The Ballistic Pressure Wave Theory of Handgun Bullet Incapacitation
Courtney, Michael
2008-01-01
This paper presents a summary of seven distinct chains of evidence, which, taken together, provide compelling support for the theory that a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from the penetrating projectile can contribute to wounding and incapacitating effects of handgun bullets. These chains of evidence include the fluid percussion model of traumatic brain injury, observations of remote ballistic pressure wave injury in animal models, observations of rapid incapacitation highly correlated with pressure magnitude in animal models, epidemiological data from human shootings showing that the probability of incapacitation increases with peak pressure magnitude, case studies in humans showing remote pressure wave damage in the brain and spinal cord, and observations of blast waves causing remote brain injury.
Ballistic pressure wave contributions to rapid incapacitation in the Strasbourg goat tests
Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael
2007-01-01
This article presents empirical models for the relationship between peak ballistic pressure wave magnitude and incapacitation times in the Strasbourg goat test data. Using a model with the expected limiting behavior at large and small pressure wave magnitudes, the average incapacitation times are highly correlated (R = 0.91) with peak pressure wave magnitude. The cumulative incapacitation probability as a function of time reveals both fast (t 5 s) incapacitation mechanisms. The fast incapacitation mechanism can be accurately modeled as a function of peak pressure wave magnitude. The slow incapacitation mechanism is presumably due to blood loss via damaged vascular tissue.
Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael
2008-01-01
Identifying patients at risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important because research suggests prophylactic treatments to reduce risk of long-term sequelae. Blast pressure waves can cause TBI without penetrating wounds or blunt force trauma. Similarly, bullet impacts distant from the brain can produce pressure waves sufficient to cause mild to moderate TBI. The fluid percussion model of TBI shows that pressure impulses of 15-30 psi cause mild to moderate TBI in laboratory animals. In pig...
Courtney, Amy
2007-01-01
Identifying patients at risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important because research suggests prophylactic treatments to reduce risk of long-term sequelae. Blast pressure waves can cause TBI without penetrating wounds or blunt force trauma. Similarly, bullet impacts distant from the brain can produce pressure waves sufficient to cause mild to moderate TBI. The fluid percussion model of TBI shows that pressure impulses of 15-30 psi cause mild to moderate TBI in laboratory animals. In pigs and dogs, bullet impacts to the thigh produce pressure waves in the brain of 18-45 psi and measurable injury to neurons and neuroglia. Analyses of research in goats and epidemiological data from shooting events involving humans show high correlations (r > 0.9) between rapid incapacitation and pressure wave magnitude in the thoracic cavity. A case study has documented epilepsy resulting from a pressure wave without the bullet directly hitting the brain. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that bullet imp...
Phonon wave propagation in ballistic-diffusive regime
Tang, Dao-Sheng; Hua, Yu-Chao; Nie, Ben-Dian; Cao, Bing-Yang
2016-03-01
Wide applications of ultra-short pulse laser technique in micromachining and thermophysical properties' measurements make the study on ultrafast transient thermal transport necessarily essential. When the characteristic time is comparable to the phonon relaxation time, phonons propagate in ballistic-diffusive regime and thermal wave occurs. Here, ultrafast transient phonon transport is systematically investigated based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the Cattaneo-Vernotte (C-V) model, and the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). It is found that remarkable differences exist between the C-V model and the MC simulations when describing the evolution of the thermal wave excited by the ultra-short heat pulse. The C-V model predicts a non-dispersive dissipative thermal wave, while the MC simulation with Lambert emission predicts a dispersive dissipative thermal wave. Besides, different phonon emissions can significantly influence the evolution of the thermal wave in the MC simulations. A modified C-V model with a time- and position-dependent effective thermal conductivity is derived based on the phonon BTE to characterize the evolution of the transport regime from ballistic to diffusive. The integrations on moments of the distribution function cause the loss of the information of the phonon distribution in wave vector space, making the macroscopic quantities incomplete when describing the ballistic transport processes and corresponding boundary conditions. Possible boundary conditions for the phonon BTE in practice are also discussed on different heating methods.
A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves
Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael
2008-01-01
The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating b...
Comparison of third-order plasma wave echoes with ballistic second-order plasma wave echoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The apparent dispersion of third-order plasma wave echoes observed in a high frequency plasma is compared with that of simultaneously observed ballistic second-order echoes. Amplitude and wavelength of third-order echoes are found to be always smaller than those of second-order echoes, however, the dispersion curves of both types of echoes are very similar. These observations are in qualitative agreement with calculations of special ballistic third-order echoes. The ballistic nature of the observed third-order echoes may, therefore, be concluded from these measurements. (author)
Ballistic quench-induced correlation waves in ultracold gases
Corson, John P
2016-01-01
We investigate the wave packet dynamics of a pair of particles that undergoes a rapid change of scattering length. The short-range interactions are modeled in the zero-range limit, where the quench is accomplished by switching the boundary condition of the wave function at vanishing particle separation. This generates a correlation wave that propagates rapidly to nonzero particle separations. We have derived universal, analytic results for this process that lead to a simple phase-space picture of the quench-induced scattering. Intuitively, the strength of the correlation wave relates to the initial contact of the system. We find that, in one spatial dimension, the $k^{-4}$ tail of the momentum distribution contains a ballistic contribution that does not originate from short-range pair correlations, and a similar conclusion can hold in other dimensionalities depending on the quench protocol. We examine the resultant quench-induced transport in an optical lattice in 1D, and a semiclassical treatment is found to...
A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves
Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015
2008-01-01
The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...
Comments on "Ballistics: a primer for the surgeon"
Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy
2008-01-01
In response to a published assertion to the contrary, this paper briefly reviews many studies that document remote wounding effects of ballistic pressure waves including experiments in pigs and dogs that find brain injury resulting from animal models shot in the thigh and case studies in humans that document both remote brain and spinal cord injuries ascribed to ballistic pressure waves.
On Ballistics Solution of HL Pressure Gun for Composite Charges Taking Most General Form Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Padam Chand Gupta
1977-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper gives the solution of the equation of internal ballistics of H/L gun for composite charges taking most general form function assuming constant pressure in both the chambers during the second stage of burning, i.e., after the burning of the first component charge.
Observation of strong reflection of electron waves exiting a ballistic channel at low energy
Vaz, Canute I.; Liu, Changze; Campbell, Jason P.; Ryan, Jason T.; Southwick, Richard G., III; Gundlach, David; Oates, Anthony S.; Huang, Ru; Cheung, Kin. P.
2016-06-01
Wave scattering by a potential step is a ubiquitous concept. Thus, it is surprising that theoretical treatments of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices, from quantum point contacts to ballistic transistors, assume no reflection even when the potential step is encountered upon exiting the device. Experiments so far seem to support this even if it is not clear why. Here we report clear evidence of coherent reflection when electron wave exits the channel of a nanoscale transistor and when the electron energy is low. The observed behavior is well described by a simple rectangular potential barrier model which the Schrodinger's equation can be solved exactly. We can explain why reflection is not observed in most situations but cannot be ignored in some important situations. Our experiment also represents a direct measurement of electron injection velocity - a critical quantity in nanoscale transistors that is widely considered not measurable.
Ballistic orbits in Schwarzschild space-time and gravitational waves from EMR binary mergers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe a special class of ballistic geodesics in Schwarzschild space-time, extending to the horizon in the infinite past and future of observer time, which are characterized by the property that they are in 1–1 correspondence, and completely degenerate in energy and angular momentum, with stable circular orbits. We derive analytic expressions for the source terms in the Regge–Wheeler and Zerilli–Moncrief equations for a point-particle moving on such a ballistic orbit, and compute the gravitational waves emitted during the infall in an extreme mass ratio black-hole binary coalescence. In this way a geodesic approximation to the plunge phase of compact binaries is obtained. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calculations are presented for the scattering and ballistic transport of spin waves (SW) incident from cobalt leads, on ultrathin ferrimagnetic cobalt–gadolinium ‥Co][Co(1−c)Gd(c)]ℓ[Co‥ nanojunction systems. The nanojunction [Co(1−c)Gd(c)]ℓ itself is a randomly disordered alloy of thickness ℓ hcp lattice planes between matching hcp planes of the Co leads, at known stable concentrations c≤0.5 for this alloy system. To compute the spin dynamics, and the SW scattering and ballistic transport, this alloy nanojunction is modeled in the virtual crystal approximation (VCA), valid in particular at the length scale of the nanojunction for submicroscopic SW wavelengths. The phase field matching theory (PFMT) is applied to compute the localized and resonant magnons on the nanojunction. These magnons, characteristic of the embedded nanostructure, propagate in its symmetry plane with spin precession amplitudes that decay or match the spin wave states in the semi-infinite leads. The eigenvectors of these magnon modes are calculated for certain cases to illustrate the spin precession configurations on the nanojunction. The VCA-PFMT approach is also used to calculate the reflection and transmission spectra for the spin waves incident from the Co leads on the nanojunction. The results demonstrate resonance assisted maxima for the ballistic SW transmission spectra due to interactions between the incident spin waves and the nanojunction magnon modes. These properties are general for variable nanojunction thicknesses and alloy stable concentrations c≤0.5. In particular, the positions of the resonance assisted maxima of spin wave transmission can be modified with nanojunction thickness and alloy concentration. - Highlights: • Model is presented for spin wave scattering at CoGd disordered alloy nanojunctions. • Computations yield the localized and resonant magnon modes on the nanojunctions. • The spin waves ballistic reflection and transmission spectra are
The ballistic transport instability in Saturn's rings II: nonlinear wave dynamics
Latter, Henrik; Chupeau, Marie
2014-01-01
The ejecta discharged by impacting meteorites can redistribute a planetary ring's mass and angular momentum. This `ballistic transport' of ring properties instigates a linear instability that could generate the 100--1000-km undulations observed in Saturn's inner B-ring and in its C-ring. We present semi-analytic results demonstrating how the instability sustains steadily travelling nonlinear wavetrains. At low optical depths, the instability produces approximately sinusoidal waves of low amplitude, which we identify with those observed between radii 77,000 and 86,000 km in the C-ring. On the other hand, optical depths of 1 or more exhibit hysteresis, whereby the ring falls into multiple stable states: the homogeneous background equilibrium or large-amplitude wave states. Possibly the `flat zones' and `wave zones' between radii 93,000 and 98,000 km in the B-ring correspond to the stable homogeneous and wave states, respectively. In addition, we test the linear stability of the wavetrains and show that only a s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ballistic electron wave swing device has previously been presented as a possible candidate for a simple power conversion technique to the THz -domain. This paper gives a simulative estimation of the power conversion efficiency. The harmonic balance simulations use an equivalent circuit model, which is also derived in this work from a mechanical model. To verify the validity of the circuit model, current waveforms are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of identical setups. Model parameters are given for a wide range of device configurations. The device configuration exhibiting the most conforming waveform is used further for determining the best conversion efficiency. The corresponding simulation setup is described. Simulation results implying a conversion efficiency of about 22% are presented. (paper)
Schildbach, Christian; Ong, Duu Sheng; Hartnagel, Hans; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter
2016-06-01
The ballistic electron wave swing device has previously been presented as a possible candidate for a simple power conversion technique to the THz -domain. This paper gives a simulative estimation of the power conversion efficiency. The harmonic balance simulations use an equivalent circuit model, which is also derived in this work from a mechanical model. To verify the validity of the circuit model, current waveforms are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of identical setups. Model parameters are given for a wide range of device configurations. The device configuration exhibiting the most conforming waveform is used further for determining the best conversion efficiency. The corresponding simulation setup is described. Simulation results implying a conversion efficiency of about 22% are presented.
Structure and apparent dispersion of ballistic plasma wave echoes of second order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spatial structure of electron plasma wave echoes is investigated with special regard to the apparent dispersion, i.e. the relation between echo wavelength and frequency. The apparent dispersion is obtained by separately recording echo phase and amplitude, using an r.f.-interferometer combined with a network analyzer. Comparison with theory reveals the ballistic nature of the second order echoes investigated; due to the dispersion as a quantitative measure of the velocity diffusion, it yields furthermore a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient D2 = (1.5 +- 0.5) x 1017 m2 s-3, two orders of magnitude larger than expected from equilibrium theory. The enhanced velocity diffusion can be related to non-equilibrium fluctuations due to ion-acoustic turbulence present in the target plasma. (author)
1977-01-01
Two parameters, side on overpressure and side on impulse loads, and their application to the determination of structural damage to buildings and vehicles in the vicinity of an explosion are investigated. Special consideration was given to what constitutes damage and what level of damage is acceptable. Solutions were sorted through the examination of glass breakage, curve fit to bomb damage, overturning of marginal structures (buses, trucks, mobile homes) subject to toppling, and initiation of yielding in either beam or plate structural components. Three different empirical pressure versus impulse diagrams were presented - the first is for minor structural damage involving wrenched joints and partitions, the second is for major damage structural damage with load bearing members at least partially destroyed, and the third is for 50% to 75% of the building demolished. General guidelines were obtained from the results when the accurate structural details are unknown.
Elkarous, L.; Coghe, F.; Pirlot, M.; Golinval, J. C.
2013-09-01
This paper presents a study carried out with the commonly used experimental techniques of ballistic pressure measurement. The comparison criteria were the peak chamber pressure and its standard deviation inside specific weapon/ammunition system configurations. It is impossible to determine exactly how precise either crusher, direct or conformal transducer methods are, as there is no way to know exactly what the actual pressure is; Nevertheless, the combined use of these measuring techniques could improve accuracy. Furthermore, a particular attention has been devoted to the problem of calibration. Calibration of crusher gauges and piezoelectric transducers is paramount and an essential task for a correct determination of the pressure inside a weapon. This topic has not been completely addressed yet and still requires further investigation. In this work, state of the art calibration methods are presented together with their specific aspects. Many solutions have been developed to satisfy this demand; nevertheless current systems do not cover the whole range of needs, calling for further development effort. In this work, research being carried out for the development of suitable practical calibration methods will be presented. The behavior of copper crushers under different high strain rates by the use of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) technique is investigated in particular. The Johnson-Cook model was employed as suitable model for the numerical study using FEM code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a study carried out with the commonly used experimental techniques of ballistic pressure measurement. The comparison criteria were the peak chamber pressure and its standard deviation inside specific weapon/ammunition system configurations. It is impossible to determine exactly how precise either crusher, direct or conformal transducer methods are, as there is no way to know exactly what the actual pressure is; Nevertheless, the combined use of these measuring techniques could improve accuracy. Furthermore, a particular attention has been devoted to the problem of calibration. Calibration of crusher gauges and piezoelectric transducers is paramount and an essential task for a correct determination of the pressure inside a weapon. This topic has not been completely addressed yet and still requires further investigation. In this work, state of the art calibration methods are presented together with their specific aspects. Many solutions have been developed to satisfy this demand; nevertheless current systems do not cover the whole range of needs, calling for further development effort. In this work, research being carried out for the development of suitable practical calibration methods will be presented. The behavior of copper crushers under different high strain rates by the use of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) technique is investigated in particular. The Johnson-Cook model was employed as suitable model for the numerical study using FEM code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. N. Kapur
1960-04-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, an exact analytical solution of the equation of ballistics, for the specific case of a tubular charge has been given. This solution applies to some particular values, of the pressure-index alpha greater than unity, and for these values, the function G (gamma, alfa of Clemmow has also been explicitly determined.
Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana; Smileski, Rose
2003-01-01
The influence of molding pressure on blunt traume effect and ballistic strength of unidirectional and bidirectional composites based on UHMWPE (Ultra Hight Molecular Weight Polyethylene) fibers is investigated. Two types of unidirectional and one type of bidirectional composites molded at 20, 60 and 100 bar were tested on their ballistic strength and their blunt traume depth and area were measured. It was found out that by increasing the molding pressure the blunt trauma effect was decreas...
Wave effects on a pressure sensor
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Joseph, A.; DeSa, E.J.; Desa, E.; McKeown, J.; Peshwe, V.B.
Wave flume experiments indicated that for waves propagating on quiescent waters the sensor's performance improved (i.e. the difference Delta P between the average hydrostatic and measured pressures was small and positive) when the inlet...
Avuthu, Vasudeva Reddy
Despite the clear benefits offered by more advanced transparent materials, (e.g. transparent ceramics offer a very attractive combination of high stiffness and high hardness levels, highly-ductile transparent polymers provide superior fragment-containing capabilities, etc.), ballistic ceramic-glass like fused-silica remains an important constituent material in a majority of transparent impact-resistant structures (e.g. windshields and windows of military vehicles, portholes in ships, ground vehicles and spacecraft) used today. Among the main reasons for the wide-scale use of glass, the following three are most frequently cited: (i) glass-structure fabrication technologies enable the production of curved, large surface-area, transparent structures with thickness approaching several inches; (ii) relatively low material and manufacturing costs; and (iii) compositional modifications, chemical strengthening, and controlled crystallization have been demonstrated to be capable of significantly improving the ballistic properties of glass. In the present work, the potential of high-pressure devitrification and densification of fused-silica as a ballistic-resistance-enhancement mechanism is investigated computationally. In the first part of the present work, all-atom molecular-level computations are carried out to infer the dynamic response and material microstructure/topology changes of fused silica subjected to ballistic impact by a nanometer-sized hard projectile. The analysis was focused on the investigation of specific aspects of the dynamic response and of the microstructural changes such as the deformation of highly sheared and densified regions, and the conversion of amorphous fused silica to SiO2 crystalline allotropic modifications (in particular, alpha-quartz and stishovite). The microstructural changes in question were determined by carrying out a post-processing atom-coordination procedure. This procedure suggested the formation of high-density stishovite (and
Blast waves with cosmic-ray pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of cosmic-ray pressure on the dynamics of self-similar, spherical blast waves and driven waves are investigated on the assumptions that the ratio of relativistic cosmic-ray pressure to total pressure at the shock front is a constant w and the the cosmic rays and thermal gas evolve as independent adiabatic fluids in the postshock flow. For blast waves from a point explosion in a uniform medium, the cosmic rays dominate the pressure near r = 0 if w>0. The solutions show that, if w is small, the ratio of cosmic-ray energy to total energy in the blast wave is several times w. The solutions are used to make specific predictions of the pion-decay γ-ray flux from a blast wave as a function of w. If w is large, the predicted fluxes from supernova remnants are close to the current observational limits. It is also noted that cosmic rays may limit the compression in the radiative shock waves of supernova remnants. The addition of cosmic pressure does not change the geneal nature of the driven wave self-similar solutions. The solutions are used to predict the pion-decay γ-ray flux from a young Type II supernova interacting with circumstellar material. Observations these γ-rays from extragalactic supernovae are not promising, but a galactic supernova could be very bright in γ-rays
Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure
Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.
2015-04-01
Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.
Transient flows and pressure waves in pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transient laminar flows and pressure-wave propagations in pipes connected with components, commonly known as water hammer, are analyzed. The system studied consists of a constant-pressure vessel, a uniform circular pipe, a valve between them, and a receiver vessel. A pressure-wave equation and a linearized velocity equation are derived from the equations of mass and momentum conservation. Waveform distortion due to viscous dissipation and pipe-wall elastic expansion is characterized by a dimensionless transmission number, K. The coefficients of the damping of the pressure waves were found to be related to the roots of the Bessel function J0. An exact solution of the pressure-wave equation was obtained numerically. The relationship between the distortion of a traveling wave and the transmission number K was studied. The problem is also calculated with a general-purpose computer code, COMMIX, which solves the exact mass conservation equation and Navier-Stokes equations. The COMMIX calculational results agreed well with the analytical solutions
Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons
Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea
2007-01-01
The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.
Modulated pressure waves in large elastic tubes.
Mefire Yone, G R; Tabi, C B; Mohamadou, A; Ekobena Fouda, H P; Kofané, T C
2013-09-01
Modulational instability is the direct way for the emergence of wave patterns and localized structures in nonlinear systems. We show in this work that it can be explored in the framework of blood flow models. The whole modified Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a difference-differential amplitude equation. The modulational instability criterion is therefore derived from the latter, and unstable patterns occurrence is discussed on the basis of the nonlinear parameter model of the vessel. It is found that the critical amplitude is an increasing function of α, whereas the region of instability expands. The subsequent modulated pressure waves are obtained through numerical simulations, in agreement with our analytical expectations. Different classes of modulated pressure waves are obtained, and their close relationship with Mayer waves is discussed. PMID:24089964
Pressure measurements of nonplanar stress waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A useful gage has been developed for measuring pressure of nonplanar or obliquely incident stress waves. The measurements made with these gages are not as precise as direct strain gage measurements, but are very good considering the conditions under which these gages are used. We feel a need to further develop our ability to measure nonplanar stress waves in the 0 to 10 kbar range. Carbon or ytterbium will probably be chosen for the sensing element
Propagation of Nonlinear Pressure Waves in Blood
Elgarayhi, A.; E. K. El-Shewy; MAHMOUD, ABEER A.; Elhakem, Ali A.
2013-01-01
The propagation of weakly nonlinear pressure waves in a fluid-filled elastic tube has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude. The effect of the final inner radius of the tube on the basic properties of the soliton wave was discussed. Moreover, the conditions of stability and the soliton existence via the potential and the corresponding phase portrait were computed. The applicability of the ...
Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael
2007-01-01
The Marshall and Sanow data set is the largest and most comprehensive data set available quantifying handgun bullet effectiveness in humans. This article presents an empirical model for relative incapacitation probability in humans hit in the thoracic cavity by handgun bullets. The model is constructed by employing the hypothesis that the wound channel and ballistic pressure wave effects each have an associated independent probability of incapacitation. Combining models for these two independent probabilities using the elementary rules of probability and performing a least-squares fit to the Marshall and Sanow data provides an empirical model with only two adjustable parameters for modeling bullet effectiveness with a standard error of 5.6% and a correlation coefficient R = 0.939. This supports the hypothesis that wound channel and pressure wave effects are independent (within the experimental error), and it also allows assignment of the relative contribution of each effect for a given handgun load. This mode...
Internal ballistics of recoilless high-low pressure guns using hepta-tubular powders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. C. Gupta
1960-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the theory of recoilless high-low pressure guns has been discussed by taking the form function and the results have been applied to the case of hepta-tubular powders. The results for high-low pressure guns follow as a particular case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.S. Bhaskara Rao
1982-04-01
Full Text Available A review of the computations in Internal Ballistic Systems for developing pressure and velocity space curves, called primary problem and differential variations due to change in initial phase space of loading conditions, called secondary problem, is presented. In the concluding part, the general aspects of the secondary problem are analysed and reported.
K.S. Bhaskara Rao; Sharma, K. C.
1982-01-01
A review of the computations in Internal Ballistic Systems for developing pressure and velocity space curves, called primary problem and differential variations due to change in initial phase space of loading conditions, called secondary problem, is presented. In the concluding part, the general aspects of the secondary problem are analysed and reported.
Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard
2015-01-01
We present an optical Kerr effect based time-gate with the collinear incidence of the pump and probe beams at the Kerr medium, liquid carbon disulfide, for ballistic imaging of the high-pressure fuel sprays. The probe pulse used to illuminate the object under study is extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses inside water, thereby destroying their coherence. The optical imaging spatial resolution and gate timings are investigated and compared with a similar setup without supercontinuum generation, where the probe is still coherent. And finally, a few ballistic images of the fuel sprays using coherent and incoherent illumination with the proposed time-gate are presented and compared qualitatively.
Rosenberg, Zvi
2012-01-01
This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...
Wave-induced pore water pressure in marine cohesive soils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Cyclic triaxial tests and numerical analyses were undertaken, in order to evaluate the wave-induced pore water pressure in seabed sediments in the Hangzhou Bay. The cyclic triaxial tests indicate that the rate of pore water pressure generation in cohesive soils decreases with time, and the development of the pore water pressure can be represented by a hyperbolic curve. Numerical analyses, taking into account the generation and dissipation of pore water pressure simultaneously, suggest that the pore water pressure buildup in cohesive soils may increase with time continuously until the pore water pressure ratio approaches to 1, or it may decrease after a certain time, which is controlled by drain conditions. These phenomena are different from those in sands. For waves with a return period of 100 a in the Hangzhou Bay, ifthe wave duration is more than 60 h, then the pore water pressure ratio will be close to 1 and soil fabric failure will take place.
Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance
Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column
Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.
2007-04-01
In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance.
Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pencheva, M [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Benova, E [Department for Language Teaching and International Students, Sofia University, 27 Kosta Loulchev Street, BG-1111 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhelyazkov, I [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2007-04-15
In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency ({nu}/{omega}) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption {nu}/{omega} = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary {nu}/{omega}. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance.
Numerical Study of Unsteady Supercavitation Perturbed by a Pressure Wave
Zheng, J. G.; Khoo, B. C.
2016-06-01
The unsteady features of supercavitation disturbed by an introduced pressure wave are investigated numerically using a one-fluid cavitation model. The supercavitating flow is assumed to be the homogeneous mixture of liquid and vapour which are locally under both kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. The compressibility effects of liquid water are taken into account to model the propagation of pressure wave through flow and its interaction with supercavitation bubble. The interaction between supercavity enveloping an underwater flat-nose cylinder and pressure wave is simulated and the resulting unsteady behavior of supercavitation is illustrated. It is observed that the supercavity will become unstable under the impact of the pressure wave and may collapse locally, which depends on the strength of perturbation. The huge pressure surge accompanying the collapse of supercavitation may cause the material erosion, noise, vibration and efficiency loss of operating underwater devices.
The Measurement and Analysis of Pressure Square Wave Generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Investigating the dynamic characteristics is a significant study for actual hydraulic pressure system because the dynamic environment is used more often than static one. A dynamic pressure generator is called pressure square wave generator (PSWG) that developed in our team and generate square-like waveform and change testing pressure and frequency form 0.1 to 5 MPa and 12 to 2 KHz, respectively. In this study, dynamic performance of PSWG was investigated under different testing tangent velocity of rotor of PSWG including detailed transient response of a pressure square-like wave, rise time and deviation of magnitude. Results show that the tangent velocity of the rotor of PSWG affects the transient response of pressure square-like wave form. The desired transient response can be obtained when the tangent velocity is larger than 0.5 m/s. Furthermore, the larger the tangent velocity used, the smaller the rise time will be
Damping Pressure Pulsations in a Wave-Powered Desalination System
Padhye, Nikhil; Torres, James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.; Thomas, Levon; Ljubicic, Dean M.; Kassner, Mortiz P.; Slocum, Alexander H.; Hopkins, Brandon James; Greenlee, Alison S.
2014-01-01
Wave-driven reverse osmosis desalination systems can be a cost-effective option for providing a safe and reliable source of drinking water for large coastal communities. Such systems usually require the stabilization of pulsating pressures for desalination purposes. The key challenge is to convert a fluctuating pressure flow into a constant pressure flow. To address this task, stub-filters, accumulators, and radially elastic-pipes are considered for smoothing the pressure fluctuations in the ...
Rosenberg, Zvi
2016-01-01
This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.
Fackler, M L
1986-12-01
Wound profiles made under controlled conditions in the wound ballistics laboratory at the Letterman Army Institute of Research showed the location along their tissue path at which projectiles cause tissue disruption and the type of disruption (crush from direct contact with the projectile or stretch from temporary cavitation). Comparison of wound profiles showed the fallacy in attempting to judge wound severity using velocity alone, and laid to rest the common belief that in treating a wound caused by a high-velocity missile, one needs to excise tissue far in excess of that which appears damaged. All penetrating projectile wounds, whether civilian or military, therefore should be treated the same regardless of projectile velocity. Diagnosis of the approximate amount and location of tissue disruption is made by physical examination and appropriate radiographic studies. These wounds are contaminated, and coverage with a penicillin-type antibiotic should be provided. PMID:3777618
Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J
2016-04-15
Wave intensity analysis provides detailed insights into factors influencing hemodynamics. However, wave intensity is not a conserved quantity, so it is sensitive to diameter variations and is not distributed among branches of a junction. Moreover, the fundamental relation between waves and hydraulic power is unclear. We, therefore, propose an alternative to wave intensity called "wave power," calculated via incremental changes in pressure and flow (dPdQ) and a novel time-domain separation of hydraulic pressure power and kinetic power into forward and backward wave-related components (ΠP±and ΠQ±). Wave power has several useful properties:1) it is obtained directly from flow measurements, without requiring further calculation of velocity;2) it is a quasi-conserved quantity that may be used to study the relative distribution of waves at junctions; and3) it has the units of power (Watts). We also uncover a simple relationship between wave power and changes in ΠP±and show that wave reflection reduces transmitted power. Absolute values of ΠP±represent wave potential, a recently introduced concept that unifies steady and pulsatile aspects of hemodynamics. We show that wave potential represents the hydraulic energy potential stored in a compliant pressurized vessel, with spatial gradients producing waves that transfer this energy. These techniques and principles are verified numerically and also experimentally with pressure/flow measurements in all branches of a central bifurcation in sheep, under a wide range of hemodynamic conditions. The proposed "wave power analysis," encompassing wave power, wave potential, and wave separation of hydraulic power provides a potent time-domain approach for analyzing hemodynamics. PMID:26873972
Ultrahigh pressure laser-driven shock wave experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review recent laser-driven shock wave experiments, with a view toward assessing the prospects of making accurate physical properties measurements at ultrahigh pressures. Recent experimental results on the scaling of shock pressure with laser intensity and wavelength are presented, and preliminary impedance matching experiments are discussed
Bender, D. F.
1978-01-01
The only ballistic trajectory mode feasible for a close solar probe or for an orbit inclined approximately 90 degrees to the ecliptic is the Jupiter gravity assisted mode. A comparison of the trajectories of the Solar Polar and the Solar Probe Mission for 1983 launches is shown. The geometry of the solar encounter phase is practically the same for the 4.3 year orbit achieved by a Jupiter gravity assist and for a one year orbit. Data describing the geometry of an orbit with perihelion at 4 solar radii and aphelion at Jupiter are listed. The range of apparent directions of the solar wind if it is flowing radially outward from the Sun with a speed of either 150 or 300 km/sec is shown. The minimum sun-earth-probe angle during the solar encounter as a function of the earth-node angle and the orbital inclination is also shown. If the inclination is 60 degrees or more, the minimum SEP angle is not greatly different from the 90 degree value.
Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading
Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong
2014-09-01
In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.
Two distinct ballistic processes in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A dynamical approach to ballistic transport in mesoscopic graphene samples of finite length Land contact potential difference with leads U is developed. It is shown that at ballistic times shorter than both relevant time scales, tL = L/vg (vg - Fermi velocity) and tu = ħ/(eU), the major effect of electric field is to creates the electron - hole pairs, namely causes interband transitions. At ballistic times lager than the two scales the mechanism is very different. The conductivity has its “nonrelativistic” or intraband value equal to the one obtained within the Landauer-Butticker approach for the barrier Uresulting from evanescent waves tunneling through the barrier.
Influence of ambient air pressure on impact pressure caused by breaking waves
Moutzouris, C.
1979-01-01
Engineers are interested in the dynamics of the interface waterstructure. In case of breaking of water waves on a structure high positive and sometimes negative pressures of very short duration occur. Not only the maxima and minima of the pressures on the structure are important to a designing engin
Dynamic Wave Pressures on Deeply Embedded Large Cylindrical Structures due to Random Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘海笑; 唐云; 周锡礽
2003-01-01
The response of dynamic wave pressures on structures would be more complicated and bring about new phenomena under the dynamic interaction between soil and structure. In order to better understand the response characteristics on deeply embedded large cylindrical structures under random waves, and accordingly to offer valuable findings for engineering, the authors designed wave flume experiments to investigate comparatively dynamic wave pressures on a single and on continuous cylinders with two different embedment depths in response to two wave spectra.The time histories of the water surface elevation and the corresponding dynamic wave pressures exerted on the cylinder were analyzed in the frequency domain. By calculating the transfer function and spectral density for dynamic wave pressures along the height and around the circumference of the cylinder, experimental results of the single cylinder were compared with the theoretical results based on the linear diffraction theory, and detailed comparisons were also carried out between the single and continuous cylinders. Some new findings and the corresponding analysis are reported in present paper. The investigation on continuous cylinders will be used in particular for reference in engineering applications because information is scarce on studying such kind of problem both analytically and experimentally.
Pressure induced Superconductivity in the Charge Density Wave Compound Tritelluride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlin, J.J.; Zocco, D.A.; Sayles, T.A.; Maple, M.B.; /UC, Davis; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.
2010-02-15
A series of high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of TbTe{sub 3} reveal a complex phase diagram involving the interplay of superconducting, antiferromagnetic and charge density wave order. The onset of superconductivity reaches a maximum of almost 4 K (onset) near {approx} 12.4 GPa.
Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres
Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.
1977-01-01
Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.
Attenuation characteristics of nonlinear pressure waves propagating in pipes
Shih, C. C.
1974-01-01
A series of experiments was conducted to investigate temporal and spatial velocity distributions of fluid flow in 3-in. open-end pipes of various lengths up to 210 ft, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves of various intensities. Velocity profiles across each of five sections along the pipes were measured as a function of time with the use of hot-film and hot-wire anemometers for two pressure waves produced by a piston. Peculiar configurations of the velocity profiles across the pipe section were noted, which are uncommon for steady pipe flow. Theoretical consideration was given to this phenomenon of higher velocity near the pipe wall for qualitative confirmation. Experimentally time-dependent velocity distributions along the pipe axis were compared with one-dimensional theoretical results obtained by the method of characteristics with or without diffusion term for the purpose of determining the attenuation characteristics of the nonlinear wave propagation in the pipes.
Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.
2014-12-01
The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (Atlas, the northeastern end of the Betic Mountains and the Late Cenozoic volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.
Calculations of pressure wave bursts in steam pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using as an example the live steam system of a boiling water reactor, the pressure wave propagation phenomena resulting from turbine trips in response to the by-pass system are described. The results of a previous calculation, using linearised characteristics methods are compared with those of a calculation using a differential procedure based on results of measurements. In a second example the periodic operation of safety valves of the steam generating system of a sodium cooled reactor is studied. (orig.)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Joseph, A.; Desa, J.A.E.; Foden, P.; Taylor, K.; McKeown, J.; Desa, E.
The performance of a pressure transducer, with its inlet attached to differing hydromechanical front ends, has been evaluated in flow flume and wave flume experiments in which laminar and turbulent flows, and regular progressive gravity waves...
