmospheric variables such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and dew point. Position, course, speed, and altitude are logged with an onboard GPS module and correlated with atmospheric and aerosol measurements. Presented is the design and development of this new instrument, its comparison with proven laboratory instruments, data gathered from flights during August-November 2012, and its comparison to ground-based measurements and satellite data from the MODIS instruments.

  3. The role of scientific ballooning for exploration of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetosphere is explored in situ by satellites, but measurements near the low altitude magnetospheric boundary by rockets, balloons and groundbased instruments play a very significant role. The geomagnetic field provides a frame with anisotropic wave and particle propagation effects, enabling remote sensing of the distant magnetosphere by means of balloon-borne and groundbased instruments. Examples will be given of successful studies, with coordinated satellite and balloon observations, of substorm, pulsation and other phenomena propagating both along and across the geomagnetic field. Continued efforts with sophisticated balloon-borne instrumentations should contribute substantially to our understanding of magnetospheric physics. (Author)

  4. Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.

  5. Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    OpenAIRE

    A. Butz; H. Bösch; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M.; Dorf, M.; G. Dufour; Grunow, K.; Jeseck, P.; Kühl, S.; Payan, S.; Pepin, I.; Pukite, J.; Rozanov, A.(CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France); Von Savigny, C; Sioris, C.

    2006-01-01

    International audience Stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances measured by different remote sensing instruments are inter-compared: (1) Line-of-sight absorptions and vertical profiles inferred from solar spectra in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges measured by the LPMA/DOAS (Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere/Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) balloon payload during balloon ascent/descent and solar occultation are examined with respect to interna...

  6. Global electrodynamics from superpressure balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Hu, H.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field and conductivity measurements in the stratosphere between November 1992 and March 1993 have been made using superpressure balloons in the southern hemisphere. Over 400 payload-days of data have been made during a record setting experiment called ELBBO (Extended Life Balloon Borne Observatories). This experiment resulted in 4 flights aloft simultaneously for over 2 months including one flight which lasted over 4 months. Electrodynamical coupling between the atmosphere and ionosphere is studied using the measured electric fields, and a simple empirical model of the stratospheric conductivity. Altitude profiles of conductivity have been obtained from several superpressure balloon flights using the large end-of-flight altitude swings on the last few days of each flight (as the balloon begins to loose superpressure). Coupling between the fields and atmospheric inertial waves has been observed. Effects and dynamics of the global circuit suggest that standard models are missing significant phenomena. Large scale ionospheric convection activity has been studied from the polar cap to the middle latitudes. Cusp latitude fields have been continuously measured for many days in a row.

  7. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  8. Results of the first EUSO-Balloon flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.; Bertaina, M.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    EUSO-Balloon, a balloon-borne diffractive fluorescence telescope, was launched by the French Space Agency ONES from the Timmins base in Ontario (Canada) on August 25th in 2014. After reaching the floating altitude of about 38 km, EUSO-Balloon imaged the UV background for more than 5 hours before descending to ground using the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. A detailed and precise measurement of the UV background in different atmospheric and ground conditions was achieved. The instrument proved the capability of detecting Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by observing laser tracks with similar characteristics. This contribution will summarise the first results obtained concerning all the topics described above.

  9. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  10. Bursting water balloons

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Hugh M

    2011-01-01

    The impact and rupture of water-filled balloons upon a flat, rigid surface is studied experimentally, for which three distinct stages of the flow are observed. Due to the impact, waves are formed on the balloon's surface for which the restoring force is tension in the latex. Immediately following rupture of the membrane, a shear instability created by the retraction of the balloon is observed. At later times, a larger-scale growth of the interfacial amplitude is observed, that may be regarded as a manifestation of a phenomenon known as the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This flow is closely related to the classical understanding of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for when there exists a density difference between the fluids inside and outside the balloon. Further, it is shown experimentally that this growth of the interface may also occur when there is no density difference across the balloon, a situation that does not arise for the standard Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.

  11. Balloon Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger

    2007-01-01

    PlanetaryBalloon Version 5.0 is a software package for the design of meridionally lobed planetary balloons. It operates in a Windows environment, and programming was done in Visual Basic 6. By including the effects of circular lobes with load tapes, skin mass, hoop and meridional stress, and elasticity in the structural elements, a more accurate balloon shape of practical construction can be determined as well as the room-temperature cut pattern for the gore shapes. The computer algorithm is formulated for sizing meridionally lobed balloons for any generalized atmosphere or planet. This also covers zero-pressure, over-pressure, and super-pressure balloons. Low circumferential loads with meridionally reinforced load tapes will produce shapes close to what are known as the "natural shape." The software allows for the design of constant angle, constant radius, or constant hoop stress balloons. It uses the desired payload capacity for given atmospheric conditions and determines the required volume, allowing users to design exactly to their requirements. The formulations are generalized to use any lift gas (or mixture of gases), any atmosphere, or any planet as described by the local acceleration of gravity. PlanetaryBalloon software has a comprehensive user manual that covers features ranging from, but not limited to, buoyancy and super-pressure, convenient design equations, shape formulation, and orthotropic stress/strain.

  12. New data analysis technique developed for the determination of the solar limb position in measurements of the solar diameter and oblateness, and application to observations obtained with the balloon-borne Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafer, D.; Sofia, S.; Irbah, A.; Thuillier, G.; Egidi, A.; Caccin, B.

    Solar diameter measurements performed from ground by several instruments during these last decades show variations which are not in agreement. In relation with solar activity, these measurements do not reveal consistent results. These results can be either attributed to Earth atmosphere effects or to instrumental ones especially in presence of noise. Noise affects directly the determination of the solar diameter defined as the zero crossing of the second derivative of the solar limb. Furthermore, presence of noise in data causes additional problems requiring appropriate data filtering without changing the solar limb slope. Several methods have been developed and used for a correct inflexion point position determination, among them, is the Fast Fourier Transform Definition (FFTD). We first present a complete description of the FFTD tool and in particular a new method to choose the filtering parameter (a) to be determined for applying FFDT. An alternative method by filtering using the wavelet analysis is also shown. The Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) is an instrument which has been flown on stratospheric balloons from 1992 to 1998 at 37 km altitude preventing all atmospheric effects. SDS uses a prism as angular reference. We present and discuss results obtained from SDS data analysis and compare them using others methods of inflexion point position detection. Finally, we discuss all other SDS experimental parameters able to cause solar diameter measurement variations.We show the relationship between the diameter variation and solar variability.

  13. Tethered Pyrotechnic Apparatus for Acquiring a Ground Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    A proposed alternative design for the balloon-borne ground-sampling system described in the immediately preceding article would not rely on free fall to drive a harpoonlike sample-collecting device into the ground. Instead, the harpoon-like sample-collecting device would be a pyrotechnically driven, tethered projectile. The apparatus would include a tripod that would be tethered to the gondola. A gun for shooting the projectile into the ground would be mounted at the apex of the tripod. The gun would include an electronic trigger circuit, a chamber at the breech end containing a pyrotechnic charge, and a barrel. A sabot would be placed in the barrel just below the pyrotechnic charge, and the tethered projectile would be placed in the barrel just below the sabot. The tripod feet would be equipped with contact sensors connected to the trigger circuit. In operation, the tripod would be lowered to the ground on its tether. Once contact with the ground was detected by the sensors on all three tripod feet, the trigger circuit would fire the pyrotechnic charge to drive the projectile into the ground. (Requiring contact among all three tripod feet and the ground would ensure that the projectile would be fired into the ground, rather than up toward the gondola or the balloon.) The tethered projectile would then be reeled back up to the gondola for analysis of the sample.

  14. The Descending Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  15. 基于系留气艇平台的红外辐射传输算法实验验证%Validation of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model with Field Experiments Using Tethered-balloon-borne Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章文星; 吕达仁; 霍娟; 王勇; 孙宝来; 李立群

    2011-01-01

    validation mainly focuses on MODTRAN model and the thermal infrared window 8- 14 (urn (714 -1250 cm"1) band first of all. Due to little atmospheric absorption in the infrared window band and very low radiance, this band is a range of wavelengths to which the Earth's atmosphere is relatively transparent, and is an important band used for space,ground target recognition, and ground/satellite-based remote sensing as well. Because the spectral composition of radiation transfer varies greatly with varying local environmental conditions, such as aerosol characteristics, water vapor content, surface temperature, greenhouse gases and so on, the accuracy that MODTRAN demonstrates should be attained by making the comparisons between observed radiances and the radiances computed from coincident in situ profile data. For field experiment validation, a scheme is proposed, using a special patented tethered balloon as platform and a combined sensor system consisting of both meteorological (GPS radiosonde, aerosol particle spectrometer, ozonesonde) and radiation observation instruments (visible and broadband thermal infrared imager) , as well as wireless receiver,transmitter. Field experiments are conducted in August 2006 at IAP's Xianghe Observatory. During the process the tethered balloon going up and down in the atmosphere of boundary layer, measurements of both meteorological and radiation instruments at different height are carried out simultaneously. Using the observed meteorological parameters as input to RT model (MODTRAN 4. 0), comparisons between observed radiances and radiances output from the model are used to validate the accuracy of the RT algorithm. The balloon is launched and drawn back for 16 times to do the validation. Analysis on the experiment results show that in thermal infrared wave band, the statistical results of the root-mean-square error of relative error between model output (with real-time meteorological parameters as input) and simultaneous radiance

  16. Resistive ballooning mode equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.; Nelson, D. B.

    1978-10-01

    A second-order ordinary differential equation on each flux surface is derived for the high mode number limit of resistive MHD ballooning modes in tokamaks with arbitrary cross section, aspect ratio, and shear. The equation is structurally similar to that used to study ideal MHD ballooning modes computationally. The model used in this paper indicates that all tokamak plasmas are unstable, with growth rate proportional to resistivity when the pressure gradient is less than the critical value needed for ideal MHD stability.

  17. High-Altitude Ballooning Program at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, A; Safonova, M; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-01-01

    We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Recent advances in balloons as well as in electronics have made possible scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but to also explore phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts, using balloon-borne payloads. This paper discusses the results of three tethered balloon experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote and our plans for the future. We also describe the stages of payload development for these experiments.

  18. Testing in a stratospheric balloon of a semiconductor detector altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An altimeter containing a semiconductor detector has been operated on flight. We have used a stratospheric balloon launched from AIRE-SUR-ADOUR with the C.N.E.S. collaboration. During this assay two apparatus have been used. The first allowed to follow the balloon during its ascension and descent, the second to follow its evolution at its maximum altitude. Informations transmitted by radio and recorded on Magnetophon, have been studied after the flight. Results are identical with these given by the barometer used by the C.N.E.S. in this essay. (authors)

  19. Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profile in Troposphere Based on Balloon-Borne TDLAS System%球载TD LAS的对流层CO2浓度廓线探测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚路; 刘文清; 刘建国; 阚瑞峰; 许振宇; 阮俊; 袁松

    2015-01-01

    大气中CO2主要的源和汇都集中在对流层,精确地获取对流层CO2浓度廓线分布,对研究CO2的垂直输送和全球气候演变具有重要意义。基于可调谐半导体激光吸收光谱(tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy ,TDLAS)高分辨、高灵敏度和快速响应等特点,研制了采用直接吸收技术的小型化CO2探测系统,选取位于2004.02 nm处的R(16),ν1+ν3吸收谱线,避免了附近H2 O分子的吸收干扰,对CO2浓度廓线进行了球载测量,获取了10 km以下对流层中CO2的分子数密度分布。受限于球载测量环境,系统采用紧凑型设计,在单块电路板上实现激光器驱动、弱信号调理,光谱数据采集及浓度计算等功能,受嵌入式微处理器的运算能力和硬件资源限制,对浓度反演算法进行了优化,避免冗余计算,降低了算法耗时。和采用波长调制技术的TDLAS传统仪器相比,借助光程20 m的开放式 Herriott多次反射池,采用直接吸收技术,避免了浓度标定步骤,提高了对测量环境的适应性,通用性的硬件和软件结构可适用于测量不同气体,只需更换激光器和调整算法关键参数。小型化的设计思想降低功耗,减小体积,兼顾了响应速度和测量精度,室温条件下功耗小于1.5W,单板体积120mm×100mm×25mm,1.5s时间响应下的测量精度为±0.6×10-6,经验证,该系统可在对流层内实现CO215 m垂直空间分辨的高精度检测,是一种可行的气体廓线球载探测手段。%The main source and sink of CO2 in the atmosphere are concentrated in the troposphere .It is of great significance to the study of CO2 flux and global climate change to obtain the accurate tropospheric CO2 concentration profile .For the character‐istics of high resolution ,high sensitivity and fast response of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) ,a compact balloon‐borne system based on

  20. 球载TD LAS的对流层CO2浓度廓线探测%Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profile in Troposphere Based on Balloon-Borne TDLAS System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚路; 刘文清; 刘建国; 阚瑞峰; 许振宇; 阮俊; 袁松

    2015-01-01

    The main source and sink of CO2 in the atmosphere are concentrated in the troposphere .It is of great significance to the study of CO2 flux and global climate change to obtain the accurate tropospheric CO2 concentration profile .For the character‐istics of high resolution ,high sensitivity and fast response of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) ,a compact balloon‐borne system based on direct absorption was developed to detect the CO2 concentration profiles by use of the 2 004.02 nm ,R(16) ,ν1 +ν3 line without the interfere of H2 O absorption and the CO2 density of the number of molecules below 10 km in the troposphere was obtained .Due to the balloon‐borne environment ,a compact design of one single board integrated with laser driver ,signal conditioning ,spectra acquiring and concentration retrieving was developed .Limited by the working capability and hardware resources of embedded micro‐processor ,the spectra processing algorithm was optimized to reduce the time‐cost .Com‐pared with the traditional TDLAS sensors with WMS technique ,this system was designed based on the direct absorption tech‐nique by means of an open‐path Herriott cell with 20 m optical‐path ,which avoided the process of standardization and enhanced the environmental adaptation .The universal design of hardware and software platform achieved diverse gas measuring by chan‐ging the laser and adjusting some key parameters in algorithm .The concept of compact design helped to reduce the system’s power and volume and balanced the response speed and measure precision .The power consumes below 1.5 W in room tempera‐ture and the volume of the single board is 120 mm × 100 mm × 25 mm ,and the measurement accuracy is ± 0.6 × 10-6 at 1.5 s re‐sponse time .It has been proved that the system can realize high precision detection of CO2 profile at 15 m vertical resolution in troposphere and TDLAS is an available method for balloon‐borne detection .%大气中CO2

  1. Universal stratospheric balloon gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yury; Filippov, Sergey; Brekhov, Oleg; Nikolaev, Nikolay

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth’s crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). For investigation of Earth's magnetic field one of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN and MAI during already about 25 years. This system consists of three instrumental containers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. Up today this set has been used only for geomagnetic purposes. So we describe this system on example of the measuring of the geomagnetic field gradient. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one’s name is - stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Process of SBMG deployment, feature of the exit of rope from the magazine at the moment of balloon launching has been studied. Used magazine is cellular type. The hodograph of the measuring base of SBMG and the technique of correction of the deviations of the measuring base from the vertical line (introduction of the amendments for the deviation) during the flight have been investigated. It is shown that estimation of the normal level of values of the vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field is determined by the accuracy of determining the length of the measuring base SBMG

  2. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  3. Mars Solar Balloon Lander Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  4. Stratospheric Balloon Platforms for Near Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    For over five decades, high altitude aerospace balloon platforms have provided a unique vantage point for space and geophysical research by exposing scientific instrument packages and experiments to space-like conditions above 99% of Earth's atmosphere. Reaching altitudes in excess of 30 km for durations ranging from hours to weeks, high altitude balloons offer longer flight durations than both traditional sounding rockets and emerging suborbital reusable launch vehicles. For instruments and experiments requiring access to high altitudes, engineered balloon systems provide a timely, responsive, flexible, and cost-effective vehicle for reaching near space conditions. Moreover, high altitude balloon platforms serve as an early means of testing and validating hardware bound for suborbital or orbital space without imposing space vehicle qualifications and certification requirements on hardware in development. From float altitudes above 30 km visible obscuration of the sky is greatly reduced and telescopes and other sensors function in an orbit-like environment, but in 1g. Down-facing sensors can take long-exposure atmospheric measurements and images of Earth's surface from oblique and nadir perspectives. Payload support subsystems such as telemetry equipment and command, control, and communication (C3) interfaces can also be tested and operationally verified in this space-analog environment. For scientific payloads requiring over-flight of specific areas of interests, such as an active volcano or forest region, advanced mission planning software allows flight trajectories to be accurately modeled. Using both line-of-sight and satellite-based communication systems, payloads can be tracked and controlled throughout the entire mission duration. Under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program, NSC can provide a range of high altitude flight options to support space and geophysical research: High Altitude Shuttle System (HASS) - A balloon-borne semi-autonomous glider carries

  5. Comments on ideal ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideal ballooning modes are investigated for the case of plane magnetized slab geometry. Toroidal effects are simulated by a gravitational acceleration periodically varying along magnetic field lines. High shear is shown to be very effective in stabilizing these modes even when field line curvature is most unfavorable to their stability

  6. Design of experiments and equipment to test the ballooning characteristics of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been planned and an apparatus has been designed to enable creep testing of end-of-life pressure tube specimens in a LOCA environment. Effects that could be studied include: annealing of irradiation damage during transient heating; effects of hydride blisters on pressure tube ballooning strains; and, effects of uniformly-distributed hydrogen content on pressure tube ballooning strains. The proposed experimental program will consist of separate effects creep tests on pressure tube sections under transient heating conditions

  7. Decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus for decontaminating radioactive components consists of an attachment mechanism for completely suspending the apparatus from the tube sheet of a nuclear steam generator, a first drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a first direction, a second drive mechanism for pivoting the apparatus in a second direction, and a third drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a third independent direction. The apparatus also has a dual nozzle arrangement attached to the third drive mechanism for directing a water-grit mixture toward the component to be decontaminated. The apparatus provides a mechanism for remotely decontaminating the channel head of a nuclear steam generator so as to allow working personnel to enter therein. It is likely that less than 0.001 inches of metal surface will be removed from the steam generator using alumina or magnetite grit

  8. The development of coastal diffusion observation method with a captive balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus whereby the dye cloud in a coastal area in diffusion experiment can be photographed was developed. It consists of a vinyl balloon two meters in diameter, a photographic device with the camera shutter released by wireless signals from the ground, and a winch to raise or lower the balloon. A maximum height of the balloon for taking photographs is 1000 m. During the single balloon flight, thirty photographs can be taken. With the balloon at a certain height, dye as the tracer in diffusion experiment is released at sea surface or a certain sea depth by dye-throwing means or pump, and then taking the photographs is started. Movement and diffusion of the dye are analyzed by means of the photographs taken. The apparatus is simple in mechanism and easy to transport. Dye experiment is possible in the surfe zone where a boat cannot enter. It is impossible, however, to raise the balloon in strong wind or sea breeze. Typical results of the dye diffusion experiment with the apparatus are given. (author)

  9. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  10. Obesity and gastric balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Yasawy, Mohammed I; Al-Quorain, Abdulaziz A.; Anas M Hussameddin; Yasawy, Zakia M.; Al-Sulaiman, Raid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB) in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in...

  11. High-Altitude Balloon Observatories for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. P.; Tibor, K.; Cheng, A. F.; Hibbitts, C.; Young, E. F.; Andrews, J.; Landis, R.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that progress can be made on over 20% of the key questions called out in the current Planetary Science Decadal Survey by a high-altitude balloon borne observatory. Therefore NASA has been assessing concepts for a gondola based observatory that would achieve the most possible science in a low risk and cost effective manner. As a first application of the concept, a stratospheric balloon mission to observe the newly discovered comet ISON is being developed and planned to fly in late 2013. This flight will demonstrate some of the characteristic features of balloon borne observatories and how those impact planetary science observations. That flight will result in mission proven instrument payloads which can be applied to future flights and science investigations. This paper documents the current status of stratospheric balloon applications to planetary science and some of the contributions that BRRISON will provide for a potential future planetary observatory system. The paper will also discuss the science benefits to be expected if larger aperture telescopes are flown, better pointing systems are realized, or different instruments are utilized with the telescopes. The paper concludes with a high level summary of ways to interface and utilize the potential platform for the readers own scientific interests.

  12. Clad ballooning model in MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clad ballooning may substantially decrease the flow of fluids through the affected core region and may expose the inner cladding surface to oxidation in the vicinity of rupture sites. The cladding ballooning model was not included in MELCOR 1.8.4. and consideration of incorporating the cladding ballooning model is scheduled as a post-1.8.4 release activity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the clad ballooning model by the modified MELCOR 1.8.4 with this model. The typical accident sequence of a large LOCA scenario is selected. The clad ballooning model accelerates the accident progression compared to that without the ballooning model. The amount of hydrogen does not change much and it may be caused by ignoring the effect of flow area change. Future study is planning to analyze the flow redistribution

  13. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how a...

  14. Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J. A.; Cooper, H. W.; Hall, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Pauken, M. T.; White, C. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H. M.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Smith, I. S.; Shreves, C. M.; Lachenmeier, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of Mars superpressure balloons were flight tested for aerial deployment and inflation in the Earth's stratosphere in June, 2002. One was an 11.3 m diameter by 6.8 m high pumpkin balloon constructed from polyethylene film and Zylon (PBO) tendons, the second was a 10 m diameter spherical balloon constructed from 12 μm thick Mylar film. Aerial deployment and inflation occurred under parachute descent at 34 km altitude, mimicing the dynamic pressure environment expected during an actual Mars balloon mission. Two on-board video cameras were used on each flight to provide real-time upward and downward views of the flight train. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were also recorded. Both prototypes successfully deployed from their storage container during parachute descent at approximately 40 m/s. The pumpkin balloon also successfully inflated with a 440 g charge of helium gas injected over a 1.5-min period. Since the helium inflation system was deliberately retained after inflation in this test, the pumpkin balloon continued to fall to the ocean where it was recovered for post-flight analysis. The less robust spherical balloon achieved only a partial (~70%) inflation before a structural failure occurred in the balloon film resulting in the loss of the vehicle. This structural failure was diagnosed to result from the vigorous oscillatory motion of the partially inflated balloon, possibly compounded by contact between the balloon film and an instrumentation box above it on the flight train. These two flights together represent significant progress in the development of Mars superpressure balloon technology and pave the way for future flight tests that will include post-deployment flight of the prototype balloons at a stable altitude.

  15. GRAPE - A Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of GRAPE (the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), although GRAPE could also be employed in the study of other astrophysical sources. Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation will lead to a better understating of both emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. The azimuthal distribution of photon scatters from the plastic array into the central calorimeter provides a measure of the polarization fraction and polarization angle of the incident radiation. The design of the detector provides sensitivity over a large field-of-view (>pi steradian). The design facilitates the fabrication of large area arrays w...

  16. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. In particular,...

  17. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A...

  18. Titan Balloon Convection Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  19. The balloon system with stabilized platform and oriented submillimeter telescope: Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshin, V.; Leonov, V.; Levshuk, B.; Shekshnya, V.

    1994-02-01

    A large number of scientific ballooning programs in the interests both of fundamental sciences (astrophysics, solar physics, etc.) and applied research require fine spatial orientation in inertial space of scientific instruments installed on balloons. Among these, some of the actual programs are the investigations of astophysical objects in gamma- and X-ray, far-infrared/submillimeter regions, as are also high precision magnetometric measurements, the research of the Earth's atmosphere and related ecological problems. As an applied problem, the development of modern balloon-based communication systems is pointed out. A rather large amount of different balloon platforms is developed and used in modern practice of ballooning. The Academy of Sciences of Russia (ASR) provides the design of the balloon-borne oriented and stabilized platform from 1991 (Lebedev Physical Institute, ASR). We have designed and built the balloon platform, that is considered a universal device for future balloon research, where spatial orientation is required. At the first stage of this project, the design of the far-infared version of this platform was performed. The platform is equipped with an 1-meter Cassegrain type telescope (on scheme Nesmith). The primary mirror of spherical form (f/0.5) is made from special aluminum alloy: the construction of telescope is lightweight.

  20. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  1. Vitrification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vitrification apparatus was installed on November 1981 in No.2 cell of Waste Safty Testing Facility(WASTEF) in order to prepare samples for safety performance tests of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long-term storage and disposal. The apparatus is capable to make a vitrified product of 5 litters in maximum volume and of 50,000 Ci in maximum radioactivity including actual HLW. On November 1982 the hot operation of the apparatus has been started after cold test oparations of 53 runs. The report describes outlines of the design and results of the performance tests. (author)

  2. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty

  3. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  4. [Balloon valvuloplasty in stenotic bioprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo, R; Farell, J; Ariza, H; González Carmona, V M; Abundes, A; Tello, R; López Cuellar, M

    1992-01-01

    The results of balloon valvuloplasty performed on five patients with stenotic bioprosthesis treated in the Hospital de Cardiología Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, are presented. All five bioprosthesis were right sided, two in tricuspid position, one in pulmonary valve position and two in valvulated conduits from right ventricle to pulmonary artery. In all cases a pressure gradient reduction was achieved, an improvement of clinical functional class and heart failure manifestations were obtained. Mansfields balloons were used. One in two patients, and two balloons in three. We had not complications with the procedure. We conclude that balloon valvuloplasty on bioprosthesis is a safe and dependable procedure to be used in right sided bioprosthesis. PMID:1482221

  5. Superpressure Tow Balloon for Extending Durations and Modifying Trajectories of High Altitude Balloon Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation involves the concept of using a Superpressure Tow Balloon (STB) with existing NASA high altitude balloon designs to form a tandem balloon...

  6. Radioimmunoassay apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for performing a quantitative radioimmunoassay comprising: a substantially spherical bead for carrying an antibody and a gripper for gripping said bead, said gripper comprising an integrally formed unit having a single elongate handle portion and a plurality of resilient fingers arranged at the base of the handle so that when said bead is secured within said fingers, said bead may be freely rotated about any diametric axis of the bead. In particular the invention relates to an apparatus for a two site immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin in human blood samples. (author)

  7. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  8. The challenge to balloon science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    A thorough review of the NASA balloon program in 1995 confirmed both the inherent importance of balloon science investigations and their value for developing technology for future space missions. A follow-on study in 1996 looked into restructuring the entire suborbital program, in order to find more efficient and effective ways of doing business. These studies were mandated by the adverse impact of NASA's declining budgets and work force constraints on all aspects of space research. The challenge is to accomplish more with less. The balloon program began stepping up to this challenge several years ago with the advent of 10 - 20 day long-duration flights in Antarctica. We must now push ahead with enhanced flight capabilities and with new science instrument technologies, as we forge alliances with other modes of low-cost access to space. Specifically, the development of sealed superpressure balloons could extend flight duration by another order of magnitude, to about 100 days, making ballooning even more competitive with space missions.

  9. BLOCKING SUN WITH ORBITING BALLOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chul Park [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Kor ea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)

    2008-09-30

    Sun's radiation power reaching Earth's surface can be reduced by letting large balloons circle the Earth in orbits at approximately 1000 km altitude. These balloons, made of plastic films 1 mm in thickness, of a diameter of approximately 46 km, will weigh about 10,000 tons each. A balloon will consist of one hundred of 100 ton pieces. They are transported to the orbit piece by piece, and are assembled there into the spherical shape. They are kept inflated with the vapor pressure of potassium and the electrostatic forces. The inclination angles of these balloons with respect to the solar ecliptic plane can be varied from zero to 90 degrees, although efficiency is highest with the zero degree inclination. If zero degree inclination is chosen, twenty-three of these will reduce the average sun's radiation by 0.01%. In the 1000 km orbits, which are stable and are populated only by space debris, these balloons will serve also to remove the debris.

  10. Sensor System for Super-Pressure Balloon Performance Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-duration balloon flights are an exciting new area of scientific ballooning, enabled by the development of large super-pressure balloons. As these balloons...

  11. Multi object spectrograph of the Fireball balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, R.; Lemaitre, G. R.; Quiret, S.; Milliard, B.; Pascal, S.; Origné, A.

    2014-07-01

    Fireball is a NASA/CNES balloon-borne experiment to study the faint diffuse circumgalactic emission in the ultraviolet around 200 nm. The field of view of the 1 meter diameter parabola is enlarged using a two-mirror field corrector providing 1000 arcmin2 at the slit mask. The 0.1 nm resolution Multi Object Spectrograph is based on two identical Schmidt systems sharing a reflective aspherical grating. The aspherization of the grating is achieved using a double replication technique of a metallic deformable matrix. We will present the F/2.5 spectrograph design and the deformable matrix process to obtain the Schmidt grating with elliptical contours.

  12. A review of recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from high-altitude balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1994-06-01

    This paper reviews recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from experiments flown on high-altitude balloons. New generation balloon-borne imaging experiments have produced the first gamma-ray maps of the Galactic center (GC) region. Balloon flights of new gamma-ray spectrometers with improved sensitivity have provided important new information on the GC annihilation line. For the first time, the narrow 511 keV line as been resolved (FWHM approx. = 3 keV). A very interesting spectral feature at approximately 170 keV has been attributed to backscattered annihilation, probably from the vicinity of a compact object. New results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)/OSSE and Granat/SIGMA experiments on the annihilation line, when considered together with the recent balloon results, have added greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the origin and distribution of this emission. Balloon-borne instruments have made important measurements of gamma-ray continuum and line emission from SN 1987A. The GRIS spectrometer unambiguously resolved the 847 and 1238 keV line emission from radioactive Co-56 synthesized during the explosion. This data indicated that simple spherically symmetric and homogeneous models did not provide an adequate description of the expanding SN shell.

  13. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The

  14. Recent Results and Near Term Outlook for the NASA Balloon Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Vernon

    Long-duration and conventional balloon flights in the traditional Astrophysics, Solar and Heliophysics, and Earth Science disciplines have continued in both polar and non-polar regions since the 39th COSPAR Assembly in Mysore, India. One of these established a new flight record of 55 days over Antarctica during the 2012-2013 austral season. That Super-TIGER science flight broke both the 42-day record of the CREAM science flight during the 2004-2005 season and the 54-day super pressure balloon test flight in 2008-2009. With two comets approaching the sun in 2013-2014, the Planetary Science community has shown increased interest in remote observations of comets, planets, and other objects in the Solar System. All of the above science disciplines are interested in super pressure balloon (SPB) flights, which have been under development by NASA, and which were strongly supported by the Astro2010 Decadal Study. A 532,152 m3 (18.8 MCF) SPB with a major gamma ray astrophysics payload is planned for an ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) test flight around and from Antarctica during the upcoming 2014-2015 season. Flights for SPB qualification to support 1000 kg science instruments to 33 km altitude have proceeded in parallel with planning for options to increase the altitude for less massive instruments that require less atmospheric overburden. The nearly constant SPB volume will provide stable altitude long-duration flights at non-polar latitudes, thereby supporting a much broader range of scientific investigations. Scientific ballooning continues to complement and enable space missions, while training young scientists and systems engineers for the workforce needed to conduct future missions. Highlights of results from past balloon-borne measurements and expected results from ongoing and planned balloon-borne experiments will be presented.

  15. Ballonnen in zee = balloons as marine litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Releasing balloons seems harmless. However, remains of balloons, especially valves and ribbons are becoming a common and persistent type of marine litter found on beaches. Following Dutch Queens day 2007, large numbers of Dutch balloons were found in Normandy, France. Animals may become entangled in

  16. Balloon observations of interstellar CII (158 microns) and OI (63 microns) forbidden lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibai, H.; Okuda, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Maihara, T.; Mizutani, K.; Matsuhara, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Hiromoto, N.; Low, F. J.; Nishimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar CII and OI forbidden lines were observed by the Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope (BIRT) with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Two balloon flights were successfully made. With a method of 'frequency switching', diffuse CII forbidden-line emission was efficiently detected and mapped in extended regions around HII/molecular cloud complexes and in a wide area of the Galactic plane. It has been shown that the CII forbidden-line emission is very strong and ubiquitously distributed in interstellar space in the Galaxy.

  17. Integrating Balloon and Satellite Operation Data Centers for Technology Readiness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello-Francisco, Fátima; Fernandes, Jose Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric balloon-borne experiments have been one of the most effective ways to validate innovative space technology, taking the advantage of reduced development cycles and low cost in launching and operation. In Brazil, the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has balloon and satellite ground infrastructures since the 1970´s and the 1990´s, respectively. In the recent past, a strategic approach was adopted on the modernization of balloon ground operation facilities for supporting the protoMIRAX experiment, an X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The strategic target was to reuse the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software framework developed to control and monitor INPÉs satellites, for balloon operation. This paper presents the results of that effort and the new ongoing project, a computer-based framework named I2Bso, which strategic target is to Integrate INPÉs Balloon and Satellite Operation data centers. The I2Bso major purpose is to support the continuous assessment of an innovative technology after different qualification flights either on board balloons or satellites in order to acquire growing evidence for the technology maturity.

  18. Drying apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate material, eg. fuel pellets for a nuclear reactor, is moved along a spiral path during drying by vibration of the path structure. Preferred apparatus comprises a hollow cone with a conical flight defining a path of travel having an inlet for the material and an outlet. The cone is heated by a radiant heater within the cone which itself is vibrated or oscillated about column. A cone provides an air space in which air can circulate and leave by convection through chimney. The flight may have a pile providing a fibrous surface for engaging the material. (author)

  19. Apparatus for treating the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for reaing carcinoma of the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity is described. An elongated tube has an inner end adapted to be placed in the pelvic cavity and an outer end adapted to extend through to the outside of the body. Radioactive material is placed at the inner end. An inner balloon above the radioactive material is inflated to hold a body of liquid shielding material such as mercury. A lower balloon portion beneath the inner balloon spaces areas to be treated such as the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity from the radioactive material. An upper balloon portion above the inner balloon keeps the intestines out of the pelvic cavity and away from the radioactive material. The apparatus is inserted into the pelvic cavity through an abdominal incision. When treating a woman for carcinoma in the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity the tube is moved through the vaginal passage from the inside outwardly. When treating a woman with a closed vaginal passage, as may result from surgery, or when treating a man, such as for carcinoma of the bladder, the tube will pass out of the body through a lower abdominal incision. Following treatment, all balloons are deflated so that the apparatus can be withdrawn through the vaginal passage or the lower abdominal incision, as the case may be. (auth)

  20. A Mars 2011 Balloon Mission Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.

    Mars Scouts are competitively selected PI-led missions to further Mars exploration in ways that satisfy NASA s overall objectives but are not currently in the planned line of missions The current 2006 Announcement of Opportunity AO for Mars Scouts has just closed The goal of this SwRI study was to develop a new balloon mission concept to where it could be credibly proposed for the AO The balloon system was defined in the study as consisting of two parts the balloon flight system BFS and the balloon deployment inflation system DIS The BFS includes the balloon envelope accessory hardware and gondola The balloon includes the envelope seams end fittings load core inflation tube diffusers payload tether shock attenuator and separation hardware The DIS includes the balloon container deployment hardware sequencer tankage gas and control hardware Trade studies were performed to better define the mission design space These studies included 1 effect of varied atmospheric thermal loads 2 effect of varying latitudes 3 effect of payload mass for varying altitudes 4 effect of radiative material properties on balloon size mass 5 effect of material areal densities on balloon size mass and 6 effect of inflation gas on system masses Results of the balloon trade study for the Mars 2011 mission opportunity will be presented

  1. PEBS - Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Von Doetinchem, P; Kirn, T; Yearwood, G R; Schael, S

    2007-01-01

    The best measurement of the cosmic ray positron flux available today was performed by the HEAT balloon experiment more than 10 years ago. Given the limitations in weight and power consumption for balloon experiments, a novel approach was needed to design a detector which could increase the existing data by more than a factor of 100. Using silicon photomultipliers for the readout of a scintillating fiber tracker and of an imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, the PEBS detector features a large geometrical acceptance of 2500 cm^2 sr for positrons, a total weight of 1500 kg and a power consumption of 600 W. The experiment is intended to measure cosmic ray particle spectra for a period of up to 20 days at an altitude of 40 km circulating the North or South Pole. A full Geant 4 simulation of the detector concept has been developed and key elements have been verified in a testbeam in October 2006 at CERN.

  2. A Nominal Balloon Instrument Payload to Address Questions from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot; Kremic, Tibor; Dankanich, John

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey (entitled "Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013 - 2022", available online at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/2013decadal/) serves as a roadmap for activities to be pursued by the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This document outlines roughly 200 key research areas and questions in chapters covering different parts of the solar system (e.g., Mars, Small Bodies, etc.). We have reviewed the Decadal Survey to assess whether any of the key questions can be addressed by high altitude balloon-borne payloads. Although some questions can only be answered by in situ experiments, we found that approximately one quarter of the key questions were well suited to balloon payloads. In many of those cases, balloons were competitive or superior to other existing facilities, including HST, SOFIA or Keck telescopes. We will present specific telescope and instrument bench designs that are capable of addressing key questions in the Decadal Survey. The instrument bench takes advantage of two of the main benefits of high-altitude observations: diffraction-limited imaging in visible and UV wavelengths and unobstructed spectroscopy in near-IR (1 - 5 microns) wavelengths. Our optical prescription produces diffraction-limited PSFs in both visible and IR beams. We will discuss pointing and thermal stability, two of the main challenges facing a balloon-borne telescope.

  3. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  4. Balloon measurements of the cosmic microwave background strongly favor a flat cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998 two related but independent groups sent balloon-borne microwave telescopes aloft to study fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at fine angular resolution. In August of that year, the Maxima telescope spent one night at 40 km above Texas. And at the end of the year, its ''sister'' telescope, called Boomerang, took advantage of the steady circumpolar winds of the austral summer to complete a 10-day stratospheric circumnavigation of Antarctica. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously...

  6. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used.

  7. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used

  8. Simulation of stratospheric balloon environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of materials used for the construction of stratospheric balloons is studied at DERTS by means of irradiations performed in reals time and simulating the exact flight environment. Two chambers were designed in the laboratory and are described together with the experimental procedure. In order to reduce cost and save time, it is worth accelerating the simulation when only a preliminary evaluation of the sample's properties is required. For this reason, a systematic study was undertaken in order to evaluate the respective effects of different parameters on the material degradation. The results of this study are given

  9. Polar Balloon Experiment for Astrophysics Research (Polar BEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Bashindzhagyan, P.; Chilingarian, A.; Donnelly, J.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Grebenyuk, V.; Kalinin, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new balloon experiment is proposed for a long duration flight around the North Pole. The primary objective of the experiment is to measure the elemental energy spectra of high-energy cosmic rays in the region up to 10(exp 15) eV. The proposed instrument involves the combination of a large collecting area (approximately 1 x 1 square m) KLEM (Kinematic Lightweight Energy Meter) device with an ionization calorimeter having a smaller collecting area (approximately 0.5 x 0.5 square m) and integrated beneath the KLEM apparatus. This combination has several important advantages. Due to the large aperture (greater than 2 square m sr) of the KLEM device a large exposure factor can be achieved with a long duration balloon flight (2-4 weeks). The calorimeter will collect about 10% of the events already registered by KLEM and provide effective cross-calibration for both energy measurement methods. Details of the experiment and its astrophysical significance will be presented.

  10. Tick-borne protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  11. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  12. Zodiac: A Balloon Facility for Exoplanet Debris Disk Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Traub, W.; Bryden, G.

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac is a telescope-coronagraph system, operating at visible wavelengths, mounted on a balloon-borne gondola in the stratosphere. The science objective is to image debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks, usually found in the outer reaches of a planetary system, are significant for exoplanet science because (a) they tell us that planet formation did actually get started around a star, (b) they are a contributing source of potentially obscuring dust to the inner part of the disk where we will someday start searching for terrestrial planets, and (c) for a disk with an inner edge, this feature is a signpost for a shepherding planet and thus a sign that planet formation did indeed proceed to completion around that star. The telescope has a 1-m diameter, clear-aperture primary mirror, designed to operate in the cold stratospheric environment. The coronagraph is designed to suppress starlight, including its diffracted and scattered components, and allow a faint surrounding debris disk to be imaged. We will control the speckle background to be about 7 orders of magnitude fainter than the star, with detection sensitivity about one more order of magnitude fainter, in order to comfortably image the expected brightness of typical debris disks. Zodiac will be designed to make scientifically useful measurements on a conventional overnight balloon flight, but would also be fully compatible with future Ultra Long Duration Balloon flights. Zodiac has a technical objective of advancing the technology levels of future mission components from the lab to near-space flight status. These components include deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, coronagraph masks, lightweight mirrors, precision pointing, and speckle rejection by wavefront control. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster

  14. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia

  15. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  16. Airborne Internet Providing Tethered Balloon System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvriti Dhawan1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall introduce a new system for providing wireless network communication over a specified area using ’lighter than air’ balloons. This technology will replace the existing fiber optic network system. This will be done by using a tethered balloon along with the payload (containing a receiver, a transmitter and a radio communication device.This payload will be suspended from the ground at an altitude (depending on the area of coverage required. Users under this area will be able to access this system directly for internet connectivity. This system can be used over large areas like universities, companies and societies to provide internet facility to their users through Wi-Fi or over an area where the user is specified (commercial purposes. Currently Google is working on similar idea called the ’Google Loon’ in which they use high altitude balloons which float at an altitude twice as high as air planes and the weather. They recently tested this system over New-Zealand by providing internet to their pilot testers on ground. Their balloons not being stationary, move with directional winds and have to be replaced one after the other to maintain consistency. This can be a huge problem over the areas where upper atmospheric winds are not in favorable direction. We can resolve this problem by using our stationary tethered balloon system which can communicate with the loon balloons to provide internet facility over a desired area. Moreover when our balloon will communicate with the loon balloon it will increase the coverage area as the loon balloon has to communicate to a point which is above the ground. Our system will not only replace the existing fiber optic system but it will also be selfsustaining i.e. It will generate its own power using solar panels.

  17. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  18. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  19. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular…

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Bilski, B.; Günther, G.

    Florida : CRC Press, 2013, s. 211-237. ISBN 9781466567207 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * neuroviral Infections * viruses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  1. The balloon and the airship technological heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    The balloon and the airship are discussed with emphasis on the identification of commonalities and distinctions. The aerostat technology behind the shape and structure of the vehicles is reviewed, including a discussion of structural weight, internal pressure, buckling, and the development of a stable tethered balloon system. Proper materials for the envelope are considered, taking elongation and stress into account, and flight operation and future developments are reviewed. Airships and tethered balloons which are designed to carry high operating pressure with low gas loss characteristics are found to share similar problems in low speed flight operations, while possessing interchangeable technologies.