Shock wave velocity and shock pressure for low density powders : A novel approach
Dijken, D.K.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De
1994-01-01
A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new mod
SHOCK-WAVE VELOCITY AND SHOCK PRESSURE FOR LOW-DENSITY POWDERS - A NOVEL-APPROACH
DIJKEN, DK; DEHOSSON, JTM
1994-01-01
A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new mod
Pressure wave model for action potential propagation in excitable cells
Rvachev, M M
2003-01-01
Speed of propagation of small-amplitude pressure waves through the cytoplasmic interior of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of different diameters is theoretically estimated and is found to generally agree with the action potential (AP) conduction velocities. This remarkable coincidence allows to surmise a model in which AP spread along axon is propelled not by straggling ionic currents as in the widely accepted local circuit theory, but by mechanoactivation of the membrane ion channels by a traveling pressure pulse. Hydraulic pulses propagating in the viscous axoplasm are calculated to decay over ~1 mm distances, and it is further hypothesized that it is the role of influxing during the AP calcium ions to activate membrane skeletal protein network attached to the membrane cytoplasmic side for a brief radial contraction amplifying the pressure pulse and preventing its decay. The model correctly predicts that the AP conduction velocity should vary as the one-half power of axon diameter for large unmyelinated ...
Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer
2009-06-04
We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.
Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Pressure Wave inside CEUP Fuel Pipeline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qaisar Hayat
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Operating conditions dependent large pressure variations are one of the working characteristics of combination electronic unit pump (CEUP fuel injection system for diesel engines. We propose a precise and accurate nonlinear numerical model of pressure inside HP fuel pipeline of CEUP using wave equation (WE including both viscous and frequency dependent frictions. We have proved that developed hyperbolic approximation gives more realistic description of pressure wave as compared to classical viscous damped wave equation. Frictional effects of various frequencies on pressure wave have been averaged out across valid frequencies to represent the combined effect of all frequencies on pressure wave. Dynamic variations of key fuel properties including density, acoustic wave speed, and bulk modulus with varying pressures have also been incorporated. Based on developed model we present analysis on effect of fuel pipeline length on pressure wave propagation and variation of key fuel properties with both conventional diesel and alternate fuel rapeseed methyl ester (RME for CEUP pipeline.
The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients
Courtney, Michael
2007-01-01
The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.
Tunnel pressure waves - A smartphone inquiry on rail travel
Müller, Andreas; Hirth, Michael; Kuhn, Jochen
2016-02-01
When traveling by rail, you might have experienced the following phenomenon: The train enters a tunnel, and after some seconds a noticeable pressure change occurs, as perceived by your ears or even by a rapid wobbling of the train windows. The basic physics is that pressure waves created by the train travel down the tunnel, are reflected at its other end, and travel back until they meet the train again. Here we will show (i) how this effect can be well understood as a kind of large-scale outdoor case of a textbook paradigm, and (ii) how, e.g., a prediction of the tunnel length from the inside of a moving train on the basis of this model can be validated by means of a mobile phone measurement.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任冰; 王永学
2004-01-01
This paper presents the results of comparison of impact pressures on open-plied structures induced by regular waves and irregular waves in a laboratory channel. Regular waves with wave heights ranging from 0.1 ～ 0.2 m and periods ranging from 1.0 ～ 2.0 s are tested. The target spectrm for the irregular wave is JONSWAP spectrum. Irregular waves with significant wave heights in the range of 0.10 ～ 0.25 m and peak periods in the range of 1.0 ～ 2.0 s are tested. The relative clearance s/H1/3(H) is between - 0.1 and 0.4, s being the subface level of structure model above the still water level. Time series of impact pressure are analyzed to indicate whether the property of impact pressures induced by the regular wave significantly deviates from that by the irregular wave. The distribution of the impact pressure along the underside of the structure is compared for different types of incident waves. The effects of wave parameters, structure dimension and structure clearance on the impact pressure are also discussed.
Wave-Induced Pressure Under an Internal Solitary Wave and Its Impact at the Bed
Rivera, Gustavo; Diamesis, Peter; Jenkins, James; Berzi, Diego
2015-11-01
The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Particular emphasis is placed on the diffusion into the bed of the pressure field driven by the wake and any near-bed instabilities produced under specific conditions. To this end, a spectral nodal Galerkin approach is used for solving the diffusion equation for the wave-induced pressure. At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the wave. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is examined. The potential for bed failure upon the passage of the ISW trough and implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are both discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models.
Electron density measurements of high pressure argon surface wave plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electron density of an argon standing surface wave plasma has been measured from Stark broadening of the hydrogen H/sub beta/ (4861A) line. The experimental setup, consisting of two coaxial cavities, was similar to that reported by Rogers and Asmussen. The plasma was generated by 45 watts per cavity of CW, 2.54 GHz microwave power in a 6 mm O.D. (4 mm I.D.) quartz tube. Experimental argon gas pressure varied from 50 torr to over one atmosphere. Small amounts (1-5%) of hydrogen added to the argon plasma were found to shorten the plasma by as much as 80%. Thus, the Stark measurements were made using trace amounts of hydrogen. The line width of H/sub beta/ was measured with a 1 meter Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer. The Stark broadening measurements revealed that the electron density is between 1013 and 1014 electrons/cc for a pressure range of 50 to 1000 torr. These measurements agree very well with the electron density determined from the wavelength of standing surface waves. The volume of the plasma was also measured photographically and average plasma power densities (absorbed power in the plasma divided by the plasma volume) was calculated
Wave-induced stresses and pore pressures near a mudline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrzej Sawicki
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Conventional methods for the determination of water-wave induced stresses inseabeds composed of granular soils are based on Biot-type models, in which the soilskeleton is treated as an elastic medium. Such methods predict effective stressesin the soil that are unacceptable from the physical point of view, as they permittensile stresses to occur near the upper surface of the seabed. Therefore, in thispaper the granular soil is assumed to behave as an elastic-ideally plastic material,with the Coulomb-Mohr yield criterion adopted to bound admissible stress states inthe seabed. The governing equations are solved numerically by a~finite differencemethod. The results of simulations, carried out for the case of time-harmonicwater waves, illustrate the depth distributions of the excess pore pressures and theeffective stresses in the seabed, and show the shapes of zones of soil in the plastic state.~In particular, the effects on the seabed behaviour of suchparameters as the degree of pore water saturation, the soil permeability, and theearth pressure coefficient, are illustrated.
Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations
Allshouse, Michael R.; Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, Philip J.; Swinney, Harry L.
2016-05-01
Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field J =p u , which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields p and u , respectively. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous J (x ,z ,t ) from density perturbations alone: A Green's function-based calculation yields p ; u is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: The Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations and the result for J is found to agree typically to within 1% with J computed directly using p and u from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to density perturbation data from laboratory schlieren measurements of internal waves in a stratified fluid and the result for J agrees to within 6 % with results from Navier-Stokes simulations. Our method for determining the instantaneous velocity, pressure, and energy flux fields applies to any system described by a linear approximation of the density perturbation field, e.g., to small-amplitude lee waves and propagating vertical modes. The method can be applied using our matlab graphical user interface EnergyFlux.
A Comparison of Measured and Predicted Wave-Impact Pressures from Breaking and Non-breaking Waves
Fullerton, Anne M; Brewton, Susan; Brucker, Kyle A; O'Shea, Thomas T; Dommermuth, Douglas G
2014-01-01
Impact loads from waves on vessels and coastal structures are complex and may involve wave breaking, which has made these loads difficult to estimate numerically or empirically. Results from previous experiments have shown a wide range of forces and pressures measured from breaking and nonbreaking waves, with no clear trend between wave characteristics and the localized forces and pressures that they generate. In 2008, a canonical breaking wave impact data set was obtained at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, by measuring the distribution of impact pressures of incident nonbreaking and breaking waves on one face of a cube. This experimental effort was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), under the Dynamics of Interacting Platforms Program, Program Manager Dr. Ron Joslin. The effects of wave height, wavelength, face orientation, face angle, and submergence depth were investigated. Additionally, a limited number of runs were made at low forward speeds, ranging from about 0.5 to 2...
Sur, S; Sur, Shantanu
2005-01-01
Arterial Blood Pressure wave monitoring is considered to be important in assessment of cardiovascular system. We developed a novel pulse wave detection system using low frequency specific piezoelectric material as pressure wave sensor. The transducer detects the periodic change in the arterial wall diameter produced by pressure wave and the amplified signal after integration represents the pressure wave. The signal before integration is proportional to the rate of change of pressure wave and it not only reproduces the pressure waveform faithfully, but also its sharper nature helps to reliably detect the heart period variability (HPV). We have studied the position-specific (e.g. over carotid or radial artery) nature of change of this pulse wave signal (shape and amplitude) and also the changes at different physiological states.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...
Internal ballistics of guns and rockets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asim Ray
1964-07-01
Full Text Available An exact analytical solutions of the equations relating to the internals ballistics of guns and rockets in the non-isothermal model using tubular propellants which burns according to the pressure-index law has been obtained. An approximate solution to a pre-assigned level of accuracy has been presented.
Sychev, A. I.
2016-05-01
The effect of the initial pressure of multicomponent bubble media on the conditions of initiation, the structure, the velocity, and the pressure of detonation waves is experimentally studied. The variation of the initial pressure of a bubble medium is found to be an effective method to control the parameters of bubble detonation waves.
Mass Spectrometry of Atmospheric Pressure Surface Wave Discharges
Ridenti, M. A.; Souza-Corrêa, J. A.; Amorim, J.
2016-05-01
By applying mass spectrometry techniques, we carried out measurements of ionic mass spectrum and their energy distribution in order to investigate an atmospheric argon discharge by using a surfatron surface-wave device. The mass and energy distribution measurements were performed with fixed flow rate (2.5 SLM) of pure argon gas (99.999%) and different Ar-O2 gas mixture compositions (99-1, 98-2 and 97-3). The mass spectra and energy distributions were recorded for Ar+, O+, O+ 2, N+ and N2 +. The axial distribution profiles of ionic mass and their energy were obtained for different experimental conditions as a function of the plasma length. The results showed that the peak of the positive ion energy distributions shifted to higher energies and also that the distribution width increased as the distance between the sampling orifice and the launcher gap was increased. It was also found that under certain experimental conditions the ion flux of atomic species were higher than the ion flux of their diatomic counterpart. The motivation of this study was to obtain a better understanding of a surface wave discharge in atmospheric pressure that may play a key role on new second generation biofuel technologies.
Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.
Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias
2016-05-01
Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur. PMID:26239103
THE EFFECTS OF AREA CONTRACTION ON SHOCK WAVE STRENGTH AND PEAK PRESSURE IN SHOCK TUBE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Mohsen
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of area contraction on shock wave strength and peak pressure in a shock tube. The shock tube is an important component of the short duration, high speed fluid flow test facility, available at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN, Malaysia. The area contraction was facilitated by positioning a bush adjacent to the primary diaphragm section, which separates the driver and driven sections. Experimental measurements were performed with and without the presence of the bush, at various diaphragm pressure ratios, which is the ratio of air pressure between the driver (high pressure and driven (low pressure sections. The instantaneous static pressure variations were measured at two locations close to the driven tube end wall, using high sensitivity pressure sensors, which allow the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure to be analysed. The results reveal that the area contraction significantly reduces the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure. At a diaphragm pressure ratio of 10, the shock wave strength decreases by 18%, the peak pressure decreases by 30% and the shock wave speed decreases by 8%.
Charge transport and shot noise in ballistic graphene sheet
Sonin, E. B.
2008-01-01
The current and the shot noise in a graphene sheet were analyzed in the ballistic regime for arbitrary voltage drops between leads and the sheet in the limit of infinite aspect ratio of the sheet width to its length, when quantization of transversal wave vectors is not essential. The cases of coherent and incoherent ballistic transport were compared. At high voltages the difference with coherent transport is not essential. But at low voltages conductance and Fano-factor dependences for incohe...
Ballistic electron transport in wrinkled superlattices
Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela
2016-07-01
Inspired by the problem of elastic wave scattering on wrinkled interfaces, we studied the scattering of ballistic electrons on a wrinkled potential energy region. The electron transmission coefficient depends on both wrinkle amplitude and periodicity, having different behaviors for positive and negative scattering potential energies. For scattering on potential barriers, minibands appear in the electron transmission, as in superlattices, whereas for scattering on periodic potential wells the transmission coefficient has a more complex form. Besides suggesting that tuning of electron transmission is possible by modifying the scattering potential via voltages on wrinkled gate electrodes, our results emphasize the analogies between ballistic electrons and elastic waves even in scattering problems on non-typical configurations.
Calculation of pressure wave inside the steam line with turbine trip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After turbine trip, a pressure wave phenomenon happens inside the steam lines and has disadvantageous effects on the steam generator and steam lines. To study this effect, the mathematical models for pressure wave calculation are developed and the calculating results are analyzed
A mathematical model and numerical simulation of pressure wave in horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Fei; BAI Bofeng; GUO Liejin
2004-01-01
By using an ensemble-averaged two-fluid model,with valid closure conditions of interfacial momentum exchange due to virtual mass force,viscous shear stress and drag force,a model for pressure wave propagation in a horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow is proposed.According to the small perturbation theory and solvable condition of one-order linear uniform equations,a dispersion equation of pressure wave is induced.The pressure wave speed calculated from the model is compared and in good agreement with existing data.According to the dispersion equation,the propagation and attenuation of pressure wave are investigated systemically.The factors affecting pressure wave,such as void fraction,pressure,wall shear stress,perturbation frequency,virtual mass force and drag force,are analyzed.The result shows that the decrease in system pressure,the increase in void fraction and the existence of wall shear stress,will cause a decrease in pressure wave speed and an increase in the attenuation coefficient in the horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow.The effects of perturbation frequency,virtual mass and drag force on pressure wave in the horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow at low perturbation frequency are different from that at high perturbation frequency.
Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F
2002-01-01
Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as
Influence of the initial pressure in bubble media on the detonation wave parameters
Sychev, A. I.
2015-04-01
The influence of the initial pressure in bubble media on the initiation, structure, velocity, and pressure of detonation waves in single-component bubble media is studied. The test medium (bubbles of a stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen mixture in a hydroglyceric solution) falls under the category of "chemically inactive liquid—bubbles of a chemically active gas." It is found that one can effectively control the parameters of bubble detonation waves by varying the initial pressure in the bubble medium.
Generation and propagation of pressure waves in supersonic deep-cavity flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Handa, Taro; Ozaki, Takaya [Kyushu University, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Kasuga City, Fukuoka (Japan); Miyachi, Hiroaki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Power Systems Plant Engineering Department, Takasago, Hyogo (Japan); Kakuno, Hatsuki [Nippon Steel and Sumikin Engineering, Plant and Machinery Division, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)
2012-12-15
The mechanism behind cavity-induced pressure oscillations in supersonic flows past a deep rectangular cavity is not well understood despite several investigations having been carried out. In particular, the process by which the pressure wave is generated and the path of the pressure wave propagating inside the cavity remains unclear. In the present study, the pressure waves around a deep rectangular cavity over which nitrogen gas flows at a Mach number of 1.7 are visualized using the schlieren method. The length of the cavity is 14.0 mm. The depths of the cavity are selected as 20.0 and 11.7 mm, corresponding to length-to-depth ratios of 0.70 and 1.2, respectively. The pressure waves propagating inside as well as outside the cavity have been successfully visualized using a high-speed camera, and the propagation pattern of these waves is found to be different from that previously predicted by numerical simulation and from those expected in previous oscillation models. In addition, the pressure oscillation near the trailing edge of the cavity is also measured using semiconductor-type pressure transducers simultaneously with the capture of the schlieren images. As a result, the relationship between the shear-layer motion, pressure-wave generation, and pressure oscillation at the trailing edge of the cavity is clarified experimentally. (orig.)
Rogue wave formation under the action of quasi-stationary pressure
Abrashkin, A. A.; Oshmarina, O. E.
2016-05-01
The process of rogue wave formation on deep water is considered. A wave of extreme amplitude is born against the background of uniform waves (Gerstner waves) under the action of external pressure on free surface. The pressure distribution has a form of a quasi-stationary "pit". The fluid motion is supposed to be a vortex one and is described by an exact solution of equations of 2D hydrodynamics for an ideal fluid in Lagrangian coordinates. Liquid particles are moving around circumferences of different radii in the absence of drift flow. Values of amplitude and wave steepness optimal for rogue wave formation are found numerically. The influence of vorticity distribution and pressure drop on parameters of the fluid is investigated.
Propagation of pore pressure diffusion waves in saturated dual-porosity media (II)
Yang, Duoxing; Li, Qi; Zhang, Lianzhong
2016-04-01
A mechanism has been established for pressure diffusion waves in dual-porosity media. Pressure diffusion waves are heavily damped with relatively low velocities and short wavelengths. The characteristic frequency dominates the attenuation behavior of pressure diffusions and separates wave fields into two asymptotic regimes: relaxed and unrelaxed. Characteristic delay times control the pressure diffusion between the matrix and the fractures. The transition zones in wavelength and attenuation peak shift toward high frequencies when the characteristic delay time decreases. In contrast, the transition zones in both phase and group velocity shift toward low frequencies as the characteristic time of the delay increases. In a spatially dependent diffusivity field, the pressure diffusion waves in dual-porosity media obey an accumulation-depletion law.
Pressure increase in two-phase media behind air shock waves and by shock wave accelerated pistons
Patz, G.; Smeets, G.
Results are summarized from experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of a shock wave on a two-phase medium (TPM) and the compression of a TPM by a piston accelerated by the pressure behind a reflected shock. Attention is also given to the use of foam as the TPM and actions of the changing pressure as the shock moves to the end of the shock tube and returns. The situation is extended to the situation where the returning wave drives a piston into the foam. Analysis of the pressure variations in the foam shows that the peak pressure will depend only on the piston pressure. No shocks formed in the TMP, either in the model predictions or in an experimental validation, because the piston speed was always well below the sonic velocity in the lather.
Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna;
2014-01-01
By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....
Campana, Mylène; Laumond, Jean-Paul
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the motion planning problem for a jumping point-robot. Each jump consists in a ballistic motion linking two positions in contact with obstacle surfaces. A solution path is thus a sequence of parabola arcs. The originality of the approach is to consider non-sliding constraints at contact points: slipping avoidance is handled by constraining takeoff and landing velocity vectors to belong to 3D friction cones. Furthermore the magnitude of these velocities is bounded. A balli...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王育维; 郭映华; 董彦诚; 张洪汉
2016-01-01
An analysis is made of the interior ballistics structural characteristics of low-zone in Bi-modular charge. In response to the problem of much more prominent pressure wave of zone 2,a two-phase and one-dimensional model of interior ballistics was built with combustible case combustion law provided. An analysis is made of the effects of combustible case energy parameter on pressure waves. Through the comparative experimental study of different energy combustible cases and theoretical simu-lation analysis of interior ballistics multiphase flow,the effect laws of combustible case energy parame-ter on zone 2 pressure waves was obtained. Great agreement is shown between model and experimental measurements. The study results can serve as a guideline for pressure wave and optimizing combustible case energy parameter of zone 2 in Bi-modular charge.%分析了双元模块装药小号装药的结构特点，针对小号装药的2号装药压力波现象较为突出的问题，建立了双一维多相流内弹道模型，给出了可燃容器燃烧规律，分析了可燃容器能量参数对压力波的影响。通过对可燃容器不同能量参数的对比试验研究及利用多相流内弹道理论仿真分析，得到了可燃容器能量特性对2号装药压力波的影响规律，理论仿真结果与试验结果一致，为分析小号装药压力波现象及可燃容器参数优化设计提供一定参考。
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 104 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration
Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video
Gaylord, Steven; Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy
2013-01-01
Though three distinct wounding mechanisms (permanent cavity, temporary cavity, and ballistic pressure wave) are described in the wound ballistics literature, they all have their physical origin in the retarding force between bullet and tissue as the bullet penetrates. If the bullet path is the same, larger retarding forces produce larger wounding effects and a greater probability of rapid incapacitation. By Newton's third law, the force of the bullet on the tissue is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the tissue on the bullet. For bullets penetrating with constant mass, the retarding force on the bullet can be determined by frame by frame analysis of high speed video of the bullet penetrating a suitable tissue simulant such as calibrated 10% ballistic gelatin. Here the technique is demonstrated with 9mm NATO bullets, 32 cm long blocks of gelatin, and a high speed video camera operating at 20,000 frames per second. It is found that different 9mm NATO bullets have a wide variety of pot...
Using Clifford Algebra to Understand the Nature of Negative Pressure Waves
McClellan, Gene
2014-03-01
The geometric algebra of 3-D Euclidean space, a sub-discipline of Clifford algebra, is a useful tool for analyzing wave propagation. We use geometric algebra to explore the concept of negative pressure. In free space a straightforward extension of Maxwell's equations using geometric algebra yields a theory in which classical electromagnetic waves coexist with nonelectromagnetic waves having retrograde momentum. By retrograde momentum we mean waves carrying momentum pointing in the opposite direction of energy flow. If such waves exist, they would have negative pressure. In rebounding from a wall, they would pull rather than push. In this presentation we use standard methods of analyzing energy and momentum conservation and their flow through the surface of an enclosed volume to illustrate the properties of both the electromagnetic and nonelectromagnetic solutions of the extended Maxwell equations. The nonelectromagnetic waves consist of coupled scalar and electric waves and coupled magnetic and pseudoscalar waves. They superimpose linearly with electromagnetic waves. We show that the nonelectromagnetic waves, besides having negative pressure, propagate with the speed of light and do not interact with conserved electric currents. Hence, they have three properties in common with dark energy.
Survivability Armor Ballistic Laboratory (SABL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SABL provides independent analysis, ballistic testing, data collection, data reduction and qualification of current and advanced armors. Capabilities: The SABL...
Naidu, M.U.R; C Prabhakar Reddy
2012-01-01
Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate and compare novel methods to determine aortic blood pressure non-invasively based on Oscillometric Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) measurement using four limb-cuff pressure waveforms and two lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) with a validated tonometric pulse wave analysis system in patients. Materials and Methods: After receiving the consent, in 49 patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, PWV, and central blood p...
Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.; Quick, Christopher M.
2012-01-01
The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systol...
Measuring high pressure equation of state of polystyrene using laser driven shock wave
Shu, Hua; Huang, Xiuguang; Ye, Junjian; Wu, Jiang; Jia, Guo; Fang, Zhiheng; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhou, Huazhen; Fu, Sizu
2015-11-01
High precision polystyrene equation of state data were measured using laser-driven shock waves with pressures from 180 GPa to 700 GPa. α quartz was used as standard material, the shock wave trajectory in quartz and polystyrene was measured using the Velocity Interferometer for Any Reflector (VISAR). Instantaneous shock velocity in quartz and polystyrene was obtained when the shock wave pass the interface. This provided ~1% precision in shock velocity measurements.
Measuring high pressure equation of state of polystyrene using laser driven shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High precision polystyrene equation of state data were measured using laser-driven shock waves with pressures from 180 GPa to 700 GPa. Alpha quartz was used as standard material, the shock wave trajectory in quartz and polystyrene was measured using the Velocity Interferometer for Any Reflector (VISAR). Instantaneous shock velocity in quartz and polystyrene was obtained when the shock wave pass the interface. This provided ∼1% precision in shock velocity measurements. (authors)
Remya, B.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Hajra, R.
2015-09-01
Electromagnetic ion (proton) cyclotron (EMIC) waves and whistler mode chorus are simultaneously detected in the Earth's dayside subsolar outer magnetosphere. The observations were made near the magnetic equator 3.1°-1.5° magnetic latitude at 1300 magnetic local time from L = 9.9 to 7.0. It is hypothesized that the solar wind external pressure caused preexisting energetic 10-100 keV protons and electrons to be energized in the T⊥ component by betatron acceleration and the resultant temperature anisotropy (T⊥>T∥) formed led to the simultaneous generation of both EMIC (ion) and chorus (electron) waves. The EMIC waves had maximum wave amplitudes of ˜6 nT in a ˜60 nT ambient field B0. The observed EMIC wave amplitudes were about ˜10 times higher than the usually observed chorus amplitudes (˜0.1-0.5 nT). The EMIC waves are found to be coherent to quasi-coherent in nature. Calculations of relativistic ˜1-2 MeV electron pitch angle transport are made using the measured wave amplitudes and wave packet lengths. Wave coherency was assumed. Calculations show that in a ˜25-50 ms interaction with an EMIC wave packet, relativistic electron can be transported ˜27° in pitch. Assuming dipole magnetic field lines for a L = 9 case, the cyclotron resonant interaction is terminated ˜±20° away from the magnetic equator due to lack of resonance at higher latitudes. It is concluded that relativistic electron anomalous cyclotron resonant interactions with coherent EMIC waves near the equatorial plane is an excellent loss mechanism for these particles. It is also shown that E > 1 MeV electrons cyclotron resonating with coherent chorus is an unlikely mechanism for relativistic microbursts. Temporal structures of ˜30 keV precipitating protons will be ˜2-3 s which will be measurable at the top of the ionosphere.
Analysis of pressure waves in the cone-type combustion chamber under SI engine knock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A 3D numerical model is conducted to investigate the shock waves in the engine knock. • Overpressure distribution on the top piston surface is caught while knocking. • Numerical simulation shows that shock waves converge in the combustion chamber. • The converged shock waves damage piston during severe knock. - Abstract: For the internal-combustion engine, super knock produced by the engine downsizing technology induces severe oscillations in a combustion chamber, which may damage the piston. In this work, 3D numerical simulation is used to study the propagation and reflection of pressure waves produced in the cone roof type combustion chamber. Overpressure distribution of top piston surface is caught. Numerical simulation shows that the pressure waves are amplified in a special zone because of the shape of the combustion chamber, which induces the overpressure much higher than that in other zones. The numerical results are validated by the damaged pistons. It is found that the converged pressure waves could be the reason which causes damage in the local region of the piston under super knock. The results obtained in the study provide assistance in the design of combustion chamber shape in order to avoid piston destroyed by the pressure waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This review describes the ballistic quality assurance for stereotactic intracranial irradiation treatments delivered with Gamma KnifeR either dedicated or adapted medical linear accelerators. Specific and periodic controls should be performed in order to check the mechanical stability for both irradiation and collimation systems. If this step remains under the responsibility of the medical physicist, it should be done in agreement with the manufacturer's technical support. At this time, there are no recent published guidelines. With technological developments, both frequency and accuracy should be assessed in each institution according to the treatment mode: single versus hypo-fractionated dose, circular collimator versus micro-multi-leaf collimators. In addition, 'end-to-end' techniques are mandatory to find the origin of potential discrepancies and to estimate the global ballistic accuracy of the delivered treatment. Indeed, they include frames, non-invasive immobilization devices, localizers, multimodal imaging for delineation and in-room positioning imaging systems. The final precision that could be reasonably achieved is more or less 1 mm. (authors)
On the recovery of traveling water waves with vorticity from the pressure at the bed
Hur, Vera Mikyoung
2015-01-01
We propose higher-order approximation formulae recovering the surface elevation from the pressure at the bed and the background shear flow for small-amplitude Stokes and solitary water waves. They offer improvements over the pressure transfer function and the hydrostatic approximation. The formulae compare reasonably well with asymptotic approximations of the exact relation between the pressure at the bed and the surface wave in the zero vorticity case, but they incorporate the effects of vorticity through solutions of the Rayleigh equation. Several examples are discussed.
Energy transfer from a laser pulse to a blast wave in reduced-pressure air atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Focusing a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser beam in air atmospheres induced a blast wave. The kinetic energy of a laser-induced blast wave was determined from shadowgraph images of shock wave expansion. Results showed that the fraction of input laser energy that is converted into the blast wave energy decreased from 0.45 to 0.2 concomitant with the decrease in ambient pressure from 100 to 10 kPa. Also, it was insensitive to input laser energy from 4 to 13 J
Rubber-induced uniform laser shock wave pressure for thin metal sheets microforming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The rubber is introduced to smooth laser shock wave pressure. • The mechanism of rubber-induced smoothing effect is proposed. • Smoothing effect is mainly due to the radial expansion of plasma cloud on rubber. • The good surface quality can be obtained under rubber dynamic loading. - Abstract: Laser shock microforming of thin metal sheets is a new high velocity forming technique, which employs laser shock wave to deform the thin metal sheets. The spatial distribution of forming pressure is mainly dependent on the laser beam. A new type of laser shock loading method is introduced which gives a uniform pressure distribution. A low density rubber is inserted between the laser beam and the thin metal sheets. The mechanism of rubber-induced smoothing effect on confined laser shock wave is proposed. Plasticine is used to perform the smoothing effect experiments due to its excellent material flow ability. The influence of rubber on the uniformity of laser shock wave pressure is studied by measuring the surface micro topography of the deformed plasticine. And the four holes forming experiment is used to verify the rubber-induced uniform pressure on thin metal sheets surface. The research results show the possibility of smoothing laser shock wave pressure using rubber. And the good surface quality can be obtained under rubber dynamic loading
Quantification of wave reflection in the human aorta from pressure alone: a proof of principle.
Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Westerhof, Nico; Karemaker, John M; Avolio, Alberto
2006-10-01
Wave reflections affect the proximal aortic pressure and flow waves and play a role in systolic hypertension. A measure of wave reflection, receiving much attention, is the augmentation index (AI), the ratio of the secondary rise in pressure and pulse pressure. AI can be limiting, because it depends not only on the magnitude of wave reflection but also on wave shapes and timing of incident and reflected waves. More accurate measures are obtainable after separation of pressure in its forward (P(f)) and reflected (P(b)) components. However, this calculation requires measurement of aortic flow. We explore the possibility of replacing the unknown flow by a triangular wave, with duration equal to ejection time, and peak flow at the inflection point of pressure (F(tIP)) and, for a second analysis, at 30% of ejection time (F(t30)). Wave form analysis gave forward and backward pressure waves. Reflection magnitude (RM) and reflection index (RI) were defined as RM=P(b)/P(f) and RI=P(b)/(P(f)+P(b)), respectively. Healthy subjects, including interventions such as exercise and Valsalva maneuvers, and patients with ischemic heart disease and failure were analyzed. RMs and RIs using F(tIP) and F(t30) were compared with those using measured flow (F(m)). Pressure and flow were recorded with high fidelity pressure and velocity sensors. Relations are: RM(tIP)=0.82RM(mf)+0.06 (R(2)=0.79; n=24), RM(t30)=0.79RM(mf)+0.08 (R(2)=0.85; n=29) and RI(tIP)=0.89RI(mf)+0.02 (R(2)=0.81; n=24), RI(t30)=0.83RI(mf)+0.05 (R(2)=0.88; n=29). We suggest that wave reflection can be derived from uncalibrated aortic pressure alone, even when no clear inflection point is distinguishable and AI cannot be obtained. Epidemiological studies should establish its clinical value. PMID:16940207
Low-pressure sustainment of surface-wave microwave plasma with modified microwave coupler
Sasai, Kensuke; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka
2016-01-01
Sustainment of long-scale surface-wave plasma (SWP) at pressures below 1 Pa is investigated for the application of the SWP as an assisting plasma source for roll-to-roll sputter deposition. A modified microwave coupler (MMC) for easier surface-wave propagation is proposed, on the basis of the concept of the power direction alignment of the slot antenna and surface-wave propagation. The superiority of the MMC-SWP over conventional SWPs is shown at a sustainment pressure as low as 0.6 Pa and an electron density as high as 3 × 1017 m-3. A polymer film is treated with the MMC-SWP at a low pressure of 0.6 Pa, and surface modification at a low pressure is proved using Ar plasma. These results show the availability of the MMC-SWP as the surface treatment plasma source that is compatible with sputter deposition in the same processing chamber.
Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jędrusyna, A.; Wach, J.
Helium inventory in high energy accelerators, tokamaks and free electron lasers may exceed tens of tons. The gaseous helium is stored in steel tanks under a pressure of about 20 bar and at environment temperature. Accidental rupture of any of the tanks filled with the gaseous helium will create a rapid energy release in form of physical blast. An estimation of pressure wave distribution following the tank rupture and potential consequences to the adjacent research infrastructure and buildings is a very important task, critical in the safety aspect of the whole cryogenic system. According to the present regulations the TNT equivalent approach is to be applied to evaluate the pressure wave following a potential gas storage tank rupture. A special test stand was designed and built in order to verify experimentally the blast effects in controlled conditions. In order to obtain such a shock wave a pressurized plastic tank was used. The tank was ruptured and the resulting pressure wave was recorded using a spatially-distributed array of pressure sensors connected to a high-speed data acquisition device. The results of the experiments and the comparison with theoretical values obtained from thermodynamic model of the blast are presented. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained. Recommendations regarding the applicability of thermodynamic model of physical blast versus TNT approach, to estimate consequences of gas storage tank rupture are formulated. The laboratory scale experimental results have been scaled to ITER pressurized helium storage tanks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Increased hepatic venous pressure can be observed in patients with advanced liver disease and congestive heart failure. This elevated portal pressure also leads to variation in acoustic radiation-force-derived shear wave-based liver stiffness estimates. These changes in stiffness metrics with hepatic interstitial pressure may confound stiffness-based predictions of liver fibrosis stage. The underlying mechanism for this observed stiffening behavior with pressurization is not well understood and is not explained with commonly used linear elastic mechanical models. An experiment was designed to determine whether the stiffness increase exhibited with hepatic pressurization results from a strain-dependent hyperelastic behavior. Six excised canine livers were subjected to variations in interstitial pressure through cannulation of the portal vein and closure of the hepatic artery and hepatic vein under constrained conditions (in which the liver was not free to expand) and unconstrained conditions. Radiation-force-derived shear wave speed estimates were obtained and correlated with pressure. Estimates of hepatic shear stiffness increased with changes in interstitial pressure over a physiologically relevant range of pressures (0–35 mmHg) from 1.5 to 3.5 m s−1. These increases were observed only under conditions in which the liver was free to expand while pressurized. This behavior is consistent with hyperelastic nonlinear material models that could be used in the future to explore methods for estimating hepatic interstitial pressure noninvasively. (paper)
Influence of dielectric barrier discharges on low Mach number shock waves at low to medium pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For shock wave propagation in nonequilibrium plasmas, it has been shown that when the electron Debye length exceeds the shock wave discontinuity dimension, strong double layers are generated, propagating with the shock wave. Strong double layer formation leads to the enhancement of the local excitation, ionization, and local neutral gas heating which increases the shock wave velocity. It is shown that dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in pure N2 also increase the shock wave velocity and broaden the shock wave. The DBD is considerably more energy efficient in producing these effects compared to a dc glow discharge and can operate over a wide pressure range. It is shown that these effects are also operative in the pure N2 discharge afterglow, allowing a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies
A new method to record subglottal pressure waves : potential applications
Neumann, K; Gall, [No Value; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG
2003-01-01
Rapid subglottal pressure changes related to the glottal cycles influence the aerodynamics of phonation. Various methods to measure these have been developed, but are not practical for routine phoniatric use. For that reason, a noninvasive measurement tool is necessary. This article presents a techn
Analytical evaluation of special numerical calculations of pressure waves in the fluid. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The practise of applying control calculations to the results of extensive numerical calculations in the field of scientific engineering is indispensable, especially with regard to safety assessments. Analytical methods are often best suited for this purpose. Furthermore, they allow developing a sound understanding of the physical processes involved. This also applies to several methods for determining the pressure behavior inside a fluid. In the present report, the results of calculations are checked by the method of the so-called one-dimensional wave propagation. It is presumed that the propagation of the pressure wave in a fluid-filled system can be closely approximated by a function which, in addition to time and other parameters depends only on the coordinate of the direction of wave propagation. Satisfactory approximations are obtained wherever the averaging of certain parameters in the direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation is sufficient with regard to the mathematical evaluation of essential effects. The examples presented in this report start with approximative descriptions of non-linear effects in pressure waves. Starting from a certain location and point in time, the pressure waves have a linear characteristic. This is because pressure pulses introduced into the fluid are usually dampened to a considerable extent. Going backward in time, perturbation calculations can then be carried out. Certain aspects of the resulting approximation are well suited to check the results of extensive numerical calculations. The comparisons presented show good to reasonable results. (orig./GL)
Lin, Yuanhua; Kong, Xiangwei; Qiu, Yijie; Yuan, Qiji
2013-01-01
Investigation of propagation characteristics of a pressure wave is of great significance to the solution of the transient pressure problem caused by unsteady operations during management pressure drilling operations. With consideration of the important factors such as virtual mass force, drag force, angular frequency, gas influx rate, pressure, temperature, and well depth, a united wave velocity model has been proposed based on pressure gradient equations in drilling operations, gas-liquid tw...