  2. Looners: Inside the world of balloon fetishism

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1997, Shaun had just broken up with a boyfriend, and his roommate had moved out. Living alone for the first time and relieved of the fear that someone might walk in the door, he was finally able to indulge his fantasy. The young man sat on his couch and started blowing up balloons. Shaun had loved playing with balloons since he was a child. When he hit puberty, he felt his first orgasm rubbing against a balloon. It was then that his relationship with the object took ...

  3. Cutting Balloon angioplasty for cardiac transplant vasculopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Y.; Currier, JW; Yeatman, LA; Kobashigawa, JA; Rogers, AD; Cianfichi, LJ; Fishbein, MC; Tobis, JM

    2002-01-01

    We performed Cutting Balloon angioplasty on 20 lesions in 11 heart transplant recipients 7.5 +/- 3.8 years after transplantation. The mean percentage of diameter stenosis decreased from 88.3% +/- 13.8% to 19.6% +/- 13.7% after Cutting Balloon angioplasty without complication. Seven patients underwent follow-up angiography at 4.9 +/- 1.7 months in a total of 12 lesions, and all lesions showed restenosis with a mean diameter stenosis of 84.4% +/- 19.2%. Cutting Balloon angioplasty can be used t...

  4. An Overview of High-Altitude Balloon Experiments at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Nirmal, K; Talnikar, Sameer; Hadigal, Shripathy; Prakash, Ajin; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    The High-Altitude Ballooning programme began at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, in the year 2011 with the primary purpose of developing and flying low-cost scientific payloads on a balloon-borne platform. Some of the science goals are studies of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, of airglow and zodiacal light, and observations of extended astronomical objects such as, for example, comets, from near space (20 to 30 km). A brief summary and results of the tethered flights carried out at CREST campus are given in Ref.~1. Here we present a complete overview of the 9 free-flying balloon experiments conducted from March 2013 to November 2014. We describe the launch procedures, payloads, methods of tracking and recovery of the payloads. Since we fall in the light/medium balloon category, the weight of the payload is limited to less than 5 kg --- we use a 3-D printer to fabricate lightweight boxes and structures for our experiments. We are also developing in-house lightweight sensors and co...

  5. Recent Developments in Balloon Support Instrumentation at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan

    2012-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research has been conducting stratospheric balloon flights regularly for various experiments in Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in Balloon flight Support instrumentation by the Control Instrumentation Group to keep in space with the growing complexities of the scientific payloads have contributed to the total success of balloon flights conducted recently. Recent improvements in display of Balloon position during balloon flight by showing on real time the balloon GPS position against Google TM maps is of immense help in selecting the right spot for payload landing and safe recovery . For further speeding up the payload recovery process, a new GPS-GSM payload system has been developed which gives SMS of the payload position information to the recovery team on their cell phones. On parallel footing, a new GPS- VHF system has been developed using GPS and Radio Modems for Balloon Tracking and also for obtaining the payload impact point. On the Telecommand side, a single board Telecommand/ Timer weighing less than 2 Kg has been specially developed for use in the mesosphere balloon test flight. The interference on the existing Short Range Telemetry System has been eliminated by introducing a Band Pass Filter and LNA in the Receiving system of the modules, thereby enhancing its reliability. In this paper , we present the details of the above mentioned developments.

  6. Shielded Mars Balloon Launcher (SMBL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, along with its partner Vertigo Industries, proposes a novel approach to deployment of balloon-based payloads into the Martian atmosphere....

  7. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —   NASA has plans to fly stratospheric ULDBs for missions of 100 days or more in the next few years. As these balloons circumnavigate the globe multiple...

  8. Percutaneous transvenous balloon occlusion of arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure of arteriovenous fistulas, using a balloon catheter introduced through the vein draining the fistula, is discussed. The application of this method to the closure of an iatrogenic vertebrovertebral fistula is described. (orig.)

  9. Magnetometer for Balloons and UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will investigate a new, low-cost approach to atomic magnetometry that is suited for operation from UAVs and research balloons. Atomic...

  10. Interventional treatment of common congenital heart diseases: the common view of Chinese medical experts. Part Four: Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary and aortic valve stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of first choice for pulmonary valve stenosis. Congenital aortic valve stenosis can also be relieved by percutaneous balloon dilatation. Percutaneous valvuloplasty is indicated for patients with isolated pulmonary valve stenosis when the transvalvular peak systolic pressure gradient is over 40 mmHg and for patients with aortic valve stenosis when the pressure gradient exceeds 60 mmHg. A careful selection of patients, standardized procedure, individualized selection of the balloon type, size and length, and careful avoidance of any damage to chorda tendineae and to surrounding tissue are keys to achieving a successful procedure. Balloon valvuloplasty should be selectively performed in new-born and in infant since complications of the procedure are inversely related to age. (authors)

  11. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs.

  12. Overview Of The Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    2016-07-01

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from Esrange since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times of 4-5 days are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. Circumpolar flights of more than two weeks are possible if Russian overflight permission exists. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. Since last COSPAR a number of interesting balloon flights have been performed from Esrange. In late 2014 parachute tests for the ExoMars programme was performed by drop-test from balloons. This was followed up on in the summer of 2015 with full end-to-end dynamic stability tests of Earth re-entry capsule shapes. Several balloon-borne

  13. Current Status of a NASA High-Altitude Balloon-Based Observatory for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Denise M.; Dischner, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that progress can be made on over 20% of the key questions called out in the current Planetary Science Decadal Survey by a high-altitude balloon-borne observatory. Therefore, NASA has been assessing concepts for a gondola-based observatory that would achieve the greatest possible science return in a low-risk and cost-effective manner. This paper addresses results from the 2014 Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) mission, namely successes in the design and performance of the Fine Pointing System. The paper also addresses technical challenges facing the new Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) reusable platform, including thermal control for the Optical Telescope Assembly, power generation and management, and weight-saving considerations that the team will be assessing in 2015 and beyond.

  14. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    The CNES has been supporting scientific ballooning since its establishment in 1962. The two main parts of the balloon system or aerostat are the balloon itself and the flight train, comprising the house-keeping gondola, for the control of balloon flight (localization and operational telemetry & telecommand - TM/TC), and the scientific gondola with its dedicated telecommunication system. For zero pressure balloon, the development of new TM/TC system for the housekeeping and science data transmission are going on from 1999. The main concepts are : - for balloon house-keeping and low rate scientific telemetry, the ELITE system, which is based on single I2C bus standardizing communication between the different components of the system : trajectography, balloon control, power supply, scientific TM/TC, .... In this concept, Radio Frequency links are developed between the house keeping gondola and the components of the aerostat (balloon valve, ballast machine, balloon gas temperature measurements, ...). The main objectives are to simplify the flight train preparation in term of gondola testing before flight, and also by reducing the number of long electrical cables integrated in the balloon and the flight train; - for high rate scientific telemetry, the use of functional interconnection Internet Protocol (IP) in interface with the Radio Frequency link. The main idea is to use off-the-shelf IP hardware products (routers, industrial PC, ...) and IP software (Telnet, FTP, Web-HTTP, ...) to reduce the development costs; - for safety increase, the adding, in the flight train, of a totally independent house keeping gondola based on the satellite Inmarsat M and Iridium telecommunication systems, which permits to get real time communications between the on-board data mobile and the ground station, reduced to a PC computer with modem connected to the phone network. These GEO and LEO telecommunication systems give also the capability to operate balloon flights over longer distance

  15. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  16. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles – Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Renard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10–20 μm in diameter in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria and Paris (France, (ii pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment – ChArMEx campaigns, (iii meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign. More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  17. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  18. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelles, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-09-01

    In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 μm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  19. The French Balloon Program 2013 - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Vargas, André; Raizonville, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting - as designer and operator - a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique and valuable access to near space science. From 2008 to 2013, an important renovation effort was achieved, beginning by Zero Pressure Balloons (ZPB) systems, to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to the growing reliability and performance requirements from scientific missions. The paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2015 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for ZPB, qualified in flight in 2013. In particular, the PILOT telescope successfully flew during the 2015 campaign, key figures about the flight and mission will be given. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently in process of developement at CNES will be given, as well as the presentation of the Stratéole 2 project, dedicated to the survey of the low stratosphere and upper troposphere in equatorial regions, with a fleet of small suprer pressure balloons (SPB). As far as tropospheric balloons are concerned, the Aeroclipper initiative will be presented, aiming at qualifying a quasi-tethered balloon, pushed by the winds close to the sea surface, for the study of cyclones. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  20. Validation and retrieval of IASI measurements with IASI-balloon correlative measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, Sébastien; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pondrom, Marc; Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Bureau, Jérôme; Pépin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and pollutants in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times and their impact on the environment (ozone hole, air quality, acid rains, greenhouse effect), in situ and remote-sensing measurements of atmospheric composition are carried out by a wide variety of instruments, using different measurement principles and different platforms (ground, aircrafts, balloons, satellites). The IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) instrument, consisting of a nadir-looking thermal infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, which was launched onboard the MetOp-A platform on 19th October 2006, is dedicated to operational meteorology. However, IASI spectra have demonstrated a huge potential for retrieving trace gases such as ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and many others. In this framework the LPMAA (Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique) developed a balloon-borne Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer called IASI-balloon to record high resolution (0.1 cm-1 apodised) spectra of the atmosphere / surface system in the nadir looking geometry. Several flight of this balloon experiments have been performed allowing to provided a large number of thermal emission nadir looking FTIR spectra in the 650 - 3000 cm-1 region, recorded from float at about 35 km altitude. We retrieved profiles and/or columns of H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO and CH4. For a flight performed from Teresina, Brazil, the spectra recorded during the balloon flight are in good coincidence with IASI-MetOp measurements. We used this set of data to test the impact on the retrieval of a new cloud simulation module in our retrieval algorithm LARA (LPMA retrieval Atmospheric Algorithm). The results will be presented here.

  1. Balloon dilatation of intrahepatic biliary strictures in liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of balloon dilatation in the treatment of intrahepatic biliary strictures in patients with liver transplantation. Methods: Of the 100 patients with liver transplantation, 16 patients had intrahepatic biliary strictures and received balloon dilatation treatment. Results: Initial technical balloon dilatation was successful in 14 caes but failed in 2 cases. There were no procedure-related complications. 4 restenosis occurred and they were treated with repeated balloon dilatation treatment. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation represented an effective and relatively safe treatment for biliary stricture in liver transplant recipients. For restenosis, balloon dilatation was also an effective treatment

  2. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  3. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  4. Vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  5. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  6. Zodiac II: debris disk science from a balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Rahman, Zahidul; Rey, Justin; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vaischt, Gautam

    2011-10-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visiblewavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  7. Ballooning mode instability at the plasmapause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Mond, M.; Hameiri, E.

    1990-01-01

    The ballooning mode instability, which can excite hydromagnetic waves at the plasmapause, is studied in the presence of azimuthal plasma flows induced during geomagnetically disturbed periods. A general sufficient criterion for the ballooning mode stability is derived, for a change in the potential energy greater than or equal to 0, which involves the integration over an entire field line. A local stability analysis at the equatorial plasmapause region shows that the ballooning modes could be spontaneously generated via instability under at least two conditions: one is similar to the usual interchange condition, and the second to the quasi-interchange modes. Both of these local instability conditions can be derived from the general stability criterion. Finally an exact solution for the equilibrium state with flow is derived analytically, and the change in the potential energy is computed numerically. It is found that, in the cases studied, the flow does not spontaneously excite the ballooning modes; it only further stabilizes (or destabilizes) the ballooning spectrum if originally the system is stable (or unstable). The analysis would be useful for the interpretation of some of the low-frequency modes observed at the ground and near the equatorial plasmapause.

  8. Multiorder etalon sounder (MOES) development and test for balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Paul B.; Wnag, Jinxue; Wu, Jian

    1993-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), with its high throughput and high spectral resolution has been used in the remote-sensing measurements of the earth's atmospheric composition, winds, and temperatures. The most recent satellite instruments include the Fabry-Perot interferometer flown on the Dynamics Explorer-2 (DE-2), the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI), and the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). These instruments measure the Doppler line profiles of the emission and absorption of certain atmospheric species (such as atomic oxygen) in the visible and infrared spectral region. The successful space flight of DE-FPI, HRDI, and CLAES on UARS demonstrated the extremely high spectral resolution and ruggedness of the etalon system for the remote sensing of earth and planetary atmospheres. Recently, an innovative FPI focal plane detection technique called the Circle-to-Line Interferometer Optical (CLIO) system was invented at the Space Physics Research Laboratory. The CLIO simplifies the FPI focal plane detection process by converting the circular rings or fringes into a linear pattern similar to that produced by a conventional spectrometer, while retaining the throughput advantage of the etalon interferometer. The combination of FPI and CLIO allows the development of more sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometers in the infrared for the remote sensing of the lower atmospheres of Earth and possibly other planets. The Multiorder Etalon Sounder (MOES), a combination of the rugged etalon and the CLIO, compares very favorably to other space-borne optical instruments in terms of performance versus complexity. The new instrument is expected to be rugged, compact, and very suitable for an operational temperature and moisture sounder. With this technique, the contamination of radiance measurements by emissions of other gases is also minimized. At the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL), the MOES

  9. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2015-06-01

    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  10. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses an X-ray apparatus that can be used for tomography with the aid of a computer. With this apparatus plus computer, it is possible to quickly achieve the required edge values whereby the influence of the movement is diminished

  11. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  12. Performance of latex balloons for optical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.; Walsh, A.; Peng, M.; Battista, J.

    2013-06-01

    Latex balloons filled with radiation sensitive hydrogels were evaluated as 3D dosimeters with optical computed tomography (CT) readout. Custom balloons, with less than 10 cm diameters, were made from latex sheets. Commercial, 13 cm diameter, clear balloons were investigated for larger volumes. Ferrous-xylenol orange and genipin gelatin gels selected for 1 and 30 Gy experiments, respectively. The thin stretched latex membrane allowed optical imaging to within 1 mm of the interior balloon edge. Reconstructed dose distributions demonstrated valid measurements to within 2 mm of the balloon surface. The rubber membrane provides a hybrid approach to deforming hydrogels. Uniform irradiation of a deformed gel resulted in a uniform dose being measured when scanned in the relaxed, initial balloon shape. The 13 cm diameter balloons were also effective and inexpensive vessels for hydrogels due to their high clarity, thinness and mechanical strength. Latex balloons represent an inexpensive method to obtain useful information from nearly the entire dosimeter volume.

  13. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  14. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures

  15. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures.

  16. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  17. Performance of the EUSO-Balloon electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrillon, P.; Bacholle, S.; Bayer, J.; Blaksley, C.; Blin, S.; Cafagna, F.; Dagoret, S.; Fornaro, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Jung, A.; Karczmarczyk, J.; De La Taille, C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Osteria, G.; Park, I.; Perfetto, F.; Prévôt, G.; Prat, P.; Rabanal Reina, J.; Rojas, J.; Santiago, L.; Scotti, V.; Silva, H.; Szabelski, J.

    2016-01-01

    The 24th of August 2014, the EUSO-Balloon instrument went for a night flight for several hours, 40 km above Timmins (Canada) balloon launching site, concretizing the hard work of an important part of the JEM-EUSO collaboration started 3 years before. This instrument consists of a telescope made of two lenses and a complex electronic chain divided in two main sub-systems: the PDM (Photo Detector Module) and the DP (Data Processor). Each of them is made of several innovative elements developed and tested in a short time. This paper presents their performances before and during the flight.

  18. Balloon dilatation of alimentary tract strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a series of balloon dilatations of alimentary tract strictures 11 patients with different types of gastric and oesophagogastric anastomotic stenoses are reported. The dilatation of gastric outflow tract obstructions was highly effective in the treatment of retention. In 7 out of 8 cases with gastric outflow stenosis surgery could be entirely avoided and replaced by balloon dilatation. The importance of eliminating retention in the healing of gastric ulcer is discussed. Fistulation in oesophagogastric anastomoses due to stenosis of the outflow portion was successfully treated. The importance of achieving a free outflow tract in order to prevent insufficiency of the anastomosis and formation of a fistula is stressed. (orig.)

  19. The Born Rule Dies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2009-01-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule dies and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure pr...

  20. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  1. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  2. Increased Production of Sonic Hedgehog by Ballooned Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rangwala, Fatima; Cynthia D Guy; Lu, Jiuyi; SUZUKI, Ayako; Burchette, James L.; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2011-01-01

    Ballooned hepatocytes distinguish nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from steatosis. Such cells contain dilated endoplasmic reticulum and ubiquitin aggregates, characteristics of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hepatocyte ballooning increases risk for fibrosis in NASH, suggesting ballooned hepatocytes release pro-fibrogenic factors. Hedgehog ligands function as pro-fibrogenic factors in liver diseases, but mechanisms for Hedgehog ligand production remain poorly understood. We evaluated the hyp...

  3. Auditory Risk of Exploding Hydrogen-Oxygen Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.; Macedone, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Although hydrogen-oxygen balloon explosions are popular demonstrations, the acoustic impulse created poses a hearing damage risk if the peak level exceeds 140 dB at the listener's ear. The results of acoustical measurements of hydrogen-oxygen balloons of varying volume and oxygen content are described. It is shown that hydrogen balloons may be…

  4. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  5. Telescopes in Near Space: Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BigBENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Mauk, Robin

    2012-01-01

    A significant and often overlooked path to advancing both science and technology for direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exosolar planets is to fly "near space" missions, i.e. balloon borne exosolar missions. A near space balloon mission with two or more telescopes, coherently combined, is capable of achieving a subset of the mission science goals of a single large space telescope at a small fraction of the cost. Additionally such an approach advances technologies toward flight readiness for space flight. Herein we discuss the feasibility of flying two 1.2 meter telescopes, with a baseline separation of 3.6 meters, operating in visible light, on a composite boom structure coupled to a modified visible nulling coronagraph operating to achieve an inner working angle of 60 milli-arcseconds. We discuss the potential science return, atmospheric residuals at 135,000 feet, pointing control and visible nulling and evaluate the state-or-art of these technologies with regards to balloon missions.

  6. Space and Earth Observations from Stratospheric Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterzen, Steven; Ubertini, Pietro; Masi, Silvia; Ibba, Roberto; Ivano, Musso; Cardillo, Andrea; Romeo, Giovanni; Dragøy, Petter; Spoto, Domenico

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78o N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennal oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultralight payloads and TM system ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program

  7. The effect of ballooning model in ISAAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ballooning effect in the fuel channel with the ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU Plants) computer code which was developed for the severe accident analysis at CANDU plants. Cladding/PT ballooning model parameter in the ISAAC code is used to analyze its effect mainly on the hydrogen production from the fuel channel. According to the current ISAAC version, cladding failure occurs when the cladding temperature exceeds a user-specified failure temperature, resulting in a fission products release from the fuel rod to the primary system. The typical accident sequences of a loss of feed water (LOFW) and a large LOCA (LLOCA) scenario are selected. Unlike the PWRs, the ballooning effect in CANDU plants is not so clear during the low pressure sequences. Instead, pressure tube ballooning during the high pressure sequences decreases the amount of hydrogen generated from the fuel when pressure tube-calandria tube contact occurs, resulting in a cladding and pressure tube temperature decrease. (authors)

  8. Treatment of tuberculous bronchostenosis: balloon bronchoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the balloon bronchoplasty in the treatment of the tuberculous bronchostenosis. Balloon bronchoplasty was performed in thirteen patients with stenosis of the left main bronchus (two with combined left upper and lower lobar bronchostenosis) using a inflatable balloon catheter under a fluoroscopic guide. We analysed the changes in the severity of dyspnea and wheezing, serial FEV1/FVC as a parameter of the airflow obstruction, and bronchial diameter and lung volume on chest radiographs. The extent of pulmonary tuberculosis was correlated with the improvement of FEV1/ FVC. There was an improvement of dyspnea in 69% (9/13), decrease of wheezing in 69% (9/13), significant increase of FEV1/FVC in 18% (2/11). The increase of the bronchial diameter and lung volume were seen in 84% (11/13) and 53% (7/13), respectively. The significant increase of FEV1/FVC was seen in 28% (2/7) of the patients with lung involvement of tuberculous less than one third of left upper lobe, whereas there was no increase in those of more than one third. The was no complication except transient leukocytosis, fever and blood-tinged sputum. In conclusion, balloon bronchoplasty is effective in the treatment of medically intractable tuberculous bronchostenosis, and can be considered as an initial method of treatment

  9. A case of balloon rupture during insertion of an intragastric balloon for treatment of morbid obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Serhat; TURAN, İlker; ÖZÜTEMİZ, Ömer

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic options for treatment of morbid obesity are diet, exercise, behavioral modifications, medical treatment and bariatric surgery. An alternative approach to surgery is the endoscopic placement in the stomach of balloons which are filled with liquid, providing a sensation of fullness that decreases food consumption. The rate of complications associated with the placement of intragastric balloons is low. A significant late complication is deflation and/or displacement of the...

  10. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  11. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  12. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  13. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  14. Measurements of gondola motion on a stratospheric balloon flight

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Mathew, Joice; Murthy, Jayant; Anand, Devarajan; Kapardhi, B V N; Kumar, B Suneel; Kulkarni, P M

    2016-01-01

    Balloon experiments are an economically feasible method of conducting observations in astronomy that are not possible from the ground. The astronomical payload may include a telescope, a detector, and a pointing/stabilization system. Determining the attitude of the payload is of primary importance in such applications, to accurately point the detector/telescope to the desired direction. This is especially important in generally unstable lightweight balloon flights. However, the conditions at float altitudes, which can be reached by zero pressure balloons, could be more stable, enabling accurate pointings. We have used the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), placed on a stratospheric zero pressure balloon, to observe 3-axis motion of a balloon payload over a fight time of 4.5 hours, from launch to the float altitude of 31.2 km. The balloon was launched under nominal atmospheric conditions on May 8th 2016, from a Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

  15. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  16. Outdoor Workers and Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases Mosquito-Borne Diseases Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease ... and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases Mosquito-Borne Diseases Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease ...

  17. Ultra-Relativistic Magnetic Monopole Search with the ANITA-II Balloon-borne Radio Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Detrixhe, M; Gorham, P W; Allison, P; Baughmann, B; Beatty, J J; Belov, K; Bevan, S; Binns, W R; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J M; Connolly, A; DeMarco, D; Dowkontt, P F; Duvernois, M A; Frankenfeld, C; Grashorn, E W; Hogan, D P; Griffith, N; Hill, B; Hoover, S; Israel, M H; Javaid, A; Liewer, K M; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B C; Miki, C; Mottram, M; Nam, J; Nichol, R J; Palladino, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Ruckman, L; Saltzberg, D; Seckel, D; Varner, G S; Vieregg, A G; Wang, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a search for extended energy deposition trails left by ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles interacting in Antarctic ice. The non-observation of any satisfactory candidates in the 31 days of accumulated ANITA-II flight data results in an upper limit on the diffuse flux of relativistic monopoles. We obtain a 90% C.L. limit of order 10^{-19}/(cm^2-s-sr) for values of Lorentz boost factor 10^{10}

  18. Observation of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays with the ANITA Balloon-borne Radio Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, S; Gorham, P W; Grashorn, E; Allison, P; Barwick, S W; Beatty, J J; Belov, K; Besson, D Z; Binns, W R; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J M; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P F; DuVernois, M A; Field, R C; Goldstein, D; Vieregg, A G; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Israel, M H; Javaid, A; Kowalski, J; Learned, J G; Liewer, K M; Link, J T; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B C; Miki, C; Miočinović, P; Naudet, C J; Ng, J; Nichol, R J; Palladino, K; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Ruckman, L; Saltzberg, D; Seckel, D; Varner, G S; Walz, D; Wu, F

    2010-01-01

    We report the observation of sixteen cosmic ray events of mean energy of $1.5 \\times 10^{19}$ eV, via radio pulses originating from the interaction of the cosmic ray air shower with the Antarctic geomagnetic field, a process known as geosynchrotron emission. We present the first ultra-wideband, far-field measurements of the radio spectral density of geosynchrotron emission in the range from 300-1000 MHz. The emission is 100% linearly polarized in the plane perpendicular to the projected geomagnetic field. Fourteen of our observed events are seen to have a phase-inversion due to reflection of the radio beam off the ice surface, and two additional events are seen directly from above the horizon.

  19. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC ozone sensors. The sharp drops in November 2011 are considered to be caused by the SO2 plume from the Popocatépetl volcano to the south-east of Mexico City. Response experiments of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could generate the observed abrupt drops. The vertical structure of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation also supported this assumption. The near-ground deficit in March 2012 is considered to be generated by the SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex to the north-west of Mexico City. Sporadic large SO2 emission is known to occur from this region, and before and at the ozonesonde launching time, large intermittent peaks of SO2 concentration were recorded at the ground-level monitoring stations. The difference between the O3 concentration obtained by ozonesonde and that by UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration measured by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The plume vertical profiles estimated by the Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in Mexico City revealed that the Popocatépetl effect is most likely to occur from June to October, and the Tula effect all the year.

  20. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Jones, C.;

    2002-01-01

    introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band...

  1. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kanda; Basaldud, R.; Horikoshi, N.; Okazaki, Y.; S. E. Benítez Garcia; Ortínez, A.; Ramos Benítez, V. R.; B. Cárdenas; Wakamatsu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone sensors. The sharp drops in ...

  2. A 3D CZT hard x-ray polarimeter for a balloon-borne payload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, E.; Alvarez, J. M.; Auricchio, N.;

    2012-01-01

    status of the Crab pulsar, i.e. the polarization level and direction. The detector with 3D spatial resolution is based on a CZT spectrometer in a highly segmented configuration designed to operate as a high performance scattering polarimeter. We discuss different configurations based on recent...

  3. B-MINE, the balloon-borne microcalorimeter nuclear line explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, E; Schnopper, H; Jones, C; Forman, W; Bandler, S; Murray, S; Romaine, S; Slane, P; Grindlay, J; Madden, N; Beeman, J; Haller, EE; Smith, D; Barbera, M; Collura, A; Christensen, Finn Erland; Ramsey, B; Woosley, S; Diehl, R; Tucker, G; Fabregat, J; Reglero, V; Gimenez, A

    2001-01-01

    introduces the concept of focusing optics and microcalorimeter spectroscopy to nuclear line emission astrophysics. B-MINE has a thin, plastic foil telescope multilayered to maximize the reflectivity in a 20 keV band centered at 68 keV and a microcalorimeter array optimized for the same energy band. This...

  4. Ultrarelativistic magnetic monopole search with the ANITA-II balloon-borne radio interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted a search for extended energy deposition trails left by ultrarelativistic magnetic monopoles interacting in Antarctic ice. The nonobservation of any satisfactory candidates in the 31 days of accumulated ANITA-II (Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna) flight data results in an upper limit on the diffuse flux of relativistic monopoles. We obtain a 90% C.L. limit of order 10-19 (cm2 s sr)-1 for values of Lorentz factor, γ, 1010≤γ at the anticipated energy Etot=1016 GeV. This bound is stronger than all previously published experimental limits for this kinematic range.

  5. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer Through Satellite and Balloon-Borne Measurements Combined With Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Natarajan, M.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Crawford, J.; Moore, J.; Pandit, A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Vignelles, D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Deshler, T.; Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.; Raj, A.; Kumar, H.; Stenchikov, G.; Wiehold, F.; Bian, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer-ATAL is a confined area of enhanced aerosol associated Summer Asia Monsoon spanning from the E. Med Sea to W. China. It essentially extends from top of convective outflow over much of SE Asia Existence recognize through CALIPSO observations.

  6. Born In Bradford Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stella; Walda, Martin; Vasiliki, Delimpasi

    2015-01-01

    The Born In Bradford mobile application is an Android mobile application and a working prototype that enables interaction with a sample cohort of the Born in Bradford study. It provides an interface and visualization for several surveys participated in by mothers and their children. This data is stored in the Born In Bradford database. A subset of this data is provided for mothers and children. The mobile application provides a way to engage the mothers and promote their consistency in partic...

  7. Sonic Thermometer for High-Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John

    2012-01-01

    The sonic thermometer is a specialized application of well-known sonic anemometer technology. Adaptations have been made to the circuit, including the addition of supporting sensors, which enable its use in the high-altitude environment and in non-air gas mixtures. There is a need to measure gas temperatures inside and outside of superpressure balloons that are flown at high altitudes. These measurements will allow the performance of the balloon to be modeled more accurately, leading to better flight performance. Small thermistors (solid-state temperature sensors) have been used for this general purpose, and for temperature measurements on radiosondes. A disadvantage to thermistors and other physical (as distinct from sonic) temperature sensors is that they are subject to solar heating errors when they are exposed to the Sun, and this leads to issues with their use in a very high-altitude environment

  8. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of ...

  9. A Balloon-Gondola Dedicated for Waterlanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, J.; Roudil, G.; Catalano, C.; Von Ballmoos, P.

    2015-09-01

    As balloon flights over populated areas are increasingly considered a safety risk, new launch sites are chosen to ensure that sparsely inhabited regions are overflown. Particular vigilance is requested for the selection of the zones where flight termination and landing take place. While open sea would ideally fulfil the safety requirements for flight track and termination, traditional balloon experiments are lost or severely damaged on water landings. EUSO-Balloon, a pathfinder mission for Cosmic-Ray physics, has deliberately been designed as a water-landing gondola as the instrument eventually will observe Energetic Air Showers above open water. In order to maximize the chances for a dry recovery of all the sensitive equipment after a water-landing, the gondola features a number of special devices: inside a watertight capsule using a Fresnel lens as a porthole, the electronics is mounted on a ‘dry-shelf' with limber holes (drain holes). Also, the entire capsule is held above the waterline by a collar of floaters. To minimize damage to the payload and warrant the integrity of the leak-tight capsule at splashdown, efficient deceleration is achieved by using the instruments optical baffle (nadir-pointing) as a cylinder; the pressure of the air-cushion in the enclosed volume being passively controlled by calibrated evacuation-holes. Upon its maiden flight of August 25, 2014 from Timmins, Ontario, EUSO-Balloon not only accomplished its science goals, but it also accidentally landed in a small lake, validating the water-landing capacity it was designed for.

  10. Lightweight Reusable Solar Array For Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Tensor, P.; Nock, K.; Wyszkowski, C.

    We will discuss a new lightweight reusable solar array system, dubbed HighPower, which is being developed for the Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program using NASA/SBIR funding, but which is also applicable to other balloon systems. The system uses a vertically deployed stack of panels suspended from their corners by cables. The stack act likes a two-dimensional Venetian blind. By raising and lowering opposite corners, the array of parallel panels can be pointed over most of the upper hemisphere. This allows the panels to remain normal to the sun despite the slow rotation of the gondola and without requiring rotation of the system (no slip rings) or heavy cantilevered rotation joints. The system is sized to generate 2000 W using six 2m x 2m panels. The modularity of the system allows panels to be added or removed to tailored the power to the needs of the mission. Prior to cut -down of the balloon, the panels can be retracted and stowed compactly in the lower part of the gondola. This will protect the array during landing, allowing the array to be reused on subsequent flights.

  11. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  12. MAXIS Balloon Observations of Electron Microburst Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R. M.; Hunter, A. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding relativistic electron variability in the radiation belts. SAMPEX observations indicate that electron microburst precipitation is a major loss mechanism during active periods; the loss of relativistic electrons during a six hour period due to microburst precipitation was recently estimated to be comparable to the total number of trapped electrons in the outer zone (Lorentzen et al., 2001). Microburst precipitation was first observed from a balloon (Anderson and Milton, 1964), but these early measurements were only sensitive to MAXIS 2000 long duration balloon campaign. MAXIS was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica carrying a germanium spectrometer, a BGO scintillator and two X-ray imagers designed to measure the bremsstrahlung produced by precipitating electrons. The balloon circumnavigated the south pole in 18 days covering magnetic latitudes ranging from 58o-90o South. During the week following a moderate geomagnetic storm (with Dst reaching -91 nT), MAXIS detected a total of over 16 hours of microburst precipitation. We present high resolution spectra obtained with the MAXIS germanium spectrometer which allow us to determine the precipitating electron energy distribution. The precipitating distribution will then be compared to the trapped distribution measured by the GPS and LANL satellites. We also examine the spatial distribution of the precipitation.

  13. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  14. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful

  15. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful.

  16. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  17. Fluidized bed apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus invented features and envelope with a cooling sleeve containing a treatment chamber with an escape duct, vacuum pump and intake pipes for a coating gas and a conveyor gas; these gases are sent into a special nozzle provided with a central passage for the coating gas and an annular outer passage for the conveyor gas which is heated on its way through, the nozzle being so designed that the gases do not mix until immediately before injection into the chamber. Such an apparatus can be used in particular to form coatings holding back fission products on nuclear fuel nuclei

  18. Fluoroscopically Guided Balloon Dilation for Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woong Hee; Kim, Jin Hyoung, E-mail: m1fenew@daum.net; Park, Jung-Hun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Little was known about the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods: From February 2000 to November 2010, 14 patients underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. Technical success, clinical success, and complications were evaluated. Patients were followed up for recurrent symptoms. Results: In all patients, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was technically and clinically successful with no major complications. Following the initial procedure, six patients (43 %) remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period. Obstructive symptoms recurred in eight patients (57 %) within 6 months (mean, 1.7 months), who were treated with repeat balloon dilation (n = 4) and other therapies. Of the four patients who underwent repeat balloon dilation, three became asymptomatic. One patient became asymptomatic after a third balloon dilation. On long-term (mean, 74 months) follow-up, 71 % of patients experienced relief of symptoms following fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation. Conclusions: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation may be safe, is easy to perform, and resulted in effective treatment in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis.

  19. Acoustical characterization of exploding hydrogen-oxygen balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Julia A; Gee, Kent L; Macedone, Jeffrey H

    2012-03-01

    Exploding hydrogen-oxygen balloons are popular chemistry demonstrations. Although initial research experimentally quantified potential hearing risk via analysis of peak levels [K. L. Gee et al., J. Chem. Educ. 87, 1039-1044 (2010)], further waveform and spectral analyses have been conducted to more fully characterize these impulsive noise sources. While hydrogen-only balloons produce inconsistent reactions and relatively low, variable levels, stoichiometrically mixed hydrogen-oxygen balloons produce consistent high-amplitude noise waveforms. Preliminary consideration is also given to the potential use of these exploding balloons in architectural acoustics applications. PMID:22423815

  20. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  1. Floating decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is disclosed for decontaminating a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. It comprises a buoyant annular frame which descends into the vessel as the water level within it is lowered. Spray nozzles move around the frame on trolleys in a reciprocating fashion and spray water under high pressure on the inner surface of the vessel wall, resulting in automatic washdown of the reactor vessel

  2. Apparatus for obstacle traversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann

    2004-08-10

    An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of drive track assemblies. The plurality of drive track assemblies cooperate to provide forward propulsion wherever a propulsion member is in contact with any feature of the environment, regardless of how many or which ones of the plurality of drive track assemblies make contact with such environmental feature.

  3. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  4. A monostrain test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, J. C.; Hill, W. L.; Pontius, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Test apparatus is designed for determining tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation, and thermal coefficient of contraction or expansion of uniformly shaped plastics, adhesives, and foam materials over temperature range of 700 to 90 K (800 to -300). Tests may be used in design quality control, and in evaluation of new adhesives and plastic materials.

  5. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  6. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  7. Stratospheric Balloons for Planetary Science and the Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) Mission Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Cheng, Andrew F.; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dolloff, Matthew D.; Landis, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the planetary science community have been exploring the potential contributions approximately 200 questions raised in the Decadal Survey have identified about 45 topics that are potentially suitable for addressing by stratospheric balloon platforms. A stratospheric balloon mission was flown in the fall of 2014 called BOPPS, Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science. This mission observed a number of planetary targets including two Oort cloud comets. The optical system and instrumentation payload was able to provide unique measurements of the intended targets and increase our understanding of these primitive bodies and their implications for us here on Earth. This paper will discuss the mission, instrumentation and initial results and how these may contribute to the broader planetary science objectives of NASA and the scientific community. This paper will also identify how the instrument platform on BOPPS may be able to contribute to future balloon-based science. Finally the paper will address potential future enhancements and the expected science impacts should those enhancements be implemented.

  8. Ballooning Spiders: The Case for Electrostatic Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    We consider general aspects of the physics underlying the flight of Gossamer spiders, also known as ballooning spiders. We show that existing observations and the physics of spider silk in the presence of the Earth's static atmospheric electric field indicate a potentially important role for electrostatic forces in the flight of Gossamer spiders. A compelling example is analyzed in detail, motivated by the observed "unaccountable rapidity" in the launching of such spiders from H.M.S. Beagle, recorded by Charles Darwin during his famous voyage.

  9. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? PMID:27543477

  10. Ballooning instability precursors to high β disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongly ballooning modes have been found as precursors to high β disruptions on TFTR. The modes are typically localized to a region spanning about 60 degree in the toroidal direction. The toroidal localization is associated with lower frequency, global Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) activity, typically an ideal n = 1 kink mode. They have moderate to high frequency (f = 10--20 frot), implying toroidal mode numbers in the range n = 10--20. The growth rates for the modes are large, of order 104/sec

  11. General theory of kinetic ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ballooning mode formalism, previously developed for the ideal MHD problem, is applied here to the kinetic problem in tokamaks. The general two-dimensional equation governing drift and trapped-electron eigenmodes reduces to a one-dimensional integral equation along the lines of force with the radial structure determined by a WKB procedure. Comparisons made between the present one-dimensional code and a previous two-dimensional code embodying identical physical assumptions indicate reasonable agreement. This correspondence holds both for the structure along the field line and for the radial structure in the special case of closely spaced turning points

  12. Double-balloon endoscopy: Who needs it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, J.W.; Vilmann, P.; Jensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) made the small bowel accessible to inspection and therapy in its entirety. However, DBE is a time-consuming procedure that requires a highly skilled endoscopist, several nurses and - more often than not - anesthesiological support. This makes the selection...... of patients for DBE a pivotal point. The mainstay of this screening examination of the small bowel is capsule endoscopy (CE). The aim of this study was to describe the results of this screening procedure and the subsequent DBE in patients with suspected mid-gastrointestinal bleeding (MGIB). Material...

  13. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw Dejene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation.

  14. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejene, Shiferaw; Ahmed, Fahim; Jack, Kastelik; Anthony, Arnorld

    2013-07-01

    We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation. PMID:23922614

  15. Explosive Ballooning Flux Tubes in Tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ham, C J; Brochard, G; Wilson, H R

    2016-01-01

    Tokamak stability to, potentially explosive, `ballooning' displacements of elliptical magnetic flux tubes is examined in large aspect ratio equilibrium. Above a critical pressure gradient the energy stored in the plasma may be lowered by finite (but not infinitesimal) displacements of such tubes (metastability). Above a higher pressure gradient, the linear stability boundary, such tubes are linearly and nonlinearly unstable. The flux tube displacement can be of the order of the pressure gradient scale length. Plasma transport from displaced flux tubes may result in rapid loss of confinement.

  16. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  17. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  18. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  19. Simultaneous stent expansion/balloon deflation technique to salvage failed balloon remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Froehler, Michael T; Mocco, J

    2016-04-01

    Herniation, with possible embolization, of coils into the parent vessel following aneurysm coiling remains a frequent challenge. For this reason, balloon or stent assisted embolization remains an important technique. Despite the use of balloon remodeling, there are occasions where, on deflation of the balloon, some coils, or even the entire coil mass, may migrate. We report the successful use of a simultaneous adjacent stent deployment bailout technique in order to salvage coil prolapse during balloon remodeling in three patients. Case No 1 was a wide neck left internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm, measuring 9 mm×7.9 mm×6 mm with a 5 mm neck. Case No 2 was a complex left superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm, measuring 5.3 mm×4 mm×5 mm with a 2.9 mm neck. Case No 3 was a ruptured right posterior communicating artery aneurysm, measuring 4 mm×4 mm×4.5 mm with a 4 mm neck. This technique successfully returned the prolapsed coil mass into the aneurysm sac in all cases without procedural complications. The closed cell design of the Enterprise VRD (Codman and Shurtleff Inc, Raynham, Massachusetts, USA) makes it ideal for this bailout technique, by allowing the use of an 0.021 inch delivery catheter (necessary for simultaneous access) and by avoiding the possibility of an open cell strut getting caught on the deflated balloon. We hope this technique will prove useful to readers who may find themselves in a similar predicament. PMID:25801773

  20. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  1. Born Rule and Noncontextual Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic rule that links the formalism of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the real world was stated by Born in 1926. Since then, there were many attempts to derive the Born postulate as a theorem, Gleason's one being the most prominent. The Gleason derivation, however, is generally considered as rather intricate and its physical meaning, in particular in relation with the noncontextuality of probability (NP), is not quite evident. More recently, we are witnessing a revival of interest on possible demonstrations of the Born rule, like Zurek's and Deutsch's based on the decoherence and on the theory of decisions, respectively. Despite an ongoing debate about the presence of hidden assumptions and circular reasonings, these have the merit of prompting more physically oriented approaches to the problem. Here we suggest a new proof of the Born rule based on the noncontextuality of probability. Within the theorem we also demonstrate the continuity of probability with respect to the amplitudes, which has been sug...

  2. Recent developments in the scientific ballooning in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R.; Sreenivasan, S.; Subbarao, J.; Kumar, P.

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING IN INDIA R. K. Manchanda1, S. Sreenivasan2, J. V. Subbarao2, P. R. Kumar2 1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Colaba, Mumbai-400 005, India. 2. TIFR Balloon Facility, PO Box 5, ECIL Post Office, Hyderabad-500 762, India ravi@tifr.res.in/FAX: +91-22-2152110 National Balloon facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is the only one of its kind in the world, which combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. In the past few years we executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years and the results of the test flight conducted to qualify new sub systems will be presented.

  3. Methods for tracking of balloons and rockets at Esrange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedqvist, Tomas

    2001-08-01

    At Esrange several methods are used for tracking of balloons and rockets with help of radar, Vaisala sounding data, ARGOS and GPS information. Information from these different sources is fed into a computer system for processing, and for display on adapted systems. Data from balloon flights are displayed on a digital map, which includes population data and a system to predict impact point of the balloon. Data from rocket flights can be displayed either on a digital map, or in a system for range safety purpose. Signals from various sources are converted into a data format used in the new ATC (Air Traffic Control) transponder system in order to ease future integration into this system. Data from the GPS system in NMEA format can also be adopted directly into the tracking system for both balloon and rocket flight. Balloon tracking data is also transferred via Internet to ATCs centres for flight safety reasons. Future developments: A new system for wind measurements will be created from "throw away" GPS sondes. In air traffic transponders, the expensive altimeter will be replaced by an inexpensive GPS system. For recovery, Argos-GPS on balloons will be used for real-time tracking, position information via satellites and as a support system for recovery by helicopter. Balloons equipped with the Inmarsat system, for long duration balloon flights, will have their position displayed in the digital map system.