Operating process optimization in a ballistic plasmatron with multistage heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study on operating modes of ballistic plasmatrons is carried out. Optimization parameters and operating modes of these devices made it possible to increase by 10-20 times their efficiency. The energy characteristics achieved as well as self-regulation and high coefficient of the pushing gas energy conversion into the plasma emission energy in the optical and ultraviolet wave ranges (up to 30% in real experimental devices) enable the extension of the application area of the sources of the optical and ultraviolet radiation on the basis of ballistic plasmatrons
Quantum Interference and Ballistic Transmission in Nanotube Electron Waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electron transport properties of well-contacted individual single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated in the ballistic regime. Phase coherent transport and electron interference manifest as conductance fluctuations as a function of Fermi energy. Resonance with standing waves in finite-length tubes and localized states due to imperfections are observed for various Fermi energies. Two units of quantum conductance 2G0=4e2/h are measured for the first time, corresponding to the maximum conductance limit for ballistic transport in two channels of a nanotube
A computational study of pressure wave reflections in the pulmonary arteries.
Qureshi, M Umar; Hill, N A
2015-12-01
Experiments using wave intensity analysis suggest that the pulmonary circulation in sheep and dogs is characterized by negative or open-end type wave reflections, that reduce the systolic pressure. Since the pulmonary physiology is similar in most mammals, including humans, we test and verify this hypothesis by using a subject specific one-dimensional model of the human pulmonary circulation and a conventional wave intensity analysis. Using the simulated pressure and velocity, we also analyse the performance of the P-U loop and sum of squares techniques for estimating the local pulse wave velocity in the pulmonary arteries, and then analyse the effects of these methods on linear wave separation in the main pulmonary artery. P-U loops are found to provide much better estimates than the sum of squares technique at proximal locations, but both techniques accumulate progressive error at distal locations away from heart, particularly near junctions. The pulse wave velocity estimated using the sum of squares method also gives rise to an artificial early systolic backward compression wave. Finally, we study the influence of three types of pulmonary hypertension viz. pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with hypoxic lung disease. Simulating these conditions by changing the relevant parameters in the model and then applying the wave intensity analysis, we observe that for each group the early systolic backward decompression wave reflected from proximal junctions is maintained, whilst the initial forward compression and the late systolic backward compression waves amplify with increasing pathology and contribute significantly to increases in systolic pressure. PMID:25754476
Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A
1993-01-01
This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity. PMID:7923495
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE; Hongsen(谢鸿森); ZHOU; Wenge; 周文戈); LIU; Yonggang; (刘永刚); GUO; Jie; (郭捷); HOU; Wei; (侯渭); ZHAO; Zhidan(赵志丹)
2002-01-01
To measure elastic wave velocities in rocks at high temperature and high pressure is an important way to acquire the mechanics and thermodynamics data of rocks in the earth's interior and also a substantial approach to studying the structure and composition of materials there. In recent years, a rapid progress has been made in methodology pertaining to the measurements of elastic wave velocities in rocks at high temperature and high pressure with solids as the pressure-transfer media. However, no strict comparisons have been made of the elastic wave velocity data of rocks measured at high temperature and high pressure by various laboratories. In order to compare the experimental results from various laboratories, we have conducted a comparative experimental study on three measuring methods and made a strict comparison with the results obtained by using the transmission method with fluid as the pressure-transfer medium. Our experimental results have shown that the measurements obtained by the three methods are comparable in the pressure ranges of their application. The cubic sample pulse transmission method used by Kern is applicable to measuring elastic wave velocities in crustal rocks at lower temperature and lower pressure. The prism sample pulse reflection-transmission method has some advantages in pressure range, heating temperature and measuring precision. Although the measurements obtained under relatively low pressure conditions by the prism sample pulse transmission method are relatively low in precision, the samples are large in length and their assemblage is simple. So this method is suitable to the experiments that require large quantities of samples and higher pressures. Therefore, in practical application the latter two methods are usually recommended because their measurements can be mutually corrected and supplemented.
Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård
is a function of phase. Therefore the particle will settle towards the end of each half period, and after flow reversal, when the turbulent intensity becomes large enough it can be suspended. If the particle is light enough it can be maintained in suspension, otherwise it will settle before it is....... This is in contrast to velocity fluctuations that are diffusive, so they can also contain residual turbulence from the previous half cycle until they are dissipated. Furthermore, the magnitude of the mean value of conditionally averaged vertical pressure gradient (for −∂p∗/∂x∗ 2 > 0) is compared to the...... submerged weight of sediment. This revels that the upward directed vertical pressure gradient on average has a magnitude that yields in a contribution to the force needed to overcome the submerged weight of the water-sediment mixture. Secondly particle motion in the oscillatory boundary layer is...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle
2008-01-01
Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves....
Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave gap in rare-earth tritellurides.
Sacchetti, A; Arcangeletti, E; Perucchi, A; Baldassarre, L; Postorino, P; Lupi, S; Ru, N; Fisher, I R; Degiorgi, L
2007-01-12
We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe3, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the midinfrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice compression removes the perfect nesting condition of the Fermi surface and therefore diminishes the impact of the CDW transition on the electronic properties of RTe3. PMID:17358625
Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sacchetti, A.; /Zurich, ETH; Arcangeletti, E.; Perucchi, A.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; /Rome U.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH
2009-12-14
We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe{sub 3}, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice compression removes the perfect nesting condition of the Fermi surface and therefore diminishes the impact of the CDW transition on the electronic properties of RTe{sub 3}.
Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave gap in rare-earth tri-tellurides
A. Sacchetti; Arcangeletti, E.; Perucchi, A.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I. R.; Degiorgi, L.
2006-01-01
We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe$_3$, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice com...
Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.
Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C
2015-05-01
The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. PMID:25676500
Smith, N; P Zhong
2012-01-01
To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+...
Molecular modeling of high-pressure ramp waves in tantalum
Lane, J. Matthew D.; Lim, Hojun; Brown, Justin L.
2015-03-01
Ramp wave compression experiments of bcc metals under extreme conditions have produced differing measurements of material strength response. These variations are often attributed to differing experimental techniques, and varying material factors such as microstructure, and strain-rate. We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of tantalum for single crystal and two polycrystalline nanostructures out to 250 GPa, over strain states ranging from 108 to 1011 1/s. Results will be compared to recent Z-machine strength experiments, meso-scale crystal plasticity models and continuum-scale polycrystalline model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Wave pattern in the wake of an arbitrary moving surface pressure disturbance
Miao, Sha; Liu, Yuming
2015-12-01
We study the problem of wave pattern in the wake of an arbitrary surface pressure disturbance that moves forward at constant speed U in deep water. We seek the dependence of the location of the maximum amplitude of waves upon the pressure distribution and the Froude number F ≡ U / √{ g L } , where L is the characteristic length of the pressure disturbance and g is the gravitational acceleration. We show by theoretical analysis and direct numerical evaluation that half of the included angle (ϕmax) of the V-shape corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the waves in the wake at large Froude numbers behaves asymptotically as ϕ max = C F - a for F > F c , with the constant a, coefficient C, and threshold value of Froude number F c all being functions of the pressure distribution. It is found that for most pressure disturbances, a equals 1, but a can equal 2 for special non-smooth pressure disturbances. The condition in terms of the order of discontinuity and distribution shape of the pressure disturbance for the result of a = 2 is provided. These findings imply that for ship wakes, ϕmax generally decreases with increasing F at large Froude numbers, while the exact value of ϕmax is dependent on ship geometry and F .
Influence of ambient air pressure on the energy conversion of laser-breakdown induced blast waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Influence of ambient pressure on energy conversion efficiency from a Nd : glass laser pulse (λ = 1.053 µm) to a laser-induced blast wave was investigated at reduced pressure. Temporal incident and transmission power histories were measured using sets of energy meters and photodetectors. A half-shadowgraph half-self-emission method was applied to visualize laser absorption waves. Results show that the blast energy conversion efficiency ηbw decreased monotonically with the decrease in ambient pressure. The decrease was small, from 40% to 38%, for the pressure change from 101 kPa to 50 kPa, but the decrease was considerable, to 24%, when the pressure was reduced to 30 kPa. Compared with a TEA-CO2-laser-induced blast wave (λ = 10.6 µm), higher fraction absorption in the laser supported detonation regime ηLSD of 90% was observed, which is influenced slightly by the reduction of ambient pressure. The conversion fraction ηbw/ηLSD≈90% was achieved at pressure >50 kPa, which is significantly higher than that in a CO2 laser case. (paper)
Ballistic studies on layered structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the ballistic behavior and penetration mechanism of metal-metal and metal-fabric layered structures against 7.62 armour piercing projectiles at a velocity of 840 ± 15 m/s at 30o angle of impact and compares the ballistic results with that of homogeneous metallic steel armour. This study also describes the effect of keeping a gap between the target layers. Experimental results showed that among the investigated materials, the best ballistic performance was attained with metal-fabric layered structures. The improvements in ballistic performance were analyzed in terms of mode of failure and fracture mechanisms of the samples by using optical and electron microscope, X-ray radiography and hardness measurement equipments.
Internal Ballistics of Recoilless Guns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asim Ray
1967-01-01
Full Text Available A new method for calculating the ballistics of recoilless guns during the period of burning of the propellant has been obtained. Ballistics have also been calculated by exact numerical integration in a few cases and these results have been compared with those obtained by the method described in this paper. It has been found that the results obtained by these two methods agree satisfactorily.
Decoherence in ballistic mesoscopic interferometers
Seelig, Georg; Pilgram, Sebastian; Buttiker, Markus
2003-01-01
We provide a theoretical explanation for two recent experiments on decoherence of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in two- and multi-terminal ballistic rings. We consider decoherence due to charge fluctuations and emphasize the role of charge exchange between the system and the reservoir or nearby gates. A time-dependent scattering matrix approach is shown to be a convenient tool for the discussion of decoherence in ballistic conductors.
The Oblique Incident Effects of Electromagnetic Wave in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Yong; JIANG Zhonghe; HU Xiwei; LIU Minghai
2008-01-01
The propagating behaviours, i.e. phase shift, transmissivity, reflectivity and absorptivity, of an electromagnetic (EM) wave in a two-dimensional atmospheric pressure plasma layer are described by the numerical solutions of integral-differential Maxwell's equations through a generalized finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. These propagating behaviours are found to be strongly affected by five factors: two EM wave characteristics relevan.t to the oblique incident and three dimensionless factors. The two EM wave factors are the polarization mode (TM mode or TE mode) and its incident angle. The three dimensionless factors are: the ratio of the maximum electron density to the critical density n0/ncr, the ratio of the plasma layer width to the wave length d/λ, and the ratio of the collision frequency between electrons and neutrals to the incident wave frequency ve0/f.
Modeling and simulation of pressure waves generated by nano-thermite reactions
Martirosyan, Karen S.; Zyskin, Maxim; Jenkins, Charles M.; (Yuki) Horie, Yasuyuki
2012-11-01
This paper reports the modeling of pressure waves from the explosive reaction of nano-thermites consisting of mixtures of nanosized aluminum and oxidizer granules. Such nanostructured thermites have higher energy density (up to 26 kJ/cm3) and can generate a transient pressure pulse four times larger than that from trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on volume equivalence. A plausible explanation for the high pressure generation is that the reaction times are much shorter than the time for a shock wave to propagate away from the reagents region so that all the reaction energy is dumped into the gaseous products almost instantaneously and thereby a strong shock wave is generated. The goal of the modeling is to characterize the gas dynamic behavior for thermite reactions in a cylindrical reaction chamber and to model the experimentally measured pressure histories. To simplify the details of the initial stage of the explosive reaction, it is assumed that the reaction generates a one dimensional shock wave into an air-filled cylinder and propagates down the tube in a self-similar mode. Experimental data for Al/Bi2O3 mixtures were used to validate the model with attention focused on the ratio of specific heats and the drag coefficient. Model predictions are in good agreement with the measured pressure histories.
Acoustic Pressure Waves in Vibrating 3-D Laminated Beam-Plate Enclosures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles A. Osheku
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of structural vibration on the propagation of acoustic pressure waves through a cantilevered 3-D laminated beam-plate enclosure is investigated analytically. For this problem, a set of well-posed partial differential equations governing the vibroacoustic wave interaction phenomenon are formulated and matched for the various vibrating boundary surfaces. By employing integral transforms, a closed form analytical expression is computed suitable for vibroacoustic modeling, design analysis, and general aerospace defensive applications. The closed-form expression takes the form of a kernel of polynomials for acoustic pressure waves showing the influence of linear interface pressure variation across the axes of vibrating boundary surfaces. Simulated results demonstrate how the mode shapes and the associated natural frequencies can be easily computed. It is shown in this paper that acoustic pressure waves propagation are dynamically stable through laminated enclosures with progressive decrement in interfacial pressure distribution under the influence of high excitation frequencies irrespective of whether the induced flow is subsonic, sonic , supersonic, or hypersonic. Hence, in practice, dynamic stability of hypersonic aircrafts or jet airplanes can be further enhanced by replacing their noise transmission systems with laminated enclosures.
Experimental Study on Peak Pressure of Shock Waves in Quasi-Shallow Water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenxiong Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the similarity laws of the explosion, this research develops similarity requirements of the small-scale experiments of underwater explosions and establishes a regression model for peak pressure of underwater shock waves under experimental condition. Small-scale experiments are carried out with two types of media at the bottom of the water and for different water depths. The peak pressure of underwater shock waves at different measuring points is acquired. A formula consistent with the similarity law of explosions is obtained and an analysis of the regression precision of the formula confirms its accuracy. Significance experiment indicates that the influence of distance between measuring points and charge on peak pressure of underwater shock wave is the greatest and that of water depth is the least within the range of geometric parameters. An analysis of data from experiments with different media at the bottom of the water reveals an influence on the peak pressure, as the peak pressure of a shock wave in a body of water with a bottom soft mud and rocks is about 1.33 times that of the case where the bottom material is only soft mud.
Zimei, Su; Wei, Xu; Hui, Yu; Fei, Du; Jicun, Wang; Kexin, Xu
2009-08-01
In this study the pulse wave characteristics were used as a new approach to measure the human blood pressure. Based the principle of pulse wave and theory of the elastic vascular, the authors analyzed the characteristic of the pulse waveforms and revealed the characteristics points which could be used to represent the blood pressure. In this investigation the relevant mathematical feature was used to identify the relationship between the blood pressure and pulse wave parameters in a more accurate way. It also provided an experimental basis to carry out continuing non-invasive blood pressure monitoring using the pulse wave method.
Pressure and wall heat transfer behind a hydrogen/azide detonation wave in narrow tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reported study is concerned with the pressure evolution behind the detonation wave in tubes with an interior diameter in the range from 1 to 10 mm. Hydrogen azide in tubes with length-to-diameter ratios greater than 375 was detonated. The initial pressures were in the range from 1 to 20 Torr. The pressure behind the leading shock was measured with piezoelectrical transducers made of lead titanate and lead zirconate. It was found that the detonation velocity depends on wall heat losses. The wall heat flux observed behind the wave front was not in agreement with that calculated for constant flow parameters. In the diameter and pressure range considered, the wall heat flux varies strongly with tube diameter. This observation can be related to flow deviations regarding the Chapman-Jouguet parameters
Non-invasive measurement of local pulse pressure by pulse wave-based ultrasound manometry (PWUM)
Vappou, J.; Luo, J; Okajima, K.; Di Tullio, M; Konofagou, E E
2011-01-01
The central Blood Pressure (CBP) has been established as a relevant indicator of cardiovascular disease. Despite its significance, CBP remains particularly challenging to measure in standard clinical practice. The objective of this study is to introduce Pulse Wave-based Ultrasound Manometry (PWUM) as a simple-touse, non-invasive ultrasound-based method for quantitative measurement of the central pulse pressure. Arterial wall displacements are estimated using radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound sig...
Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.
2004-01-01
The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration
Internal Ballistics of High Velocity Special Purpose Guns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. K. Gupta
1976-07-01
Full Text Available More and more conventional guns are being utilized as special purpose guns to achieve very high velocity by using unconventionally high C/W ratios. The existing methods of internal ballistics give satisfactory results only for low (less than one C/W ratios. In the present paper the basic internal ballistic equations have been modified to cater for non-linear rate of burning, cubical form function and a realistic pressure gradient between breech face and the projectile base. The equations have been numerically solved. The results for low and high C/W ratios have been compared with those obtained by using conventional methods.
Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panagiotis K. Stefanopoulos
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles. Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues. Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets. Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.
Experimental study on pressure wave propagation through the open end of pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The steam generators of a double pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are used in a large sodium pool which is formed between the primary vessel and the secondary vessel and accommodates the entire secondary heat transport system. Therefore, if there is a sodium-water reaction event in the steam generator, it becomes important to evaluate the pressure rises at the walls of the primary and secondary vessels as well as those at the other secondary components. An experimental study was performed, focusing on the propagation of the initial pressure spike of the-sodium-water reaction from the bottom end of the steam generator to the sodium pool. Pressure wave propagation from inside of a pipe to an open space through the pipe end was measured. Two kinds of pressure propagation media, water and air, ensured a wide range of experimental conditions. The experimental results revealed that the pressure attenuation at the open end of a pipe can be put in order using the concept of inertial length, and that the dimensionless inertial length, i.e., the inertial length divided by the half wave length of the pressure pulse, is proportional to the square of the dimensionless diameter. These results provide a prediction method for a pressure rise by the initial pressure spike in the secondary sodium pool of the Double Pool LMFBR
Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations
Allshouse, Michael R; Morrison, Philip J; Swinney, Harry L
2016-01-01
Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field $\\mathbf{J} = p \\mathbf{u}$, which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, $p$ and $\\mathbf{u}$. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous $\\mathbf{J}(x,z,t)$ from density perturbations alone: a Green's function-based calculation yields $p$, and $\\mathbf{u}$ is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: the Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations, and the result for $\\mathbf{J}$ is found to agree typically to within $1\\%$ with $\\mathbf{J}$ computed directly using $p$ and $ \\mathbf{u}$ from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to densit...
Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Merico, G; Tosi, D; Acerbi, A; Della Giacoma, G
1993-01-01
We have chosen to conceive of terminal ballistics as a violent and extremely rapid confrontation between two forms of resistance before the final state of rest is reached. This definition, which cannot help but don the admittedly loud and outlandish garb of physics, is the most promising for the purposes of biological interpretation. The main characters on this stage are two, but only one of these really plays the lead, namely the human target, which acts out the basic roles inherent in its physical make-up; the other, the bullet, remains a background figure, frozen in its walk-on part, and ready for the next performance. This modus operandi, which is no simplification, but rather an academic necessity, enables us to focus on images which stand out more clearly as a result of an intensive macroscopic spotlight which brings out the features of the individual phenomena, broken down into a succession of close-ups, and subtracts them from the cold physical nature of this or that form of inert matter, which here is merely an occasional, disagreeable witness, or even more, a standing from time to time for but one of the infinite facets of the biological composite being. Here, then, faced with a kind of exploded macrophotograph of a complex kaleidoscope, we see the animal universe, of which we capture so far the plasticity, the subdivisibility, the anisotropy and the cavitation. PMID:7923493
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A MW-class mercury target for the spallation neutron source is subjected to the pressure waves and cavitation erosion induced by high-intense pulsed-proton beam bombardment. Helium-gas microbubbles injection into mercury is one of the effective techniques to suppress the pressure waves. The microbubble injection technique was developed. The selection test of bubble generators indicated that the bubble generator utilizing swirl flow of liquid (swirl-type bubble-generator) will be suitable from the viewpoint of the produced bubble size. However, when single swirl-type bubble-generator was used in flowing mercury, swirl flow of mercury remains at downstream of the generator. The remaining swirl flow causes the coalescence of bubbles which results in ineffective suppression of pressure waves. To solve this concern, a multi-swirl type bubble-generator, which consists of several single swirl-type bubble-generators arraying in the plane perpendicular to mercury flow direction, was invented. The multi-swirl type bubble-generator was tested in mercury and the geometry was optimized to generate small bubble with low flow resistance based on the test results. It is estimated to generate the microbubbles of 65 μm in radius under the operational condition of the Japanese Spallation Neutron Source mercury target, which is the sufficient size to suppress the pressure waves. (author)
George, Atanasiu; Chiru, Anghel
2014-06-01
This paper aims on comparison between a turbocharged engine and a pressure wave charged engine. The comparison was accomplished using the engine simulation software AVL Boost, version 2010. The grahps were extracted using AVL Impress, version 2010. The performance increase is limited by the mechanical side of the simulated engine.
3D problem of pressure wave propagation in the tube with inconstant
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pochylý, F.; Habán, V.; Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor
Vienna: Viena University of Technology , 2007, s. 1-4. ISBN N. [International Congress on Ultrasonics. Vienna (AT), 09.04.2007-12.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1451 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : pressure pulsations * wave equation * second viscosity Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools
Relations between diabetes, blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity in haemodialysis patients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Dzeko, Mirela;
Diabetes (DM) is common in haemodialysis (HD) patients and affects both blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects the stiffness of the aorta and is regarded as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality in HD patients. However, PWV is...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)
Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew
2010-01-01
The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. PMID:19940350
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping'en Li; Youquan Yin; Xianyue Su
2006-01-01
Based on the nonlinear theory of acoustoelasticity,considering the triaxial terrestrial stress,the fluid static pressure in the borehole and the fluid nonlinear effect jointly,the dispersion curves of the monopole Stoneley wave and dipole flexural wave propagating along the borehole axis in a homogeneous isotropic formation are investigated by using the perturbation method.The relation of the sensitivity coefficient and the velocity-stress coefficient to frequency are also analyzed.The results show that variations of the phase velocity dispersion curve are mainly affected by three sensitivity coefficients related to third-order elastic constant.The borehole stress concentration causes a split of the flexural waves and an intersection of the dispersion curves of the flexural waves polarized in directions parallel and normal to the uniaxial horizontal stress direction.The stress-induced formation anisotropy is only dependent on the horizontal deviatoric terrestrial stress and independent of the horizontal mean terrestrial stress,the superimposed stress and the fluid static pressure.The horizontal terrestrial stress ratio ranging from 0 to 1 reduces the stress-induced formation anisotropy.This makes the intersection of flexural wave dispersion curves not distinguishable.The effect of the fluid nonlinearity on the dispersion curve of the mode wave is small and can be ignored.
Modeling wave-induced pore pressure and effective stress in a granular seabed
Scholtès, Luc; Chareyre, Bruno; Michallet, Hervé; Catalano, Emanuele; Marzougui, Donia
2015-01-01
The response of a sandy seabed under wave loading is investigated on the basis of numerical modeling using a multi-scale approach. To that aim, the discrete element method is coupled to a finite volume method specially enhanced to describe compressible fluid flow. Both solid and fluid phase mechanics are upscaled from considerations established at the pore level. Model's predictions are validated against poroelasticity theory and discussed in comparison with experiments where a sediment analog is subjected to wave action in a flume. Special emphasis is put on the mechanisms leading the seabed to liquefy under wave-induced pressure variation on its surface. Liquefaction is observed in both dilative and compactive regimes. It is shown that the instability can be triggered for a well-identified range of hydraulic conditions. Particularly, the results confirm that the gas content, together with the permeability of the medium are key parameters affecting the transmission of pressure inside the soil.
Effect of the dynamic pressure on the shock wave structure in a rarefied polyatomic gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taniguchi, Shigeru, E-mail: taniguchi@stat.nitech.ac.jp; Sugiyama, Masaru, E-mail: sugiyama@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Arima, Takashi, E-mail: tks@stat.nitech.ac.jp [Center for Social Contribution and Collaboration, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.ruggeri@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)
2014-01-15
We study the shock wave structure in a rarefied polyatomic gas based on a simplified model of extended thermodynamics in which the dissipation is due only to the dynamic pressure. In this case the differential system is very simple because it is a variant of Euler system with a new scalar equation for the dynamic pressure [T. Arima, S. Taniguchi, T. Ruggeri, and M. Sugiyama, Phys. Lett. A 376, 2799–2803 (2012)]. It is shown that this theory is able to describe the three types of the shock wave structure observed in experiments: the nearly symmetric shock wave structure (Type A, small Mach number), the asymmetric structure (Type B, moderate Mach number), and the structure composed of thin and thick layers (Type C, large Mach number)
Effects of Shelves on Amplification of Long Waves Generated by Atmospheric Pressure Differences
Duha Metin, Ayse; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozyurt Tarakcıoglu, Gulizar; Zaytsev, Andrey
2016-04-01
Meteotsunami is a type of long period ocean wave generated by different types of meteorological disturbances such as atmospheric gravity waves, spatial and temporal pressure distributions and squall lines. The main idea behind the occurrence of this type of long wave is that low atmospheric pressure leads to static water level rise in a part of the marine area and high atmospheric pressure leads to static water level drop in another zone. Then, it causes deformation of the water level throughout the entire sea area. The relation between the pressure difference and change of water level from normal position (η =0.99Δ P where η is the water level change (cm) according to the pressure difference from normal pressure Δ P) can be used to determine the sea level deformation. The relation represents that 1 hPa decrease in air pressure causes 1 cm rise in mean sea level. Due to the spatial and temporal changes of atmospheric pressure, the respective small amplitude long waves propagate along the entire marine area. This type of tsunami-like waves can propagate through long distances and can also be amplified due to resonant effects in the enclosed basins, offshore shelves, and nearshore/offshore coastal morphology. Therefore, it can result in considerable amplifications and causes unexpected effects in some coastal regions. This study is mainly focused on understanding of amplification of long waves generated by atmospheric pressure differences when they encounter the offshore shelves while it is propagating towards to the shore. The problem is investigated by numerically solving nonlinear shallow water equations by using regular shaped basins with different depth and shelf characteristics. In all cases, the rectangular shape large basin is triggered by spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric pressure. The water depth and shelf formation is changed for different cases. Initially, a deep flat bottom basin is used in simulations and the reference data of water
Ballistic propagation of turbulence front in tokamak edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The flux-driven nonlinear simulation of resistive ballooning mode turbulence with tokamak edge geometry is performed to study the non-steady component in the edge turbulence. The large-scale and dynamical events in transport are investigated in a situation where the mean flow is suppressed. Two types of dynamics are observed. One is the radial propagation of the pulse of pressure gradient, the other is the appearance/disappearance of radially elongated global structure of turbulent heat flux. The ballistic propagation is observed in the pulse of pressure gradient, which is associated with the front of turbulent heat flux. We focus on this ballistic propagation phenomenon. Both of the bump of pressure gradient and the front of heat flux propagate inward and outward direction. It is confirmed that the strong fluctuation propagates with the pulse front. It is observed that the number of pulses going outward is close to those going inward. This ballistic phenomenon does not contradict to the turbulence spreading theory. Statistical characteristics of the ballistic propagation of pulses are evaluated and compared with scaling laws which is given by the turbulence spreading theory. It is found that they give qualitatively good agreement. (paper)
Continuous blood pressure monitoring during exercise using pulse wave transit time measurement.
Lass, J; Meigas, K; Karai, D; Kattai, R; Kaik, J; Rossmann, M
2004-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research, which is focused on the development of the convenient device for continuous non-invasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure. The blood pressure estimation method is based on a presumption that there is a singular relationship between the pulse wave propagation time in arterial system and blood pressure. The parameter used in this study is pulse wave transit time (PWTT). The measurement of PWTT involves the registration of two time markers, one of which is based on ECG R peak detection and another on the detection of pulse wave in peripheral arteries. The reliability of beat to beat systolic blood pressure calculation during physical exercise was the main focus for the current paper. Sixty-one subjects (healthy and hypertensive) were studied with the bicycle exercise test. As a result of current study it is shown that with the correct personal calibration it is possible to estimate the beat to beat systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise with comparable accuracy to conventional noninvasive methods. PMID:17272172
Setiawan, Ikhsan; Achmadin, Wahyu N.; Murti, Prastowo; Nohtomi, Makoto
2016-04-01
Thermoacoustic prime mover is an energy conversion device which converts thermal energy into acoustic work (sound wave). The advantages of this machine are that it can work with air as the working gas and does not produce any exhaust gases, so that it is environmentally friendly. This paper describes an experimental study on a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with air as the working gas at various pressures from 0.05 MPa to 0.6 MPa. We found that 0.2 MPa is the optimum pressure which gives the lowest onset temperature difference of 355 °C. This pressure value would be more preferable in harnessing low grade heat sources to power the thermoacoustic prime mover. In addition, we find that the lowest onset temperature difference is obtained when rh /δ k ratio is 2.85, where r h is the hydraulic radius of the stack and δ k is the thermal penetration depth of the gas. Moreover, the pressure amplitude of the sound wave is significantly getting larger from 2.0 kPa to 9.0 kPa as the charged pressure increases from 0.05 MPa up to 0.6 MPa.
Pressure transducer used for measuring close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper introduces a variable reluctance pressure transducer. It has been successfully used for the measurement of close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. This transducer's highest pressure range is 100kg/cm2 and its response rise time for all ranges is lms. It uses a specially made oil-filled pressure which allows the transducer to be able to realize underground installation. In this way, it can endure the intense nuclear radiation of nuclear explosions without losing its fast speed response characteristics. This transducer has undergone a series of environmental tests and dynamic standardizations. Therefore, it was used to measure the complete waveform of shock wave overpressure in areas near the fire ball of nuclear explosions. This paper lists the test data of a group of nuclear explosion tests
Comparison of actinide production in traveling wave and pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The geopolitical problems associated with civilian nuclear energy production arise in part from the accumulation of transuranics in spent nuclear fuel. A traveling wave reactor is a type of breed-burn reactor that could, if feasible, reduce the overall production of transuranics. In one possible configuration, a cylinder of natural or depleted uranium would be subjected to a fast neutron flux at one end. The neutrons would transmute the uranium, producing plutonium and higher actinides. Under the right conditions, the reactor could become critical, at which point a self-stabilizing fission wave would form and propagate down the length of the reactor cylinder. The neutrons from the fission wave would burn the fissile nuclides and transmute uranium ahead of the wave to produce additional fuel. Fission waves in uranium are driven largely by the production and fission of 239Pu. Simulations have shown that the fuel burnup can reach values greater than 400 MWd/kgIHM, before fission products poison the reaction. In this work we compare the production of plutonium and minor actinides produced in a fission wave to that of a UOX fueled light water reactor, both on an energy normalized basis. The nuclide concentrations in the spent traveling wave reactor fuel are computed using a one-group diffusion model and are verified using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of the pressurized water reactor, a multi-group collision probability model is used to generate the nuclide quantities. We find that the traveling wave reactor produces about 0.187 g/MWd/kgIHM of transuranics compared to 0.413 g/MWd/kgIHM for a pressurized water reactor running fuel enriched to 4.95 % and burned to 50 MWd/kgIHM. (authors)
Comparison of actinide production in traveling wave and pressurized water reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osborne, A.G.; Smith, T.A.; Deinert, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)
2013-07-01
The geopolitical problems associated with civilian nuclear energy production arise in part from the accumulation of transuranics in spent nuclear fuel. A traveling wave reactor is a type of breed-burn reactor that could, if feasible, reduce the overall production of transuranics. In one possible configuration, a cylinder of natural or depleted uranium would be subjected to a fast neutron flux at one end. The neutrons would transmute the uranium, producing plutonium and higher actinides. Under the right conditions, the reactor could become critical, at which point a self-stabilizing fission wave would form and propagate down the length of the reactor cylinder. The neutrons from the fission wave would burn the fissile nuclides and transmute uranium ahead of the wave to produce additional fuel. Fission waves in uranium are driven largely by the production and fission of {sup 239}Pu. Simulations have shown that the fuel burnup can reach values greater than 400 MWd/kgIHM, before fission products poison the reaction. In this work we compare the production of plutonium and minor actinides produced in a fission wave to that of a UOX fueled light water reactor, both on an energy normalized basis. The nuclide concentrations in the spent traveling wave reactor fuel are computed using a one-group diffusion model and are verified using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of the pressurized water reactor, a multi-group collision probability model is used to generate the nuclide quantities. We find that the traveling wave reactor produces about 0.187 g/MWd/kgIHM of transuranics compared to 0.413 g/MWd/kgIHM for a pressurized water reactor running fuel enriched to 4.95 % and burned to 50 MWd/kgIHM. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Y. Klimushkin
Full Text Available The structure of monochromatic MHD-waves with large azimuthal wave number m≫1 in a two-dimensional model of the magnetosphere has been investigated. A joint action of the field line curvature, finite plasma pressure, and transversal equilibrium current leads to the phenomenon that waves, standing along the field lines, are travelling across the magnetic shells. The wave propagation region, the transparency region, is bounded by the poloidal magnetic surface on one side and by the resonance surface on the other. In their meaning these surfaces correspond to the usual and singular turning points in the WKB-approximation, respectively. The wave is excited near the poloidal surface and propagates toward the resonance surface where it is totally absorbed due to the ionospheric dissipation. There are two transparency regions in a finite-beta magnetosphere, one of them corresponds to the Alfvén mode and the other to the slow magnetosound mode.