  4. The Evaluation of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation Treatment for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri-Shirvani Javad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Balloon dilatation of stricture is one of the new treatment methods among patients with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO. However, the prevalence and underlying etiologies of GOO in various populations are different. The goal of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic balloon dilatation and factors that would affect its success rate patients with benign etiology for GOO. Forty-five patients with the symptoms of benign GOO were randomly selected. Gastric outlet was delineated using double channel videoendoscopy. The information of initial balloon dilation was collected from recorded files. Balloon dilatation was repeated during the mean follow up of 9.9 ± 5.8 months. The severity of gastric pain was measured immediately before balloon dilatation and one month after procedure and was rated on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. The mean age of patients was 43.7 ± 18.1 years and 86.7% of them were men. Furthermore, 71.1% were H pylori positive. Response rate to endoscopic balloon dilatation was 80% and 8 patients underwent surgical resection. Weight loss was more frequent in non-responding group. The pain severity was significantly reduced more in responding subjects. No meaningful relationships were found between the responses to balloon dilatation and positive H pylori and cigarette smoking. Endoscopic balloon dilation is safe and effective for most patients with benign gastric outlet obstruction and has favorable long-term outcome.

  5. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  6. Exploring Venus with high-altitude balloons: Science objectives and mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Zahnle, Kevin; Atreya, Sushil K.

    Following the trailblazing flights of the 1985 twin Soviet VEGA balloons, missions to fly in the high atmosphere of Venus near 55 km altitude have been proposed to both NASA's Discovery Program and ESA's Cosmic Vision. Such missions would address a variety of fundamental science issues highlighted in a variety of high-level NASA-authorized science documents in recent years, including the Decadal Study, various NASA roadmaps, and recommendations coming out of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Such missions would in particular address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state, including detailed measurements of (1) trace gases associated with Venus's active photoand thermo-chemistry and (2) measurements of vertical motions and local temperature which characterize convective and wave processes. As an example of what can be done with a small mission (less than 500M US dollars), the Venus Aerostatic-Lift Observatories for in-situ Research (VALOR) Discovery mission will be discussed. This mission would fly twin balloon-borne aerostats over temperate and polar latitudes, sampling rare gases, chemicals and dynamics in two distinct latitude regions for several days. A variety of scenarios for the origin, formation, and evolution of Venus would be tested by sampling all the noble gases and their isotopes, especially the heaviest elements never reliably measured previously: xenon and krypton. Riding the gravity and planetary waves of Venus, the VALOR balloons would sample the chemistry, meteorology and dynamics of Venus's sulfur-cloud region. Tracked by an array of Earth-based telescopes, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds would be measured with unprecedented precision. Such measurements would help to develop a fundamental understanding of (1) the circulation of Venus, especially its enigmatic super-rotation, (2) the nature of Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Venus formed and evolved over the aeons.

  7. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for δ13C and 119 samples for δD, increasing the previously published dataset for balloon borne samples by an order of magnitude, and more than doubling the total available stratospheric data (including aircraft samples published to date. The samples also cover a large range in mixing ratio from tropospheric values near 1800 ppb down to only 250 ppb, and the strong isotope fractionation processes accordingly increase the isotopic composition up to δ13C = −14‰ and δD = +190‰, the largest enrichments observed for atmospheric CH4 so far. When analyzing and comparing kinetic isotope effects (KIEs derived from single balloon profiles, it is necessary to take into account the residence time in the stratosphere in combination with the observed mixing ratio and isotope trends in the troposphere, and the range of isotope values covered by the individual profile. The isotopic composition of CH4 in the stratosphere is affected by both chemical and dynamical processes. This severely hampers interpretation of the data in terms of the relative fractions of the three important sink mechanisms (reaction with OH, O(1D and Cl. It is shown that a formal sink partitioning using the measured data severely underestimates the fraction removed by OH, which is likely due to the insensitivity of the measurements to the kinetic fractionation in the lower stratosphere. Full quantitative interpretation of the CH4 isotope data in terms of the three sink reactions requires a global model.

  8. Spectrum of the ballooning Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ballooning Schroedinger equation (BSE) is a model equation for investigating global modes that can, when approximated by a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) ansatz, be described by a ballooning formalism locally to a field line. This second order differential equation with coefficients periodic in the independent variable θk is assumed to apply even in cases where simple WKB quantization conditions break down, thus providing an alternative to semiclassical quantization. Also, it provides a test bed for developing more advanced WKB methods: e.g. the apparent discontinuity between quantization formulae for open-quotes trappedclose quotes and open-quotes passingclose quotes modes, whose ray paths have different topologies, is removed by extending the WKB method to include the phenomena of tunnelling and reflection. The BSE is applied to instabilities with shear in the real part of the local frequency, so that the dispersion relation is inherently complex. As the frequency shear is increased, it is found that trapped modes go over to passing modes, reducing the maximum growth rate by averaging over θk

  9. Intravascular ultrasound imaging following balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobis, J M; Mahon, D J; Moriuchi, M; Honye, J; McRae, M

    1991-01-01

    Despite its long history and reliability, contrast angiography has several inherent limitations. Because it is a two-dimensional projection image of the lumen contour, the wall thickness cannot be measured and the plaque itself is not visualized. This results in an underestimation of the amount of atherosclerotic disease by angiography. An assessment of atherosclerosis could be improved by an imaging modality: (1) that has an inherent larger magnification than angiography and (2) that directly visualizes the plaque. Intravascular ultrasound fulfils these criteria. This presentation will provide evidence that intravascular ultrasound may prove complimentary or even superior to angiography as an imaging modality. Intravascular ultrasound demonstrates excellent representations of lumen and plaque morphology of in vitro specimens compared with histology. There is very close intraobserver and interobserver variability of measurements made from intravascular ultrasound images. Phantom studies of stenoses in a tube model demonstrate that angiography can misrepresent the severity of stenosis when the lumen contour is irregular and not a typical ellipse, whereas intravascular ultrasound reproduces the cross-sectional morphology more accurately since it images the artery from within. In vitro studies of the atherosclerotic plaque tissue characteristics compare closely with the echo representation of fibrosis, calcification, and lipid material. In addition, in vitro studies of balloon angioplasty demonstrate that intravascular ultrasound accurately represents the changes in the structure of artery segments following balloon dilatation. PMID:1833473

  10. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  11. Balloon concepts for scientific investigation of Mars and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Opportunities for scientific investigation of the atmospheric planets using buoyant balloons have been explored. Mars and Jupiter were considered in this study because design requirements at those planets bracket nominally the requirements at Venus, and plans are already underway for a joint Russian-French balloon system at Venus. Viking data has provided quantitative information for definition of specific balloon systems at Mars. Free flying balloons appear capable of providing valuable scientific support for more sophisticated Martian surface probes, but tethered and powered aerostats are not attractive. The Jovian environment is so extreme, hot atmosphere balloons may be the only scientific platforms capable of extended operations there. However, the estimated system mass and thermal energy required are very large.

  12. The ballooning of fuel cladding tubes: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under some conditions, fuel clad ballooning can result in considerable strain before rupture. If ballooning were to occur during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the resulting substantial blockage of the sub-channel would restrict emergency core cooling. However, circumferential temperature gradients that would occur during a LOCA may significantly limit the average strain at failure. Understandably, the factors that control ballooning and rupture of fuel clad are required for the analysis of a LOCA. Considerable international effort has been spent on studying the deformation of Zircaloy fuel cladding under conditions that would occur during a LOCA. This effort has established a reasonable understanding of the factors that control the ballooning, failure time, and average failure strain of fuel cladding. In this paper, both the experimental and theoretical studies of the fuel clad ballooning are reviewed. (author)

  13. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  14. Electrowinning apparatus and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

  15. Radiation therapy imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a radiation therapy imaging apparatus for providing images in a patient being treated on a radiation therapy apparatus for verification and monitoring of patient positioning and verification of alignment and shaping of the radiation field of the radiation therapy apparatus. It comprises: a high-energy treatment head for applying a radiation dose to a patient positioned on a treatment table, and a gantry rotatable about an isocentric axis and carrying the treatment head for permitting the radiation dose to be applied to the patient from any of a range of angles about the isocentric axis; the radiation therapy imaging apparatus including a radiation therapy image detector which comprises a video camera mounted on the gantry diametrically opposite the treat head, an elongated light-excluding enclosure enveloping the camera to exclude ambient light from the camera, a fluoroscopic plate positioned on a distal end of the enclosure remote from the camera and aligned with the head to produce a fluoroscopic image in response to radiation applied from the head through the patient, mirror means in the enclosure and oriented for reflecting the image to the camera to permit monitoring on a viewing screen of the position of the radiation field in respect to the patient, and means for retracting at least the distal end of the enclosure from a position in which the fluoroscopic plate is disposed opposite the treatment head without disturbing the position of the camera on the gantry, so that the enclosure can be collapsed and kept from projecting under the treatment table when the patient is being positioned on the treatment table

  16. Tomogram forming apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and, in particular, a tomogram forming apparatus which permits, with great efficiency, the very sensitive quantitative determination and the accurate spatial localization of the radioactivity of a body section of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The scanner is characterized by its chassis carrying highly inwardly focused collimators around a scanning field and by several collimator rigs and translation and rotational drive systems

  17. Investigation of EMIC Waves During Balloon Detected Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Multiple relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events were detected by balloon-borne instrumentation during the MAXIS 2000 and MINIS 2005 campaigns. It has been suggested that resonance with EMIC waves caused these precipitation events (Lorentzen et al, 2000 and Millan et al, 2002) due to their location in the dusk sector. We present observations of dusk-side relativistic electron precipitation events, and use supporting satellite and theoretical data to investigate the relationship between EMIC waves and the detected REP. Satellite data can provide direct measurements of not only the waves themselves but also important resonance condition parameters. The data will be presented collectively with each event to showcase similarities and differences between events and the challenges that arise in trying to understand the relationship between dusk-side relativistic electron precipitation and EMIC waves.

  18. Coronagraphic Imaging of Debris Disks from a High Altitude Balloon Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen; Traub, Wesley; Bryden, Geoffrey; Brugarolas, Paul; Chen, Pin; Guyon, Olivier; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Kasdin, Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vasisht, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks around nearby stars are tracers of the planet formation process, and they are a key element of our understanding of the formation and evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. With multi-color images of a significant number of disks, we can probe important questions: can we learn about planetary system evolution; what materials are the disks made of; and can they reveal the presence of planets? Most disks are known to exist only through their infrared flux excesses as measured by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and through images measured by Herschel. The brightest, most extended disks have been imaged with HST, and a few, such as Fomalhaut, can be observed using ground-based telescopes. But the number of good images is still very small, and there are none of disks with densities as low as the disk associated with the asteroid belt and Edgeworth-Kuiper belt in our own Solar System. Direct imaging of disks is a major observational challenge, demanding high angular resolution and extremely high dynamic range close to the parent star. The ultimate experiment requires a space-based platform, but demonstrating much of the needed technology, mitigating the technical risks of a space-based coronagrap, and performing valuable measurements of circumstellar debris disks, can be done from a high-altitude balloon platform. In this paper we present a balloon-borne telescope experiment based on the Zodiac II design that would undertake compelling studies of a sample of debris disks.

  19. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  20. Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty by the Inoue balloon technique: the procedure of choice for treatment of mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O; Holmes, D R

    1998-03-01

    The Inoue technique of percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty, introduced in 1984, is a truly startling advance in cardiology in modern times. It is time to reeducate our colleagues that when they hear the opening snap in patients with mitral stenosis, they should automatically open these stenotic mitral valves with an Inoue balloon catheter rather than submit these patients to surgical correction. PMID:9514461

  1. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  2. Microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuji

    In JAXA, microgravity experiment system using a high altitude balloon was developed , for good microgravity environment and short turn-around time. In this publication, I give an account of themicrogravity experiment system and a combustion experiment to utilize the system. The balloon operated vehicle (BOV) as a microgravity experiment system was developed from 2004 to 2009. Features of the BOV are (1) BOV has double capsule structure. Outside-capsule and inside-capsule are kept the non-contact state by 3-axis drag-free control. (2) The payload is spherical shape and itsdiameter is about 300 mm. (3) Keep 10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds However, BOV’s payload was small, and could not mount large experiment module. In this study, inherits the results of past, we established a new experimental system called “iBOV” in order toaccommodate larger payload. Features of the iBOV are (1) Drag-free control use for only vertical direction. (2) The payload is a cylindrical shape and its size is about 300 mm in diameter and 700 mm in height. (3) Keep 10-3-10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds We have "Observation experiment of flame propagation behavior of the droplets column" as experiment using iBOV. This experiment is a theme that was selected first for technical demonstration of iBOV. We are conducting the flame propagation mechanism elucidation study of fuel droplets array was placed at regular intervals. We conducted a microgravity experiments using TEXUS rocket ESA and drop tower. For this microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon, we use the Engineering Model (EM) for TEXUS rocket experiment. The EM (This payload) consists of combustion vessel, droplets supporter, droplets generator, fuel syringe, igniter, digital camera, high-speed camera. And, This payload was improved from the EM as follows. (1) Add a control unit. (2) Add inside batteries for control unit and heater of combustion

  3. An Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) to Develop New Instrument Technology to Study the Auroral Ionosphere and Stratospheric Ozone Layer Using Ultralight Balloon Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowling, M.; Ahmad, H.; Gamblin, R.; Guala, D.; Hermosillo, D.; Pina, M.; Marrero, E.; Canales, D. R. J.; Cao, J.; Ehteshami, A.; Bering, E. A., III; Lefer, B. L.; Dunbar, B.; Bias, C.; Shahid, S.

    2015-12-01

    This project is currently engaging twelve undergraduate students in the process of developing new technology and instrumentation for use in balloon borne geospace investigations in the auroral zone. Motivation stems from advances in microelectronics and consumer electronic technology. Given the technological innovations over the past 20 years it now possible to develop new instrumentation to study the auroral ionosphere and stratospheric ozone layer using ultralight balloon payloads for less than 6lbs and $3K per payload. The University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) team has built ten such payloads for launch using 1500 gm latex weather balloons deployed in Houston, TX, Fairbanks, AK, and as well as zero pressure balloons launched from northern Sweden. The latex balloon project will collect vertical profiles of wind velocity, temperature, electrical conductivity, ozone, and odd nitrogen. This instrument payload will also produce profiles of pressure, electric field, and air-earth electric current. The zero pressure balloons will obtain a suite of geophysical measurements including: DC electric field, electric field and magnetic flux, optical imaging, total electron content of ionosphere via dual-channel GPS, X-ray detection, and infrared/UV spectroscopy. Students flew payloads with different combinations of these instruments to determine which packages are successful. Data collected by these instruments will be useful in understanding the nature of electrodynamic coupling in the upper atmosphere and how the global earth system is changing. Twelve out of the launched fifteen payloads were successfully launched and recovered. Results and best practices learned from lab tests and initial Houston test flights will be discussed.

  4. A Survey of Titan Balloon Concepts and Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the options for, and technology status of, balloon vehicles to explore Saturn's moon Titan. A significant amount of Titan balloon concept thinking and technology development has been performed in recent years, particularly following the spectacular results from the descent and landing of the Huygens probe and remote sensing observations by the Cassini spacecraft. There is widespread recognition that a balloon vehicle on the next Titan mission could provide an outstanding and unmatched capability for in situ exploration on a global scale. The rich variety of revealed science targets has combined with a highly favorable Titan flight environment to yield a wide diversity of proposed balloon concepts. The paper presents a conceptual framework for thinking about balloon vehicle design choices and uses it to analyze various Titan options. The result is a list of recommended Titan balloon vehicle concepts that could perform a variety of science missions, along with their projected performance metrics. Recent technology developments for these balloon concepts are discussed to provide context for an assessment of outstanding risk areas and technological maturity. The paper concludes with suggestions for technology investments needed to achieve flight readiness.

  5. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  6. Procoagulant platelet balloons: evidence from cryopreparation and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M W; Siljander, P

    2001-05-01

    Visualisation of the procoagulant transformation of human platelets has recently become possible through use of an in vitro approach combined with fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. Here, we extended these studies to the ultrastructural level by employing both rapid freezing/freeze-substitution and conventional ambient-temperature chemical fixation for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Procoagulant transformation was only inducible by adhering platelets to collagen fibrils or to the collagen-related peptide and exposing them to physiological extracellular Ca2+ levels. Under these conditions prominent, 2- to 4-micron-wide balloon-like structures were regularly observed, regardless of the specimen fixation protocol. In strong contrast to normal platelets in their vicinity, the balloons' subcellular architecture proved remarkably poor: dilute cytoplasm, no cytoskeleton, only a few, randomly distributed organelles and/or their remnants. Cryofixed balloons displayed intact and smooth surfaces whereas conventional specimen processing caused plasma membrane perforations and shrinkage of the balloons. Our results clearly show that neither the balloons themselves, nor their simple ultrastructure reflect fixation artefacts caused by inadequate membrane stabilisation. The balloons are interpreted as to be transformed and/or fragmented procoagulant platelets. Thus, the generation of balloons represents a genuine, final stage of platelet ontogenesis, presumably occurring alternatively to aggregate formation. PMID:11449892

  7. Graph-Based Path-Planning for Titan Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars James; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a graph-based path-planning algorithm for balloons with vertical control authority and little or no horizontal control authority. The balloons are designed to explore celestial bodies with atmospheres, such as Titan, a moon of Saturn. The algorithm discussed enables the balloon to achieve horizontal motion using the local horizontal winds. The approach is novel because it enables the balloons to use arbitrary wind field models. This is in contrast to prior approaches that used highly simplified wind field models, such as linear, or binary, winds. This new approach works by discretizing the space in which the balloon operates, and representing the possible states of the balloon as a graph whose arcs represent the time taken to move from one node to another. The approach works with arbitrary wind fields, by looking up the wind strength and direction at every node in the graph from an arbitrary wind model. Having generated the graph, search techniques such as Dijkstra s algorithm are then used to find the set of vertical actuation commands that takes the balloon from the start to the goal in minimum time. In addition, the set of reachable locations on the moon or planet can be determined.

  8. Ballooning of CANDU pressure tubes. Model assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient creep equations used to analyze the possible ballooning and failure of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were developed and verified using as-received Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube material. But in a CANDU reactor, the pressure tubes absorb deuterium and are exposed to a continuous neutron fluence. Consequently, a literature survey was done to determine how irradiation damage and deuterium might affect the creep rate and ductility of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes in the temperature range from 600 to 800 degrees C. It was found that irradiation damage, dissolved deuterium and deuteride blisters could possibly affect the creep rate and ductility of ZR-2.5% Nb pressure tubes in this temperature range, but deuteride platelets are expected to have little effect. Further tests are required to determine the effect of irradiation damage and deuterium on the creep rate and ductility of pressure tubes

  9. Balloon brachytherapy: how I do it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the technical aspects of insertion of MammoSite Radiation System, cosmetic issues, patients selection for the procedure and their satisfaction. Seventy patients underwent brachytherapy after insertion of the MammoSite catheter and received a boost HDR totaling 1500 cGy in six fractions over a three day period. Each patient then received 5 weeks of external beam radiotherapy to the whole breast. Only T1-2 patients were treated. All patients had excellent cosmetic results. The complications (minimal skin erythema, hematoma, balloon leak, seroma, were minimal. The safety and effectiveness of the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System as a replacement for whole breast irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer has not yet been established. (author)

  10. The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies (HABE-ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, D.; Caylor, M.; Williamson, D.; Larson, L.