Key words. Magnetosphere · Azimuthally small-scale waves · MHD waves
Li, Yan
2015-01-01
We obtain a general solution for the water waves resulting from a general, time-dependent surface pressure distribution, in the presence of a shear current of uniform vorticity beneath the surface, in three dimensions. Linearized governing equations and boundary conditions including the effects of gravity, a distributed external pressure disturbance, and constant finite depth, are solved analytically, and particular attention is paid to classic initial value problems: an initial pressure impulse and a steady pressure distribution which appears suddenly. In the present paper, good agreement with previous results is demonstrated. We subsequently show both analytically and numerically how transient waves from a suddenly appearing steady pressure distribution vanis for large times, and steady ship waves remain. The transient contribution to wave resistance was derived. The results show that a shear current has significant impact on the transient wave motions, resulting in asymmetry between upstream and downstream...
Low-frequency pressure wave propagation in liquid-filled, flexible tubes. (A)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnø, Leif; Bjelland, C.
1992-01-01
A model has been developed for propagation of low-frequency pressure waves in viscoelastic tubes with distensibility of greater importance than compressibility of the liquid. The dispersion and attenuation are shown to be strongly dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the tube wall. The com......A model has been developed for propagation of low-frequency pressure waves in viscoelastic tubes with distensibility of greater importance than compressibility of the liquid. The dispersion and attenuation are shown to be strongly dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the tube wall......) moduli determined by stress wave transfer function measurements in simple extension experiments. The moduli are used in the model to produce realistic dispersion relations and frequency dependent attenuation. Signal transfer functions between positions in the liquid-filled tube can be synthesized from...... the model and are compared with results of experimental pressure wave propagation in the liquid-filled, flexible tube. A good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions is found....
Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)
1995-09-01
In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.
The dynamics of pressure and form drag on a sloping headland: Internal waves versus eddies
Warner, Sally J.; MacCready, Parker
2014-03-01
Topographically generated eddies and internal waves have traditionally been studied separately even though bathymetry that creates both phenomena is abundant in coastal regions. Here a numerical model is used to understand the dynamics of eddy and wave generation as tidal currents flow past Three Tree Point, a 1 km long, 200 m deep, sloping headland in Puget Sound, WA. Bottom pressure anomalies due to vertical perturbations of the sea surface and isopycnals are used to calculate form drag in different regions of the topography to assess the relative importance of eddies versus internal waves. In regions where internal waves dominate, sea surface and isopycnal perturbations tend to work together to create drag, whereas in regions dominated by eddies, sea surface, and isopycnal perturbations tend to counteract each other. Both phenomena are found to produce similar amounts of form drag even though the bottom pressure anomalies from the eddy have much larger magnitudes than those created by the internal waves. Topography like Three Tree Point is common in high latitude, coastal regions, and therefore the findings here have implications for understanding how coastal topography removes energy from tidal currents.
Characterization of a Setup to test the Impact of High-Amplitude Pressure Waves on Living Cells
Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.
2014-01-01
The impact of pressure waves on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure waves generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure wave. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure wave simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction.
Pressure wave measurements from thermal cook-off of an HMX based high explosive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S
2000-10-10
A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.
Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S
2001-05-09
A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.
Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, F; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S
2001-05-31
A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.
Loads on structures inside reactor pressure vessels due to loca - decompression waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical model is described to calculate forces and moments onto core barrels, guide tubes of control rods, grid plates etc. inside the reactor pressure vessel due to decompression waves propagating with sonic velocity from the fracture during loss-of-coolant accidents in light water reactors. Simplicity of the model, short computer times and sufficient accuracy were the boundary conditions for the development. Therefore, no fluid dynamic coupling with the structure is considered. The main equations of the model are given and explained. The results of parametric studies as well as comparison to decompression wave experiments and calculations with coupling are presented. (orig.)
Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William
1995-01-01
The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the
Alfonso, M.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R.; Pessana, F.; Wray, S.; Legnani, W.
2016-04-01
The representation of blood pressure pulse as a combination of solitons captures many of the phenomena observed during its propagation along the systemic circulation. The aim of this work is to analyze the applicability of a compartmental model for propagation regarding the pressure pulse amplification associated with arterial aging. The model was applied to blood pressure waveforms that were synthesized using solitons, and then validated by waveforms obtained from individuals from differentiated age groups. Morphological changes were verified in the blood pressure waveform as a consequence of the aging process (i.e. due to the increase in arterial stiffness). These changes are the result of both a nonlinear interaction and the phenomena present in the propagation of nonlinear mechanic waves.
Central blood pressure assessment using 24-hour brachial pulse wave analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muiesan ML
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Massimo Salvetti, Fabio Bertacchini, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Giulia Maruelli, Efrem Colonetti, Anna Paini Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: This review describes the use of central blood pressure (BP measurements during ambulatory monitoring, using noninvasive devices. The principles of measuring central BP by applanation tonometry and by oscillometry are reported, and information on device validation studies is described. The pathophysiological basis for the differences between brachial and aortic pressure is discussed. The currently available methods for central aortic pressure measurement are relatively accurate, and their use has important clinical implications, such as improving diagnostic and prognostic stratification of hypertension and providing a more accurate assessment of the effect of treatment on BP. Keywords: aortic blood pressure measurements, ambulatory monitoring, pulse wave analysis
Combined ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and microtomography measurements at high pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combined ultrasonic and microtomographic measurements were conducted for simultaneous determination of elastic property and density of noncrystalline materials at high pressures. A Paris-Edinburgh anvil cell was placed in a rotation apparatus, which enabled us to take a series of x-ray radiography images under pressure over a 180 deg. angle range and construct accurately the three-dimensional sample volume using microtomography. In addition, ultrasonic elastic wave velocity measurements were carried out simultaneously using the pulse reflection method with a 10 deg. Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer attached to the end of the lower anvil. Combined ultrasonic and microtomographic measurements were carried out for SiO2 glass up to 2.6 GPa and room temperature. A decrease in elastic wave velocities of the SiO2 glass was observed with increasing pressure, in agreement with previous studies. The simultaneous measurements on elastic wave velocities and density allowed us to derive bulk (Ks) and shear (G) moduli as a function of pressure. Ks and G of the SiO2 glass also decreased with increasing pressure. The negative pressure dependence of Ks is stronger than that of G, and as a result the value of Ks became similar to G at 2.0-2.6 GPa. There is no reason why we cannot apply this new technique to high temperatures as well. Hence the results demonstrate that the combined ultrasonic and microtomography technique is a powerful tool to derive advanced (accurate) P-V-Ks-G-(T) equations of state for noncrystalline materials.
Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface
Takahira, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Naoto; Tanaka, Moe
2015-10-01
The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t0 to a characteristic time of wave propagation tS, η = t0/ts, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.
CMOS-compatible ruggedized high-temperature Lamb wave pressure sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes the development of a novel ruggedized high-temperature pressure sensor operating in lateral field exited (LFE) Lamb wave mode. The comb-like structure electrodes on top of aluminum nitride (AlN) were used to generate the wave. A membrane was fabricated on SOI wafer with a 10 µm thick device layer. The sensor chip was mounted on a pressure test package and pressure was applied to the backside of the membrane, with a range of 20–100 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was experimentally measured in the temperature range of −50 °C to 300 °C. By using the modified Butterworth–van Dyke model, coupling coefficients and quality factor were extracted. Temperature-dependent Young's modulus of composite structure was determined using resonance frequency and sensor interdigital transducer (IDT) wavelength which is mainly dominated by an AlN layer. Absolute sensor phase noise was measured at resonance to estimate the sensor pressure and temperature sensitivity. This paper demonstrates an AlN-based pressure sensor which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications. (paper)
CMOS-compatible ruggedized high-temperature Lamb wave pressure sensor
Kropelnicki, P.; Muckensturm, K.-M.; Mu, X. J.; Randles, A. B.; Cai, H.; Ang, W. C.; Tsai, J. M.; Vogt, H.
2013-08-01
This paper describes the development of a novel ruggedized high-temperature pressure sensor operating in lateral field exited (LFE) Lamb wave mode. The comb-like structure electrodes on top of aluminum nitride (AlN) were used to generate the wave. A membrane was fabricated on SOI wafer with a 10 µm thick device layer. The sensor chip was mounted on a pressure test package and pressure was applied to the backside of the membrane, with a range of 20-100 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. By using the modified Butterworth-van Dyke model, coupling coefficients and quality factor were extracted. Temperature-dependent Young's modulus of composite structure was determined using resonance frequency and sensor interdigital transducer (IDT) wavelength which is mainly dominated by an AlN layer. Absolute sensor phase noise was measured at resonance to estimate the sensor pressure and temperature sensitivity. This paper demonstrates an AlN-based pressure sensor which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications.
On the pressure wave problem in liquid metal targets for pulsed spallation neutron sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A liquid metal target for a pulsed spallation source was modelled on the computer to investigate the effect of the high instantaneous power deposition (60 KJ in 1 μs) on the pressure in the liquid and the resulting stress on the container. It was found that for the short pulse duration the resulting stress would be likely to exceed the allowable design stress for steels of the HT-9 type with low nickel content. Adding a small volume fraction of gas bubbles might be a way to suppress almost completely the generation of pressure waves. (author) 12 figs., 5 refs
A Treatise on Quantum Ballistic Motion and its Applications
Bracher, Christian
2007-01-01
The motion of a charged quantum particle in a homogeneous electric field is one of the rare examples of an analytically solvable problem in quantum mechanics in realistic three-dimensional configuration space. In the thesis, an exact expression for the propagator (energy Green function) describing this quantum ballistic motion for particles of some fixed energy emitted by a pointlike isotropic source is derived. Also, it is shown how to extend this theory to higher partial waves, thereby esta...
From ballistic to Brownian vortex motion in complex oscillatory media
Davidsen, Jörn; Erichsen, Ronaldo; Kapral, Raymond; Chaté, Hugues
2004-01-01
We show that the breaking of the rotation symmetry of spiral waves in two-dimensional complex (period-doubled or chaotic) oscillatory media by synchronization defect lines (SDL) is accompanied by an intrinsic drift of the pattern. Single vortex motion changes from ballistic flights at a well-defined angle from the SDL to Brownian-like diffusion when the turbulent character of the medium increases. It gives rise, in non-turbulent multi-spiral regimes, to a novel ``vortex liquid''.
Pressure broadening measurement of submillimeter-wave lines of O3
Yamada, M. M.; Amano, T.
2005-10-01
The pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences for two submillimeter-wave transitions of ozone, one being monitored with Odin and the other to be monitored with JEM/SMILES and EOS-MLS, have been determined by using a BWO based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The measurements have also been extended to one of the symmetric isotopic species, 16O18O16O. The isotopic species is observed in natural abundance and as a consequence the temperature dependence is not determined due to weak signal intensity. The pressure broadening parameters are determined with better than 1% accuracy, while the temperature dependence exponents are obtained within 1.5 3% accuracy for the normal species transitions.
Pressure broadening measurement of submillimeter-wave lines of O{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamada, M.M. [Institute for Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Amano, T. [Institute for Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan)]. E-mail: amano@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp
2005-10-01
The pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences for two submillimeter-wave transitions of ozone, one being monitored with Odin and the other to be monitored with JEM/SMILES and EOS-MLS, have been determined by using a BWO based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The measurements have also been extended to one of the symmetric isotopic species, {sup 16}O{sup 18}O{sup 16}O. The isotopic species is observed in natural abundance and as a consequence the temperature dependence is not determined due to weak signal intensity. The pressure broadening parameters are determined with better than 1% accuracy, while the temperature dependence exponents are obtained within 1.5-3% accuracy for the normal species transitions.
Wang, Z.; Qi, Y.; Liu, H.; Zhang, P.; He, X.; Wang, J.
2016-07-01
Super-knock is one of the major obstacles for improving power density in advanced internal combustion engines (ICE). This work studied the mechanism of super-knock initiation using a rapid compression machine that simulated conditions relevant to ICEs and provided excellent optical accessibility. Based on the high-speed images and pressure traces of the stoichiometric iso-octane/oxygen/nitrogen combustion under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions, it was observed that detonation was first initiated in the near-wall region as a result of shock wave reflection. Before detonation was initiated, the speed of the combustion wave front was less than that of the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation speed (around 1840 m/s). In the immediate vicinity of the initiation, the detonation speed was much higher than that of the C-J detonation.
Mohiuddin, Mohammad W; Rihani, Ryan J; Laine, Glen A; Quick, Christopher M
2012-07-01
The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (C(tot)) and increases in total peripheral resistance (R(tot)) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (c(ph)) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in c(ph) do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in c(ph) cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), R(tot), C(tot), and c(ph) to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, c(ph) was theoretically maintained constant, while C(tot), R(tot), and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, C(tot), R(tot), and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and c(ph) was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in c(ph) have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in C(tot). PMID:22561301
Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law
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Wei Cai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.U.R. Naidu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate and compare novel methods to determine aortic blood pressure non-invasively based on Oscillometric Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV measurement using four limb-cuff pressure waveforms and two lead Electrocardiogram (ECG with a validated tonometric pulse wave analysis system in patients. Materials and Methods: After receiving the consent, in 49 patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, PWV, and central blood pressures were recorded in a randomised manner using both the oscillometric and tonometric devices. All recordings were performed 10 minutes after the patient lying comfortably in a noise-free temperature-controlled room. The test was performed between 09 am and 10 am after overnight fast. A minimum of three measurements were performed by the same skilled and trained operator. From the raw data obtained with two devices, software calculated the final vascular parameters. Results: A total of 49 patients (8 women and 41 men, of mean age 40.5 years (range: 19-81 years participated in the present study. After transforming the brachial pressures into aortic pressures, the correlation coefficient between the Aortic Systolic Pressure (ASP values obtained with two methods was 0.9796 (P<0.0001. The mean difference between ASP with two methods was 0.3 mm Hg. Similarly, Aortic Diastolic Pressure (ADP values obtained with two methods also correlated significantly with correlation coefficient of 0.9769 (P<0.0001. The mean difference of ADP was 0.2 mm Hg. In case of Aortic Pulse Pressure (APP, the mean difference was 0.1 mm Hg. All parameters of central aortic pressures obtained with two methods correlated significantly. Conclusion: The new method of transforming the Carotid Femoral PWV (cfPWV and brachial blood pressure values into aortic blood pressure values seems to be reasonably good. The significant correlation between the values obtained by tonometric device and
Ballistics examination of air rifle
Grzegorz Bogiel
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.
Ballistics examination of air rifle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grzegorz Bogiel
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.
Drift wave excitation in the THETA-pinch high pressure plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Excitation of low-frequency (LF) drift waves has been experimentally investigated in a high-pressure plasma in a gas discharge of the direct THETA-pinch type. The electrodeless inductive gas discharge is produced in an alundum tube of 150 cm length and 6.5 cm internal diameter filled with hydrogen at the pressure of (1-20).10-3 mm Hg. The discharge magnetic field (MF) has been investigated by a system of five magnetic probes both oriented along the radius and the length of the discharge chamber. The longitudinal temperature of electrons reaches 4 keV at the 6 kV voltage on the coil. Successive development of two types of instability has been observed: HF ''starting'' and LF ones. The LF oscillations observed have been identified as drift waves in a system with large β. The amplitude of the MF oscillations for the given instability may be compared with the value of the main MF, and the transverse wave lengths for these oscillations are of the order of the plasma filament radius. The longitudinal wave lengths are comparable with the magnetic system length
Isothermal self-similar blast wave theory of supernova remnants driven by relativistic gas pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spherically symmetric, self-similar flow behind a blast wave from a point explosion in a medium whose density varies with distance as rsup(-ω) is investigated with the assumption that the flow is both isothermal and contains a relativistic component of pressure. A self-similar solution is shown to exist only if both the blast wave speed, usub(s), and the local sound speed, w, are constant. If Ω [equivalent to ω(1-w2/c2)] lies in 1 >Ω>0, there exists a critical point in the radial distance-flow velocity plane. To be physically acceptable, the solution must pass through the origin and through the critical point and then through to the blast front; solution branches between these points exist, although a proper connection at the critical point has not been demonstrated. It is concluded that isothermal self-similar blast waves do not provide a valid model for a supernova remnant driven by a relativistic gas pressure. Since the validity of the adiabatic blast wave models has elsewhere been shown to be questionable, it is doubtful whether the self-similar property can be involved at all in the case of supernova remnants. This raises serious questions of interpretation of quantities deduced for supernova remnants on the basis of the use of self-similar models. (Auth.)
Underwater blast wave pressure sensor based on polymer film fiber Fabry-Perot cavity.
Wang, Junjie; Wang, Meng; Xu, Jian; Peng, Li; Yang, Minghong; Xia, Minghe; Jiang, Desheng
2014-10-01
This paper describes the theoretical and experimental aspects of an optical underwater shock wave sensor based on a polymer film optical fiber Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured by vacuum deposition technology. The transduction mechanism of the sensor involves a normally incident acoustic stress wave that changes the thickness of the polymer film, thereby giving rise to a phase shift. This transient interferometric phase is interrogated by a three-phase-step algorithm. Theoretically, the sensor-acoustic-field interaction principle is analyzed, and the phase modulation sensitivity based on the theory of waves in the layered media is calculated. Experimentally, a static calibration test and a dynamic calibration test are conducted using a piston-type pressure calibration machine and a focusing-type electromagnetic shock wave. Results indicate that the repeatability, hysteresis, nonlinearity, and the overall measurement accuracy of the sensor within the full pressure range of 55 MPa are 1.82%, 0.86%, 1.81%, and 4.49%, respectively. The dynamic response time is less than 0.767 μs. Finally, three aspects that need further study for practical use are pointed out. PMID:25322237
Evaluation of sloshing wave crest impact pressure acting on a fixed roof cylindrical tank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes the applicability of a newly developed computer code SLOSH-3D on estimating of sloshing wave crest impact pressure acting on a fixed roof of cylindrical tank. Based on the computed results, slosh-induced pressure loads and distribution on the tank roof is presented. A large shaking table test conducted on the E-Defense shaking table by a joint study group, composed of some electric companies, has been analyzed. In the shaking table test, partially water-filled cylindrical tank (diameter: 3m, height: 3m, water depth: 2.3m or 1.9m) with a flat fixed roof was subjected to a sinusoidal excitation at the first sloshing resonant frequency. The computer code well simulated the observed waveform with a spiky rising large pressure at the time of liquid impact on the tank wall, including appearance of negative pressures in the post impact period, with sufficient accuracy. As for the liquid impact zone of the tank roof including the water splash phenomena, the numerical computations indicated good agreement with the observed results. Furthermore, the numerical computations provided the total pressure load and pressure distribution on the tank wall at an instant of time when maximum pressure peak occurs. Consequently, the computer code SLOSH-3D was capable of predicting the complex nonlinear sloshing behavior with the collision of the liquid surface against the thank roof with an acceptable level of accuracy. (author)
In situ measurements of impact-induced pressure waves in sandstone targets
Hoerth, Tobias; Schäfer, Frank; Nau, Siegfried; Kuder, Jürgen; Poelchau, Michael H.; Thoma, Klaus; Kenkmann, Thomas
2014-10-01
In the present study we introduce an innovative method for the measurement of impact-induced pressure waves within geological materials. Impact experiments on dry and water-saturated sandstone targets were conducted at a velocity of 4600 m/s using 12 mm steel projectiles to investigate amplitudes, decay behavior, and speed of the waves propagating through the target material. For this purpose a special kind of piezoresistive sensor capable of recording transient stress pulses within solid brittle materials was developed and calibrated using a Split-Hopkinson pressure bar. Experimental impact parameters (projectile size and speed) were kept constant and yielded reproducible signal curves in terms of rise time and peak amplitudes. Pressure amplitudes decreased by 3 orders of magnitude within the first 250 mm (i.e., 42 projectile radii). The attenuation for water-saturated sandstone is higher compared to dry sandstone which is attributed to dissipation effects caused by relative motion between bulk material and interstitial water. The proportion of the impact energy radiated as seismic energy (seismic efficiency) is in the order of 10-3. The present study shows the feasibility of real-time measurements of waves caused by hypervelocity impacts on geological materials. Experiments of this kind lead to a better understanding of the processes in the crater subsurface during a hypervelocity impact.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanhua Lin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Investigation of propagation characteristics of a pressure wave is of great significance to the solution of the transient pressure problem caused by unsteady operations during management pressure drilling operations. With consideration of the important factors such as virtual mass force, drag force, angular frequency, gas influx rate, pressure, temperature, and well depth, a united wave velocity model has been proposed based on pressure gradient equations in drilling operations, gas-liquid two-fluid model, the gas-drilling mud equations of state, and small perturbation theory. Solved by adopting the Runge-Kutta method, calculation results indicate that the wave velocity and void fraction have different values with respect to well depth. In the annulus, the drop of pressure causes an increase in void fraction along the flow direction. The void fraction increases first slightly and then sharply; correspondingly the wave velocity first gradually decreases and then slightly increases. In general, the wave velocity tends to increase with the increase in back pressure and the decrease of gas influx rate and angular frequency, significantly in low range. Taking the virtual mass force into account, the dispersion characteristic of the pressure wave weakens obviously, especially at the position close to the wellhead.
Non-invasive measurement of local pulse pressure by pulse wave-based ultrasound manometry (PWUM)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Central blood pressure (CBP) has been established as a relevant indicator of cardiovascular disease. Despite its significance, CBP remains particularly challenging to measure in standard clinical practice. The objective of this study is to introduce pulse wave-based ultrasound manometry (PWUM) as a simple-to-use, non-invasive ultrasound-based method for quantitative measurement of the central pulse pressure. Arterial wall displacements are estimated using radiofrequency ultrasound signals acquired at high frame rates and the pulse pressure waveform is estimated using both the distension waveform and the local pulse wave velocity. The method was tested on the abdominal aorta of 11 healthy subjects (age 35.7±16 y.o.). PWUM pulse pressure measurements were compared to those obtained by radial applanation tonometry using a commercial system. The average intra-subject variability of the pulse pressure amplitude was found to be equal to 4.2 mmHg, demonstrating good reproducibility of the method. Excellent correlation was found between the waveforms obtained by PWUM and those obtained by tonometry in all subjects (0.94 < r < 0.98). A significant bias of 4.7 mmHg was found between PWUM and tonometry. PWUM is a highly translational method that can be easily integrated in clinical ultrasound imaging systems. It provides an estimate of the pulse pressure waveform at the imaged location, and may offer therefore the possibility to estimate the pulse pressure at different arterial sites. Future developments include the validation of the method against invasive estimates on patients, as well as its application to other large arteries
Pressure Wave Measurements During Thermal Explosion of HMX-Based High Explosives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S
2002-06-27
Five different experiments on thermal heating of explosive materials have been performed. Three experiments thermally exploded PBX 9501 (HMX/Estane/BDNPA-F; 9512.512.5 wt %) donor charges while two others thermally exploded LX-04 (HMX/Viton A; 85/15 wt %). These donor charges were encased in 304 stainless steel. The transmitted two-dimensional pressure waves were measured by gauges in acceptor cylinders of Teflon, PBX 9501, or LX-04 that were in contact with the donors' steel case. A fifth experiment measured the pressure in an acceptor charge of PBX 9501 that had a 100 mm stand-off from the top of the steel case of the thermally cooked off PBX 9501 donor charge. Reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling using a rapid deflagration velocity of approximately 500 m/s was able to reproduce the pressure gauge records for both the in contact and stand off experiments that used PBX 9501 donors and acceptors.
Balakalyani, G.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.
Reduced drag and aerodynamic heating are the two basic design requirements for any hypersonic vehicle [1]. The flowfield around an axisymmetric blunt body is characterized by a bow shockwave standing ahead of its nose. The pressure and temperature behind this shock wave are very high. This increased pressure and temperature are responsible for the high levels of drag and aerodynamic heating over the body. In the past, there have been many investigations on the use of aerospikes as a drag reduction tool. These studies on spiked bodies aim at reducing both the drag and aerodynamic heating by modifying the hypersonic flowfield ahead of the nose of the body [2]. However, most of them used very simple configurations to experimentally study the drag reduction using spikes at hypersonic speeds [3] and therefore very little experimental data is available for a realistic geometric configuration. In the present study, the standard AGARD Hypervelocity Ballistic model 1 is used as the test model. The addition of the spike to the blunt body significantly alters the flowfield ahead of the nose, leading to the formation of a low pressure conical recirculation region, thus causing a reduction in drag and wall heat flux [4]. In the present investigation, aerodynamic drag force is measured over the Hypervelocity Ballistic model-1, with and without spike, at a flow enthalpy of 1.7 MJ/kg. The experiments are carried out at a Mach number of 8 and at zero angle of attack. An internally mountable accelerometer based 3-component force balance system is used to measure the aerodynamic forces on the model. Also computational studies are carried out to complement the experiments.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The longitudinal wave velocity and attenuation measurements of artificial gas hy- drate samples at a low temperature are reported. And the temperature and pressure dependence of longitudinal wave velocity is also investigated. In order to under- stand the acoustic properties of gas hydrate, the pure ice, the pure tetrahydrofuran (THF), the pure gas hydrate samples and sand sediment containing gas hydrate are measured at a low temperature between 0℃ and –15℃. For the pure ice, the pure THF and the pure gas hydrate samples, whose density is 898 kg/m3, 895 kg/m3 and 475 kg/m3, the velocity of longitudinal wave is respectively 3574 m/s, 3428 m/s and 2439 m/s. For synthesized and compacted samples, the velocity of synthesized samples is lower than that of compacted samples. The velocities increase when the densities of the samples increase, while the attenuation decreases. Under the con- dition of low temperature, the results show that the velocity is slightly affected by the temperature. The results also show that wave velocities increase with the in- crease of piston pressures. For example, the velocity of one sample increases from 3049 up to 3337 m/s and the other increases from 2315 up to 2995 m/s. But wave velocity decreases from 3800 to 3546 m/s when the temperature increases from –15℃ to 5℃ and changes significantly close to the melting point. Formation con- ditions of the two samples are the same but with different conversion ratios of wa- ter. The results of the experiment are important for exploration of the gas hydrate resources and development of acoustic techniques.
High pressure generation by laser driven shock waves: application to equation of state measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is dedicated to shock waves and their applications to the study of the equation of state of compressed matter.This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) laser-produced plasmas and abrasion processes, 2) shock waves and the equation of state, 3) relative measuring of the equation of state, 4) comparison between direct and indirect drive to compress the target, 5) the measurement of a new parameter: the shock temperature, and 6) control and measurement of the pre-heating phase. In this work we have reached relevant results, we have shown for the first time the possibility of generating shock waves of very high quality in terms of spatial distribution, time dependence and of negligible pre-heating phase with direct laser radiation. We have shown that the shock pressure stays unchanged as time passes for targets whose thickness is over 10 μm. A relative measurement of the equation of state has been performed through the simultaneous measurement of the velocity of shock waves passing through 2 different media. The great efficiency of the direct drive has allowed us to produce pressures up to 40 Mbar. An absolute measurement of the equation of state requires the measurement of 2 parameters, we have then performed the measurement of the colour temperature of an aluminium target submitted to laser shocks. A simple model has been developed to infer the shock temperature from the colour temperature. The last important result is the assessment of the temperature of the pre-heating phase that is necessary to know the media in which the shock wave propagates. The comparison of the measured values of the reflectivity of the back side of the target with the computed values given by an adequate simulation has allowed us to deduce the evolution of the temperature of the pre-heating phase. (A.C.)
Vanneste, D.; Troch, P.
2012-01-01
The spatial distribution of the wave-induced pore pressure height in the core of a conventional rubble-mound breakwater is studied in this work. Use is made of existing theoretical and experimental knowledge to establish a calculation model for the pressure distribution on the front core slope and the attenuation of pore pressures within the breakwater core. The new model formulae are derived empirically and calibrated by means of a non-linear regression analysis of pore pressure measurements...
Qingmin Hou; Liang Ren; Wenling Jiao; Pinghua Zou; Gangbing Song
2013-01-01
Methods that more quickly locate leakages in natural gas pipelines are urgently required. In this paper, an improved negative pressure wave method based on FBG based strain sensors and wavelet analysis is proposed. This method takes into account the variation in the negative pressure wave propagation velocity and the gas velocity variation, uses the traditional leak location formula, and employs Compound Simpson and Dichotomy Searching for solving this formula. In addition, a FBG based strain...
Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)
2015-10-28
The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.
Attenuation of wave-induced groundwater pressure in shallow water. Part 2. Theory
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Stanisław R. Massel
2005-09-01
Full Text Available In this Part 2 of the paper (Part 1 was published by Massel et al. 2004 an exact close-form solution for the pore-water pressure component and velocity circulation pattern induced by surface waves is developed. This comprehensive theoretical model, based on Biot's theory, takes into account soil deformations, volume change and pore-water flow. The calculations indicate that for the stiffness ratio G/E'w ≥ 100, the vertical distribution of the pore pressure becomes very close to the Moshagen & Tørum (1975 approach, when the soil is rigid and the fluid is incompressible. The theoretical results of the paper have been compared with the experimental data collected during the laboratory experiment in the Large Wave Channel in Hannover (see Massel et al. 2004 and showed very good agreement. The apparent bulk modulus of pore water was not determined in the experiment but was estimated from the best fit of the experimental pore-water pressure with the theoretical one. In the paper only a horizontal bottom is considered and the case of an undulating bottom will be dealt with in another paper.
PHERMEX applications to study high-pressure flow and detonation waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X Rays (PHERMEX), has been used as a diagnostic tool to make quantitative measurements from radiographs of inert materials under dynamic high-pressure conditions and of explosives during the detonation process. In some experiments, radiography is the best method (compared to high-speed optical cameras and contactor pins) to study complicated hydrodynamic flow occurring in a dynamic experiment. To demonstrate the versatility and uniqueness of PHERMEX and the radiographic method, several experiments on inert solids having high and low atomic numbers will be discussed with some particulars. This includes the observation of the 11.0-GPa-pressure phase transition for antimony and the accompanying two-shock structure and the off-Hugoniot data for lead using regular reflection. Also, by careful design of a radiographic experiment, the Hugoniot state behind a shock front can be completely and precisely specified. Aluminum is an example of a material studies in this manner. PHERMEX is useful in studying some detonation properties of explosives. As an illustration, the discussion will include radiographic results of divergence characteristics of a detonation wave in sensitive and insensitive explosives as it propagates past a corner and the effect of preshocking on the detonation process of insensitive explosives when the detonation wave interacts with a region that has been shock-compressed at a pressure too low to cause detonation
First hints of pressure waves in a helical extragalactic jet: S5~0836+710
Perucho, Manel
2013-01-01
One of the open questions in extragalactic jet Astrophysics is related to the nature of the observed radio jet, namely whether it traces a pattern or the flow structure itself. In this paper I summarize the evidence collected for the presence of waves in extragalactic jets. The evidence points towards the peak of emission in helical jets corresponding to pressure-maxima of a wave that is generated within the core region and propagates downstream. Making use of a number of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the radio jet in the quasar S5~0836+710 at different frequencies and epochs, Perucho et al. (2012) were able to observe wave-like behavior within the observed radio-jet. The ridge-line of the emission in the jet coincides within the errors at all frequencies. Moreover, small differences between epochs at 15 GHz reveal wave-like motion of the ridge-line transversal to the jet propagation axis. The authors conclude that the helicity is a real, physical structure. I report here on those r...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingmin Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Methods that more quickly locate leakages in natural gas pipelines are urgently required. In this paper, an improved negative pressure wave method based on FBG based strain sensors and wavelet analysis is proposed. This method takes into account the variation in the negative pressure wave propagation velocity and the gas velocity variation, uses the traditional leak location formula, and employs Compound Simpson and Dichotomy Searching for solving this formula. In addition, a FBG based strain sensor instead of a traditional pressure sensor was developed for detecting the negative pressure wave signal produced by leakage. Unlike traditional sensors, FBG sensors can be installed anywhere along the pipeline, thus leading to high positioning accuracy through more frequent installment of the sensors. Finally, a wavelet transform method was employed to locate the pressure drop points within the FBG signals. Experiment results show good positioning accuracy for natural gas pipeline leakage, using this new method.
Constrained ballistics and geometrical optics
Epstein, Marcelo
2014-01-01
The problem of constant-speed ballistics is studied under the umbrella of non-linear non-holonomic constrained systems. The Newtonian approach is shown to be equivalent to the use of Chetaev's rule to incorporate the constraint within the initially unconstrained formulation. Although the resulting equations are not, in principle, obtained from a variational statement, it is shown that the trajectories coincide with those of geometrical optics in a medium with a suitably chosen refractive inde...
Optimal pressure-sensitive cuts for surface acoustic waves on langasite
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The crystal langasite manifests its unique advantages and potentials for high temperature applications due to a high electromechanical coupling coefficient, temperature compensated orientations for surface acoustic wave (SAW), and temperature stability. In order to analyze the pressure-induced frequency shift in SAW resonator type sensors at high temperature, this paper presents the electroelastic wave equations employing the effective material constants for small vibrations superimposed on biases originated from homogeneous temperature and external pressure fields in the Lagrangian description. Incorporated with the first-order perturbation integration, a model including both the mechanical and electrical perturbation items originating from thermal biases and small pressure fields is proposed. This universal model is suitable for substrate with high piezoelectricity and can be applied at either room temperature or high temperature circumstance. The criteria of optimal cuts for SAW pressure sensitivity, I.e., high electromechanical coupling coefficient and low temperature coefficient of delay, are proposed. A thorough investigation in trebly rotated cuts has shown that optimal pressure sensitive crystallographic areas can be obtained. The areas suitable for pressure sensors at room temperature are defined with Euler anglesThe areas suitable for pressure sensors at high temperature are defined with Euler anglesΩ1: φ= 0°―0.6°,θ= 144.4°―145.8°, ψ= 23.2°―24.1°,Ω2: φ=59.4°―61°,θ= 34.2°―36.2°, ψ= 24.1°―22.3°,Ω3: φ=119°―120°,θ = 143.8°―145.5°, ψ= 22.3°―23.5°.The areas suitable for pressure sensors at high temperature are defined with Euler anglesI:φ= 8°―30°,θ= 24°―36°,ψ= 4°―25°,II:φ = 30°―55°,θ= 144°―158°,ψ= 4°―28°.A set of experiments employing LGS (0, 150°, 22°) and (0, 90°, 0) has been performed to check the validity of the proposed calculation. The experimental relative sensitivity is
On the ballistic response of comminuted ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent results have strongly suggested that the ballistic-resistance of different comminuted ceramics is similar, independent of the original strength of the material. In particular, experimental work focused on the ballistic response of such materials has suggested that ballistic response is largely controlled by shattered material morphology. Consequently, it has been postulated that control of the nature of ceramic fragmentation should provide a potential route to optimise post-impact ballistic resistance. In particular, such an approach would open up a route to control in multi-hit capabilities. Here, ballistic tests into pre-formed 'fragmented-ceramic' analogues assembled from compacted alumina powders with two differing morphologies were conducted. Strong hints of a morphology-based contribution to ballistic resistance were apparent, although there was insufficient fidelity in the experimental data set to categorically identify the nature of this contribution.
The influence of ALN-Al gradient material gradient index on ballistic performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballistic performance of the gradient material is superior to laminated material, and gradient materials have different gradient types. Using ls-dyna to simulate the ballistic performance of ALN-AL gradient target plates which contain three gradient index (b = 1, b = 0.5, b = 2). Through Hopkinson bar numerical simulation to the target plate materials, we obtained the reflection stress wave and transmission stress wave state of gradient material to get the best gradient index. The internal stress state of gradient material is simulated by amplification processing of the target plate model. When the gradient index b is equal to 1, the gradient target plate is best of all.
The influence of ALN-Al gradient material gradient index on ballistic performance
Wang, Youcong; Liu, Qiwen; Li, Yao; Shen, Qiang
2013-03-01
Ballistic performance of the gradient material is superior to laminated material, and gradient materials have different gradient types. Using ls-dyna to simulate the ballistic performance of ALN-AL gradient target plates which contain three gradient index (b = 1, b = 0.5, b = 2). Through Hopkinson bar numerical simulation to the target plate materials, we obtained the reflection stress wave and transmission stress wave state of gradient material to get the best gradient index. The internal stress state of gradient material is simulated by amplification processing of the target plate model. When the gradient index b is equal to 1, the gradient target plate is best of all.
Evaluation of mechanical losses in a linear motor pressure wave generator
Jacob, Subhash; Rangasamy, Karunanithi; Jonnalagadda, Kranthi Kumar; Chakkala, Damu; Achanur, Mallappa; Govindswamy, Jagadish; Gour, Abhay Singh
2012-06-01
A moving magnet linear motor compressor or pressure wave generator (PWG) of 2 cc swept volume with dual opposed piston configuration has been developed to operate miniature pulse tube coolers. Prelimnary experiments yielded only a no-load cold end temperature of 180 K. Auxiliary tests and the interpretation of detailed modeling of a PWG suggest that much of the PV power has been lost in the form of blow-by at piston seals due to large and non-optimum clearance seal gap between piston and cylinder. The results of experimental parameters simulated using Sage provide the optimum seal gap value for maximizing the delivered PV power.
Earth--Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture
Topputo, Francesco; Belbruno, Edward
2014-01-01
We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in a substantial savings in capture $\\Delta v$ from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain conditions. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by manipulating the stable sets, or sets of initial condit...
Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft
Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...
Seismic attenuation: effects of interfacial impedance on wave-induced pressure diffusion
Qi, Qiaomu; Müller, Tobias M.; Rubino, J. Germán
2014-12-01
Seismic attenuation and dispersion in layered sedimentary structures are often interpreted in terms of the classical White model for wave-induced pressure diffusion across the layers. However, this interlayer flow is severely dependent on the properties of the interface separating two layers. This interface behaviour can be described by a pressure jump boundary condition involving a non-vanishing interfacial impedance. In this paper, we incorporate the interfacial impedance into the White model by solving a boundary value problem in the framework of quasi-static poroelasticity. We show that the White model predictions for attenuation and dispersion substantially change. These changes can be attributed to petrophysically plausible scenarios such as imperfect hydraulic contacts or the presence of capillarity.
Studies on an improved indigenous pressure wave generator and its testing with a pulse tube cooler
Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Narsimham, G. S. V. L.; Kranthi, J. Kumar; Damu, C.; Praveen, T.; Samir, M.; Mallappa, A.
2014-01-01
Earlier version of an indigenously developed Pressure Wave Generator (PWG) could not develop the necessary pressure ratio to satisfactorily operate a pulse tube cooler, largely due to high blow by losses in the piston cylinder seal gap and due to a few design deficiencies. Effect of different parameters like seal gap, piston diameter, piston stroke, moving mass and the piston back volume on the performance is studied analytically. Modifications were done to the PWG based on analysis and the performance is experimentally measured. A significant improvement in PWG performance is seen as a result of the modifications. The improved PWG is tested with the same pulse tube cooler but with different inertance tube configurations. A no load temperature of 130 K is achieved with an inertance tube configuration designed using Sage software. The delivered PV power is estimated to be 28.4 W which can produce a refrigeration of about 1 W at 80 K.
High Definition Oscillometry: Non-invasive Blood Pressure Measurement and Pulse Wave Analysis.
Egner, Beate
2015-01-01
Non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure has become increasingly important in research. High-Definition Oscillometry (HDO) delivers not only accurate, reproducible and thus reliable blood pressure but also visualises the pulse waves on screen. This allows for on-screen feedback in real time on data validity but even more on additional parameters like systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variances (SVV), rhythm and dysrhythmia. Since complex information on drug effects are delivered within a short period of time, almost stress-free and visible in real time, it makes HDO a valuable technology in safety pharmacology and toxicology within a variety of fields like but not limited to cardiovascular, renal or metabolic research. PMID:26091643
Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Reilly, Michael; Bae, Hyungdae; Yu, Miao
2014-01-01
Acoustic sensors play an important role in many areas, such as homeland security, navigation, communication, health care and industry. However, the fundamental pressure detection limit hinders the performance of current acoustic sensing technologies. Here, through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we show that anisotropic acoustic metamaterials can be designed to have strong wave compression effect that renders direct amplification of pressure fields in metamaterials. This enables a sensing mechanism that can help overcome the detection limit of conventional acoustic sensing systems. We further demonstrate a metamaterial-enhanced acoustic sensing system that achieves more than 20 dB signal-to-noise enhancement (over an order of magnitude enhancement in detection limit). With this system, weak acoustic pulse signals overwhelmed by the noise are successfully recovered. This work opens up new vistas for the development of metamaterial-based acoustic sensors with improved performance and functionalities that are highly desirable for many applications. PMID:25316410
Simard, J. Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr
2014-01-01
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pa...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant is being built in a riverside site located about 100 km north of the city of Buenos Aires. When completed it will become Argentina's third operating station. The Service Water Pump House of the 740 MW Natural Uranium NPP is supplied directly by the Parana de las Palmas River, which is a navigable waterway with heavy fluvial traffic that links the River Plate Estuary with ports along the Parana River, including Rosario, Argentina's third city. Although dolphins were built to protect the water intake structures from direct impact from ships or barges, an accidental escape of gas or flammable material outside the protected area that may result in an explosion with a subsequent pressure wave, could not be precluded. Thus, the water intake structures had to be designed against this event. In addition, concern with the margin of safety against foundation instability due to the overturning moment associated to the induced pressures, made an evaluation of the conditional probability of failure for this loading condition, desirable. The task placed still uncommon demands on the Project Engineers, who were required to provide estimates of the Pump House reliability. In the process, it became necessary to introduce assumptions concerning the unspecified variability of the loads which, according to current international practice, were defined in the form of 'deterministic' design criteria. It seems appropriate to underline these deficiencies in current standards, as well as in aspects of the dynamic of soils that are responsible for a quite large model uncertainty. On the basis of available information, it may be established that the probability of occurrence of a pressure wave at the site is less than 10-3 per year. Accordingly, the probability of failure of the foundation due to a pressure wave does not exceed 1.5 -8 per year, value that is considered admissible by current standards. The use of triangular probability density functions for
Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Yu
2009-04-01
Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Employing the reductive perturbation technique, Zakharov–Kuznetzov (ZK) equation is derived for dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which consists the effects of dust anisotropic pressure, arbitrary charged dust particles, Boltzmann distributed ions, and Kappa distributed superthermal electrons. The ZK solitary wave solution is obtained. Using the small-k expansion method, the stability analysis for DA solitary waves is also discussed. The effects of the dust pressure anisotropy and the electron superthermality on the basic characteristics of DA waves as well as on the three-dimensional instability criterion are highlighted. It is found that the DA solitary wave is rarefactive (compressive) for negative (positive) dust. In addition, the growth rate of instability increases rapidly as the superthermal spectral index of electrons increases with either positive or negative dust grains. A brief discussion for possible applications is included
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gas cloud explosions cause air pressure waves which propagate over the ground surface. The ground motion induced by these loads and their effect on structures are studied. The soil is modelled as a linear viscoelastic medium. A semianalytical method is used to compute the ground motion produced by a deflagration and by a detonation in a stiff and a soft layered soil. For a PWR reactor building subjected to the direct impact of an air pressure wave the additional effects of the ground waves on the motion of the building are studied. Whereas the vertical structural response is increased, the horizontal response decreases, when the effect of the ground waves is included. For the case studied the additional effect of the ground waves is small. (orig.)
Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux (J) and total radiated power P for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both (J) and P are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function ψ. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method agree to within 0.5% with results obtained using pressure and velocity data from the numerical simulation. The results for the radiated power computed from the stream function agree well with power computed from the velocity and pressure if the starting point for the stream function computation is on a solid boundary, but if a boundary point is not available, care must be taken to choose an appropriate starting point. We also test the stream function method by applying it to laboratory data for tidal flow past a knife edge, and the results are found to agree with the direct numerical simulation. The supplementary material includes a Matlab code with a graphical user interface that can be used to compute the energy flux and power from two-dimensional velocity field data
Beigelbeck, Roman; Antlinger, Hannes; Cerimovic, Samir; Clara, Stefan; Keplinger, Franz; Jakoby, Bernhard
2013-12-01
Increasing demands for online monitoring of liquids have not only resuted in many new devices relying on well-established sensing parameters like shear viscosity but also initiated research on alternative parameters. Recently, the longitudinal viscosity has been evaluated as a promising candidate because the devices arising enable the bulk of the liquid to be probed rather than a thin surface layer. We report on a multi-purpose sensor which allows simultaneous measurement of the sound velocity and longitudinal viscosity of liquids. The device embodiment features a cube-shaped chamber containing the sample liquid, where one boundary surface carries a flush-mounted PZT transducer. In operation, the transducer induces standing, resonant pressure waves in the liquid under test. We studied the influences of sound velocity and longitudinal viscosity on the generated pressure waves by means of the Navier-Stokes equation for adiabatic compressible liquids and exploited both parameters as the basic sensing mechanism. Furthermore, a three-port network model describing the interaction of the transducer and sample liquid was developed in order to be applied for extracting the parameters of interest from the raw measurement data. Finally, we demonstrate the device and method by carrying out and discussing test measurements on glycerol-water solutions.
DAPSY - a computer program for the pressure wave propagation in reactor cooling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer code DAPSY is developed to calculate pressure wave phenomena in the primary coolant system. For this purpose it is necessary to treat 3-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flow of water and steam. The technique used in DAPSY is the simulation of the real geometry by a pipe network with connected one-dimensional flow paths. The calculation of the unsteady one-dimensional flow is taken from the BLAST code. In this code pressure wave propagation and delayed attainment of thermal equilibrium is taken into consideration. Integration by the method of characteristics in a fixed grid, which is used in this code, is very convenient for the computation of boundary value problems, especially for critical state of flow. In order to determine the boundary conditions of each pipe, calculated by the one-dimensional code, subroutines were developed, which simulate several components of the primary system, e.g. strong cross-section variations with eventual critical flow, valves, pumps, dead ends of pipes, perhaps with a gas bulb, breaking points with critical mass-flow rate and eventual orifices, connection points of several pipes, free surfaces of water with transition to steam phase, and separators in which two-phase mixture is divided in steam and water flow. These components can be composed in any way so that a whole primary system is described. (orig.)
Study of Internal Ballistics of Hepta-Tubular Powders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. C. Gupta
1959-04-01
Full Text Available In thin paper a solution of the system of equations in Internal Ballistics of a, conventional gun has been discussed for the hepta-tubular powder. The shot-start pressure is taken diffe- rent from zero and the covolume correction also is taken I. into amount and thus some of the results of Tavernierl who has taken zero shot-start preasure and has neglected the . covolume~omtion, have been generalised. It has been. found out that the maximum pressure in the case of hepta-tubular powders always occurs before the all-burnt position.
Quantum Computation with Ballistic Electrons
Ionicioiu, Radu; Amaratunga, Gehan; Udrea, Florin
2000-01-01
We describe a solid state implementation of a quantum computer using ballistic single electrons as flying qubits in 1D nanowires. We show how to implement all the steps required for universal quantum computation: preparation of the initial state, measurement of the final state and a universal set of quantum gates. An important advantage of this model is the fact that we do not need ultrafast optoelectronics for gate operations. We use cold programming (or pre-programming), i.e., the gates are...
Graham, John B., Jr.
1958-01-01
Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.
Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Fujii, T.; Nagao, J.
2014-12-01
P-wave velocity is an important parameter to estimate gas hydrate saturation in sediments. In this study, the relationship between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity have been analyzed using natural hydrate-bearing-sediments obtained in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The sediment samples were collected by the Hybrid Pressure Coring System developed by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology during June-July 2012, aboard the deep sea drilling vessel CHIKYU. P-wave velocity was measured on board by the Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System developed by Geotek Ltd. The samples were maintained at a near in-situ pressure condition during coring and measurement. After the measurement, the samples were stored core storage chambers and transported to MHRC under pressure. The samples were manipulated and cut by the Pressure-core Non-destructive Analysis Tools or PNATs developed by MHRC. The cutting sections were determined on the basis of P-wave velocity and visual observations through an acrylic window equipped in the PNATs. The cut samples were depressurized to measure gas volume for saturation calculations. It was found that P-wave velocity correlates well with hydrate saturation and can be reproduced by the hydrate frame component model. Using pressure cores and pressure core analysis technology, nondestructive and near in-situ correlation between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity can be obtained. This study was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan.
Saint-Remy, Annie; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie
2010-01-01
The present study aimed to define reference values of central blood pressure (cBP) and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) together with 24H ABPM in healthy normotensive young adults before starring a follow-up of their CV profile modifications over time. Peer reviewed
Saint-Remy, Annie; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie
2010-01-01
The present study aimed to define reference values of central blood pressure (cBP) and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) together with 24H APPM in healththy normotensive young adults before starting a follow-up of their CV profile modifications over time. Peer reviewed
Guzatov, D. V.; Gaida, L. S.; Afanas'ev, Anatolii A.
2008-12-01
The light pressure force acting on a spherical dielectric particle in the interference field of two plane monochromatic electromagnetic waves is studied in detail for different particle radii and angles of incidence of waves.
Ballistic electron transport in mesoscopic samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of this thesis, the electron transport in the ballistic regime has been studied. Ballistic means that the lateral sample dimensions are smaller than the mean free path of the electrons, i.e. the electrons can travel through the whole device without being scattered. This leads to transport characteristics that differ significantly from the diffusive regime which is realised in most experiments. Making use of samples with high mean free path, features of ballistic transport have been observed on samples with sizes up to 100 μm. The basic device used in ballistic electron transport is the point contact, from which a collimated beam of ballistic electrons can be injected. Such point contacts were realised with focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and the collimating properties were analysed using a two opposite point contact configuration. The typical angular width at half maximum is around 50 , which is comparable with that of point contacts defined by other methods. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔秀国; 艾慕阳; 姜保良; 霍连风; 张立新
2008-01-01
In order to research start-up pressure wave propagation mechanism and determine pressure wave speed in gelled crude oil pipelines accurately,experiment of Large-scale flow loop was carried out.In the experiment,start-up pressure wave speeds under various operation conditions were measured,and effects of correlative factors on pressure wave were analyzed.The experimental and theoretical analysis shows that thermal shrinkage and structural properties of gelled crude oils are key factors influencing on start-up pressure wave propagation.The quantitative analysis for these effects can be done by using volume expansion coefficient and structural property parameter of gelled crude oil.A new calculation model of pressure wave speed was developed on the basis of Large-scale flow loop experiment and theoretical analysis.
Li, Jianling; Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J.
2014-01-01
The propagation of detonation waves in reactive media bounded by an inert, compressible layer is examined via computational simulations in two different geometries, axisymmetric cylinders and two dimensional, planar slabs. For simplicity, an ideal gas equation of state is used with a pressure-dependent reaction rate that results in a stable detonation wave structure. The detonation is initiated as an ideal Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation with a one-dimensional structure, and then allowed to p...
The transfer of atmospheric-pressure ionization waves via a metal wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Our study has shown that the atmospheric-pressure He ionization waves (IWs) may be transferred from one dielectric tube (tube 1) to the other one (tube 2) via a floating metal wire. The propagation of IWs along the two tubes is not affected by the diameter of a floating metal wire, however, their propagation is strongly dependent on the length of a floating metal wire. The propagation of one IW along the tube 1 may result in the second IW propagating reversely inside the tube in vicinity of a floating metal wire, which keeps from their further propagation through the tube 1. After they merge together as one conduction channel inside the tube 1, the transferred plasma bullet starts to propagate along the tube 2. The propagation of transferred plasma bullets along the tube 2 is mainly determined by the capacitance and inductance effects, and their velocity and density can be controlled by the length of a floating metal wire
The transfer of atmospheric-pressure ionization waves via a metal wire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Yang; Liu, Dongping, E-mail: Dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [Liaoning Key Lab of Optoelectronic Films & Materials, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Wenchun [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Peng, Yifeng; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua; Ji, Longfei; Song, Ying; Wang, Xueyang; Qi, Zhihua [Liaoning Key Lab of Optoelectronic Films & Materials, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)
2016-01-15
Our study has shown that the atmospheric-pressure He ionization waves (IWs) may be transferred from one dielectric tube (tube 1) to the other one (tube 2) via a floating metal wire. The propagation of IWs along the two tubes is not affected by the diameter of a floating metal wire, however, their propagation is strongly dependent on the length of a floating metal wire. The propagation of one IW along the tube 1 may result in the second IW propagating reversely inside the tube in vicinity of a floating metal wire, which keeps from their further propagation through the tube 1. After they merge together as one conduction channel inside the tube 1, the transferred plasma bullet starts to propagate along the tube 2. The propagation of transferred plasma bullets along the tube 2 is mainly determined by the capacitance and inductance effects, and their velocity and density can be controlled by the length of a floating metal wire.
Shen, X. C.; Zong, Q.-G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Tian, A. M.; Sun, W. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Zhou, X. Z.; Fu, S. Y.; Hartinger, M. D.; Angelopoulos, V.
2015-09-01
Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in transferring energy by buffeting the magnetosphere with solar wind pressure impulses. The amplitudes of magnetospheric ULF waves, which are induced by solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements or shocks, are thought to damp in one half a wave cycle or an entire wave cycle. We report in situ observations of solar wind dynamic pressure impulse-induced magnetospheric ULF waves with increasing amplitudes. We found six ULF wave events induced by solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements with slow but clear wave amplitude increase. During three or four wave cycles, the amplitudes of ion velocities and electric field of these waves increased continuously by 1.3-4.4 times. Two significant events were selected to further study the characteristics of these ULF waves. We found that the wave amplitude growth is mainly contributed by the toroidal mode wave. Three possible mechanisms of causing the wave amplitude increase are discussed. First, solar wind dynamic pressure perturbations, which are observed in a duration of 20-30 min, might transfer energy to the magnetospheric ULF waves continually. Second, the wave amplitude increase in the radial electric field may be caused by superposition of two wave modes, a standing wave excited by the solar wind dynamic impulse and a propagating compressional wave directly induced by solar wind oscillations. When superposed, the two wave modes fit observations as does a calculation that superposes electric fields from two wave sources. Third, the normal of the solar wind discontinuity is at an angle to the Sun-Earth line. Thus, the discontinuity will affect the dayside magnetopause continuously for a long time.
Star-grain rocket motor - nonsteady internal ballistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loncaric, S.; Greatrix, D.R.; Fawaz, Z. [Ryerson University, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto (Canada)
2004-01-01
The nonsteady internal ballistics of a star-grain solid-propellant rocket motor are investigated through a numerical simulation model that incorporates both the internal flow and surrounding structure. The effects of structural vibration on burning rate augmentation and wave development in nonsteady operation are demonstrated. The amount of damping plays a role in influencing the predicted axial combustion instability symptoms of the motor. The variation in oscillation frequencies about a given star grain section periphery, and along the grain with different levels of burn-back, also influences the means by which the local acceleration drives the combustion and flow behaviour. (authors)
Wang, C. J.; Guo, C. M.
2014-09-01
The two-dimensional, time-dependent and reactive Navier-Stokes equations were solved to obtain an insight into Mach reflection of gaseous detonation in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture diluted by 25 % argon. This mixture generates a mode-7 detonation wave under an initial pressure of 8.00 kPa. Chemical kinetics was simulated by an eight-species, forty-eight-reaction mechanism. It was found that a Mach reflection mode always occurs for a planar detonation wave or planar air shock wave sweeping over wedges with apex angles ranging from to . However, for cellular detonation waves, regular reflection always occurs first, which then transforms into Mach reflection. This phenomenon is more evident for detonations ignited under low initial pressure. Low initial pressure may lead to a curved wave front, that determines the reflection mode. The stochastic nature of boundary shape and transition distance, during deflagration-to-detonation transition, leads to relative disorder of detonation cell location and cell shape. Consequently, when a detonation wave hits the wedge apex, there appears a stochastic variation of triple point origin and variation of the angle between the triple point trajectory and the wedge surface. As the wedge apex angle increases, the distance between the triple point trajectory origin and the wedge apex increases, and the angle between the triple point trajectory and the wedge surface decreases exponentially.
Ballistic and non-ballistic gas flow through ultrathin nanopores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon membranes exhibit gas permeance that is several orders of magnitude higher than other membranes. Using these membranes, gas flow obeying Knudsen diffusion has been studied in pores with lengths and diameters in the tens of nanometers regime. The components of the flow due to ballistic transport and transport after reflection from the pore walls were separated and quantified as a function of pore diameter. These results were obtained in pores made in silicon. We demonstrate that changing the pore interior to carbon leads to flow enhancement resulting from a change in the nature of molecule–pore wall interactions. This result confirms previously published flow enhancement results obtained in carbon nanotubes. (paper)
One-Dimensional Simulation of the Pressure Wave near the Exit of a High-Speed Train Tunnel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨宇光; 朱克勤; 席葆树
2001-01-01
The one-dimensional (1-D) unsteady flow induced by a high-speed train entering a tunnel isnumerically studied by the method of characteristics. The tube area is dependent on time and distance. Theenergy equation used by Kage et al. is corrected to avoid the conflict with the isentropic assumption. Theeffect of the tunnel hood on the pressure wave is studied near the tunnel exit. Results show that the tunnel hoodis useful in reducing the peak value and the time derivative of the pressure wave.``
Design and Experiment for Exhaust Pipes of Pressure Wave Supercharged Diesel Engine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Chang-wei; ZHAO Yong; MA Hui; HAN Ai-min; LI Chao
2007-01-01
NOx and soot emissions from diesel engines can be greatly reduced by pressure wave supercharging (PWS). The diesel engine matched with PWS needs redesigning its exhaust pipes. Except for meeting the installation requirements, the exhaust gas must be stable in pressure before rushing into PWS. In this paper the lateral and center ported divergent exhaust pipes are designed, modeled geometrically and analyzed structurally based on a 3-D design software-CATIA to determine the structure of two exhaust pipes having the required inner volume. Then flow analysis for two exhaust pipes is done using a flow analysis software-ANASYS. Moreover, the optimal exhaust pipes are determined comprehensively and cast for engine test. Engine test results show that PWS is superior to turbocharging at low engine speeds and inferior to turbocharging in power and emissions at medium-to-high engine speeds. The performance of PWS engine under high speed operating conditions can be improved by contriving larger surge volume intake and exhaust pipes.
An algorithm for extracting intracranial pressure latency relative to electrocardiogram R wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intracranial pressure (ICP) latency is defined as the time interval between the peak of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the corresponding onset of intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse. Due to its inherent relationship with arterial pulse wave velocity, ICP latency may allow continuous monitoring of pathophysiological changes in the cerebrovasculature. The objective of the present work was to develop and validate a computerized algorithm for extracting ICP latency in a beat-by-beat fashion. The proposed ICP latency extraction algorithm exploits the mature technique of ECG QRS detection and includes a new adaptive peak detection methodology. The results were validated by comparing the performance of two human observers versus the algorithm in terms of locating the onset points of ICP pulses for 59 recordings extracted from 25 adult patients. The average ICP latency was 72.6 ± 19.5 ms (range 40.0–159.8). The ICP pulse detection algorithm demonstrated a baseline sensitivity of 0.97 and a positive predictivity of 0.88. No difference was found in the mean location errors from comparing the results obtained by the two observers and those from comparing the results from the algorithm to those from the two observers. Further investigation is needed to demonstrate the role of ICP latency in characterizing dynamic cerebral vascular pathophysiological changes in clinical states such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury
Optimization of pressure waveform, distribution and sequence in shock wave lithotripsy
Zhou, Yufeng
This work aims to improve shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) technology by increasing stone comminution efficiency while reducing simultaneously the propensity of tissue injury. First, the mechanism of vascular injury in SWL was investigated. Based on in vitro vessel phantom experiment and theoretical calculation, it was found that SWL-induced large intraluminal bubble expansion may constitute a primary mechanism for the rupture of capillaries and small blood vessels. However, when the large intraluminal bubble expansion is suppressed by inversion of the pressure waveform of the lithotripter shock wave (LSW), rupture of a 200-mum cellulose hollow fiber vessel phantom can be avoided. Based on these experimental observations and theoretical assessment of bubble dynamics using the Gilmore model an in situ pulse superposition technique was developed to reduce tissue injury without compromising stone comminution in SWL. A thin shell ellipsoidal reflector insert was fabricated to fit snugly with the original HM-3 reflector. Using the Hamilton model, the effects of reflector geometry on the pulse profile and sequence of the shock waves were evaluated qualitatively. Guided by this analysis, the design of the reflector insert had been refined to suppress the intraluminal bubble expansion, which was confirmed by high-speed imaging of bubble dynamics both in free field and inside a vessel phantom. The pulse pressure, beam size and stone comminution efficiency of the upgraded reflector were all found to be comparable to those of the original reflector. However, the greatest difference lies in the propensity for tissue injury. At the lithotripter focus, about 30 shocks are needed to cause a rupture of the vessel phantom using the original reflector, but no rupture can be produced after 200 shocks by the upgraded reflector. Overall, the upgraded reflector could significantly reduce the propensity of vessel rupture while maintaining satisfactory stone comminution. Second, to improve
Decoherence and disorder in quantum walks: From ballistic spread to localization
Schreiber, A; Potoček, V; Gábris, A; Jex, I; Silberhorn, Ch
2011-01-01
We investigate the impact of decoherence and static disorder on the dynamics of quantum particles moving in a periodic lattice. Our experiment relies on the photonic implementation of a one-dimensional quantum walk. The pure quantum evolution is characterized by a ballistic spread of a photon's wave packet along 28 steps. By applying controlled time-dependent operations we simulate three different environmental influences on the system, resulting in a fast ballistic spread, a diffusive classical walk and the first Anderson localization in a discrete quantum walk architecture.
Transition between ballistic and diffusive heat transport regimes in silicon materials
Maldovan, Martin
2012-09-01
We study the extent of ballistic and diffusive thermal transport and the range of application of the Casimir and Fourier theories in semiconductor materials by using a theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation. We show that combined effects of length scale, temperature, and boundary roughness are responsible for thermal transport transitions in silicon nanowires and thin films. We also introduce a more accurate principle for ballistic transport that considers the balance between internal and surface scattering. Phonon quantum confinement effects as well as the conditions for phonon wave interference in nanoscale heat transport are discussed.
Ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaenel, H. von; Klemenc, M.; Meyer, T. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik
2001-04-01
Ballistic electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES) and microscopy (BEEM) have been carried out on epitaxial metal/semiconductor interfaces and on epitaxial nanostructures in UHV and at low temperatures. We describe how the band structure of the metal may lead to pronounced focusing of the hot carrier beam injected by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip, thereby greatly enhancing the spatial resolution, such that spectroscopy at buried point defects becomes possible. The strain fields of Ge quantum dots buried underneath an epitaxial silicide film on a Si(100) substrate are found to induce a characteristic clustering of linear defects at the metal/semiconductor interface. The Schottky barrier height lowering associated with these defects allows for an easy identification of buried dots, despite the many mechanisms leading to contrast in BEEM images. (orig.)
Josephson effect in ballistic graphene
Titov, M.; Beenakker, C. W. J.
2006-07-01
We solve the Dirac Bogoliubov de Gennes equation in an impurity-free superconductor normal-metal superconductor junction, to determine the maximal supercurrent Ic that can flow through an undoped strip of graphene with heavily doped superconducting electrodes. The result Ic≃(W/L)eΔ0/ℏ is determined by the superconducting gap Δ0 and by the aspect ratio of the junction (length L small relative to the width W and to the superconducting coherence length). Moving away from the Dirac point of zero doping, we recover the usual ballistic result Ic≃(W/λF)eΔ0/ℏ , in which the Fermi wavelength λF takes over from L . The product IcRN≃Δ0/e of the critical current and normal-state resistance retains its universal value (up to a numerical prefactor) on approaching the Dirac point.
MARS-KS Code Analysis of the Pressure Wave test 0 performed at the PMK-2 test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pressure waves might be expected in the nuclear reactor systems due to sudden rupture of pipes, or quick opening or closure of the system valves. If generated, they can result in large mechanical loads on the RPV internal structures and pipelines, threatening their integrity. This kind of phenomena is an important issue and a limiting accident case for the nuclear power plant safety, which requires extensive analysis to ensure nuclear power plant safety. To study these phenomena, four PWP (Pressure Wave Propagation) tests have been performed in the PMK-2 test facility in MTA EK. In addition, these tests have been used to assess the capability of the MARS-KS code in simulating the PWP phenomena. Then, an input model representing the PMK-2 test facility was developed to simulate the tests. The MARS-KS simulation results are then compared with the test results. The comparison shows that the MARS code can simulate the PWP frequencies and initial pressure peaks well. After the qualified assessment, the MARS-KS code is then deployed to conduct the sensitivity analysis on the effect of the break size, break time, coolant initial conditions on the PWP phenomena. The sensitivity analysis on the break sizes shows that the pressure wave amplitude is relevant to the break times: the shorter the break opening time is, the faster the pressure decreases. The sensitivity analysis on the break sizes shows that the larger the break size is, the higher the pressure peak is
Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.
Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y
2016-02-01
The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. PMID:26773228
Assessment of Ballistic Performance for Transparent Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basim M. Fadhil
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A finite element method was used to investigate the ballistic behavior of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA under impact loading by spherical steel projectile with different ranges of velocities. Three different target thicknesses were used in the experimental and the numerical works. A mathematical model has been used for the ballistic limit based on the experimental results. It has been found that projectile velocity and target thickness play an important role in the ballistic behavior of PMMA. A good agreement was found between the numerical, experimental, and the analytical result.
Effect of variations in loading conditions on the internal ballistics of guns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. B. Tawakley
1956-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper tables have been constructed to show the variations in the position of all-burnt and pressure at all-burnt with variations in the Central Ballistic Parameter M and the shot-star pressure Z0. It has been shown how the whole table for the variation of maximum pressure with variations in M and Zo(for tubular propellants can be represented by a single graph. Also assuming zero short-start pressure the internal ballistic equations have been expressed in a slightly different form and expressions have been obtained to relate pressure and velocity with short- travel. Further the variations in maximum pressure and muzzle parameters have been calculated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangwei Kong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic pressure wave velocity model is presented based on momentum equation, mass-balance equation, equation of state, and small perturbation theory. Simultaneously, the drift model was used to analyze the flow characteristics of oil, gas, water, and drilling fluid multiphase flow. In addition, the dynamic model considers the gas dissolution, virtual mass force, drag force, and relative motion of the interphase as well. Finite difference and Newton-Raphson iterative are introduced to the numerical simulation of the dynamic model. The calculation results indicate that the wave velocity is more sensitive to the increase of gas influx rate than the increase of oil/water influx rate. Wave velocity decreases significantly with the increase of gas influx. Influenced by the pressure drop of four-phase fluid flowing along the annulus, wave velocity tends to increase with respect to well depth, contrary to the gradual reduction of gas void fraction at different depths with the increase of backpressure (BP. Analysis also found that the growth of angular frequency will lead to an increase of wave velocity at low range. Comparison with the calculation results without considering virtual mass force demonstrates that the calculated wave velocity is relatively bigger by using the presented model.
Jianling, Li; Higgins, Andrew J
2014-01-01
The propagation of detonation waves in reactive media bounded by an inert, compressible layer is examined via computational simulations in two different geometries, axisymmetric cylinders and two dimensional, planar slabs. For simplicity, an ideal gas equation of state is used with a pressure-dependent reaction rate that results in a stable detonation wave structure. The detonation is initiated as an ideal Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation with a one-dimensional structure, and then allowed to propagate into a finite diameter or thickness layer of explosive surrounded by an inert layer. The yielding confinement of the inert layer results in the detonation wave decaying to a sub-CJ steady state velocity or failing entirely. Simulations are performed with different values of the reaction rate pressure exponent (n = 2 and 3) and different impedance confinement (greater than, less than, and equal to the confinement of the explosive). The velocity decrement and critical dimension (critical diameter or thickness) are ...
Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...
Ballistic missile proliferation: An emerging threat 1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagler, R.G.
1992-10-01
This report, based solely on information available from unclassified sources, provides a coherent picture of the scope and trends of ballistic missile proliferation. The focus is on countries developing, producing, or owning ballistic missiles capable of threatening the military forces, assets, or populations of neighboring or geographically remote countries. The report also identifies other countries expected to obtain operational ballistic missile capabilities, discusses expected growth in performance, and examines the projected availability of warheads of mass destruction. The emphasis is on ballistic missiles of ranges greater than approximately 300 km, though shorter range battlefield weapons are discussed as forerunners. The assessment excludes principal U.S. allies and countries formerly in the Warsaw Pact, except where these countries have sold missiles, technology; or personnel services to developing nations in support of their missile programs.