    1995-01-01

    The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (HABE-ATP) is a system built around balloon-borne payload which is carried to a nominal 26-km altitude. The goal is laser tracking thrusting theater and strategic missiles, and then pointing a surrogate laser weapon beam, with performance levels end a timeline traceable to operational laser weapon system requirements. This goal leads to an experiment system design which combines hardware from many technology areas: an optical telescope and IR sensors; an advanced angular inertial reference; a flexible multi-level of actuation digital control system; digital tracking processors which incorporate real-time image analysis and a pulsed, diode-pumped solid state tracking laser. The system components have been selected to meet the overall experiment goals of tracking unmodified boosters at 50- 200 km range. The ATP system on HABE must stabilize and control a relative line of sight between the platform and the unmodified target booster to a 1 microrad accuracy. The angular pointing reference system supports both open loop and closed loop track modes; GPS provides absolute position reference. The control system which positions the line of sight for the ATP system must sequence through accepting a state vector handoff, closed-loop passive IR acquisition, passive IR intermediate fine track, active fine track, and then finally aimpoint determination and maintenance modes. Line of sight stabilization to fine accuracy levels is accomplished by actuating wide bandwidth fast steering mirrors (FSM's). These control loops off-load large-amplitude errors to the outer gimbal in order to remain within the limited angular throw of the FSM's. The SWIR acquisition and MWIR intermediate fine track sensors (both PtSi focal planes) image the signature of the rocket plume. After Hard Body Handover (HBHO), active fine tracking is conducted with a visible focal plane viewing the laser-illuminated target

  11. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  12. Migration of Bakri balloon through an unsuspected uterine perforation during the treatment of secondary postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leparco, Soizic; Viot, Alexandre; Benachi, Alexandra; Deffieux, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    The current case describes an unreported complication of Bakri balloon placement: the migration of the Bakri balloon to the broad ligament through an unsuspected uterine rupture. Finally, a hysterectomy had been required. The Bakri balloon may be involuntary introduced in an unexpected uterine rupture, even if the balloon is placed with ultrasound guidance. PMID:23470856

  13. Nuclear Polar VALOR: An ASRG-Enabled Venus Balloon Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, T. S.; Baines, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    In situ exploration of Venus is expected to answer high priority science questions about the planet's origin, evolution, chemistry, and dynamics as identified in the NRC Decadal Survey and in the VEXAG White Paper. Furthermore, exploration of the polar regions of Venus is key to understanding its climate and global circulation, as well as providing insight into the circulation, chemistry, and climatological processes on Earth. In this paper we discuss our proposed Nuclear Polar VALOR mission, which would target one of the polar regions of Venus, while building on design heritage from the Discovery class VALOR concept, proposed in 2004 and 2006. Riding the strong zonal winds at 55 km altitude and drifting poleward from mid-latitude this balloon-borne aerial science station (aerostat) would circumnavigate the planet multiple times over its one- month operation, extensively investigating polar dynamics, meteorology, and chemistry. Rising and descending over 1 km altitude in planetary waves - similar to the two VEGA balloons in 1985 - onboard instrumentation would accurately and constantly sample and measure other meteorological and chemical parameters, such as atmospheric temperature and pressure, cloud particle sizes and their local column abundances, the vertical wind component, and the chemical composition of cloud-forming trace gases. As well, when viewed with terrestrial radio telescopes on the Earth-facing side of Venus, both zonal and meridional winds would be measured to high accuracy (better than 10 cm/sec averaged over an hour). Due to three factors: the lack of sunlight near the poles; severe limitations on the floating mass-fraction available for a power source; and the science requirements for intensive and continuous measurements of the balloon's environment and movement, a long-duration polar balloon mission would require a long-lived internal power source in a relatively lightweight package. For our concept we assumed an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope

  14. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning apparatus is disclosed for use in computerized axial tomography systems. The apparatus includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Signal processing and conditioning means mounted on the assembly and movable therewith, receive the output signals from the detector means and amplify and convert same to digital form. Slip ring interconnection means rotatable with the assembly, receive the outputs from the signal processors and conditioners and interfeed these signals to a computerized image reconstruction station. Slip rings rotatable with the assembly also provide interconnection enabling power and control inputs to the radiation source and to other portions of the apparatus. The assembly is continuously rotatable through successive 360 degree rotations and the examination sequence may be initiated at any point in the rotation of the assembly. The detector comprises an array of elements and means are provided for adjusting the gains of each channel associated with the individual detector elements as an incident of the examination process, thereby enabling compensation for drift in the channels

  15. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  16. Effect of poloidally asymmetric sheared flow on resistive ballooning turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shear flow induced through the Reynolds stress tensor by turbulence with ballooning character is poloidally asymmetric. For circular cross section tokamak plasmas, its main component is the (m=1, n=0). The effect of such a sheared flow on both linear and nonlinear instability is analyzed. Its effect on the linear stability properties of resistive ballooning modes is compared with the effect of poloidally symmetric sheared flows. It is shown that asymmetry in the flow does not reduce its effectiveness in stabilizing the linear resistive ballooning modes. It is also effective in reducing the turbulence level and decreasing the turbulence induced diffusivities. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  18. Validation of IASI ozone profiles, using balloon sounding data

    OpenAIRE

    Delcloo, Andy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a validation study of IASI vertical ozone profiles. This has been done using balloon ozone sonde data, which have a vertical resolution of about 100 m and measures ozone from the surface up to an altitude of about 30 km. IASI vertical ozone profiles are given as partial ozone columns [in DU per layer] between varying pressure levels. To validate the satellite derived ozone layers with the balloon ozone sounding data we integrate the ozone measured by the balloon ozone sounding...

  19. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  20. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: Terry.Price@gmail.com [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  1. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  2. The ATHENA antihydrogen apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATHENA apparatus that recently produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms is described. Its main features, which are described herein, are: an external positron accumulator, making it possible to accumulate large numbers of positrons; a separate antiproton catching trap, optimizing the catching, cooling and handling of antiprotons; a unique high resolution antihydrogen annihilation detector, allowing an clear determination that antihydrogen has been produced; an open, modular design making variations in the experimental approach possible and a ''nested'' Penning trap situated in a cryogenic, 3T magnetic field environment used for the mixing of the antiprotons and positrons

  3. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  4. Derivatives of the local ballooning growth rate with respect to surface label, field line label and ballooning parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For comprehensive ballooning analysis in three-dimensional (stellarator) systems, an extensive set of ballooning eigenvalue calculations is generally required. For several applications, it is convenient to know how the local ballooning stability will change as a function of the surface label ψ, the field line label α and the angle-like ballooning parameter ηk. A particularly important application is in the ray tracing problem [Dewar and Glasser 1983], when results from the local ballooning analysis are extended to make predictions regarding global stability. This article presents an explicit method for calculating the derivatives of the ballooning eigenvalue with respect to (ψ, α,ηk). The required derivatives satisfy δλ = ∂λ/∂ψ|α,ηk δψ + ∂λ/∂α|ψ,ηk δα+ ∂λ/ ∂ηk| ψ,α δηk, (1) for infinitesimal variations δψ,δα and δηk. The method is an application of eigenvalue perturbation analysis. The ballooning equation, with eigenvalue λ and eigenfunction ξ, may be written ∂ηP∂ηξ + Qξ = λRξ, (2). A small change in (ψ, α, ηk) induces a change in the ballooning coefficients, and a corresponding variation in the ballooning eigenvalue. The eigenvalue derivatives are calculated ∂λ/∂ψ|α,ζ = ηδPψ∂ + δQψ - λδRψ|ξ> (3) where Pψ, Qψ, and Rψ are the changes in the coefficients due to a small change in ψ,with similar expressions for ∂λ/∂α and ∂λ/∂ηk. Preliminary results of ray-tracing calculations will be presented. (author)

  5. Smokestack emission control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smokestack emissions control device is mounted to a smokestack, or the like, to clean and cool the emissions from the stack. The apparatus includes a housing shaped to be mounted on top of an emission stack and has a liquid tank formed in the housing for supporting a liquid therein. The tank is mounted directly in the passageway of escaping emissions to force the emissions through the liquid. A tank baffle extends into the liquid tank and into a liquid therein to force the escaping emissions from the smokestack through the liquid. A reduced pressure chamber is located adjacent to the liquid tank to create a negative pressure on one side of the liquid in the tank to draw the smokestack emissions through the liquid. A separator is located near the base of the stack wit pipes connecting the separator to the liquid bath for circulating the liquid in the liquid tank. the liquid in the bath can be specially formulated for the particular emissions from the emission stack. Anti-foaming and bubbling means are included to prevent the liquid from forming out of the tank. The tank is lightweight and allows the entire apparatus to be placed on an existing exhaust stack

  6. Pulsed laser machining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method for directing a controlled number of laser pulses onto a work piece to be machined. More specifically, the laser machining apparatus includes an excitable laser and an excitation lamp for continuously exciting the laser to emit a sequence of laser pulses. The application of the laser pulses to the work piece is controlled by an inner-cavity shutter that is opened to permit a precise number of pulses to be directed onto the work piece. The frequency (REP RATE) and pulse width of the laser pulses are controlled by the excitation lamp and, in turn, are set to create a progressive weld of significant depth and structural integrity. In particular there is provided control means for counting the number of laser pulses applied to a machining site of the work piece, whereby a known controllable quantity of energy is imparted to each site. To this end, the counting of the laser pulses begins after the completion of a laser pulse, whereby the actuation of the inner-cavity shutter is not synchronized to the computer but rather to the laser emission so that only whole laser pulses will be applied to the site

  7. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies

  8. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  9. Current status of intragastric balloon for obesity treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Han; Chun, Hoon Jai; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic bariatric therapy may be a useful alternative to pharmacological treatment for obesity, and it provides greater efficacy with lower risks than do conventional surgical procedures. Among the various endoscopic treatments for obesity, the intragastric balloon is associated with significant efficacy in body weight reduction and relief of comorbid disease symptoms. Anatomically, this treatment is based on gastric space-occupying effects that increase the feeling of satiety and may also affect gut neuroendocrine signaling. The simplicity of the intragastric balloon procedure may account for its widespread role in obesity treatment and its applicability to various degrees of obesity. However, advances in device properties and procedural techniques are still needed in order to improve its safety and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, verification of the physiological outcomes of intragastric balloon treatment and the clinical predictive factors for treatment responses should be considered. In this article, we discuss the types, efficacy, safety, and future directions of intragastric balloon treatment. PMID:27350727

  10. Proposed techniques for launching instrumented balloons into tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    A method is proposed to introduce instrumented balloons into tornadoes by means of the radial pressure gradient, which supplies a buoyancy force driving to the center. Presented are analytical expressions, verified by computer calculations, which show the possibility of introducing instrumented balloons into tornadoes at or below the cloud base. The times required to reach the center are small enough that a large fraction of tornadoes are suitable for the technique. An experimental procedure is outlined in which a research airplane puts an instrumented, self-inflating balloon on the track ahead of the tornado. The uninflated balloon waits until the tornado closes to, typically, 750 meters; then it quickly inflates and spirals up and into the core, taking roughly 3 minutes. Since the drive to the center is automatically produced by the radial pressure gradient, a proper launch radius is the only guidance requirement.

  11. 10 meter Sub-Orbital Large Balloon Reflector (LBR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Besides serving as a launch vehicle, the carrier balloon provides a stable mount for the enclosed telescope. Looking up, the LBR will serve as a telescope. Looking...

  12. Born-Infeld Phantom Gravastars

    OpenAIRE

    Bilic, Neven; Tupper, Gary B.; Viollier, Raoul D.

    2005-01-01

    We construct new gravitational vacuum star solutions with a Born-Infeld phantom replacing the de Sitter interior. The model allows for a wide range of masses and radii required by phenomenology, and can be motivated from low energy string theory.

  13. Welding apparatus and methods for using ultrasonic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Johnson, John A.; Larsen, Eric D.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    2006-08-22

    A welding apparatus using ultrasonic sensing is described and which includes a movable welder having a selectively adjustable welding head for forming a partially completed weld in a weld seam defined between adjoining metal substrates; an ultrasonic assembly borne by the moveable welder and which is operable to generate an ultrasonic signal which is directed toward the partially completed weld, and is further reflected from same; and a controller electrically coupled with the ultrasonic assembly and controllably coupled with the welding head, and wherein the controller receives information regarding the ultrasonic signal and in response to the information optimally positions the welding head relative to the weld seam.

  14. An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

  15. Apparatus for determining surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razouk, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    System for studying capillary action uses pressure transducer and chart recorder instead of manometer. Apparatus enables measurements to be made under controlled atmospheres. It also may be remotely operated. These features are particularly useful when dealing with noxious liquids and for study of surface tension under high-pressure conditions that require use of all-metal apparatus.

  16. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Kirsty A.; Hunt, Hugh E.M.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal...

  17. Small Research Balloons in a Physics Course for Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Verner, E.; Long, T.; Montanaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    At The Catholic Univ. of America, we teach an experimental physics course entitled Physics 240: The Sun-Earth Connection, which is designed for the undergraduate education major. The emphasis is on providing hands-on experience and giving the students an exciting experience in physics. As part of this course, in the Spring 2013 semester, we instituted a project to plan, build, launch, and retrieve a small (~1.3 kg) research balloon payload. The payload flown was a small GPS unit that sent its position to an Internet site, a small wide-angle high-resolution video camera, and an analog refrigerator thermometer placed in the field of view of the camera. All data were stored on the camera sim-card. Students faced the problems of flying a small research balloon in the congested, densely populated Northeast Corridor of the US. They used computer simulators available on the Web to predict the balloon path and flight duration given velocities for the Jet Stream and ground winds, as well as payload mass and amount of helium in the balloon. The first flight was extremely successful. The balloon was launched 140 km NW of Washington DC near Hagerstown, MD and touched down 10 miles (16 km) NW of York, PA, within 1.6 km of what was predicted. The balloon reached 73,000 ft (22,000 m) and the thermometer indicated temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit (-57 C) during the flight. Further balloon flights are planned in conjunction with this course. Additional exercises and experiments will be developed centered around these flights. Besides learning that science can be exciting, students also learn that science is not always easily predictable, and that these balloon flights give an understanding of many of problems that go into real scientific space missions. This project is supported in part by an educational supplement to NASA grant NNX10AC56G

  18. Percutaneous Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Benign Biliary Strictures

    OpenAIRE

    Trambert, Jonathan J.; Bron, Klaus M.; Zajko, Albert B.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo

    1987-01-01

    Between February 1981 and June 1984, 15 patients with benign biliary strictures were treated with percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation. Three of these patients had received liver transplants. The treatment began with a course of balloon dilatation therapy, after which a stent catheter was left across the stricture. Six weeks later, after duct patency had been shown by cholangiography, the stent catheter was removed from all but two patients, both of whom had intrahepatic sclerosing ch...

  19. How to Inflate the Balloon Can Be Dangerous?

    OpenAIRE

    Yürümez, Yusuf; Küçük, Egemen; YAVUZ, Yücel; Eşme, Hıdır; SOLAK, Okan; Yücel, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a quite rare clinical condition. A variety of reasons are responsible from etiology thats are increases intra-alveolar pressure and leading to rupture of alveoli. In this study 38-year-old male patient has been submitted that he has crackling sensation and pain in the neck region, hoarseness and shortness of breath two hours after inflating the balloon. Inflating the balloon that not included in the literature and appear to be innocent should be included among...

  20. Balloon observations of solar ultraviolet irradiance at solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon observations of solar irradiance between 200 and 240 nm have been performed in 1976 and 1977 corresponding to minimum conditions of solar activity. Ultraviolet spectra have been recorded for different zenith angles at an altitude of 41 km by means of a spectrometer with a spectral bandpass of 0.4 nm. Solar irradiances at 1 a.u. confirm previous values obtained by balloon. They are compared with other measurements and discussed in terms of possible long-term variability. (author)

  1. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  2. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  3. Development of a tiny tandem balloon system for atmospheric observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Masatomo

    2016-07-01

    A tandem balloon system with a combination of a zero-pressure balloon on top and a super-pressure balloon on the bottom has a unique trajectory characteristic, with different flight altitudes between day and night and thus with ascending and descending motions at dawn and dusk, respectively. This characteristic provides a unique opportunity to explore the atmosphere, e.g., the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric region with cross-tropopause measurements twice a day. We started development of a tiny tandem balloon system using a 10 m^{3} super-pressure balloon and a 100 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon, with a capability of carrying 3 kg of payload. One of the scientific targets is to measure water vapor, cloud particles, and temperature around the tropical tropopause which is the entry point of the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. For the data transfer, the iridium satellite communication module, SBD9603 is used. In this paper, the current status of the development will be reported.

  4. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  5. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  6. Catalytic cracking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skraba, F.W.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes an apparatus comprising: (a) a catalyst lift pit having an upper end, a lower end, and a generally cylindrical sidewall having an interior surface defining a first diameter; (b) a riser-reactor connected to the upper end of the lift pot, the riser-reactor having a mouth defining a second diameter where it connects to the lift pot which is smaller than the lift pot first diameter; (c) a plug member extending axially into the lift pot from the lower end of the lift pot, the plug member being generally rotationally symmetric about its longitudinal axis and having an upper end surface which faces the mouth of the riser-reactor, the lift pot, the riser-reactor and the plug.

  7. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  8. Apparatus for measuring RRR

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchnir-Moyses

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part ...

  9. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  10. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  11. Ballooning mode spectrum in general toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, R.L.; Glasser, A.H.

    1982-04-01

    A WKB formalism for constructing normal modes of short-wavelength ideal hydromagnetic, pressure-driven instabilities (ballooning modes) in general toroidal magnetic containment devices with sheared magnetic fields is developed. No incompressibility approximation is made. A dispersion relation is obtained from the eigenvalues of a fourth order system of ordinary differential equations to be solved by integrating along a line of force. Higher order calculations are performed to find the amplitude equation and the phase change at a caustic. These conform to typical WKB results. In axisymmetric systems, the ray equations are integrable, and semiclassical quantization leads to a growth rate spectrum consisting of an infinity of discrete eigenvalues, bounded above by an accumulation point. However, each eigenvalue is infinitely degenerate. In the nonaxisymmetric case, the rays are unbounded in a four dimensional phase space, and semiclassical quantization breaks down, leading to broadening of the discrete eigenvalues and accumulation point of the axisymmetric case into continuum bands. Analysis of a model problem indicates that the broadening of the discrete eigenvalues is numerically very small, the dominant effect being broadening of the accumulation point.

  12. Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs

  13. Born-Infeld gravity in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we explore different aspects of three dimensional Born-Infeld as well as Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the models have anti-de Sitter and anti-de Sitter wave vacuum solutions. Moreover, we observe that although Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons gravity admits a logarithmic solution, Born-Infeld gravity does not, though it has a limiting logarithmic solution as we approach the critical point.

  14. Brand Building of Born Globals

    OpenAIRE

    Cederäng, Jesper; Norberg, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of two early internationalizing firms (Born Globals) brand building efforts. By performing case studies on these companies we wished to discover similarities and differences in their marketing efforts. The companies that we studied were CTEK Sweden AB, a battery charger manufacturer and POC Sweden AB, who designs advanced protective gear for the alpine ski market. The theoretical framework was divided according to the four ...

  15. Site survey method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures

  16. Drive Mechanisms for Peeling-Ballooning Modes and Implications for Kinetic Ballooning Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunniss, Amelia; Wilson, Howard; Snyder, Phil

    2015-11-01

    The EPED model of the H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas combines a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) criterion for the critical pressure gradient with a non-local peeling-ballooning (P-B) mode stability criterion to provide an integrated picture of pedestal structure and ELMs. Employing a set of model tokamak equilibria with pedestal gradients constrained by the KBM criterion, we explore the P-B stability for different pedestal widths. The narrowest widths, corresponding to early in the ELM cycle, are stable. Once a critical width is realised, an intermediate-n P-B mode is destabilised, which we show to be driven by a combination of the kink and curvature contributions to δW, exceeding field line bending. Although formally of O(n-1) , we show that the kink term survives to very large n because of steep current density gradients in the pedestal. This kink term is not presently retained in gyro-kinetic codes, but may be important for an accurate prediction of the KBM stability criterion in realistic low collisionality tokamak pedestals. This project has received part funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  17. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net --- result of a ground inflation test of a 2,000 cubic-meter balloon ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Akita, Daisuke; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Shimadu, Shigeyuki; Goto, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    A light super-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m^{3} balloon. Beginning from a demonstration test of the net-balloon with a 10 m^{3} balloon in 2010, we have been polished the net-balloon through ground inflation tests and flight tests, including a flight test of a 3,000 m ^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon in 2012, and a flight test of a 10 m^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 2 kg rubber balloon in 2013, as reported in the last COSPAR. In 2014, we developed a 5,000 m^{3} balloon and performed a ground inflation test to find that the balloon burst from a lip panel for termination with a differential pressure of 425 Pa. It was due to a stress concentration at the edge of a thick tape attached along the termination mechanism. In 2015, we modified the balloon by adding tapes on the lip panel to avoid the stress concentration, and also shorten the net length to leave some margin of the film and performed a ground inflation test again to find the balloon showed asymmetrical deployment and burst from the edge of the net with a differential pressure of 348 Pa. We consider it is due to the margin of the film along the circumferential direction, and proposed a gore shape which circumference length is kept as determined by the pumpkin shape of the balloon but setting meridian length longer than that. We developed a 10 m^{3} balloon with the gore design to find that the balloon deployed symmetrically and showed the burst pressure of 10,000 Pa. In 2016, we are going to develop a 2,000 m^{3} balloon with the gore design and perform its ground inflation test. In this paper, we are going to report its result with the sequence of the development.

  18. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  19. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  20. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  1. Data Acquisition and Prompt Analysis System for High Altitude Balloon Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkady, A. A.; Chupp, E. L.; Dickey, J. W.

    1968-01-01

    An inexpensive and simple data acquisition system has been developed for balloon borne experiments and has been tested with a gamma ray detector in a balloon flight launched from Palestine, Texas. The detector used for the test consisted of an NaI(T1) scintillation crystal encased in a 1/8 in. plastic scintillator-charged particle shield. The combination was viewed by a single photomultiplier and charged particle gating was accomplished by a conventional phoswich discriminator. The pulse height analysis of the NaI events, not associated with prompt charged particle interactions, is accomplished by converting to a time spectrum using an airborne height to time converter. A range of pulse widths from 5 microseconds to 250 microseconds corresponds to energy losses in NaI from 100 to 1000 keV. The time spectrum information, along with charged particle events and barometric pressure, is fed to a mixer which modulates a 252.4 Mc FM transmitter. The original scintillator spectrum is recovered on the ground utilizing conversion circuitry at the receiver video output and a 128 channel commercial pulse height analyzer. The charged particle events of standard time width are stored with the spectrum at a fixed channel position and are therefore represented by a sharp line riding on the lower part of the NaI energy loss spectrum. An energy loss greater than 1000 keV is presented by the maximum pulse width of the converter and stored in the last analyzer channel. Barometric pressure data is transmitted by low frequency modulation of the sme FM carrier. In flight operation, the receiver video output can be recorded on a wide band tape recorder and simultaneously analyzed by the 128 channel analyzer, or the telemetered data can be analyzed later. The flight system features high pulse resolution, essentially instantaneous time response, high data rate, and flexibility; and is of modest cost. A detailed description of the system and operating performance is discussed.