Zhou, Haibin; Zhang, Yongmin; Han, Ruoyu; Jing, Yan; Wu, Jiawei; Liu, Qiaojue; Ding, Weidong; Qiu, Aici
2016-01-01
Underwater shock waves (SWs) generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWEs) have been widely studied and applied. Precise measurement of this kind of SWs is important, but very difficult to accomplish due to their high peak pressure, steep rising edge and very short pulse width (on the order of tens of μs). This paper aims to analyze the signals obtained by two kinds of commercial piezoelectric pressure probes, and reconstruct the correct pressure waveform from the distorted one measured by the pressure probes. It is found that both PCB138 and Müller-plate probes can be used to measure the relative SW pressure value because of their good uniformities and linearities, but none of them can obtain precise SW waveforms. In order to approach to the real SW signal better, we propose a new multi-exponential pressure waveform model, which has considered the faster pressure decay at the early stage and the slower pressure decay in longer times. Based on this model and the energy conservation law, the pressure waveform obtained by the PCB138 probe has been reconstructed, and the reconstruction accuracy has been verified by the signals obtained by the Müller-plate probe. Reconstruction results show that the measured SW peak pressures are smaller than the real signal. The waveform reconstruction method is both reasonable and reliable. PMID:27110789
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haibin Zhou
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Underwater shock waves (SWs generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWEs have been widely studied and applied. Precise measurement of this kind of SWs is important, but very difficult to accomplish due to their high peak pressure, steep rising edge and very short pulse width (on the order of tens of μs. This paper aims to analyze the signals obtained by two kinds of commercial piezoelectric pressure probes, and reconstruct the correct pressure waveform from the distorted one measured by the pressure probes. It is found that both PCB138 and Müller-plate probes can be used to measure the relative SW pressure value because of their good uniformities and linearities, but none of them can obtain precise SW waveforms. In order to approach to the real SW signal better, we propose a new multi-exponential pressure waveform model, which has considered the faster pressure decay at the early stage and the slower pressure decay in longer times. Based on this model and the energy conservation law, the pressure waveform obtained by the PCB138 probe has been reconstructed, and the reconstruction accuracy has been verified by the signals obtained by the Müller-plate probe. Reconstruction results show that the measured SW peak pressures are smaller than the real signal. The waveform reconstruction method is both reasonable and reliable.
Zhou, Haibin; Zhang, Yongmin; Han, Ruoyu; Jing, Yan; Wu, Jiawei; Liu, Qiaojue; Ding, Weidong; Qiu, Aici
2016-01-01
Underwater shock waves (SWs) generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWEs) have been widely studied and applied. Precise measurement of this kind of SWs is important, but very difficult to accomplish due to their high peak pressure, steep rising edge and very short pulse width (on the order of tens of μs). This paper aims to analyze the signals obtained by two kinds of commercial piezoelectric pressure probes, and reconstruct the correct pressure waveform from the distorted one measured by the pressure probes. It is found that both PCB138 and Müller-plate probes can be used to measure the relative SW pressure value because of their good uniformities and linearities, but none of them can obtain precise SW waveforms. In order to approach to the real SW signal better, we propose a new multi-exponential pressure waveform model, which has considered the faster pressure decay at the early stage and the slower pressure decay in longer times. Based on this model and the energy conservation law, the pressure waveform obtained by the PCB138 probe has been reconstructed, and the reconstruction accuracy has been verified by the signals obtained by the Müller-plate probe. Reconstruction results show that the measured SW peak pressures are smaller than the real signal. The waveform reconstruction method is both reasonable and reliable. PMID:27110789
THEORETICAL DIFFRACTIVE FILTER PERFORMANCE FOR BALLISTIC TRANSILLUMINATION
Vacas-jacques, Paulino; Ryabukho, Vladimir; Strojnik, Marija; Tuchin, Valery; Paez, Gonzalo
2009-01-01
We address the topic of selectively probing turbid media, equivalent to biological tissue, with ballistic photons. The samples considered exhibit highly forward-directed scattering (anisotropy factor g > 0.9). We propose the utilization of a non-linear grating-based angular filter to separate the faint ballistic signal from optical noise. The filter is conformed of a monochromatic source incident on a ruled grating, positioned at grazing diffraction, followed by a narrow slit. Minute devia...
Effect of thermal pressure on upward plasma fluxes due to ponderomotive force of Alfvén waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Nekrasov
2011-03-01
Full Text Available We consider the action of the ponderomotive force of low-frequency Alfvén waves on the distribution of the background plasma. It is assumed that the ponderomotive force for traveling waves arises as a result of the background inhomogeneity of medium under study. Expressions for the ponderomotive force obtained in this paper differ from previous analogous results. The induced magnetic moment of medium is taken into account. It is shown that the well-known Pitayevsky's formula for the magnetic moment is not complete. The role of the induced nonlinear thermal pressure in the evolution of the background plasma is considered. We give estimations for plasma displacement due to the long- and short-acting nonlinear wave perturbations. Some discussion of the ponderomotive action of standing waves is provided.
On Internal Ballistics of H/L Gun During Burning with Composite Charges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. N. Bhattacharyya
1975-01-01
Full Text Available An attempt has been made to solve the internal ballistics of H/L gun with composite charge having two components assuring pressures in both the chambers during the second stage of burning i.e. after the burning of the first component charge.
Gunshot wounds：A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SPanagiotis K Stefanopoulos; Georgios F Hadjigeorgiou; Konstantinos Filippakis; Dimitrios Gyftokostas
2014-01-01
Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles.Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues.Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets.Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.
Dogan, Hakan; Popov, Viktor
2016-05-01
We investigate the acoustic wave propagation in bubbly liquid inside a pilot sonochemical reactor which aims to produce antibacterial medical textile fabrics by coating the textile with ZnO or CuO nanoparticles. Computational models on acoustic propagation are developed in order to aid the design procedures. The acoustic pressure wave propagation in the sonoreactor is simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation using a meshless numerical method. The paper implements both the state-of-the-art linear model and a nonlinear wave propagation model recently introduced by Louisnard (2012), and presents a novel iterative solution procedure for the nonlinear propagation model which can be implemented using any numerical method and/or programming tool. Comparative results regarding both the linear and the nonlinear wave propagation are shown. Effects of bubble size distribution and bubble volume fraction on the acoustic wave propagation are discussed in detail. The simulations demonstrate that the nonlinear model successfully captures the realistic spatial distribution of the cavitation zones and the associated acoustic pressure amplitudes. PMID:26611813
Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.
Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A
2014-01-01
Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. PMID:24184862
Direct analysis of dispersive wave fields from near-field pressure measurements
Horchens, L.
2011-01-01
Flexural waves play a significant role for the radiation of sound from plates. The analysis of flexural wave fields enables the detection of sources and transmission paths in plate-like structures. The measurement of these wave fields can be carried out indirectly by means of near-field acoustic hol
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱峰; 徐卫亚; 王环玲
2014-01-01
The pile-soil interaction under wave loads is an extremely complex and difficult issue in engineering. In this study, a physical model test is designed based on the principle of the gravity similarity to obtain time histories of wave forces of unsteady regular waves, and to measure the magnitude and the distribution of wave forces acting on the piles. A numerical model and relevant numerical methods for the pile-soil contact surface are adopted based on the principles of elastic dynamics. For a practical project, the time histories of wave forces on the piles are obtained through physical model tests. The deformations of the piles in the pile-soil interactions and the distribution of the bending moment on the piles are studied. It is shown that, with the increase of the period of wave pressures, the absolute value of the horizontal displacement of the piles increases, the embedment depth of the piles increases, and the scope of influence of soils increases. The change of the bending moment on the piles is consistent with that of its theoretical results, and the proposed numerical method can very well simulate the properties of the piles.
Pressure dependence of the optical properties of the charge-density-wave compound LaTe$_2$
Lavagnini, M.; A. Sacchetti; Degiorgi, L.; Arcangeletti, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; Perucchi, A.; Shin, K Y; Fisher, I. R.
2007-01-01
We report the pressure dependence of the optical response of LaTe$_2$, which is deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. The reflectivity spectrum is collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 7 GPa. We extract the energy scale due to the single particle excitation across the CDW gap and the Drude weight. We establish that the gap decreases upon compressing the lattice, while the Drude weight increases. This signals...
Ballistic self-annealing during ion implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ion implantation conditions are considered during which the energy, dissipated in the collision cascades, is low enough to ensure that the defects, which are generated during these collisions, consist primarily of vacancies and interstitial atoms. It is proposed that ballistic self-annealing is possible when the point defect density becomes high enough, provided that none, or very few, of the interstitial atoms escape from the layer being implanted. Under these conditions, the fraction of ballistic atoms, generated within the collision cascades from substitutional sites, decreases with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the fraction of ballistic atoms, which finally end up within vacancies, increases with increasing vacancy density. Provided the crystal structure does not collapse, a damage threshold should be approached where just as many atoms are knocked out of substitutional sites as the number of ballistic atoms that fall back into vacancies. Under these conditions, the average point defect density should approach saturation. This model is applied to recently published Raman data that have been measured on a 3 MeV He+-ion implanted diamond (Orwa et al 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 5461). The conclusion is reached that this ballistic self-annealing model describes the latter data better than a model in which it is assumed that the saturation in radiation damage is caused by amorphization of the implanted layer. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ni, L.; Skala, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villingen (Switzerland)
1996-06-01
In ESS project liquid metals are selected as the main target for the pulsed spallation neutron source. Since the very high instantaneous energy is deposited on the heavy molten target in a very short period time, pressure waves are generated. They travel through the liquid and cause high stress in the container. Also, additional stress should be considered in the wall which is the result of direct heating of the target window. These dynamic processes were simulated with computational codes with the static response being analized first. The total resulting dynamic wall stress has been found to have exceeded the design stress for the selected container material. Adding a small amount of gas bubbles in the liquid could be a possible way to reduce the pressure waves.
Ballistic properties of debris produced by laser shock-induced micro-spallation of tin samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamic fragmentation in the liquid state after melting under shock compression or upon release leads to the ejection of a cloud of droplets. This phenomenon, called micro-spallation, remains essentially unexplored in most metals. We present laser shock experiments performed on tin, to pressures ranging from about 60 to 220 GPa. Experimental diagnostics include skew Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measurements of the droplets velocities, transverse observations of the expanding cloud of droplets, and soft recovery of ejecta within a low density gel. Optical microscopy of the gel reveals the presence of droplets which confirm shock-induced melting prior to fragmentation. To quantify size distribution of the debris, 3D X-ray micro-tomography has been performed at the ESRF synchrotron facility in France (similar to US Advanced Photon Source), where sub-micrometer resolution could be achieved. In this paper, the resulting velocity and size distributions are presented and compared with theoretical predictions based on a one-dimensional description accounting for laser shock loading, wave propagation, phase transformations, and fragmentation. Discrepancies between measured and calculated distributions are discussed. Finally, combining size and velocity data provides estimates of the ballistic properties of debris and their kinetic energy, which are key issues for anticipating the damage produced by their impacts on nearby equipments.
Ahn, Jeong-Hwan; Kong, Mihee
2011-01-01
Background Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) are non-invasive tools to measure atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Heart rate variability (HRV) has proven to be a non-invasive powerful tool in the investigation of the autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among PWV, ABI, and HRV parameters in adult males. Methods The study was carried out with 117 males who visited a health care center from ...
Modeling terminal ballistics using blending-type spline surfaces
Pedersen, Aleksander; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune
2014-12-01
We explore using GERBS, a blending-type spline construction, to represent deform able thin-plates and model terminal ballistics. Strategies to construct geometry for different scenarios of terminal ballistics are proposed.
Yonemoto, Temma; Endo, Hirokazu; Meguro, Fumiya; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo
2014-06-01
In recent years, running speed of the trains of conventional lines becomes faster with improving vehicle and rail performance. At the high-speed range compression wave is formed when a high speed train enters a tunnel. This compression wave propagates in the tunnel at the speed of sound. This propagated wave is called "tunnel pressure wave". In some cases, when the station of conventional lines is located in the tunnel, problems such as breaking the window glass have been reported by the tunnel pressure wave at the station. Though the research on pressure wave inside the tunnel of the Shinkansen has been widely studied in connection with "tunnel micro-pressure wave" problems, the number of research reports on the operating speed of conventional lines(130～160km/h) is insufficient. In this study we focused on Hokuhoku line which has maximum operating speed of conventional lines in Japan (160km/h), and we performed the experiment on the gradient of the pressure wave by using diaphragmless driver acceleration system, small train nose model, and tunnel model of the limited express of Hokuhoku line. We have performed the pressure-time variation measurement on the tunnel model, including a station model or signal crossing station [SCS] model. As the thpical train model, we used Streamline-type or Gangway-type for train nose geometry. We have obtained pressure gradient data on several running conditions and observed the temporal .behavior in the tunnel pressure wave. As a result, we clarified large difference in pressure gradient with the train nose geometry and with the cross-sectional area of the tunnel.
Earth--Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture
Topputo, Francesco
2014-01-01
We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in a substantial savings in capture $\\Delta v$ from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain conditions. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by manipulating the stable sets, or sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a simple definition of stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of lower capture $\\Delta v$, moderate flight time, and flexibility of launch period from the Earth.
Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments
Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.
2001-06-01
Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.
The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hong-lin
2009-01-01
Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.
Misleading reference to unpublished wound ballistics data regarding distant injuries
Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy
2008-01-01
An article (J Trauma 29:10-18, 1989) cites unpublished wound ballistics data to support the authors' view that distant injuries are a myth in wound ballistics. The actual data, published in 1990, actually contains a number of detailed examples of distant injuries. (Bellamy RF, Zajtchuk R. The physics and biophysics of wound ballistics. In: Zajtchuk R, ed. Textbook of Military Medicine, Part I: Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty, Vol. 5, Conventional Warfare: Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuri...
Supercurrent in long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions
Borzenets, I. V.; Amet, F.; Ke, C. T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.; Finkelstein, G
2016-01-01
We investigate the critical current $I_C$ in Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures. $I_C$ is found to scale with temperature $T$ as $\\propto exp(-k_bT/\\delta E)$, which is consistent with the conventional model for ballistic Josephson junctions that are long compared to the thermal length. The extracted energy $\\delta E$ is independent of the carrier density and consistent with the level spacing of the ballistic cavity, as determined from Fabry-Perot...
Ballistic Impact of Dense Particle Suspensions
Marr, Bradley J; Higgins, Andrew J; Frost, David L; Ouellet, Simon
2011-01-01
The ballistic impact of various dense particle suspensions is of interest for the development of superior materials for personal protective equipment. The dynamic response of the fluids under impact of a fragment simulating projectile at various incident velocities was examined for this purpose. High-speed fluid dynamic videos of these ballistic impacts were used to analyze the effects of various suspension parameters on the response of the fluids. It was found experimentally that the shear thickening behaviour of the suspensions dominated the response at low incident velocities, but the results converge based on density at higher impact velocities.
Ballistic damage in hybrid composite laminates
Phadnis, V.A.; Pandya, K.S.; Naik, N.K.; Roy, A; Silberschmidt, V.V.
2015-01-01
Ballistic damage of hybrid woven-fabric composites made of plain-weave E-glass- fabric/epoxy and 8H satin-weave T300 carbon-fabric/epoxy is studied using a combination of experimental tests, microstructural studies and finite-element (FE) analysis. Ballistic tests were conducted with a single-stage gas gun. Fibre damage and delamination were observed to be dominating failure modes. A ply-level FE model was developed, with a fabric-reinforced ply modelled as a homogeneous orthotropic material ...
Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions
Zhang, Lifa; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen
2010-03-01
We study ballistic thermal transport in three-terminal atomic nanojunctions by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. We find that there is ballistic thermal rectification in asymmetric three-terminal structures because of the incoherent phonon scattering from the control terminal. With spin-phonon interaction, we also find the ballistic thermal rectification even in symmetric three-terminal paramagnetic structures.
Diffusive to quasi-ballistic random laser: incoherent and coherent models
Guerin, W.; Chong, Y. D.; Baudouin, Q.; Liertzer, M.; Rotter, S.; Kaiser, R.
2016-09-01
We study the crossover between the diffusive and quasi-ballistic regimes of random lasers. In particular, we compare incoherent models based on the diffusion equation and the radiative transfer equation (RTE), which neglect all wave effects, with a coherent wave model for the random laser threshold. We show that both the incoherent and the coherent models predict qualitatively similar thresholds, with a smooth transition from a diffuse to a quasi-ballistic regime. The shape of the intensity distribution in the sample as predicted by the RTE model at threshold is also in good agreement with the coherent model. The approximate incoherent models thus provide useful analytical predictions for the threshold of random lasers as well as the shape of the random laser modes at threshold.
Elements of sub-quantum thermodynamics: quantum motion as ballistic diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By modelling quantum systems as emerging from a (classical) sub-quantum thermodynamics, the quantum mechanical 'decay of the wave packet' is shown to simply result from sub-quantum diffusion with a specific diffusion coefficient varying in time due to a particle's changing thermal environment. It is thereby proven that free quantum motion strictly equals ballistic diffusion. The exact quantum mechanical trajectory distributions and the velocity field of the Gaussian wave packet are thus derived solely from classical physics. Moreover, also quantum motion in a linear (e.g., gravitational) potential is shown to equal said ballistic diffusion. Quantitative statements on the trajectories' characteristic behaviours are obtained which provide a detailed 'micro-causal' explanation in full accordance with momentum conservation.
Diffusive to quasi-ballistic random laser: incoherent and coherent models
Guerin, William; Baudouin, Quentin; Liertzer, Matthias; Rotter, Stefan; Kaiser, Robin
2016-01-01
We study the crossover between the diffusive and quasi-ballistic regimes of random lasers. In particular, we compare incoherent models based on the diffusion equation and the radiative transfer equation (RTE), which neglect all wave effects, with a coherent wave model for the random laser threshold. We show that both the incoherent and the coherent models predict qualitatively similar thresholds, with a smooth transition from a diffuse to a quasi-ballistic regime. The shape of the intensity distribution in the sample as predicted by the RTE model at threshold is also in good agreement with the coherent model. The approximate incoherent models thus provide useful analytical predictions for the threshold of random lasers as well as the shape of the random laser modes at threshold.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao Shuo [School of Geophysics and Information Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); He, J.-S.; Tu, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-H. [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Marsch, E., E-mail: yaoshuo@cugb.edu.cn [Christian Albrechts University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany)
2013-09-01
Recently, small-scale pressure-balanced structures (PBSs) were identified in the solar wind, but their formation mechanism remains unclear. This work aims to reveal the dependence of the properties of small-scale PBSs on the background magnetic field (B{sub 0}) direction and thus to corroborate the in situ mechanism that forms them. We analyze the plasma and magnetic field data obtained by WIND in the quiet solar wind at 1 AU. First, we use a developed moving-average method to obtain B{sub 0}(s, t) for every temporal scale (s) at each time moment (t). By wavelet cross-coherence analysis, we obtain the correlation coefficients between the thermal pressure P{sub th} and the magnetic pressure P{sub B}, distributing against the temporal scale and the angle {theta}{sub xB} between B{sub 0}(s, t) and Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates (GSE)-x. We note that the angle coverage of a PBS decreases with shorter temporal scale, but the occurrence of the PBSs is independent of {theta}{sub xB}. Suspecting that the isolated small PBSs are formed by compressive waves in situ, we continue this study by testing the wave modes forming a small-scale PBS with B{sub 0}(s, t) quasi-parallel to GSE-x. As a result, we identify that the cross-helicity and the compressibility attain values for a slow mode from theoretical calculations. The wave vector is derived from minimum variance analysis. Besides, the proton temperatures obey T < T{sub Parallel-To} derived from the velocity distribution functions, excluding a mirror mode, which is the other candidate for the formation of PBSs in situ. Thus, a small-scale PBS is shown to be driven by oblique, slow-mode waves in the solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, small-scale pressure-balanced structures (PBSs) were identified in the solar wind, but their formation mechanism remains unclear. This work aims to reveal the dependence of the properties of small-scale PBSs on the background magnetic field (B0) direction and thus to corroborate the in situ mechanism that forms them. We analyze the plasma and magnetic field data obtained by WIND in the quiet solar wind at 1 AU. First, we use a developed moving-average method to obtain B0(s, t) for every temporal scale (s) at each time moment (t). By wavelet cross-coherence analysis, we obtain the correlation coefficients between the thermal pressure Pth and the magnetic pressure PB, distributing against the temporal scale and the angle θxB between B0(s, t) and Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates (GSE)-x. We note that the angle coverage of a PBS decreases with shorter temporal scale, but the occurrence of the PBSs is independent of θxB. Suspecting that the isolated small PBSs are formed by compressive waves in situ, we continue this study by testing the wave modes forming a small-scale PBS with B0(s, t) quasi-parallel to GSE-x. As a result, we identify that the cross-helicity and the compressibility attain values for a slow mode from theoretical calculations. The wave vector is derived from minimum variance analysis. Besides, the proton temperatures obey T ∥ derived from the velocity distribution functions, excluding a mirror mode, which is the other candidate for the formation of PBSs in situ. Thus, a small-scale PBS is shown to be driven by oblique, slow-mode waves in the solar wind
Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M.; Dingwell, D.; Delgado-Granados, H.
2009-04-01
Vulcanian eruptions are frequent, short-lived explosions that occur as a result of rapid decompression of pressurized magma. One of the most common hazards associated to this kind of eruptions are the ballistic projectiles. In order to improve hazard assessment, we need to understand the relationship between gas overpressure, ejection velocities and maximum range of the ballistic projectiles. There are several issues that have not been fully understood: 1) The influence of the fragmentation process itself on the dynamics (fragmentation energy, grain-size distribution); 2) If the common assumption that the gas-pyroclasts mixture behaves as a pseudo-gas in thermal equilibrium is valid in transient volcanic eruptions; 3) The influence of the vent geometry; and 4) How the drag force is reduced near the vent. Here we present the results of fragmentation experiments with natural samples at high temperature (850°C) at different pressures where we measured the maximum ejection speed of the resulting particles. We propose a model that is consistent with the experiments and takes into account the energy that is consumed during fragmentation. We also discuss the influence of the vent geometry (cylindrical conduit vs. radial geometry) and consider a drag-reduced zone in the calculation of the ballistic trajectories. Finally, we applied this model to different Vulcanian eruptions at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, and calibrate the model with the maximum range reached by the ballistic projectiles and their corresponding travel times measured from videos of the explosions. Our study relates the zones that could be affected by ballistic projectiles with the initial pressure, which can be estimated from seismic and geophysical monitoring, providing valuable information for more refined hazard assessment of active explosive volcanoes.
Stok, Wim J; Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Karemaker, John M
2011-08-01
Reconstruction of central aortic pressure from a peripheral measurement by a generalized transfer function (genTF) works well at rest and mild exercise at lower heart rates, but becomes less accurate during heavy exercise. Particularly, systolic and pulse pressure estimations deteriorate, thereby underestimating central pressure. We tested individualization of the TF (indTF) by adapting its resonance frequency at the various levels of exercise. In seven males (age 44-57) with coronary artery disease, central and peripheral pressures were measured simultaneously. The optimal resonance frequency was predicted from regression formulas using variables derived from the individual's peripheral pressure pulse, including a pulse contour estimation of cardiac output (pcCO). In addition, reconstructed pressures were calibrated to central mean and diastolic pressure at each exercise level. Using a genTF and without calibration, the error in estimated aortic pulse pressure was -7.5 ± 6.4 mmHg, which was reduced to 0.2 ± 5.7 mmHg with the indTFs using pcCO for prediction. Calibration resulted in less scatter at the cost of a small bias (2.7 mmHg). In exercise, the indTFs predict systolic and pulse pressure better than the genTF. This pilot study shows that it is possible to individualize the peripheral to aortic pressure transfer function, thereby improving accuracy in central blood pressure assessment during exercise. PMID:21720842
Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure, collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The hydromagnetic drift mode of the coupled drift-Alfven wave is destabilized as a standing wave in a dense, current-free plasma in the presence of a density gradient. When an axial electron current is drawn, a localized Alfven mode propagating against the current is destabilized, in addition to the unstable drift mode now propagating along the current. The measured wave properties, dispersion, and dependence on plasma parameters are found to agree with the theory derived for a finite β, collisional plasma
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Benjamin Doyon
2015-01-01
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonz...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems for NASA application to remote wireless sensing of...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the continued development of passive, orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems, an...
Extreme storm wave influence on sandy beach macrofauna with distinct human pressures.
Machado, Phillipe M; Costa, Leonardo L; Suciu, Marjorie C; Tavares, Davi C; Zalmon, Ilana R
2016-06-15
We evaluated the influence of storm waves on the intertidal community structure of urbanized and non-urbanized areas of a sandy beach on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The macrofauna was sampled before (PREV) and after two storm wave events (POEV I; POEV II) in 2013 and 2014. Significant differences in community structure between PREV and POEV I in the urbanized sector demonstrate higher macrofauna vulnerability, and the community recovery within 41days on this scenario of less frequent events in 2013. On the other hand, significant differences in the macrofauna only in the urbanized sector between PREV and POEV II also highlight macrofauna vulnerability and community recovery failure within 42days on this scenario of more frequent storm in 2014. Urbanization and wave height were the variables that most influenced species, indicating that high storm wave events and increasing urbanization synergism are a threat to the macrofauna. PMID:27103425
Withington, S.; Goldie, D. J.; Velichko, A. V.
2011-05-01
Through a lossy acoustic-wave model we explore the effect of inelastic scattering on the low-temperature thermal conductances of amorphous dielectric microbridges in the diffusive to ballistic transition. The model gives not only the thermal flux as a function of geometry and temperature, but also the temperature distribution of the internal degrees of freedom that constitute the loss, which in turn can be used for calculating noise. The approach leads to powerful conceptual insights and provides a numerical framework for analyzing experimental data. SixNy tends to behave ballistically at low frequencies and diffusively at high frequencies, and when integrated over all frequency, the diffusive to ballistic transition becomes apparent at lengths of around a few hundred microns. It is possible to include flux-dependent acoustic loss, which leads to counterintuitive thermal behavior. A sample can behave diffusively when measured using a small temperature difference, but ballistically when measured using a large temperature difference. There is compelling circumstantial evidence that the effects of acoustic saturation have been seen, but not explicitly recognized, on many occasions.
First Soviet Sea-Launched Ballistic Rockets
Yuri F. Katorin
2013-01-01
In the article it is told about the creation of the first generation of Soviet ballistic missiles for the armament of submarines. The basic stages of their development, tests and adoption for the armament are described. Are cited the data about the people, is most which actively participated in these processes.
The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun
Denny, Mark
2011-01-01
The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…
Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes;
2016-01-01
We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...
First Soviet Sea-Launched Ballistic Rockets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuri F. Katorin
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In the article it is told about the creation of the first generation of Soviet ballistic missiles for the armament of submarines. The basic stages of their development, tests and adoption for the armament are described. Are cited the data about the people, is most which actively participated in these processes.
Generalized ballistic deposition of small buoyant particles
Csúcs, G.; Ramsden, J. J.
1998-07-01
The adsorption kinetics of the protein bee venom phospholipase A2 to a smooth, planar metal oxide surface has been measured under controlled hydrodynamic conditions using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). Adsorption follows the generalized ballistic deposition (GBD) model, except at low bulk protein concentrations, where Langmuir kinetics are observed.
Note on internal ballistics with composite charge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asim Ray
1966-01-01
Full Text Available In the present note, it has been pointed out that under certain conditions the internal ballistics of orthodox guns during the first stage of burning of a composite charge can be obtained with he help of Hunt-Hinds tables.
Solid propellant grain design and internal ballistics
1972-01-01
The ballistic aspects of grain design were studied to outline the steps necessary to achieve a successful grain design. The relationships of the grain design to steady-state mass balance and erosive burning are considered. Grain design criteria is reviewed, and recommended design criteria are included.
The National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) project.
Song, J; Vorburger, T V; Ballou, S; Thompson, R M; Yen, J; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Silver, R M; Ols, M
2012-03-10
In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, a NIST/ATF joint project entitled National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) was initialized in 2008. The NBIC project aims to establish a National Traceability and Quality System for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories within the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) of the U.S. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets and 2461 cartridge cases are used as reference standards. 19 ballistics examiners from 13 U.S. crime laboratories participated in this project. They each performed 24 periodic image acquisitions and correlations of the SRM bullets and cartridge cases over the course of a year, but one examiner only participated in Phase 1 tests of SRM cartridge case. The correlation scores were collected by NIST for statistical analyses, from which control charts and control limits were developed for the proposed Quality System and for promoting future assessments and accreditations for firearm evidence in U.S. forensic laboratories in accordance with the ISO 17025 Standard. PMID:22014973
Kang, Sungmu
In this thesis, devices using the ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to electron mean free path. The ballistic transport is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic transport can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic transport regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also
Westenberg Jos JM; van Poelgeest Eveline P; Steendijk Paul; Grotenhuis Heynric B; Jukema JW; de Roos Albert
2012-01-01
Abstract Background The Bramwell-Hill model describes the relation between vascular wall stiffness expressed in aortic distensibility and the pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is the propagation speed of the systolic pressure wave through the aorta. The main objective of this study was to test the validity of this model locally in the aorta by using PWV-assessments based on in-plane velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), with invasive pressure measurements serving as the gol...
Aortic pressure wave reconstruction during exercise is improved by adaptive filtering: a pilot study
Stok, W.J.; Westerhof, B E; Guelen, I.; Karemaker, J. M.
2011-01-01
Reconstruction of central aortic pressure from a peripheral measurement by a generalized transfer function (genTF) works well at rest and mild exercise at lower heart rates, but becomes less accurate during heavy exercise. Particularly, systolic and pulse pressure estimations deteriorate, thereby underestimating central pressure. We tested individualization of the TF (indTF) by adapting its resonance frequency at the various levels of exercise. In seven males (age 44–57) with coronary artery ...
Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, N [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Bai Ming [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Lu Yonghua [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Munoz, M [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Cheng Hao [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Levanyuk, A P [Fisintec Innovacion Tecnologica, Miraflores 65, Alcobendas, Madrid 28100 (Spain)
2007-01-10
When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport.
Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport
Radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to estimate the radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates by computing the asymmetry parameter and the cross sections for extinction and scattering. The ballistic particle-cluster aggregate and the ballistic cluster-cluster aggregate consisting of either dielectric or absorbing material are considered to represent naturally existing aggregates. We show that the asymmetry parameter perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is maximized where the wavelength is comparable to the aggregate size, which may be characterized by the area-equivalent radius or the radius of gyration rather than the volume-equivalent radius. The asymmetry parameter for the aggregate depends on the morphology of the particle, but not on the constituent material. Therefore, the dependence of the radiation pressure cross section on the material composition arises mainly from that of the extinction and scattering cross sections, in other words, the single-scattering albedo. We find that aggregates consisting of high-albedo material show a large deviation of radiation pressure from the direction of incident radiation. When the aggregates are illuminated by blackbody radiation, the deviation of the radiation pressure increases with increasing temperature of the blackbody. Since the parallel component of the radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates is smaller than that for the volume-equivalent spheres at the size parameter close to unity, the Planck-mean radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates having radius comparable to the effective wavelength of radiation shows a lower value, compared with the volume-equivalent sphere. Consequently, the slope of the radiation pressure force per mass of the particle as a function of particle mass shows a lower maximum for the aggregates than for compact spherical particles. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史謌; 杨东全
2002-01-01
Typical rock samples with different lithologic characteristics were collected from exploring wells drilled in sandstone-conglomerate sedimental reservoirs with positive rhythm. In different pore fluid states (fully saturated with gas, water and oil), the velocities of compressional and shear waves (Vp, Vs) were measured under different overburden pressure in laboratory. The effects of pore fluid and different fluid types on the velocities were analyzed. The velocities (Vp, Vs) of the samples fully saturated with water were calculated by use of Gassmann's formula that is suitable for low frequency. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values obtained at high frequency. The result shows that Gassmann's theory can be used to calculate elastic wave velocities in porous rocks saturated with fluid. By this result, the change of elastic velocities with the change of fluid can be predicted. The error is allowable in petroleum engineering. This conclusion is useful for sonic logging interpretation and seismic datum processing.
Ashish Maheshwari1 , Sunil Kumar Singla
2013-01-01
This paper introduce the real time analysis of sf6 gas pressure for optimizing point on wave switching of sf6 circuit breaker. Circuit Breaker plays an important role in today’s growing Indian economy in power systems. It provides protection to transmission equipment incorporated in transmission networks. SF6 Circuit Breaker is very important equipment in Power Systems which is used for up to 1200 kVbecause of its excellent performance. SF6 Gas plays a vital role to operate the Breaker. Also ...
Pressure dependence of the single particle excitation in the charge-density-wave CeTe$_3$ system
Lavagnini, M.; A. Sacchetti; Marini, C.; Valentini, M; Sopracase, R.; Perucchi, A.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; Chu, J. -H.; Fisher, I. R.; Degiorgi, L.
2008-01-01
We present new data on the pressure dependence at 300 K of the optical reflectivity of CeTe$_3$, which undergoes a charge-density-wave (CDW) phase transition well above room temperature. The collected data cover an unprecedented broad spectral range from the infrared up to the ultraviolet, which allows a robust determination of the gap as well as of the fraction of the Fermi surface affected by the formation of the CDW condensate. Upon compressing the lattice there is a progressive closing of...
Hedlin, Michael; de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hoffmann, Lars; Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia
2016-04-01
The upgrade of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) with microbarometers and infrasound microphones has created an opportunity for a broad range of new studies of atmospheric sources and the large- and small-scale atmospheric structure through which signals from these events propagate. These studies are akin to early studies of seismic events and the Earth's interior structure that were made possible by the first seismic networks. In one early study with the new dataset we use the method of de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin (2015) to recast the TA as a massive collection of 3-element arrays to detect and locate large infrasonic events. Over 2,000 events have been detected in 2013. The events cluster in highly active regions on land and offshore. Stratospherically ducted signals from some of these events have been recorded more than 2,000 km from the source and clearly show dispersion due to propagation through atmospheric gravity waves. Modeling of these signals has been used to test statistical models of atmospheric gravity waves. The network is also useful for making direct observations of gravity waves. We are currently studying TA and satellite observations of gravity waves from singular events to better understand how the waves near ground level relate to those observed aloft. We are also studying the long-term statistics of these waves from the beginning of 2010 through 2014. Early work using data bandpass filtered from 1-6 hr shows that both the TA and satellite data reveal highly active source regions, such as near the Great Lakes. de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin, 2015, A method for detecting and locating geophysical events using clusters of arrays, Geophysical Journal International, v203, p960-971, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv345.
Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz
2016-04-01
The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for t...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjelland, C; Bjarnø, Leif
1992-01-01
A model for wave propagation in a liquid-filled viscoelastic tube with arrays of receivers inside, is being used to analyze the influence of noise generated by in-line vibrational noise sources. In this model, distensibility is of greater importance than compressibility of the liquid...... relations and frequency-dependent attenuation. A 12-m-long, liquid-filled tube with interior stress members and connectors in each end is hanging vertically from an upper fixture. The lower end connector is excited by a power vibrator to generate the relevant wave modes. Measurements with reference...
Lyons, Frankel
2013-01-01
A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.
Ballistic evaluationof LOVA propellant in high calibre gun
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.G.S. Pillai
2001-04-01
Full Text Available 'This paper presents the data obrained on dynamic firing of a cellulose acetate binder-based low vulnerability ammunition (LOV A propellant using 120 mm fin-stabilised armour piercing discarding sabot (FSAPDS kinetic energyammunition. An optimised propellant composition formulated ~sing fine RDX as an energetic ingredient and a mixture of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose as binder was qualified fit for firing in a high calibre gun by its successful static evaluation for absolute ballistics using high pressure closed vessel technique. Dynamic firing of the propellant processed in heptatubular geometry was undertaken to assess the propellant charge mass. This propellant achieved higher muzzle velocity as compared to the standard NQ/M119 triple-base propellant while meeting the non-vulnerability characteristics convincingly.
Esparaza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.
1977-01-01
Incident overpressure data from frangible spheres pressurized with a flash-evaporating fluid in liquid and vapor form were obtained in laboratory experiments. Glass spheres under higher than ambient internal pressure of Freon-12 were purposely burst to obtain time histories of overpressure. Nondimensional peak pressures, arrival and duration times, and impulses are presented, and whenever possible plotted and compared with compiled data for Pentolite high-explosive. The data are generally quite repeatable and show differences from blast data produced by condensed high-explosives.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Transfer function technique for engine intake wave action simulation. ► Frequency domain characterization of dynamic pressure using shock tube experiments. ► Simulink and GT-Power coupling using transfer function methodology. ► Parameterized analytical model depending on tube geometry for dynamic pressure. ► Intake pressure simulation. - Abstract: Today’s downsized turbocharged engines mainly focus on improving low end torque and increasing mass flow rate, this is done in order to improve the overall thermodynamic efficiency of the engine and to gain a lower BSFC. An integral part of any combustion engine is the air intake line that has a first order effect on engine filling and emptying. The wave action that takes place is usually simulated using one-dimensional codes. This paper presents a novel technique based on a frequency domain characterization of the intake line. A link over a wide frequency spectrum is identified between the instantaneous mass flow at the valve and the dynamic pressure response. This model is implemented into Simulink via a transfer function and coupled to GT-Power to produce an engine simulation. A shock tube experimental campaign was conducted for a number of tubes with varying lengths and diameters. The parameters of this transfer function are measured for each case then combined with gas dynamic theory and a frequency analysis to identify a law of behavior as a function of pipe geometry. The final model is validated on a single cylinder engine in GT-Power for a variety of pipe geometry
The analysis of ultrasonic examination wave for pressure-retraining studs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author describes the mechanism and characteristics of echo signals produced from various false defects in ultrasonic examination of the pressure-retaining studs and the distinction of false defect signals
The computation of pressure waves in shock tubes by a finite difference procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A finite difference solution of one-dimensional unsteady isentropic compressible flow equations is presented. The computer program has been tested by solving some cases of the Riemann shock tube problem. Predictions are in good agreement with those presented by other authors. Some inaccuracies may be attributed to the wave smearing consequent of the finite-difference treatment. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle
2008-01-01
This paper discusses the influence of wave load sampling frequency on calculated sliding distance in an overall stability analysis of a monolithic caisson. It is demonstrated by a specific example of caisson design that for this kind of analyses the sampling frequency in a small scale model could...
Pressure dependence of the optical properties of the charge-density-wave compound LaTe2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavagnini, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Arcangeletti, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; /Rome U.; Perucchi, A.; /INFM, Trieste; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.
2009-12-14
We report the pressure dependence of the optical response of LaTe{sub 2}, which is deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. The reflectivity spectrum is collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 7 GPa. We extract the energy scale due to the single particle excitation across the CDW gap and the Drude weight. We establish that the gap decreases upon compressing the lattice, while the Drude weight increases. This signals a reduction in the quality of nesting upon applying pressure, therefore inducing a lesser impact of the CDW condensate on the electronic properties of LaTe{sub 2}. The consequent suppression of the CDW gap leads to a release of additional charge carriers, manifested by the shift of weight from the gap feature into the metallic component of the optical response. On the contrary, the power-law behavior, seen in the optical conductivity at energies above the gap excitation and indicating a weakly interacting limit within the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid scenario, seems to be only moderately dependent on pressure.
The mobility analog for modeling the intra-arterial pressure wave parameters.
Ferris, C D; Stinnett, H O
1995-01-01
To assist in the identification of physical/physiological parameters obtained from in vivo rat aortic artery dynamic pressure data, the natural (mobility) mechanical circuit model was constructed. The direct electrical analog of the model thus obtained was then analyzed using SPICE. The experimental data were obtained using a Multifunction Pressure Generator (MPG), appropriate pressure probes, and a high-speed video camera. Two 486 computers were used for system control and data recording and computation. Transfer functions in rational form of the ratio of the MPG input pressure (Pi) to the intra-arterial pressure (Po) were then generated in the s-domain. The mechanical circuit described by these rational functions was then constructed and transformed into its equivalent electrical model for analysis. On this basis, physiological pressures are represented by electrical currents, and volume flow rates by electrical voltages. The results obtained through steady-state (Bode plot) and transient analysis of the model developed suggest a compartmental model that explains the experimental observations. The mobility model is an improvement over previous models in that the mass element is referred to a single frame of reference, which agrees with the physical property that mass is a one-terminal device. PMID:7654985
O'hara, Stephen G.
1985-07-01
The effects of pore fluid, effective stress, pore fluid pressure, and temperature on the frequency dependence of elastic wave attenuation in Berea sandstone are interrelated in a series of systematic experiments. The attenuation of both the extensional and torsional modes of cylindrical samples of the sandstone is measured on the frequency range 3-30 kHz. To simulate conditions within the earth, the sandstone is subjected to confining stress to 70.0 MPa and temperature from 24.0 °C to 120.0 °C. Confining pressure and pore fluid pressure are varied independently. Data for two different pore fluids, brine and n-heptane, suggest that a scaling law exists for the pressure and temperature dependence of the attenuation in terms of the pore fluid. The logarithmic decrement of the sandstone is almost frequency independent in a vacuum evacuated sample, but shows a linear frequency dependence, once the sample is saturated. Extrapolation of this linear trend to low frequencies suggests that the decrement in fluid-filled sandstone is effectively frequency independent at seismic frequencies (<100 Hz). The frequency dependence becomes more pronounced as either the effective stress or the temperature is decreased. When the difference between the external stress on the sandstone and the pore fluid pressure is large, the attenuation depends only on the effective stress and is relatively temperature independent. But at low effective stress, the attenuation increases linearly with increasing pore fluid pressure and decreases linearly with increasing temperature. While a specific model is lacking, the attenuation process is apparently influenced most strongly by chemical processes at the pore fluid-matrix interface accompanied by subtle changes in the sandstone matrix dimensions.
Simulating water distribution patterns for fixed spray plate sprinkler using the ballistic theory
Sofiane Ouazaa; Javier Burguete; M. Pilar Paniagua; Raquel Salvador; Nery Zapata
2014-01-01
Ballistic simulation of the spray sprinkler for self-propelled irrigation machines requires the incorporation of the effect of the jet impact with the deflecting plate. The kinetic energy losses produced by the jet impact with the spray plate were experimentally characterized for different nozzle sizes and two working pressures for fixed spray plate sprinklers (FSPS). A technique of low speed photography was used to determine drop velocity at the point where the jet is broken into droplets. T...
Computational and experimental models of the human torso for non-penetrating ballistic impact.
Roberts, J C; Merkle, A C; Biermann, P J; Ward, E E; Carkhuff, B G; Cain, R P; O'Connor, J V
2007-01-01
Both computational finite element and experimental models of the human torso have been developed for ballistic impact testing. The human torso finite element model (HTFEM), including the thoracic skeletal structure and organs, was created in the finite element code LS-DYNA. The skeletal structure was assumed to be linear-elastic while all internal organs were modeled as viscoelastic. A physical human surrogate torso model (HSTM) was developed using biosimulant materials and the same anthropometry as the HTFEM. The HSTM response to impact was recorded with piezoresistive pressure sensors molded into the heart, liver and stomach and an accelerometer attached to the sternum. For experimentation, the HSTM was outfitted with National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Level I, IIa, II and IIIa soft armor vests. Twenty-six ballistic tests targeting the HSTM heart and liver were conducted with 22 caliber ammunition at a velocity of 329 m/s and 9 mm ammunition at velocities of 332, 358 and 430 m/s. The HSTM pressure response repeatability was found to vary by less than 10% for similar impact conditions. A comparison of the HSTM and HTFEM response showed similar pressure profiles and less than 35% peak pressure difference for organs near the ballistic impact point. Furthermore, the peak sternum accelerations of the HSTM and HTFEM varied by less than 10% for impacts over the sternum. These models provide comparative tools for determining the thoracic response to ballistic impact and could be used to evaluate soft body armor design and efficacy, determine thoracic injury mechanisms and assist with injury prevention. PMID:16376354
Nikovski, M.; Kiss'ovski, Zh; Tatarova, E.
2016-03-01
We present a 3D model of a surface-wave-sustained discharge at 2.45 GHz at atmospheric pressure. A small plasma source creates a plasma column in a dielectric tube and a plasma torch is observed above the top. The plasma parameters and the axial profile of the gas temperature are significantly changed in the presence of the substrate above the plasma torch. The Boltzmann equation for electrons under the local approximation is solved, together with the heavy particle balance equations at a fixed axial profile of the gas temperature. The model of this finite length plasma column includes also the dispersion relation of azimuthally-symmetric surface waves. A detailed collisional-radiative model is also implemented for argon discharge at atmospheric pressure, which includes 21 rate balance equations for excited Ar atoms [(Ar(1s5-1s2), Ar(2p10-2p1), Ar(2s3d), Ar(3p)], for positive Ar+ and Ar2 + ions and for excited molecules. The changes in the EEDF shape and the mean electron energy along the plasma column are investigated and the axial structures of the discharge and plasma parameters are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Grassi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.
Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2016-04-01
The influence of field emission of electrons from surfaces on the fast ionization wave (FIW) propagation in high-voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in the atmospheric-pressure nitrogen is studied by a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A strong influence of field emission on the FIW dynamics and plasma parameters is obtained. Namely, the accounting for the field emission makes possible the bridging of the cathode-anode gap by rather dense plasma (˜1013 cm-3) in less than 1 ns. This is explained by the generation of runaway electrons from the field emitted electrons. These electrons are able to cross the entire gap pre-ionizing it and promoting the ionization wave propagation. We have found that the propagation of runaway electrons through the gap cannot be accompanied by the streamer propagation, because the runaway electrons align the plasma density gradients. In addition, we have obtained that the field enhancement factor allows controlling the speed of ionization wave propagation.
Ballistic versus diffusive transport in graphene
Borunda, Mario F.; Hennig, H.; Heller, Eric J.
2013-09-01
We investigate the transport of electrons in disordered and pristine graphene devices. Fano shot noise, a standard metric to assess the mechanism for electronic transport in mesoscopic devices, has been shown to produce almost the same magnitude (≈1/3) in ballistic and diffusive graphene devices and is therefore of limited applicability. We consider a two-terminal geometry where the graphene flake is contacted by narrow metallic leads. We propose that the dependence of the conductance on the position of one of the leads, a conductance profile, can give us insight into the charge flow, which can in turn be used to analyze the transport mechanism. Moreover, we simulate scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements for the same devices, which can visualize the flow of charge inside the device, thus complementing the transport calculations. From our simulations, we find that both the conductance profile and SPM measurements are excellent tools to assess the transport mechanism differentiating ballistic and diffusive graphene systems.
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports that in late May 1972 former President Richard M. Nixon went to Moscow and signed, among other documents, a Treaty to Limit Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems. Under this agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union made a commitment not to build nationwide ABM defenses against the other's intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They agreed to limit ABM deployments to a maximum of two sites, with no more than 100 launchers per site. Thirteen of the treaty's sixteen articles are intended to prevent any deviation from this. In addition, a joint Standing Consultative Commission to monitor compliance was created. National technical means --- sophisticated monitoring devices on land, sea, and in space --- were to be the primary instruments used to monitor compliance with the treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed in conjunction with an Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms
Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.
2000-01-01
This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.
A ballistic motion disrupted by Bragg reflections
Clark, Jeremy Thane
2012-01-01
I study a Lindblad dynamics modeling a quantum test particle in a Dirac comb that collides with particles from a background gas. The main result is a homogenization theorem in a semi-classical limiting regime involving large mass for the test particle and a rescaling for the strength and period of the Dirac comb. Over the time interval considered, the particle would exhibit essentially ballistic motion if either the singular periodic potential or the kicks from the gas were removed. However, the particle behaves diffusively when both sources of forcing are present. The conversion of the motion from ballistic to diffusive is generated by occasional Bragg reflections that result when the test particle's momentum is driven through a collision near an element of the half-spaced reciprocal lattice of the Dirac comb.
[Wound Ballistics – a Brief Overview].
Bolliger, Stephan A; Eggert, Sebastian; Thali, Michael J
2016-02-01
Wound ballistics examines the specific effect, namely the wound profile, of bullets on the body by firing at synthetic models made of ordnance gelatine, glycerin soap and synthetic bones, validated with real cases from (battlefield) surgery and forensic pathology. Wound profile refers to the penetration depth, the bullet deformation/ fragmentation, the diameter of the permanent and the temporary wound cavity. Knowing these features and the used ammunition a surgeon can rapidly assess the amount damage within a patient. The forensic pathologist can draw conclusions as to the used ammunition based on the wound profile. By measuring of the destructive capability of different ammunition types, wound ballistics lays the foundation for guidelines concerning the maximum effect of military ammunition. PMID:26837321
A ballistic quantum ring Josephson interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the realization of a ballistic Josephson interferometer. The interferometer is made from a quantum ring etched in a nanofabricated two-dimensional electron gas confined in an InAs-based heterostructure laterally contacted to superconducting niobium leads. The Josephson current flowing through the structure shows oscillations with h/e flux periodicity when threading the loop with a perpendicular magnetic field. This periodicity, in sharp contrast with the h/2e one observed in conventional dc superconducting quantum interference devices, confirms the ballistic nature of the device in agreement with theoretical predictions. This system paves the way for the implementation of interferometric Josephson π-junctions, and for the investigation of Majorana fermions. (paper)
Non-Ballistic Motions in Relativistic Jets
Homan, D. C.
2002-12-01
We present results from the 2cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) survey of motions in relativistic jets (Kellermann et al. 1998; Zensus et al. 2002). In particular, we discuss the distribution of non-ballistic motions and present several examples from our sample. The non-ballistic motions we observe are generally in the direction of the downstream jet emission, providing evidence that jet features follow streaming flows in curved, bent jets. We also discuss the jet of the quasar 3C279, which displays a distinct change in the motion of a bright superluminal component. The new motion for this component is along a parallel track to the motion of an older superluminal component, suggesting collimation of the jet may still be occurring at radii (de-projected) of a kiloparsec or more.
Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Radostin, Andrey V.; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady
2016-04-01
Conventionally the interpretation of wave velocities and their variations under load is conducted assuming that closable cracks have simple planar shapes, like the popular model of penny-shape cracks. For such cracks, the proportion between complementary variations in different elastic parameters of rocks (such as S- and P-wave velocities) is strictly pre-determined, in particular, it is independent of the crack aspect ratio and rather weakly dependent on the Poisson's ratio of the intact rock. Real rocks, however, contain multitude of cracks of different geometry. Faces of such cracks can exhibit complex modes of interaction when closed by external load, which may result in very different ratios between normal- and shear compliances of such defects. In order to describe the reduction of different elastic moduli, we propose a model in which the compliances of crack-like defects are explicitly decoupled and are not predetermined, so that the ratio q between total normal- and shear- compliances imparted to the rock mass (as well as individual values of these compliances) can be estimated from experimental data on reduction of different elastic moduli (e.g., pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities). Physically, the so-extracted ratio q can be interpreted as intrinsic property of individual crack-like defects similar to each other, or as a characteristic of proportion between concentrations of pure normal cracks with very large q and pure shear cracks with q→0. The latter case can correspond, e.g., to saturated cracks in which weakly-compressible liquid prevents crack closing under normal loading. It can be shown that for conventional dry planar cracks, the compliance ratio is q ˜2. The developed model applied to the data on wave-velocity variations with external pressure indicates that elastic properties of the real crack-like defects in rocks can differ considerably from the usually assumed ones. Comparison with experimental data on variations P- and S-wave
Ballistic Experiments with Titanium and Aluminum Targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gogolewski, R.; Morgan, B.R.
1999-11-23
During the course of the project we conducted two sets of fundamental experiments in penetration mechanics in the LLNL Terminal Ballistics Laboratory of the Physics Directorate. The first set of full-scale experiments was conducted with a 14.5mm air propelled launcher. The object of the experiments was to determine the ballistic limit speed of 6Al-4V-alloy titanium, low fineness ratio projectiles centrally impacting 2024-T3 alloy aluminum flat plates and the failure modes of the projectiles and the targets. The second set of one-third scale experiments was conducted with a 14.5mm powder launcher. The object of these experiments was to determine the ballistic limit speed of 6Al-4V alloy titanium high fineness ratio projectiles centrally impacting 6Al-4V alloy titanium flat plates and the failure modes of the projectiles and the target. We employed radiography to observe a projectile just before and after interaction with a target plate. Early on, we employed a non-damaging ''soft-catch'' technique to capture projectiles after they perforated targets. Once we realized that a projectile was not damaged during interaction with a target, we used a 4-inch thick 6061-T6-alloy aluminum witness block with a 6.0-inch x 6.0-inch cross-section to measure projectile residual penetration. We have recorded and tabulated below projectile impact speed, projectile residual (post-impact) speed, projectile failure mode, target failure mode, and pertinent comments for the experiments. The ballistic techniques employed for the experiments are similar to those employed in an earlier study.
Diffusive and ballistic thermo-electric transport
Shakouri, Ali
2013-01-01
The efficiency of existing thermoelectric power generators is much lower than mechanical engines. We discuss the similarities and differences between solid-state thermoelectric devices and other thermal engines. In nanostructured materials, non-equilibrium energy and current transport could be important. We describe the transition between ballistic and diffusive regimes and how this can alter the thermoelectric effects and improve the energy conversion efficiency.
Orbital magnetism in ensembles of ballistic billiards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The magnetic response of ensembles of small two-dimensional structures at finite temperatures is calculated. Using semiclassical methods and numerical calculation it is demonstrated that only short classical trajectories are relevant. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in regular systems, where these trajectories appear in families. For ensembles of squares large paramagnetic susceptibility is obtained, in good agreement with recent measurements in the ballistic regime. (authors). 20 refs., 2 figs
Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors
Bocquillon, E.; Freulon, V.; Parmentier, F. D.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T; Grenier, C.; Ferraro, D.; Degiovanni, P.; Fève, G.
2014-01-01
The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in optics like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first ou...
Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions
Chen, Shaowen; Han, Zheng; Elahi, Mirza M.; Habib, K. M. Masum; Wang, Lei; Wen, Bo; Gao, Yuanda; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hone, James; Ghosh, Avik W.; Dean, Cory R.
2016-01-01
Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. M...
Highly efficient spin filtering of ballistic electrons
Steinmuller, S. J.; Trypiniotis, T.; Cho, W. S.; Hirohata, A.; Lew, W. S.; Vaz, C. A.; Bland, J. A.
2004-04-01
Spin dependent electron transport in hybrid Au/Co/Cu/NiFe/n-GaAs spin valve Schottky barrier structures was investigated using photoexcitation at various wavelengths. For excitation with the photon energy well above the Schottky barrier height we found a ˜2400% increase in helicity dependent photocurrent on switching the spin valve from parallel to antiparallel alignment. Our observations provide clear evidence for highly efficient spin filtering of spin polarized ballistic electrons.
RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.
2012-01-01
Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial ...
Use of Z pinch radiation sources for high pressure shock wave studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent developments in pulsed power technology demonstrate use of intense radiation sources (Z pinches) for driving planar shock waves in samples with spatial dimensions larger than possible with other radiation sources. Initial indications are that the use of Z pinch sources can be used to produce planar shock waves in samples with diameters of a few millimeters and thicknesses approaching one half millimeter. These dimensions allow increased accuracy of both shock velocity and particle velocity measurements. The Z pinch radiation source uses imploding metal plasma induced by self-magnetic fields applied to wire arrays to produce high temperature x-ray environments in vacuum hohlraum enclosures. Previous experiments have demonstrated that planar shock waves can be produced with this approach. A photograph of a wire array located inside the vacuum hohlraum is shown here. Typically, a few hundred individual wires are used to produce the Z pinch source. For the shock wave experiments being designed, arrays of 120 to 240 tungsten wires with a diameter of 40 mm and with individual diameters of about 10 microm are used. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the Z pulsed radiation source to demonstrate the ability to obtain VISAR measurements in the Z accelerator environment. Analysis of these results indicate that another effect, not initially anticipated, is an apparent change in refractive index that occurs in the various optical components used in the system. This effect results in an apparent shift in the frequency of reflected laser light, and causes an error in the measured particle velocity. Experiments are in progress to understand and minimize this effect
Analysis of reflected blast wave pressure profiles in a confined room
Sochet, Isabelle; Sauvan, Pierre-Emmanuel; Trelat, Sophie
2012-01-01
To understand the blast effects of confined explosions, it is necessary to study the characteristic parameters of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and arrival time. In a previous study, experiments were performed using two different scales of a pyrotechnic workshop. The main purpose of these experiments was to compare the TNT equivalent for solid and gaseous explosives in terms of mass to define a TNT equivalent in a reflection field and to validate the similitude between real...
Historical overview of wound ballistics research.
Maiden, Nick
2009-01-01
Ballistics involves the study of the scientific properties of projectiles, their behavior and their terminal effects on biological tissues and other materials. Wound ballistics deals with the analysis of injuries caused by projectiles and the behavior of projectiles within human or other biological tissues. The nineteenth century witnessed the development of both of these areas with Kocher's hydrodynamic theory and the understanding of the significance of bullet deformation in causing tissue injury. The degree of traumatic disruption of tissues and organs was also related to direct energy transfer from projectiles. While subsequent research has concentrated on elucidating further mechanisms of injury, the exact cause of remote tissue damage from high energy projectiles is still the subject of ongoing research. Much of the contemporary literature regarding wound ballistics concentrates on the forensic aspects and their application for legal purposes, in particular the investigation of shooting scenes. There have been many advances in this area, particularly in relation to the identification of various types of gunshot wounds and how their appearance can be used to establish if a shooting was accidental, deliberate (homicidal) or self inflicted (suicidal). PMID:19466590
Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers
Parker, Jeffrey S.
2010-01-01
Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.
Stindt, A.; Andrade, M. A. B.; Albrecht, M.; Adamowski, J. C.; Panne, U.; Riedel, J.
2014-01-01
A novel method for predictions of the sound pressure distribution in acoustic levitators is based on a matrix representation of the Rayleigh integral. This method allows for a fast calculation of the acoustic field within the resonator. To make sure that the underlying assumptions and simplifications are justified, this approach was tested by a direct comparison to experimental data. The experimental sound pressure distributions were recorded by high spatially resolved frequency selective microphone scanning. To emphasize the general applicability of the two approaches, the comparative studies were conducted for four different resonator geometries. In all cases, the results show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the accuracy of the matrix method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mo Yuan [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang Weiqing, E-mail: wqhuang2000@yahoo.co [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Guifang, E-mail: gfhuang@hnu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hu Wangyu; Wang Lingling; Pan Anlian [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2011-05-09
We investigate the ballistic phonon transport through a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities in a narrow constriction of a semiconductor nanowire at low temperatures. It is found that the transmission spectrum of such a system consists of quasiband gaps and narrow resonances caused by the coupling of phonon waves. Both phonon transmission and thermal conductance exhibit the similarity due to the Fibonacci sequence structure. The similarity is sensitive to the number n and parameters of nanocavities. The results are compared with those in a periodic acoustic nanocavities. - Highlights: Ballistic phonon transport in a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities is studied. The transmission spectrum consists of quasiband gaps and narrow resonances. Both phonon transmission and thermal conductance exhibit the similarity. The similarity is sensitive to the number and parameters of nanocavities.
Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R
2015-01-01
Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. PMID:25039407
Ballistic transport exceeding 28 \\mu m in CVD grown graphene
Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Engels, Stephan; Goldsche, Matthias; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph
2015-01-01
We report on ballistic transport over more than 28 \\mu m in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. The structures are fabricated by an advanced dry van-der-Waals transfer method and exhibit carrier mobilities of up to three million cm$^2$/(Vs). The ballistic nature of charge transport is probed by measuring the bend resistance in cross- and square-shaped devices. Temperature dependent measurements furthermore prove that ballist...
Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law
Bo Zhang; Shushan Wang; Mengyu Cao; Yuxin Xu
2014-01-01
The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external b...
Some applications of ballistic electron emission microscopy/spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A brief review of ballistic electron emission microscopy and spectroscopy applications is presented. Results of our ballistic electron emission spectroscopy measurements on cleaved n-GaAs are given. The threshold in ballistic current-voltage characteristic is observed at bias 1.93 V which is high above the expected threshold. Explanation of this effect is given in the frame of present theoretical results. (author)
Saito, Masashi; Ikenaga, Yuki; Matsukawa, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Asada, Takaaki; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
2011-12-01
Pulse wave evaluation is an effective method for arteriosclerosis screening. In a previous study, we verified that pulse waveforms change markedly due to arterial stiffness. However, a pulse wave consists of two components, the incident wave and multireflected waves. Clarification of the complicated propagation of these waves is necessary to gain an understanding of the nature of pulse waves in vivo. In this study, we built a one-dimensional theoretical model of a pressure wave propagating in a flexible tube. To evaluate the applicability of the model, we compared theoretical estimations with measured data obtained from basic tube models and a simple arterial model. We constructed different viscoelastic tube set-ups: two straight tubes; one tube connected to two tubes of different elasticity; a single bifurcation tube; and a simple arterial network with four bifurcations. Soft polyurethane tubes were used and the configuration was based on a realistic human arterial network. The tensile modulus of the material was similar to the elasticity of arteries. A pulsatile flow with ejection time 0.3 s was applied using a controlled pump. Inner pressure waves and flow velocity were then measured using a pressure sensor and an ultrasonic diagnostic system. We formulated a 1D model derived from the Navier-Stokes equations and a continuity equation to characterize pressure propagation in flexible tubes. The theoretical model includes nonlinearity and attenuation terms due to the tube wall, and flow viscosity derived from a steady Hagen-Poiseuille profile. Under the same configuration as for experiments, the governing equations were computed using the MacCormack scheme. The theoretical pressure waves for each case showed a good fit to the experimental waves. The square sum of residuals (difference between theoretical and experimental wave-forms) for each case was <10.0%. A possible explanation for the increase in the square sum of residuals is the approximation error for flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on an investigation of the hybrid pulsed sputtering source based on the combination of electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) inductively coupled plasma and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of a Ti target. The plasma source, operated in an Ar atmosphere at a very low pressure of 0.03 Pa, provides plasma where the major fraction of sputtered particles is ionized. It was found that ECWR assistance increases the electron temperature during the HiPIMS pulse. The discharge current and electron density can achieve their stable maximum 10 μs after the onset of the HiPIMS pulse. Further, a high concentration of double charged Ti++ with energies of up to 160 eV was detected. All of these facts were verified experimentally by time-resolved emission spectroscopy, retarding field analyzer measurement, Langmuir probe, and energy-resolved mass spectrometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The shock wave acceleration of ions driven by laser-heated thermal pressure is studied through one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and analysis. The generation of high-energy mono-energetic protons in recent experiments (D. Haberberger et al., 2012 Nat. Phys. 8 95) is attributed to the use of exponentially decaying density profile of the plasma target. It does not only keep the shock velocity stable but also suppresses the normal target normal sheath acceleration. The effects of target composition are also examined, where a similar collective velocity of all ion species is demonstrated. The results also give some reference to future experiments of producing energetic heavy ions. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries
Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.
2013-01-01
The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atmospheric pressure ionization waves (IWs) propagating in flexible capillary tubes are a unique way of transporting a plasma and its active species to remote sites for applications such as biomedical procedures, particularly in endoscopic procedures. The propagation mechanisms for such IWs in tubes having aspect ratios of hundreds to thousands are not clear. In this paper, results are discussed from a numerical investigation of the fundamental properties of ionization waves generated by nanosecond voltage pulses inside a 15 cm long, 600 µm wide (aspect ratio 250), flexible dielectric channel. The channel, filled with a Ne/Xe = 99.9/0.1 gas mixture at 1 atm, empties into a small chamber separated from a target substrate by 1 cm. The IWs propagate through the entire length of the channel while maintaining similar strength and magnitude. Upon exiting the channel into the chamber, the IW induces a second streamer discharge at the channel–chamber junction. This streamer then propagates across the chamber and impinges upon the target. The average speeds of the capillary-bounded IW are about 5 × 107 cm s−1 and 1 × 108 cm s−1 for positive and negative polarities, respectively. The propagation speed is sensitive to the curvature of the channel. In both cases, the peak in ionization tends to be located along the channel walls and alternates from side-to-side depending on the direction of the local instantaneous electric field and curvature of the channel. The ionization region following the IW extends up to several centimeters inside the channel, as opposed to being highly localized at the ionization front in unconstrained, atmospheric pressure IWs. The maximum speed of the IW in the chamber is about twice that in the channel. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anxin Wang
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV as a maker of arterial stiffness. METHODS: The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP. RESULTS: The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001 linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001 with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR: 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI:1.46,5.08 and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72. Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of two works on the topic 'propagation and effect of nuclear pressure waves in the ground and in rocks' are given in this report. The first part deals with fundamentals and preliminary results of a numerical computer programme to calculate the spherically symmetrical pressure wave propagation in viscoelastic and elastoplastic media. The second part deals with the application of existing programmes to calculate the building stress in the subseismic region of air-blast induced ground pressure waves. (orig./LH)
Tatsios, Giorgos; Stefanov, Stefan K.; Valougeorgis, Dimitris
2015-06-01
The well-known Knudsen paradox observed in pressure driven rarefied gas flows through long capillaries is quantitatively explored by decomposing the particle distribution function into its ballistic and collision parts. The classical channel, tube, and duct Poiseuille flows are considered. The solution is obtained by a typical direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm supplemented by a suitable particle decomposition indexation process. It is computationally confirmed that in the free-molecular and early transition regimes the reduction rate of the ballistic flow is larger than the increase rate of the collision flow deducing the Knudsen minimum of the overall flow. This description interprets in a precise, quantitative manner the appearance of the Knudsen minimum and verifies previously reported qualitative physical arguments.
Improved theory of generalized meteo-ballistic weighting factor functions and their use
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Vladimir Cech
2016-06-01
Full Text Available It follows from the analysis of artillery fire errors that approximately two-thirds of the inaccuracy of indirect artillery fire is caused by inaccuracies in the determination of the meteo parameters included in fire error budget model. Trajectories calculated under non-standard conditions are considered to be perturbed. The tools utilized for the analysis of perturbed trajectories are weighting factor functions (WFFs which are a special kind of sensitivity functions. WFFs are used for calculation of meteo ballistic elements µB (ballistic wind wB, density ρB, virtual temperature τB, pressure pB as well. We have found that the existing theory of WFF calculation has several significant shortcomings. The aim of the article is to present a new, improved theory of generalized WFFs that eliminates the deficiencies found. Using this theory will improve methods for designing firing tables, fire control systems algorithms, and meteo message generation algorithms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falcao, Carlos E.G.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br; Hanriot, Sergio M. [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mail: hanriot@pucminas.br
2010-07-01
The work investigates the pressure waves behavior in the intake system of an internal combustion engine. For the purpose of examining this problem, it was chosen an experimental study in order to validate the results of the present simulation. At the literature there are several experimental studies, and some numerical simulations, but the most of the numerical studies treat the problem only in one dimension in practical problems, or two dimensions in specific problems. Using a CFD code it is possible to analyze more complex systems, including tridimensional effects. The pulsating phenomenon is originated from the periodic movement of the intake valve, and produces waves that propagate within the system. The intake system studied was composed by a straight pipe connected to a 1000 cc engine with a single operating cylinder. The experiments were carried out in a flow bench. In the present work, the governing equations was discretized by Finite Volumes Method with an explicit formulation, and the time integration was made using the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The solution is independent of mesh or time step. The numerical analysis presents a good agreement with the experimental results. (author)
The internal ballistics of a high: low pressure gun
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J. N. Kapur
1957-04-01
Full Text Available In the present paper the system of equations for the Non-Isothermal Model for a H/L gun has been developed and from this, the systems of equations for Isothermal and Non-isothermal models for orthodox gun and solid fuel rockets have been deduced. The Non-Isothermal Model for H/L gun has been integrated for a tubular charge. For isothermal model, reduction to an equivalent non-leaking problem has been discussed and the partially non-isothermal model has been integrated for the linear law. After all-burnt modification needed in Corner's energy equation is obtained.
Two-wave photon Doppler velocimetry measurements in direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar experiments
Lea, Lewis J.; Jardine, Andrew P.
2015-09-01
Direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar systems offer many potential advantages over split Hopkinson pressure bars, including access to higher strain rates, higher strains for equivalent striker velocity and system length, lower dispersion and faster achievement of force equilibrium. Currently advantages are gained at a significant cost: the fact that input bar data is unavailable removes all information about the striker impacted specimen face, preventing the determination of force equilibrium, and requiring approximations to be made on the sample deformation history. Recently photon Doppler velocimetry methods have been developed, which can replace strain gauges on Hopkinson bars. In this paper we discuss an experimental method and complementary data analysis for using Doppler velocimetry to measure surface velocities of the striker and output bars in a direct impact bar experiment, allowing similar data to be recorded as in a split bar system, with the same level of convenience. We discuss extracting velocity and force measurements, and improving the accuracy and convenience of Doppler velocimetry on Hopkinson bars. Results obtained using the technique are compared to equivalent split bar tests, showing improved stress measurements for the lowest and highest strains.