  2. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  3. Apparatus for electrophoresis separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously performing electrophoresis separations on a plurality of slab gels containing samples of protein, protein subunits or nucleic acids. A reservoir of buffer solution is divided into three compartments by two parallel partitions having vertical slots spaced along their length. A sheet of flexible, electrically insulative material is attached to each partition and is provided with vertical slits aligned with the slots. Slab-gel holders are received within the slots with the flexible material folded outwardly as flaps from the slits to overlay portions of the holder surfaces and thereby act as electrical and liquid seals. An elongated, spaghetti-like gel containing a sample of specimen that was previously separated by isoelectric focusing techniques is vertically positioned along a marginal edge portion of the slab gel. On application of an electrical potential between the two outer chambers of buffer solution, a second dimensional electrophoresis separation in accordance with molecular weight occurs as the specimen molecules migrate across the slab gel.

  4. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  5. Apparatus for measuring RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part 3 contains a discussion on definition, measurements and errors. Part 4 gives a step-by-step description of the measurement procedure. Finally, Part 5 gives an example of results obtained recently on a Niobium sample for CKM cavities

  6. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  7. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  8. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.

    2009-01-01

    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  9. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons, consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness, meridional tendons. This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons. The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation, whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent. Upon inflation and pressurization, the "instantaneous", i.e. linear-elastic strain and stress distribution in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction. However, over time, and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the material, the hoop strains increase and the meridional stresses decrease, whereas the remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged. These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission, both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon. An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter, 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented. The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature. The results show good correlation with a numerical study, using the ABAQUS finite-element package, that includes a widely used model of the visco-elastic response of the gore material:

  10. Complexity Analysis of Balloon Drawing for Rooted Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Poon, Sheung-Hung; Fan, Jia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    In a balloon drawing of a tree, all the children under the same parent are placed on the circumference of the circle centered at their parent, and the radius of the circle centered at each node along any path from the root reflects the number of descendants associated with the node. Among various styles of tree drawings reported in the literature, the balloon drawing enjoys a desirable feature of displaying tree structures in a rather balanced fashion. For each internal node in a balloon drawing, the ray from the node to each of its children divides the wedge accommodating the subtree rooted at the child into two sub-wedges. Depending on whether the two sub-wedge angles are required to be identical or not, a balloon drawing can further be divided into two types: even sub-wedge and uneven sub-wedge types. In the most general case, for any internal node in the tree there are two dimensions of freedom that affect the quality of a balloon drawing: (1) altering the order in which the children of the node appear in...

  11. Restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ming-Hua Li; Ren-Jie Yang; Hui-Zhen Zhang; Zai-Xian Ding; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Ke-Zhong Shang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.METHODS: A total of 49 rats with esophageal stenosis were induced in 70 rats using 5 ml of 50 % sodium hydroxide solution and the double-balloon method, and an esophageal restenosis (RS) model was developed by esophageal stenosis using dilation of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon catheter. These 49 rats were divided into two groups: rats with benign esophageal stricture caused by chemical burn only (control group, n=21) and rats with their esophageal stricture treated with balloon catheter dilation (experimental group, n=28). Imaging analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses of esophageal stenosis and RS formation in the rats, respectively.RESULTS: Cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the esophageal mucosa layer, muscle layer, and the entire esophageal layers increased significantly in the experimental group compared with the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was expressed on the 5th day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month. Fibronectin (FN)was expressed on the 1st day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month.CONCLUSION: Expression of PCNA and FN plays an important role in RS after balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.

  12. Development of Ultra-Thin Polyethylene Balloons for High Altitude Research upto Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Suneel; Nagendra, N.; Ojha, D. K.; Peter, G. Stalin; Vasudevan, R.; Anand, D.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Reddy, V. Anmi; Rao, T. V.; Sreenivasan, S.

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 μm for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000-gram rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenization of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 μm for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere to meet the needs of user scientists working in the area of atmospheric dynamics commenced in 2011. Pursuant to the successful trials with 61,000-m3 balloon made of 3.8-μm Antrix film reaching stratopause (48 km) for the first time in the history of balloon facility in the year 2012, fine tuning of launch parameters like percentage free lift was carried out to take the same volume balloons to higher mesospheric altitudes. Three successful flights with a total suspended load of 10 kg using 61,000-m3 balloons were carried out in the month of January 2014 and all the three balloons crossed into the mesosphere reaching altitudes of over 51 km. All the balloons flown so far are closed system with no escape ducts. Balloon fabrication, development of launch hardware, flight control instruments and launch technique for these mesospheric balloon flights are discussed in this paper.

  13. High-n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic study of stability against high-n ballooning modes is highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. - From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that local shear has an important effect on the stability of elongated plasmas, and that stability deteriorates through high elongation since the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear are reduced. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation for strong ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). - The computational study of high-n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for βsub(p) less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for βsub(p) larger than unity. (author)

  14. Review of the British scientific sounding rocket and balloon programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the UK scientific sounding rocket programmes which have utilised Skylarks for 21 years, Petrels for 10 years and Fulmars for 2 years. The SRC's ongoing programme is now based on the Petrel and Fulmar rockets, and approved proposals by 5 UK scientific groups covering 1978 and 1979 are outlined. The British scientific balloon programme, which serves 14 scientific groups within UK universities, involves a planned 10 flights per annum using balloons of 3 M cu ft to 31 M cu ft capacity and payloads up to 2 tons in weight. The review outlines the balloon programme of flights planned mainly from Palestine in Texas and Alice Springs/Mildura in Australia. (author)

  15. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  16. Dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-11-01

    Electromechanical instability, a significant phenomenon in dielectric elastomers, has been well studied in the literature. However, most previous work was based on the assumption that dielectric elastomers undergo quasi-static deformation. This letter investigates the dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon which renders four types of oscillation subject to a parametric combination of DC and AC voltages. The simulated oscillations show that dynamic electromechanical instability occurs within quite a large range of excitation frequency, in the form of snap-through or snap-back, when the DC and AC voltages reach critical values. The balloon is at its most susceptible to dynamic electromechanical instability when the superharmonic, harmonic or subharmonic resonance is excited. Taking all excitation parameters into account, this letter analyzes the global critical condition which triggers the dynamic electromechanical instability of the balloon.

  17. Popping balloons: formation of a crack network in rubber membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulinet, Sebastien; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Equipe Morphogenèse et phénomènes multi-échelle Team

    2015-03-01

    Everyone can make the observation: a rubber balloon inflated until it spontaneously pop breaks into a large number of shreds. In contrast, a balloon pierced with a needle at an early stage of its inflation breaks into two large pieces. Using model latex balloons, we have experimentally investigated the transition between these two breaking regimes. We have showed that, above a threshold stress in the latex membrane, a single crack become unstable and separates into two new cracks. Then, a cascade of tip-splitting generates a network of cracks that eventually form a large number of fragments. We have observed that the instability of the crack occurs when it reaches a limit velocity that could the speed of sound. By studying the energy balance during the explosion, we can determine the intrinsic fracture energy of rubber, a measurement difficult to achieve with usual tensile testing.

  18. Extrusion process optimization for toughness in balloon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, K. M.; Harrison, I. R.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental optimization process for blown film extrusion is described and examined in terms of the effects of the technique on the toughness of balloon films. The optimization technique by Cantor (1990) is employed which involves the identification of key process variables including screw speed, nip speed, bubble diameter, and frost-line height for analysis to optimize the merit function. The procedure is employed in the extrusion of a low-density polyethylene polymer, and the resulting optimized materials are toughness- and puncture-tested. Balloon toughness is optimized in the analytical relationship, and the process parameters are modified to attain optimal toughness. The film produced is shown to have an average toughness of 24.5 MPa which is a good value for this key property of balloon materials for high-altitude flights.

  19. Tokamak resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning instability in the negative shear regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bing-Ren; Lin Jian-Long; Li Ji-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Improved confinement of tokamak plasma with central negative shear is checked against the resistive ballooning mode. In the negative shear regime, the plasma is always unstable for purely growing resistive ballooning mode. For a simplest tokamak equilibrium model, the s-α model, characteristics of this kind of instability are fully clarified by numerically solving the high n resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning eigen-equation. Dependences of the growth rate on the resistivity, the absolute shear value, the pressure gradient are scanned in detail. It is found that the growth rate is a monotonically increasing function of a while it is not sensitive to the changes of the shear s, the initial phase θ0 and the resistivity parameter εR.

  20. Drug-Coated Balloons for Infrainguinal Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sanjum S; Lee, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Revascularization of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease has traditionally been accomplished via percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. However, long-term results have been hampered by high rates of restenosis. Along with the advent of stents, paclitaxel-coated balloons are an emerging therapeutic option for the invasive management of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. Paclitaxel has been successful in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the main mechanism for in-stent restenosis. Technological advances have facilitated the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons, which show promise in early trials for femoropopliteal stenosis relative to uncoated balloons. For infrapopliteal stenoses, the data remain scant and conflicted. Therefore, large-scale randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up evaluating safety and effectiveness between various strategies need to be performed to determine the optimal invasive management strategy for infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. PMID:27342205

  1. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification of...... pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...... parasitic protozoa from other organisms in the aquatic environment....

  2. Born Under a Lucky Star?

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Hanaki; Alan Kirman; Matteo Marsili

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests that people can learn to behave in a way which makes them unlucky or lucky. Learning from experience will lead them to make choices which may lead to "luckier" outcomes than others. By so doing they may reinforce the choices of those who find themselves with unlucky outcomes. In this situation, people have reasonably learned to behave as they do and their behaviour is consistent with their experience. The lucky ones were not "born under a lucky star" they learned to be lucky.

  3. The Qweak experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, T.; Anderson, M.; Androić, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Averill, R.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bessuille, J.; Birchall, J.; Bonnell, E.; Bowman, J. D.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D. B.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cavness, B.; Clark, G.; Cornejo, J. C.; Dusa, S. Covrig; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Dean, D. C.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Echols, J. R.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finelli, K. D.; Finn, J. M.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrison, D. J.; Henderson, E.; Hoskins, J. R.; Ihloff, E.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; Kelsey, J.; Khan, N.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Kubera, A.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J. P.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; Liang, Y.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J. W.; McCreary, A.; McDonald, M. H.; McHugh, M. J.; Medeiros, P.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Musson, J.; Mesick, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roberts, W. R.; Roche, J.; Rose, P. W.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Sobczynski, S.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Stokes, B.; Storey, D. W.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Urban, E.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zielinski, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise e → p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 μA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Møller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8° and 11.6° were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cherenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q2=0.025 GeV2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~ 100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.

  4. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  5. Balloon vetebroplasty with calcium phosphate cement augmentation for direct restoration of traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, JJ; van Helden, WH; Oner, FC; Verbout, AJ; Dhert, WJA

    2002-01-01

    Study Design. A human cadaveric model was used to evaluate balloon vertebroplasty in traumatic vertebral fractures. Objectives. To assess the feasibility and safety of balloon vertebroplasty followed by calcium phosphate cement augmentation to prevent recurrent kyphosis. Summary of Background Data.

  6. Membranous duodenal stenosis: Initial experience with balloon dilatation in four children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, R.R. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lienden, K.P. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fortuna, T.L. [Dalhousie University, Medical school, Halifax (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); D' Alessandro, L.C.A. [University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine, London (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Connolly, B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Chait, P.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: peter.chait@rogers.com

    2006-07-15

    Introduction: We present a novel approach to the treatment of membranous duodenal stenosis (MDS). To our knowledge this is the first paper to describe balloon dilatation for this entity. Material and methods: Four children, 2 boys and 2 girls, aged between 8 and 28 days, underwent duodenal balloon dilatation. Balloon dilatation was performed under general anaesthesia using standard angiography balloons per os. Balloon diameters ranged from 6 to 14 mm. Results: All balloon dilatations were successful. None of the procedures showed procedural or post-procedural complications. None of the patients subsequently required surgical intervention. To date all children are doing well. Discussion: The initial experience with balloon dilation of MDS showed a 100% success rate, without procedural or post-procedural complications. The results obtained in this small group of patients suggest that the use of balloon dilatation in cases of MDS may be a safe technique that can be readily performed by an experienced interventional radiologist.

  7. Membranous duodenal stenosis: Initial experience with balloon dilatation in four children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We present a novel approach to the treatment of membranous duodenal stenosis (MDS). To our knowledge this is the first paper to describe balloon dilatation for this entity. Material and methods: Four children, 2 boys and 2 girls, aged between 8 and 28 days, underwent duodenal balloon dilatation. Balloon dilatation was performed under general anaesthesia using standard angiography balloons per os. Balloon diameters ranged from 6 to 14 mm. Results: All balloon dilatations were successful. None of the procedures showed procedural or post-procedural complications. None of the patients subsequently required surgical intervention. To date all children are doing well. Discussion: The initial experience with balloon dilation of MDS showed a 100% success rate, without procedural or post-procedural complications. The results obtained in this small group of patients suggest that the use of balloon dilatation in cases of MDS may be a safe technique that can be readily performed by an experienced interventional radiologist

  8. To sail the skies of Mars - Scientific ballooning on the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric J.; Burke, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons represent a novel approach to exploring the surface of Mars. One promising aerostat system incorporates a solar-powered balloon as a means of generating diurnally varying lift and so can 'hop' across the surface, obtaining detailed information at a large number of sites. Two important areas of research and testing are underway on solar balloon technology and balloon payload design. The solar balloon concept has been demonstrated on earth, but more work is needed on a 'flyable' version for Mars. Particular attention must be paid to radiation heat transfer and aerodynamic effects. A special 'snake' payload concept has been demonstrated that allows for balloon system traverses of the surface and provides a usable instrument platform. A balloon system of this type could obtain unique surface imaging and physical and chemical data. The flight of the balloon also provides in situ atmospheric boundary-layer and circulation measurements.

  9. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  10. Nonlinear simulation of resistive ballooning modes in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear simulations of a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) plasma in full three-dimensional geometry of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are conducted to study nonlinear evolution of pressure-driven instabilities. A series of simulations for a resistive plasma shows growth of resistive ballooning instability. The growth rate of the most unstable resistive ballooning mode is shown to be proportional to the one-third power of the resistivity. Nonlinear saturation of the instability and its slow decay are observed. After the nonlinear saturation, the pressure takes a profile similar to so-called pedestal. A possible scenario of nonlinear relaxation of a plasma toward a new equilibrated state is discussed. (author)

  11. Polymer blends for LDB applications. [Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichkus, Andrew M.; Harrison, Ian R.

    1991-01-01

    A series of LCP/PE blends have been studied to determine the potential of such systems to produce a high modulus balloon film material which retains the balloon fabrication and low temperature flight advantages of the current PE films. Blown films of blends of 5 and 15 percent LCP in PE have been produced which show a 28 percent enhancement in modulus over the neat PE matrix. These results are substantially lower than anticipated and are explained in terms of the LCP reinforcement aspect ratio and fibril diameter.

  12. BETTII: The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII),8oeight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks io young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  13. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline provides subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  14. AIAA Educator Academy: The Space Weather Balloon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmier, B.; Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based science and engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude balloon equipped with HD cameras.The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The payload is located using the GPS device. In April 2012, the Space Weather Balloon team conducted a prototype field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. To better assist teachers in implementing one or more of these Curriculum Modules, teacher workshops are held to give teachers a hands-on look at how this curriculum is used in the classroom. And, to provide further support, teachers are each

  15. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Manzoor, S; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Togo, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  16. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L. (Wayland, MA)

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  17. Three dimensional intravascular ultrasonic assessment of the local mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Costa (Marco); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); K. Kozuma (Ken); A.L. Gaster; M. Sabaté (Manel); I.P. Kay (Ian Patrick); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); P. Thayssen; M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); D.P. Foley (David); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the mechanism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty. DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENTS: 13 patients treated with balloon angioplasty. INTERVENTIONS: 111 coronary subsegments (2 mm each) were analysed after balloon angioplasty and at a six month follow up using th

  18. Long-term follow-up after embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with detachable silicone balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2007-01-01

    ) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not...

  19. Simulation of the Beating Heart Based on Physically Modeling aDeformable Balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-07-18

    The motion of the beating heart is complex and createsartifacts in SPECT and x-ray CT images. Phantoms such as the JaszczakDynamic Cardiac Phantom are used to simulate cardiac motion forevaluationof acquisition and data processing protocols used for cardiacimaging. Two concentric elastic membranes filled with water are connectedto tubing and pump apparatus for creating fluid flow in and out of theinner volume to simulate motion of the heart. In the present report, themovement of two concentric balloons is solved numerically in order tocreate a computer simulation of the motion of the moving membranes in theJaszczak Dynamic Cardiac Phantom. A system of differential equations,based on the physical properties, determine the motion. Two methods aretested for solving the system of differential equations. The results ofboth methods are similar providing a final shape that does not convergeto a trivial circular profile. Finally,a tomographic imaging simulationis performed by acquiring static projections of the moving shape andreconstructing the result to observe motion artifacts. Two cases aretaken into account: in one case each projection angle is sampled for ashort time interval and the other case is sampled for a longer timeinterval. The longer sampling acquisition shows a clear improvement indecreasing the tomographic streaking artifacts.

  20. Simulation of the Beating Heart Based on Physically Modeling a Deformable Balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion of the beating heart is complex and creates artifacts in SPECT and x-ray CT images. Phantoms such as the Jaszczak Dynamic Cardiac Phantom are used to simulate cardiac motion for evaluation of acquisition and data processing protocols used for cardiac imaging. Two concentric elastic membranes filled with water are connected to tubing and pump apparatus for creating fluid flow in and out of the inner volume to simulate motion of the heart. In the present report, the movement of two concentric balloons is solved numerically in order to create a computer simulation of the motion of the moving membranes in the Jaszczak Dynamic Cardiac Phantom. A system of differential equations, based on the physical properties, determine the motion. Two methods are tested for solving the system of differential equations. The results of both methods are similar providing a final shape that does not converge to a trivial circular profile. Finally, a tomographic imaging simulation is performed by acquiring static projections of the moving shape and reconstructing the result to observe motion artifacts. Two cases are taken into account: in one case each projection angle is sampled for a short time interval and the other case is sampled for a longer time interval. The longer sampling acquisition shows a clear improvement in decreasing the tomographic streaking artifacts

  1. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Berlin: Umweltbundesamt, 2007, s. 23-27. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin (DE), 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Vector-borne diseases * Europe Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/gesundheit-e/veranstaltungen/vector-borne-diseases/06_%20Hubalek.pdf

  2. Tick borne encephalitis without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stupica, Daša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Pečavar, Blaž; Bajrović, Fajko F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick borne encephalitis is the most frequent vector-transmitted infectious disease of the central nervous system in Europe and Asia. The disease caused by European subtype of tick borne encephalitis virus has typically a biphasic clinical course with the second phase presenting as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or meningoencephalomyelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis is considered a condition sine qua non for the diagnosis of neurologic involvement in tick borne encephalitis,...

  3. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation and...... development. After discussing the internationalization of born globals as an innovation itself and the positive effect that innovation and internationalization have on each other, this article elaborates on the effect of innovativeness on the development of the company and, more in depth, the role of...... knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  4. Long Duration Balloon flights development. (Italian Space Agency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterzen, S.; Masi, S.; Dragoy, P.; Ibba, R.; Spoto, D.

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, earth observations, near space research and commercial component testing, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78º N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennial oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultra-light payloads and TM systems ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program. This paper discusses the development of the launch facilities and international LDB development.

  5. [Expansion dilatation balloons for cervical ripening in obstetric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducarme, G; Grange, J; Vital, M

    2016-02-01

    During recent decades, mechanical devices have been substituted by pharmacological methods. Their place in the therapeutic arsenal remains important with a renewed obstetrical interest for these devices. Due to a lack of data they are still not recommended as first-line. This review thus attempted to examine the use of expansion dilatation balloons (Foley catheter and double-balloons) to analyze their effectiveness in case of native uterus and previous cesarean section. Twenty-seven clinical trials had compared balloons catheter and prostaglandins in patients without a history of uterine scar. The risk of cesarean section did not differ. Mechanical methods seemed to be more effective in achieving delivery within 24hours, with fewer episodes of excessive uterine contractions, but they necessitated more oxytocin during labor. Ten clinical trials analyzed dilatation balloons in patients with previous cesarean section. More than 70% women had favorable cervical ripening (Bishop score>6), and vaginal delivery was reported between 35 and 70% of patients. The risk of uterine rupture was low between 0.64 and 0.72%, with neither increased risk of severe neonatal and maternal morbidity nor increased risk of infectious morbidity. Mechanical methods are effective and safe for third trimester cervical ripening, mainly in women with previous cesarean section. Potential advantages may include wide availability and reduction of some of the side effects. PMID:26774842

  6. Meshed-Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Yavrouian, Andre

    2003-01-01

    An improved, lightweight design has been proposed for super-pressure balloons used to carry scientific instruments at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Earth for times as long as 100 days. [A super-pressure balloon is one in which the pressure of the buoyant gas (typically, helium) is kept somewhat above ambient pressure in order to maintain approximately constant density and thereby regulate the altitude.] The proposed design, called "meshed pumpkin," incorporates the basic concept of the pumpkin design, which is so named because of its appearance. The pumpkin design entails less weight than does a spherical design, and the meshed-pumpkin design would reduce weight further. The basic idea of the meshed-pumpkin design is to reinforce the membrane of a pumpkin balloon by attaching a strong, lightweight fabric mesh to its outer surface. The reinforcement would make it possible to reduce the membrane mass to one-third or less of that of the basic pumpkin design while retaining sufficient strength to enable the balloon to remain at approximately constant altitude for months.

  7. Balloon atrial septostomy under echocardiographic guide: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Meraji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure in pediatric cardiology. Nowadays, most patients in need of the procedure have acceptable outcomes after surgical repair. Thus, it is important to perform this procedure as safe as possible. By performing early arterial switch operation and prostaglandin infusion, the rate of balloon atrial septostomy has markedly decreased. However, not all centers performing early arterial switch repairs have abandoned atrial septostomy, even in patients who respond favorably to prostaglandin infusion.Case presentation: In total, eight 1- to 15-day old term neonates admitted in Shahid Rajaee Heart Center in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2011, with congenital heart diseases were scheduled for balloon atrial septostomy. In six cases the procedure was done exclusively under echocardiographic guidance and in two cases with the help of fluoroscopy. Success was defined as the creation of an atrial septal defect with a diameter equal to or more than 5 mm and ample mobility of its margins.Results: Male sex was predominant (87% and the mean age of the neonates was six days. The diagnosis in all cases was simple transposition of great arteries. The procedure was successful in all patients with any cardiovascular complication.Conclusion: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure that can be done safely and effectively under echocardiographic guidance. According to the feasibility of this technique it could be performed fast, safe and effective at bedside, avoiding patient transportation to hemodynamic laboratory or referral center.

  8. [Intra-graft balloon pumping--a clinical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, M; Tashiro, T; Tanaka, K; Haruta, Y; Todo, K

    1991-12-01

    A 29-year-old female underwent tube graft replacement of distal aortic arch and descending aorta for dissecting aneurysm. After 42 minutes of aortic cross-clamping the patient was initially weaned satisfactorily from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest necessitated reestablishment of CPB. Electro-cardiography showed inferior myocardial infarction. To wean CPB intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was mandatory. But because of dissecting aortic aneurysm IABP in conventional method was contra-indicated. Intra graft balloon pumping (IGBP) was initiated while the patient was on full CPB. A low-porosity woven Dacron tube graft (22 mm) was anastomosed end-to-side to ascending aorta. A balloon was inserted into the tube graft to establish IGBP. This IGBP provided effective circulatory assist. The patient was weaned from CPB 1 hours after reestablishment of IGBP. Postoperative course was stable. The patient was returned to the operating room for removal of the balloon 3 days postoperatively. We reported the case for whom IGBP was effective. IGBP was effective circulatory support for the patient when conventional use of IABP was contra-indicated. PMID:1774515

  9. Balloon dacryocystoplasty study in the management of adult epiphora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of dacryocystoplasty with balloon dilation in the treatment of acquired obstruction of the nasolacrimal system in adults. METHODS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty was performed in 52 eyes of 42 patients under general anaesthetic. A Teflon-coated guidewire was introduced through the canaliculus and manipulated through the nasolacrimal system and out of the nasal aperture. A 4 mm wide 3 cm coronary angioplasty balloon catheter was threaded over the guidewire in a retrograde fashion and dilated at the site of obstruction. RESULTS: There was complete obstruction in 30% of cases and partial obstruction in 70%. The most common site of obstruction was the nasolacrimal duct. The procedure was technically successful in 94% of cases. The overall re-obstruction rate was 29% within 1 year of the procedure. There was an anatomical failure rate of 17% for partial obstruction and 69% for complete obstruction within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty has a high recurrence rate. There may be a limited role for this procedure in partial obstructions. Further refinements of the procedure are necessary before it can be offered as a comparable alternative to a standard surgical dacryocystorhinostomy.

  10. Stability of infernal and ballooning modes in advanced tokamak scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holties, H. A.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Kerner, W.; Parail, V.V.; Soldner, F. X.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical parameter study has been performed in order to find MHD stable operating regimes for advanced tokamak experiments In this study we have concentrated on internal modes. Ballooning stability and stability with respect to infernal modes are considered. The calculations confirm that pressure

  11. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20546-0001 (202-358-0168). On the Internet at: http://sites.wff.nasa... and draft FONSI on the Internet; 4. Consultations with Federal, State, and local agencies; and 5... positive economic impact each year during balloon campaigns at CSBF Fort Sumner from the purchase of...

  12. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively

  13. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung [Seoul Natioal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Jae [Inje University Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively.

  14. Scientific Ballooning Technologies Workshop STO-2 Thermal Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The heritage thermal model for the full STO-2 (Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory II), vehicle has been updated to model the CSBF (Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility) SIP-14 (Scientific Instrument Package) in detail. Analysis of this model has been performed for the Antarctica FY2017 launch season. Model temperature predictions are compared to previous results from STO-2 review documents.

  15. Using Hydrogen Balloons to Display Metal Ion Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, James H.

    2008-01-01

    We have optimized a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products. We report air quality measurements in a lecture hall immediately after the demonstration. While we recommend that this demonstration be done outdoors or in…

  16. Balloon-assisted coiling through a 5-French system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catheter technique that utilizes a 5F system for the purpose of balloon-assisted coiling in the setting of intracranial aneurysms. A standard 5F short sheath is placed in the common femoral artery, and a 5F diagnostic catheter is placed through the sheath and used for selective vessel angiography. When endovascular intervention is pursued, the diagnostic catheter is placed in the appropriate vessel and systemic heparinization is ensured. Over an exchange length wire, the 5F vertebral catheter and 5F short sheath are exchanged for a 5F Shuttle (Cook) sheath. We then routinely place a 10, 14 or 18 microcatheter over an appropriately gauged microguidewire into the aneurysm. As needed, balloon catheters are then placed across the neck of the aneurysm for remodeling purposes. During the course of the procedure, control angiography is performed through the Shuttle sheath. Following the placement of coils, the microcatheter and balloon catheter are removed and a final biplane image is obtained via the 5F Shuttle sheath. This technique has been employed in 15 patients who required balloon-assisted coiling of an intracranial aneurysm. There were no technical difficulties or arterial access site complications from the procedures. Catheter mobility and torque were not affected, nor was the quality of our imaging. We conclude that this small-diameter system provides ample ''room'' for catheter placement and interventional treatment while reducing the known risks of postprocedural complications. Angiographic images remain excellent and are comparable to those obtained by larger catheters. (orig.)

  17. Pulsars are Born as Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the idea that all neutron stars experienced at birth an ultrafast decay of their magnetic fields from their initial values to their current surface values. If the electromagnetic energy radiated during this field decay is converted into kinetic energy of the neutron star via the radiation reaction mechanism then the decay time is of the order of 10^(-4)s provided that the initial magnetic fields lie in the range of 10^(14)-10^(16)G. This means that all neutron stars are born with magnetic fields typical of magnetars. According to this model the neutron stars acquire their observed high space velocities during the birth ultrafast decay of their magnetic fields. The origin of this field decay points to magnetic instabilities occurring at the end of the birth process.

  18. Blood Borne Hepatitis at Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunor Rashid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An pilgrims estimated 2.5 million Muslims from all over the world are expected to converge in Mecca, Saudi Arabia by the end of this December for Hajj pilgrimage. Overcrowding during the largest annual mass gathering of such enormous proportions inevitably increases exposure to and risk of a variety of infections, some with pandemic potential (1. Adopting simple measures and offering appropriate immunisations to the pilgrims can prevent many of these infections. Knowledge of the nature and extent of infections however is important to implement the effective protective measures.As part of the rites of Hajj, men shave their heads although trimming the hair is also acceptable; women cut a lock of their hair. Communal use of razors or blades carries the risk of blood borne infections such as Hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV(2. To minimise this risk the Saudi authorities require all barbers looking after the pilgrims to be licensed but many pilgrims use the services of opportunistic makeshift barbers or help by shaving each other, often reusing their razors at the risk of transmitting blood borne virus infections. Unlike the respiratory infections that have a short incubation, infection with blood borne viruses takes much longer to manifest or indeed may remain undetected for many years while it may progress to chronic liver disease.Studies on barbers have shown a high prevalence of carriage and disease among barbers. Extrapolating from various studies Memish et al. (2003 estimated that about 10% of the barbers are carriers of hepatitis C and 4% carry hepatitis B, over a tenth of whom are in active carrier stage (3. Many pilgrims will come from areas of the world with a high endemicity of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B and/or C. To our knowledge there have not been any studies to establish the exact incidence of viral hepatitis among the pilgrims. There is an urgent need to understand the true epidemiology and to measure the burden of

  19. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  20. Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; James, Bryan; Fixsen, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical observations at millimeter wavelengths require large (2-to-5- meter diameter) telescopes carried to altitudes above 35 km by scientific research balloons. The scientific performance is greatly enhanced if the telescope is cooled to temperatures below 10 K with no emissive windows between the telescope and the sky. Standard liquid helium bucket dewars can contain a suitable telescope for telescope diameter less than two meters. However, the mass of a dewar large enough to hold a 3-to-5-meter diameter telescope would exceed the balloon lift capacity. The solution is to separate the functions of cryogen storage and in-flight thermal isolation, utilizing the unique physical conditions at balloon altitudes. Conventional dewars are launched cold: the vacuum walls necessary for thermal isolation must also withstand the pressure gradient at sea level and are correspondingly thick and heavy. The pressure at 40 km is less than 0.3% of sea level: a dewar designed for use only at 40 km can use ultra thin walls to achieve significant reductions in mass. This innovation concerns new construction and operational techniques to produce a lightweight liquid helium bucket dewar. The dewar is intended for use on high-altitude balloon payloads. The mass is low enough to allow a large (3-to-5-meter) diameter dewar to fly at altitudes above 35 km on conventional scientific research balloons without exceeding the lift capability of the balloon. The lightweight dewar has thin (250- micron) stainless steel walls. The walls are too thin to support the pressure gradient at sea level: the dewar launches warm with the vacuum space vented continuously during ascent to eliminate any pressure gradient across the walls. A commercial 500-liter storage dewar maintains a reservoir of liquid helium within a minimal (hence low mass) volume. Once a 40-km altitude is reached, the valve venting the vacuum space of the bucket dewar is closed to seal the vacuum space. A vacuum pump then

  1. LEAP [Low-Energy Antiproton]: A balloon-borne search for low-energy cosmic-ray antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEAP (Low-Energy Antiproton) experiment is a search for cosmic-ray antiprotons in the 120 MeV to 1.2 GeV kinetic energy range. The motivation for this project was the result announced by Buffington et. al. (1981) that indicated an anomalously high antiproton flux below 300 MeV; this result has compelled theorists to propose sources of primary antiprotons above the small secondary antiproton flux produced by high energy cosmic-ray collisions with nuclei in the interstellar medium. LEAP consisted of the NMSU magnetic spectrometer, a time-of-flight system designed at Goddard Space Flight Center, two scintillation detectors, and a Cherenkov counter designed and built at the University of Arizona. Analysis of flight data performed by the high-energy astrophysics group at Goddard Space Flight Center revealed no antiproton candidates found in the 120 MeV to 360 MeV range; 3 possible antiproton candidate events were found in the 500 MeV to 1.2 GeV range in an analysis done here at the University of Arizona. However, since it will be necessary to sharpen the calibration on all of the LEAP systems in order to positively identify these events as antiprotons, only an upper limit has been determined at present. Thus, combining the analyses performed at the University of Arizona and Goddard Space Flight Center, 90% confidence upper limits of 3.5 x 10-5 in the 120 MeV to 360 MeV range and 2.3 x 10-4 in the 500 MeV to 1.2 GeV range for the antiproton/proton ratio is indicated by the LEAP results. LEAP disagrees sharply with the results of the Buffington group, indicating a low antiproton flux at these energies

  2. Cryo-balloon catheter position planning using AFiT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinoeder, Andreas; Brost, Alexander; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common heart arrhythmia. In certain situations, it can result in life-threatening complications such as stroke and heart failure. For paroxsysmal AFib, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by catheter ablation is the recommended choice of treatment if drug therapy fails. During minimally invasive procedures, electrically active tissue around the pulmonary veins is destroyed by either applying heat or cryothermal energy to the tissue. The procedure is usually performed in electrophysiology labs under fluoroscopic guidance. Besides radio-frequency catheter ablation devices, so-called single-shot devices, e.g., the cryothermal balloon catheters, are receiving more and more interest in the electrophysiology (EP) community. Single-shot devices may be advantageous for certain cases, since they can simplify the creation of contiguous (gapless) lesion sets around the pulmonary vein which is needed to achieve PVI. In many cases, a 3-D (CT, MRI, or C-arm CT) image of a patient's left atrium is available. This data can then be used for planning purposes and for supporting catheter navigation during the procedure. Cryo-thermal balloon catheters are commercially available in two different sizes. We propose the Atrial Fibrillation Planning Tool (AFiT), which visualizes the segmented left atrium as well as multiple cryo-balloon catheters within a virtual reality, to find out how well cryo-balloons fit to the anatomy of a patient's left atrium. First evaluations have shown that AFiT helps physicians in two ways. First, they can better assess whether cryoballoon ablation or RF ablation is the treatment of choice at all. Second, they can select the proper-size cryo-balloon catheter with more confidence.

  3. Atmospheric Sampling of Aerosols to Stratospheric Altitudes using High Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, E. A.; Thomas, E.

    2010-12-01

    Although carbon dioxide represents a long-lived atmospheric component relevant to global climate change, it is also understood that many additional contributors influence the overall climate of Earth. Among these, short-lived components are more difficult to incorporate into models due to uncertainties in the abundances of these both spatially and temporally. Possibly the most significant of these short-lived components falls under the heading of “black carbon” (BC). There are numerous overlapping definitions of BC, but it is basically carbonaceous in nature and light absorbing. Due to its potential as a climate forcer, an understanding of the BC population in the atmosphere is critical for modeling of radiative forcing. Prior measurements of atmospheric BC generally consist of airplane- and ground-based sampling, typically below 5000 m and restricted in time and space. Given that BC has a residence time on the order of days, short-term variability is easily missed. Further, since the radiative forcing is a result of BC distributed through the entire atmospheric column, aircraft sampling is by definition incomplete. We are in the process of planning a more comprehensive sampling of the atmosphere for BC using high-altitude balloons. Balloon-borne sampling is a highly reliable means to sample air through the entire troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Our system will incorporate a balloon and a flight train of two modules. One module will house an atmospheric sampler. This sampler will be single-stage (samples all particle sizes together), and will place particles directly on an SEM sample stub for analysis. The nozzle depositing the sample will be offset from the center of the stub, placing the aerosol particles toward the edge. At various altitudes, the stub will be rotated 45 degrees, providing 6-8 sample “cuts” of particle populations through the atmospheric column. The flights will reach approximately 27 km altitude, above which the balloons

  4. Superconducting Cold-Electron Bolometers with JFET Readout for OLIMPO Balloon Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OLIMPO experiment is a 2.6 m balloon-borne telescope, aimed at measuring the Sunyaev- Zeldovich effect in clusters of Galaxies. OLIMPO will carry out surveys in four frequency bands centered at 140, 220, 410 and 540 GHz. The detector system consists of four bolometer arrays and incorporates new detector technologies that are potential candidates for future space missions. One of these technologies is the Capacitively Coupled Cold-Electron Bolometer (CEB) with JFET readout. The JFET readout coupled to semiconductor-based high-impedence bolometers has been developed already for the BOOMERanG and Planck-HFI experiments. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconductong detector with high sensitivity and high dynamic range. Here, we discuss a scheme to match the relatively moderate dynamic resistance of CEB (∼1kOhm) to the high noise equivalent resistance of JFET (1 MΩ). To achieve noise matching with JFET, a Cold-Electron Bolometer with a weak Superconducting Absorber (SCEB) has been proposed. In voltage-biased mode with voltage higher than (Delta 1-Delta 2) the IV of SIS' junctions has considerably increased dynamic resistance up to the level of Rj = 1000*Rn. Electron cooling will be still very effective for the incoming power. Simulations show that photon noise level can be achieved at 300 mK for a structure with Ti absorber and Al/Ti tunnel junctions for all frequency ranges with the estimated in-flight optical power load for OLIMPO

  5. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  6. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  7. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  8. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  9. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...

  10. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  11. The data processor of the EUSO-Balloon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JEM-EUSO instrument is a wide-angle refractive telescope in near-ultraviolet wavelength region being proposed for attachment to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) onboard International Space Station (ISS). The main scientific goal of the mission is the study of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR) above 5 × 1019 eV. The instrument consists of high transmittance optical Fresnel lenses with a diameter of 2.5 m, a focal surface covered by ∼ 5000 Multi Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes of 64 pixels, front-end readout, trigger and system electronics. The EUSO-Balloon experiment is a pathfinder mission in which a telescope of smaller dimension than the one designed for the ISS will be mounted onboard a stratospheric balloon. The main objective of this pathfinder mission, planned for 2014, is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies and instrumentation of JEM-EUSO detectors and to prove the global detection chain. Furthermore, EUSO-Balloon will measure the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background components, in different observational modes, fundamental for the development of the simulations. Through a series of stratospheric balloon flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers from above, paving the way for any future large scale, space-based EECR observatory. In this paper we will present the Data Processor (DP) of EUSO-Balloon, which is the component of the Electronics System which performs the data management and the instrument control. More in detail, the DP controls the front-end electronics, performs the 2nd level trigger filtering, tags events with arrival time and payload position through a GPS system, manages the Mass Memory for data storage, measures live and dead time of the telescope, provides signals for time synchronization of the event, performs housekeeping monitor, and handles the interface to the telemetry system. The DP has to operate at high altitude

  12. Construction of shallow land simulation apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow land simulation apparatuses in which natural soil can be used as testing soil have been constructed to investigate the migration characteristics of radionuclides in a disposal site. These apparatuses consist of aerated zone apparatus and aquifer zone one. In the aerated zone apparatus, aerated soil upon ground water level is contained in the soil column (d: 30cm x h: 120cm). In the aquifer zone apparatus, aquifer soil laying ground water level is contained in the soil vessel (b: 90cm x l: 270cm x h: 45cm). This report describes the outline of shallow land simulation apparatuses : function of apparatuses and specification of devices, analysis of obstructions, safety rules, analysis of accidents and operation manual. (author)

  13. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new code demonstrates the stabilization of MHD ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation. A shifted-circle model is used to elucidate the physics, and numerically reconstructed equilibria are used to analyze DIII-D discharges. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and, in the shifted circle model, direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is a fraction of the Alfven frequency, ωA = VA/qR. Shear stabilization is also demonstrated for an equilibrium reconstruction of a DIII-D VH-mode. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  14. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths, a powerful tool for scientific discovery, We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers,

  15. [Adherence and fidelity in patients treated with intragastric balloon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazure, R A; Cancer, E; Martínez Olmos, M A; De Castro, M L; Abilés, V; Abilés, J; Bretón, I; Álvarez, V; Peláez, N; Culebras, J M

    2014-01-01

    A correct treatment of obesity needs a program of habits modification regardless of the selected technique, especially if it is minimally invasive as the intragastric balloon (BIG). The adherence of the obese patients with regard to recommended drugs measures to medium- and long-term is less than 50%. Given that the results obtained using the technique of gastric balloon must be seen influenced by adherence to the modification of habits program and its fulfillment, we reviewed series published in attention to the program proposed with the BIG. The series published to date provide few details about the used Therapeutic Programs as well as the adherence of patients to them, and even less concerning the Monitoring Plan and the loyalty of the patient can be seen. We conclude the convenience to agree on a follow-up strategy, at least the 6 months during which the BIG remain in the stomach. PMID:24483961

  16. Saturated gravity wave spectra measured with balloons in Mendoza (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, A.; Giraldez, A.; Alexander, P.

    1994-09-01

    Spectral results from a sounding of temperature and wind velocity between 11.9 and 23.1 km performed with an open type stratospheric balloon near the Andes Mountains, are reported. The use of this kind of balloons and high performance instruments, allowed to attain better spatial resolution (around 2.5 meters during the descent) than previous results and other sounding techniques. This high resolution permitted to study the complete interval of altitude data in three consecutive subintervals (below, around and above the tropopause). Each of these subintervals shows different saturation characteristics. Some differences have been found with the general pattern of power spectral densities reported by different theories. A large amplitude wave of around 1.8 km and possibly originated in the mountain relief, is clearly observed in the temperature, vertical and shear wind velocity components.

  17. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  18. Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

  19. Electrodynamics of the stratosphere using 5000 cu m superpressure balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere research project encompasses the design of a microprocessor-controlled payload and the launch of up to eight small superpressure balloons in the 1982-1984 period. The primary payload instrument will measure the vector electric field from dc to 10 kHz, and the payloads will include instruments measuring local ionization, electrical conductivity, magnetic field, and temperature and pressure fluctuations. In addition, optical lightning will be recorded. The simultaneous measurement of these stratospheric parameters by several balloons, for periods extending over several solar rotations, will allow the study of electrical coupling between atmosphere and magnetosphere, of global current systems, and of global response to solar flares and magnetospheric storms.

  20. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Boots Rob; Barnett Adrian G; Timms Daniel; Dunster Kimble; Geng Shureng; Bellapart Judith; Fraser John F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and in...