Two-wave photon Doppler velocimetry measurements in direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lea Lewis J.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar systems offer many potential advantages over split Hopkinson pressure bars, including access to higher strain rates, higher strains for equivalent striker velocity and system length, lower dispersion and faster achievement of force equilibrium. Currently advantages are gained at a significant cost: the fact that input bar data is unavailable removes all information about the striker impacted specimen face, preventing the determination of force equilibrium, and requiring approximations to be made on the sample deformation history. Recently photon Doppler velocimetry methods have been developed, which can replace strain gauges on Hopkinson bars. In this paper we discuss an experimental method and complementary data analysis for using Doppler velocimetry to measure surface velocities of the striker and output bars in a direct impact bar experiment, allowing similar data to be recorded as in a split bar system, with the same level of convenience. We discuss extracting velocity and force measurements, and improving the accuracy and convenience of Doppler velocimetry on Hopkinson bars. Results obtained using the technique are compared to equivalent split bar tests, showing improved stress measurements for the lowest and highest strains.
Ballistic thermoelectric properties in boron nitride nanoribbons
Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Tang, Li-Ming; Pan, Chang-Ning; Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu
2013-10-01
Ballistic thermoelectric properties (TPs) in boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNRs) are studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. A comparative analysis for TPs between BNNRs and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is made. Results show that the TPs of BNNRs are better than those of GNRs stemming from the higher power factor and smaller thermal conductance of BNNRs. With increasing the ribbon width, the maximum value of ZT (ZTmax) of BNNRs exhibits a transformation from the monotonic decrease to nonlinear increase. We also show that the lattice defect can enhance the ZTmax of these nanoribbons strongly depending on its positions and the edge shape.
Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔEinj=10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
The Mechanical and Ballistic Properties of Polycarbonate
Edwards, M R; Waterfall, H.
2008-01-01
Polycarbonate is commonly used as the material of riot shields. Firings of 8.3 g steel ball bearings at velocities of 23-98 ms-1 produced damage in the form of dents. Subsequent tensile testing showed a small drop in yield strength and ductility for impact velocities greater than 58 ms-1. This drop in yield strength and ductility was more marked for specimens that had been soaked in acetone for 10 minutes after ballistic impact. Soaking in n- heptane produced no similar effect ...
Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Wenninger, Jorg; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2016-01-01
The ballistic optics is designed to improve the understanding of optical errors and BPM systematic effects in the critical triplet region. The particularity of that optics is that the triplet is switched off, effectively transforming the triplets on both sides of IR1 and IR5 into drift spaces. Advantage can be taken from that fact to localize better errors in the Q4-Q5-triplet region. During this MD this new optics was tested for the first time at injection with beam 2.
Real-world ballistics: A dropped bucket
Hogg, David W.
2007-01-01
I discuss an apparently simple ballistics problem: the time it takes an object to fall a small vertical distance near the surface of the Earth. It turns out to be not so simple; I spend a great deal of time on the quantitative assessment of the assumptions involved, especially with regards to the influence of the air. The point is \\emph{not} to solve the problem; indeed I don't even end up solving the problem exactly. I introduce dimensional analysis to perform all of the calculations approxi...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brossard, L.; Ribault, M. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)); Canadell, E. (Lab. de Chimie Theorique, Univ. Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)); Valade, L.; Legros, J.P. (Lab. de Chimie de Coordination, Univ. P. Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France))
1991-06-14
The pressure-temperature phase diagram of the molecular superconductor TTF(Ni(dmit){sub 2}){sub 2} was determined by a.c. resistivity measurements up to 14 kbar. Increasing pressures induce electronic phase tranistions between a high temperature metal and successive, semimetallic, insulating and reentrant superconducting ground states. This phase diagram is discussed in connection with ambient pressure charge density wave (CDW) instabilities. Their wave vector can be well accounted for by an original conduction band structure. This structure involves both the partially filled HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) bands of the acceptor slabs. The superconductivity coexists with a high temperature CDW instability and is in weak competition with low temperature CDW fluctuations. This explains the pressure increase of the superconducting temperature T{sub c}. (orig.).
Sub-ballistic behavior in the quantum kicked rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the resonances of the quantum kicked rotor subjected to an excitation that follows an aperiodic Fibonacci prescription. In such a case the secondary resonances show a sub-ballistic behavior like the quantum walk with the same aperiodic prescription for the coin. The principal resonances maintain the well-known ballistic behavior
Heat spike and ballistic contributions to mixing in Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied atomic mixing in silicon by the classical molecular dynamics method, and directly compared the simulated data to experimental measurements. The relative importance of ballistic collisions and heat spike to the mixing is considered. We obtain a fairly good agreement between experiments and simulations. The heat spike contribution to the total mixing seems to be much lower than that of ballistic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The velocities of compressional waves have been determined for several igneous and metamorphic rocks to temperatures of 5000C at elevated confining pressures. At 2 kbar and between 250 and 3000C, temperature coefficients (partialV/sub p//partialT)/sub p/ for many of the rocks range between -0.5 x 10-3 and -0.6 x 10-3 km s-10C-1. At higher temperatures and 2 kbar the temperature coefficients show extreme variability, which is related to the opening of grain boundary cracks caused by anisotropic thermal expansion of the mineral components. Critical thermal gradients (dT/ dZ)/sub c/ for a low-velocity layer in the continental crust at pressures of 5--8 kbar are between 100 and 140C/km. These values are probably high because of porosity; however, they are still lower than estimated crustal temperature gradients in normal and high heat flow provinces. Thus it is concluded that crustal velocity inversions produced by high temperature are likely to be common within the crust. It is significant, however, that the velocity decreases reported for some crustal low-velocity layers are much greater than the decrease which can be accounted for by temperature alone. At higher pressures (10--30 kbar), (dT/dZ)/sub c/=6.30C/km for dunite and eclogite, in excellent agreement with estimates from single-crystal data. The velocities in dunite as a function of temperature further support the conclusion that the observed increase in upper oceanic mantle velocity with age is a consequence of decreasing temperature
Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law
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Bo Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Yu. Klimushkin
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, in terms of an axisymmetric model of the magnetosphere, we formulate the criteria for which the Alfvén waves in the magnetosphere can be toroidally and poloidally polarized (the disturbed magnetic field vector oscillates azimuthally and radially, respectively. The obvious condition of equality of the wave frequency ω to the toroidal (poloidal eigenfrequency Ω_{TN} (Ω_{PN} is a necessary and sufficient one for the toroidal polarization of the mode and only a necessary one for the poloidal mode. In the latter case we must also add to it a significantly stronger condition ∣Ω_{TN}–Ω_{PN}∣/Ω_{TN} ≫ m^{–1} where m is the azimuthal wave number, and N is the longitudinal wave number. In cold plasma (the plasma to magnetic pressure ratio β = 0 the left-hand side of this inequality is too small for the routinely recorded (in the magnetosphere second harmonic of radially polarized waves, therefore these waves must have nonrealistically large values of m. By studying several models of the magnetosphere differing by the level of disturbance, we found that the left-hand part of the poloidality criterion can be satisfied by taking into account finite plasma pressure for the observed values of m ∼ 50 – 100 (and in some cases, for even smaller values of the azimuthal wave numbers. When the poloidality condition is satisfied, the existence of two types of radially polarized Alfvén waves is possible. In magnetospheric regions, where the function Ω_{PN} is a monotonic one, the mode is poloidally polarized in a part of its region of localization. It propagates slowly across magnetic shells and changes its polarization from poloidal to toroidal. The other type of radially polarized waves can exist in those regions where this function reaches its extreme values (ring current
Materials Database Development for Ballistic Impact Modeling
Pereira, J. Michael
2007-01-01
A set of experimental data is being generated under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonics project to help create and validate accurate computational impact models of jet engine impact events. The data generated will include material property data generated at a range of different strain rates, from 1x10(exp -4)/sec to 5x10(exp 4)/sec, over a range of temperatures. In addition, carefully instrumented ballistic impact tests will be conducted on flat plates and curved structures to provide material and structural response information to help validate the computational models. The material property data and the ballistic impact data will be generated using materials from the same lot, as far as possible. It was found in preliminary testing that the surface finish of test specimens has an effect on measured high strain rate tension response of AL2024. Both the maximum stress and maximum elongation are greater on specimens with a smoother finish. This report gives an overview of the testing that is being conducted and presents results of preliminary testing of the surface finish study.
Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium
Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.
2009-01-01
Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.
Ballistic electron spectroscopy of semiconductor heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A systematic study of electron transport through semiconductor superlattices in the transition region between coherent and scattering induced transport is performed. The measurements are carried out using a hot electron transistor as an electron spectrometer. A quasi monoenergetic, variable energy, ballistic hot electron beam is generated by a tunneling barrier injector and used to probe the intrinsic heterostructure transport properties as a function of a uniform electric field. Under flat band conditions the eigenstates of a periodic structure extend over the entire length of the superlattice forming minibands. From the measured transfer ratios, miniband positions and miniband widths are determined and compared to the results from self consistent calculations. The transmittance of the superlattice at different superlattice bias conditions is measured by varying the energy of the injected hot electron beam. For a superlattice longer than the coherence length, the transmission becomes asymmetric and dependent on the electric field direction. The onset of scattering induced miniband transport is clearly evident and the transition between coherent and incoherent electron transport in superlattices is observed for the first time. A coherence length of 150 nm and a scattering time of 1 ps is determined. The experimental result is in good agreement to a fully three dimensional calculation including interface roughness with typical island sizes of 10 mn. This clearly demonstrates that interface roughness scattering limits the coherence length of ballistic electrons in the superlattice. (author)
Short report of an unusual ballistic trauma
Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Pinto, Giorgia; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna
2011-01-01
INTRODUCTION Portable firearms have a relevant medico-legal interest, being a major cause of injury. Bullet entry wounds generally have a particular appearance, including contusion, skin introflection, and simple or excoriated ecchymosis. The skin wound is typically a hole with frayed margins, whose diameter is smaller than that of the bullet. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 19-year-old man with ballistic trauma. Examination of the patient's lesions indicated that the bullet had entered from the left mandibular parasymphysis, creating a small hole without the typical bullet wipe and blackening. Subsequently, the bullet seemed to have fractured the left chin region immediately below the lower alveolar process, and it finally stopped in the submandibular area in the suprahyoid region of the neck. DISCUSSION This case is peculiar because the distinctive features of a firearm injury were absent; the lack of bleeding and edema made the case difficult to interpret without additional diagnostic investigations. CONCLUSION Ballistic trauma can manifest in different ways; therefore, internal trauma should be suspected even in the absence of clear external signs. This case report shows how an unusual bullet entry hole can mask quite serious injuries. PMID:22096751
Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Shur, M.
2016-05-01
An alternative approach of using a distributed transmission line analogy for solving transport equations for ballistic nanostructures is applied for solving the three-dimensional problem of electron transport in gated ballistic nanostructures with periodically changing width. The structures with varying width allow for modulation of the electron drift velocity while keeping the plasma velocity constant. We predict that in such structures biased by a constant current, a periodic modulation of the electron drift velocity due to the varying width results in the instability of the plasma waves if the electron drift velocity to plasma wave velocity ratio changes from below to above unity. The physics of such instability is similar to that of the sonic boom, but, in the periodically modulated structures, this analog of the sonic boom is repeated many times leading to a larger increment of the instability. The constant plasma velocity in the sections of different width leads to resonant excitation of the unstable plasma modes with varying bias current. This effect (that we refer to as the superplasmonic boom condition) results in a strong enhancement of the instability. The predicted instability involves the oscillating dipole charge carried by the plasma waves. The plasmons can be efficiently coupled to the terahertz electromagnetic radiation due to the periodic geometry of the gated structure. Our estimates show that the analyzed instability should enable powerful tunable terahertz electronic sources.
Schropp, Andreas; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Arnold, Brice; Galtier, Eric C.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Hastings, Jerome B.; Schroer, Christian G.
2012-10-01
Current and upcoming X-ray sources, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC, USA), the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA, Japan), or the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL, Germany) will provide X-ray beams with outstanding properties.1, 2 Short and intense X-ray pulses of about 50 fs time duration and even shorter will push X-ray science to new frontiers such as, e. g., in high-resolution X-ray imaging, high-energy-density physics or in dynamical studies based on pump-probe techniques. Fast processes in matter often require high-resolution imaging capabilities either by magnified imaging in direct space or diffractive imaging in reciprocal space. In both cases highest resolutions require focusing the X-ray beam.3, 4 In order to further develop high-resolution imaging at free-electron laser sources we are planning a platform to carry out high-resolution phase contrast imaging experiments based on Beryllium compound refractive X-ray lenses (Be-CRLs) at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the LCLS. The instrument provides all necessary equipment to induce high pressure shock waves by optical lasers. The propagation of a shock wave is then monitored with an X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) pulse by magnified phase contrast imaging. With the CRL optics, X-ray beam sizes in the sub-100nm range are expected, leading to a similar spatial resolution in the direct coherent projection image. The experiment combines different state-of-the art scientific techniques that are currently available at the LCLS. In this proceedings paper we describe the technical developments carried out at the LCLS in order to implement magnified X-ray phase contrast imaging at the MEC endstation.
Verma, Pankaaj; Bhujbal, J. G.; Ghavate, R. B.; Darekar, S. D.; Singh, R. V.
2013-06-01
Boron is a preferred metal in air augmented propulsion because of its very high heat of combustion per unit mass and per unit volume. But oxide layer (B2O3) formed on its surface inhibits the combustion of boron. Use of fluorocarbon binder can be a promising approach for the improved ignition of boron. In the present study Fuel Rich Propellant composition based on Boron / Ammonium Perchlorate / vinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene terpolymer (Viton-B) as a fluorocarbon binder is processed. The objective of the study is to improve mechanical and ballistic properties of the propellant; Viton-B is partially replaced by other binders like estane, polymethyl metha acrylate, polystyrene and irostic. The different compositions are tested for mechanical properties like ultimate compressive strength (UCS), % Compression and Modulus by Universal Testing Machine following ASTM standard D695-02A; and ballistic properties like pressure exponent value (`n' value) and rate of burning constant value by strand burner technique. It is observed that as Viton is partially replaced; mechanical properties improve; and ballistic properties decrease. From the results, it is concluded that estane can be used as partial replacement of Viton-B, as value of UCS increases by 27% and burn rate & `n' value is comparable with the full Viton-B binder composition.
Molecular dynamics simulation of cascade-induced ballistic helium resolutioning from bubbles in iron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to assess the ability of atomic displacement cascades to eject helium from small bubbles in iron. This study of the ballistic resolutioning mechanism employed a recently-developed Fe–He interatomic potential in concert with an iron potential developed by Ackland and co-workers. The primary variables examined were: irradiation temperature (100 and 600 K), cascade energy (5 and 20 keV), bubble radius (0.5 and 1.0 nm), and He-to-vacancy ratio in the bubble (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0). Systematic trends were observed for each of these variables. For example, ballistic resolutioning leads to a greater number of helium atoms being displaced from larger bubbles and from bubbles that have a higher He/vacancy ratio (bubble pressure). He resolutioning was reduced at 600 K relative to 100 K, and for 20 keV cascades relative to 5 keV cascades. Overall, the results indicate a modest level of He removal by ballistic resolutioning. The results may be particularly relevant to fusion irradiation conditions which produces high levels of helium by transmutation. They can be used to provide initial guidance in selection of a “resolution parameter” that can be employed in kinetic models to predict the bubble size distribution that evolves under irradiation
Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.
2014-06-01
Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The DAPSY code is explained to be a universal tool for simulating and describing dynamic load effects on pipings, internals and components, and valves in the coolant loop. Excitation of pressure waves primarily is due to pipe rupture which leads to rapid pressure reduction. This is why the code very carefully calculates critical blowdown rates also for the case of only partial rupture with reduced outflow, as thus the course of disturbance is described that affects the system. A network method is presented for calculation of multidimensional geometries. As the pressure wave phenomena are observed in a low-compressibility fluid and in a system with sometimes very flexible structural components, the fluid-structure interactions are taken into account. The model presented allows to consider either quasi-static structural behaviour, or dynamic interaction of fluid and structure, depending on the configuration characteristics. (orig./HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Populations of small helium gas bubbles were introduced into a flowing mercury experiment test loop to evaluate mitigation of beam-pulse induced cavitation damage and pressure waves. The test loop was developed and thoroughly tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) prior to irradiations at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center–Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE–WNR) facility. Twelve candidate bubblers were evaluated over a range of mercury flow and gas injection rates by use of a novel optical measurement technique that accurately assessed the generated small bubble size distributions. Final selection for irradiation testing included two variations of a swirl bubbler provided by Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) collaborators and one orifice bubbler developed at SNS. Bubble populations of interest consisted of sizes up to 150 μm in radius with achieved gas volume fractions in the 10−5–10−4 range. The nominal WNR beam pulse used for the experiment created energy deposition in the mercury comparable to SNS pulses operating at 2.5 MW. Nineteen test conditions were completed each with 100 pulses, including variations on mercury flow, gas injection and protons per pulse. The principal measure of cavitation damage mitigation was pitting damage assessment on test specimens that were manually replaced for each test condition. Damage assessment was done after radiation decay and decontamination by optical and laser profiling microscopy with damaged area fraction and maximum pit depth being the more valued results. Damage was reduced by flow alone; the best mitigation from bubble injection was to one-third that of stagnant mercury. Other data collected included surface motion tracking by three Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDV), test loop wall dynamic strain, beam diagnostics for charge and beam profile assessment, embedded hydrophones and pressure sensors, and sound measurement by a suite of conventional and contact microphones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elibet Chávez González
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction:The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension.Objective:To determine the dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population.Methods: Five hundred and fifteen children from three elementary schools were studiedfrom a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed.Results: A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r= 0.32, p <0.01 and r= 0.33, p <0.01, respectively. There was a significant correlation found between PWD and the left atrial area (r= 0.45 and p <0.01.Conclusions: We highlight the dependency between PWD, the electrocardiogram and mean blood pressure. We also draw attention to the dependence of PWD on the left atrial area. This result provides an explanation for earlier changes in atrial electrophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics in pediatric patients.
Ballistic properties of bidirectional fiber/resin composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of the research was to make evaluation of the ballistic strength of four different fiber/resin composites intended to be used in manufacturing of ballistic items for personal protection. Research has been performed on glass, ballistic nylon, aramid and HPPE (High Performance Polyethylene) plainly woven fabric based composites. As a matrix system, in all cases, polyvinylbutyral modified phenolic resin was used. For the investigation, areal weight range 2 - 9 kg/m2 chosen was, which is applicable for personal ballistic protection and the ultimate resin content range 20 - 50 vol.%. Ballistic test of the composites has shown that the best results exhibit HPPE based composites; aramid based composites have been the second best followed by the polyamide based composites. The worst results have been shown by the glass based composites. All composites with lower resin content (20%) have performed much better than their counterparts with higher resin content (50 %).The plot of the ballistic strength (V50) versus areal weight has shown a linear increase of V50 with the increase of areal weight. The ballistic strength of the composites is highly dependant on the fiber/resin ratio and increases with the increase of the fiber content. (Author)
Kazmierski, Tom; Zhou, Dafeng; Al-Hashimi, Bashir; Ashburn, Peter
2010-01-01
This paper presents an efficient carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor modeling technique which is based on cubic spline approximation of the non-equilibrium mobile charge density. The approximation facilitates the solution of the selfconsistent voltage equation in a carbon nanotube so that calculation of the CNT drain-source current is accelerated by at least two orders of magnitude. A salient feature of the proposed technique is its ability to incorporate both ballistic and nonballistic transpor...
Study on Titanium Alloy TC4 Ballistic Penetration Resistance Part Ⅰ: Ballistic Impact Tests
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Tao; CHEN Wei; GUAN Yupu; GAO Deping
2012-01-01
Ballistic impact test of different-scale casings is an efficient way to demonstrate the casing containment capability at the preliminary design stage of the engine.For the sake of studying the titanium alloy TC4 casing performance,the ballistic tests of flat and curved simulation casing are implemented by using two flat blades of different sizes as the projectile.The impact mechanism and failure of the target are discussed.Impact of the projectile is a highly nonlinear transient process with the large deformation of the target.On the impact,failures of the flat casing and the subscale casing are similar,concluding two parts,the global dishing and localized ductile tearing.The main localized failure mode combines plugging (shear) and petaling (shear) if the projectile perforates or penetrates,while crater (shear) if the projectile rebounds.The ballistic limit equation is verified by the test data and the results show that this empirical equation could be a practical way to estimate the critical velocity.
Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers
Lin, Zhiwei; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Kireev, Victor V.; Rubtsov, Igor V.
2013-03-01
Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.
Ballistics firearm identification by digital holography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Dong-guang
2009-01-01
The need for firearm identification systems by police services continues to increase with greater accessibility to weapons in the national and international contexts. The difficulties associated with traditional imaging of ballistics specimens are numerous, and include the smallness of the samples, the nature of the surfaces and shapes for the cartridge cases and projectiles. The digital holography has been introduced to create the 3D image of the fired bullets in order to identify firearms. In digital holography a CCD camera records optically generated holograms which is then reconstructed numerically by a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. The digital photography facilitates real time transmission of the message via traditional communication methods. In this paper the principle of digital holography and its application to the 3D image encryption-decryption were reviewed. The experimental results of firearm identification recording using digital holography and their numerical reconstruction were presented.
Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions
Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes; Power, Stephen R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Tegenkamp, Christoph
2016-05-01
We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed by in situ transport measurements at various temperatures. The energies of the resonances are determined by the size of the constrictions, which can be controlled precisely using STM lithography. The temperature and size dependence of the measured conductances are in quantitative agreement with tight-binding calculations. The fact that these interference effects are visible even at room temperature makes the reported devices attractive as building blocks for future carbon based electronics.
Design of a ballistic fluxon qubit readout
Herr Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna; Fedorov, Arkady; Shnirman, Alexander; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Schön, Gerd
2007-11-01
A detailed design is given for a flux qubit readout using ballistic fluxons. In this scheme, fluxons propagate through an underdamped Josephson transmission line (JTL) coupled to the qubit, whose state affects the fluxon propagation time. For strong qubit-JTL coupling, and far from the symmetry point, a qubit can be measured with fidelity greater than 99% and measurement time of 4 ns. The readout circuit requires additional rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) interface circuitry to launch and receive the delayed flux solitons. The parameters of this driver and receiver have been optimized to produce low fluxon speed at launch and impedance matching at the receiver. The delayed solitons are compared to a reference line using a detector with time resolution of better than 16 ps. Both the JTL and RSFQ interface were designed for the Nb 30 A cm-2 process developed at VTT, Finland, with postdeposition of the Al qubit at IPHT, Germany.
Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kireev Victor V.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.
Gate tuneable beamsplitter in ballistic graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rickhaus, Peter; Makk, Péter, E-mail: Peter.Makk@unibas.ch; Schönenberger, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Liu, Ming-Hao; Richter, Klaus [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2015-12-21
We present a beam splitter in a suspended, ballistic, multiterminal, bilayer graphene device. By using local bottomgates, a p-n interface tilted with respect to the current direction can be formed. We show that the p-n interface acts as a semi-transparent mirror in the bipolar regime and that the reflectance and transmittance of the p-n interface can be tuned by the gate voltages. Moreover, by studying the conductance features appearing in magnetic field, we demonstrate that the position of the p-n interface can be moved by 1 μm. The herein presented beamsplitter device can form the basis of electron-optic interferometers in graphene.
Ballistic Transport in Graphene Antidot Lattices.
Sandner, Andreas; Preis, Tobias; Schell, Christian; Giudici, Paula; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan
2015-12-01
The bulk carrier mobility in graphene was shown to be enhanced in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures. However, nanopatterning graphene can add extra damage and drastically degrade the intrinsic properties by edge disorder. Here we show that graphene embedded into a heterostructure with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on both sides is protected during a nanopatterning step. In this way, we can prepare graphene-based antidot lattices where the high mobility is preserved. We report magnetotransport experiments in those antidot lattices with lattice periods down to 50 nm. We observe pronounced commensurability features stemming from ballistic orbits around one or several antidots. Due to the short lattice period in our samples, we can also explore the boundary between the classical and the quantum transport regime, as the Fermi wavelength of the electrons approaches the smallest length scale of the artificial potential. PMID:26598218
Statistics of magnetoconductance in ballistic cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The statistical properties of magnetoconductance in ballistic microcavities are investigated numerically. The distribution of conductance for chaotic cavities is found to follow the renormalized Porter-Thomas distribution suggested by random-matrix theory for the Gaussian ensemble while the conductance distribution of regular cavities in magnetic fields is nonuniversal and shifted towards the maximum value for a given number of open channels. The renormalized Porter-Thomas distribution implies a universal dependence of fluctuation amplitude on the mean conductance for chaotic cavities in the absence of time-reversal symmetry. The fluctuation amplitude for regular cavities is found to be larger than the saturation value of the fluctuation amplitude of chaotic cavities predicted by random-matrix theory. The change of the mean conductance as a function of the external magnetic field is consistent with semiclassical predictions
Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration
Glick, R. L.
2011-10-01
Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).
Masnadi, Naeem
2016-01-01
The unsteady response of a water free surface to a localized pressure source moving at constant speed $U$ in the range $0.95c_\\mathrm{min} \\lesssim U \\leq 1.02 c_\\mathrm{min}$, where $c_\\mathrm{min}$ is the minimum phase speed of linear gravity-capillary waves in deep water, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. This unsteady response state, which consists of a V-shaped pattern behind the source and features periodic shedding of pairs of depressions from the tips of the V, was first observed qualitatively by Diorio et al. (Phys. Rev. Let., 103, 214502, 2009) and called state III. In the present investigation, cinematic shadowgraph and refraction-based techniques are utilized to measure the temporal evolution of the free surface deformation pattern downstream of the source as it moves along a towing tank, while numerical simulations using the model equation proposed by Cho et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 672, 288-306, 2011) are used to extend the experimental results over longer times than are...
Maxit, Laurent
2016-08-01
This paper investigates the modeling of a vibrating structure excited by a turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Although the wall pressure field (WPF) of the TBL constitutes a random excitation, the element-based methods generally used for describing complex mechanical structures consider deterministic loads. The response of such structures to a random excitation like TBL is generally deduced from calculations of numerous Frequency Response Functions. Consequently, the process is computationally expansive. To tackle this issue, an efficient process is proposed for generating realizations of the WPF corresponding to the TBL. This process is based on a formulation of the problem in the wavenumber space and the interpretation of the WPF as uncorrelated wall plane waves. Once the WPF has been synthesized, the local vibroacoustic responses are calculated for the different realizations and averaged together in the last step. A numerical application of this process to a plate located beneath a TBL is used to verify its efficiency and ability to reproduce the partial space correlation of the excitation. To further illustrate the proposed method, a stiffened panel modeled using the finite element method is finally examined. PMID:27586754
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytical model has been developed to study the nuclear-coupled density-wave instability in the Indian advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) which is a natural circulation pressure tube type boiling water reactor. The model considers a point kinetics model for the neutron dynamics and a lumped parameter model for the fuel thermal dynamics along with the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy and equation of state for the coolant. In addition, to study the effect of neutron interactions between different parts of the core, the model considers a coupled multipoint kinetics equation in place of simple point kinetics equation. Linear stability theory was applied to reveal the instability of in-phase and out-of-phase modes in the boiling channels of the AHWR. The results indicate that the stability behavior of the reactor is greatly influenced by the void reactivity coefficient, fuel time constant, radial power distribution and channel inlet orificing. The delayed neutrons were found to have a strong influence on the Type I and Type II instabilities observed at low and high channel powers, respectively. Also, it was found that the coupled multipoint kinetics model and the modal point kinetics model predict the same threshold power for out-of-phase instability if the coupling coefficient in the former model is half the eigen value separation between the fundamental and the first harmonic mode in the latter model. Decay ratio maps were predicted considering various operating parameters of the reactor, which are useful for its design. (orig.)
Laminated metals composites fracture and ballistic impact behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.
1998-01-20
Recent advances in the fracture and ballistic impact response of laminated metal composites (LMCs) are reviewed. The laminate structure can provide significant improvements to these properties relative to the component materials. Typical fracture and ballistic impact properties in LMCs are illustrated for systems containing Al alloys and Al matrix composites. The unique mechanisms operating in a layered structure that contribute to fracture or ballistic impact resistance are discussed. The influence of laminate architecture, component material properties and interface strength on mechanisms and properties are briefly reviewed for these Al-based LMCs.
19 mm ballistic range: a potpourri of techniques and recipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The expansion of ballistic gun range facilities at LLL has introduced state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques to glovebox-enclosed ballistic guns systems. These enclosed ballistic ranges are designed for the study of one-dimensional shock phenomena in extremely toxic material such as plutonium. The extension of state-of-the-art phtographic and interferometric diagnostic systems to glovebox-enclosed gun systems introduces new design boundaries and performance criteria on optical and mechanical components. A technique for experimentally evaluating design proposals is illustrated, and several specific examples (such as, target alignment, collateral shrapnel damage, and soft recovery) are discussed
Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan
Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.
2015-01-01
Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099
Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene
Comparative study on sintered alumina for ballistic shielding application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a development of the armor made from special ceramic materials and kevlar. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the ballistic penetration resistance on three samples taken from sintered alumina: a commercial one and two formulations A and B made in IAE/CTA. The main differences between the two formulations was the grain size and bend resistance. The knowledge of the mechanisms during the penetration and perforation process allowed to apply a ductile composite laminate made form kevlar under the alumina to delay its rupture. The last ballistic test showed how a Weibull's modulii and other mechanical properties are able to improve ballistic penetration resistance. (author)
Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers
Spatola, Jennifer S.
High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mode changes in the fiber fracture when transversely loaded by indenters of different shapes. An experimental design mimicking transverse impact was used to determine any such effects. Three different indenters were used: round, FSP, and razor blade. The indenter height was changed to change the angle of failure tested. Five high performance fibers were examined: KevlarRTM KM2, SpectraRTM 130d, DyneemaRTM SK-62 and SK-76, and ZylonRTM 555. Failed fibers were analyzed using an SEM to determine failure mechanisms. The results show that the round and razor blade indenters produced a constant failure strain, as well as failure mechanisms independent of testing angle. The FSP indenter produced a decrease in failure strain as the angle increased. Fibrillation was the dominant failure mechanism at all angles for the round indenter, while through thickness shearing was the failure mechanism for the razor blade. The FSP indenter showed a transition from fibrillation at low angles to through thickness shearing at high angles, indicating that the round and razor blade indenters are extreme cases of the FSP indenter. The failure mechanisms observed with the FSP indenter at various angles correlated with the experimental strain data obtained during fiber testing. This indicates that geometry of the indenter tip in compression is a contributing factor in lowering the failure strain of the high performance fibers. TEM analysis of the fiber failure mechanisms was also attempted, though without
Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Kattai, Rain; Karai, Deniss; Kaik, Juri
2004-07-01
This paper is a part of research to develop convenient method for continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure by non-invasive and non-oscillometric way. A simple optical method, using self-mixing in a diode laser, is used for detection of skin surface vibrations near the artery. These vibrations, which can reveal the pulsate propagation of blood pressure waves along the vasculature, are used for pulse wave registration. The registration of the Pulse Wave Transit Time (PWTT) is based on computing the time delay in different regions of the human body using an ECG as a reference signal. In this study, the comparison of method of optical self-mixing with other methods as photoplethysmographic (PPG) and bioimpedance (BI) for PWTT is done. Also correlation of PWTT, obtained with different methods, with arterial blood pressure is calculated. In our study, we used a group of volunteers (34 persons) who made the bicycle exercise test. The test consisted of cycling sessions of increasing workloads during which the HR changed from 60 to 180 beats per minute. In addition, a blood pressure (NIBP) was registered with standard sphygmomanometer once per minute during the test and all NIBP measurement values were synchronized to other signals to find exact time moments where the systolic blood pressure was detected (Korotkoff sounds starting point). Computer later interpolated the blood pressure signal in order to get individual value for every heart cycle. The other signals were measured continuously during all tests. At the end of every session, a recovery period was included until person's NIBP and heart rate (HR) normalized. As a result of our study it turned out that time intervals that were calculated from plethysmographic (PPG) waveforms were in the best correlation with systolic blood pressure. The diastolic pressure does not correlate with any of the parameters representing PWTT. The pulse wave signals measured by laser and piezoelectric transducer are very similar
Ishikawa, M.; Arima, M.
2007-12-01
In order to interpret seismic structures in terms of rock type, temperature anomaly, degree of partial melting and distribution of fluids, we have carried out research on the elastic properties of the crustal rocks using ultrasonic measurements. We have developed techniques to perform ultrasonic velocity measurements at mid-to-lower crustal conditions of pressure and temperature. These techniques are now been applied to study the rock physics of exposed deep crustal sections and crustal xenoliths, including gabbro, tonalite, granite, anorthosite, granulite and amphibolite, which were collected from the Tanzawa Mountain of central Japan, Kohistan area of Pakistan, Ichinomegata of NE Japan, Takashima and Kurose of SW Japan, and granulite-facies complex of East Antarctica. Compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocities for these rock specimens are measured in piston cylinder apparatus. In order to compare directly to seismic velocities at the deep island arc pressures and temperatures, we developed ultrasonic velocity measurements using buffer rod technique. Pt buffer rod is used to isolate the piezoelectric transducer from the high-temperature condition. Travel times through the rock sample were determined with the pulse reflection technique. We are developing a method for simultaneous P-wave and S-wave velocity measurements using dual-mode piezoelectric transducer which generates P-waves and S-waves simultaneously. Using these techniques, we can determine Vp/Vs ratio and Poisson's ratio precisely.
Simulating water distribution patterns for fixed spray plate sprinkler using the ballistic theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofiane Ouazaa
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Ballistic simulation of the spray sprinkler for self-propelled irrigation machines requires the incorporation of the effect of the jet impact with the deflecting plate. The kinetic energy losses produced by the jet impact with the spray plate were experimentally characterized for different nozzle sizes and two working pressures for fixed spray plate sprinklers (FSPS. A technique of low speed photography was used to determine drop velocity at the point where the jet is broken into droplets. The water distribution pattern of FSPS for different nozzle sizes, working at two pressures and under different wind conditions were characterized in field experiments. The ballistic model was calibrated to simulate water distribution in different technical and meteorological conditions. Field experiments and the ballistic model were used to obtain the model parameters (D50, n, K1and K2. The results show that kinetic energy losses decrease with nozzle diameter increments; from 80% for the smallest nozzle diameter (2 mm to 45% for nozzle diameters larger than 5.1 mm, and from 80% for the smallest nozzle diameter (2 mm to 34.7% for nozzle diameters larger than 6.8 mm, at 138 kPa and 69 kPa working pressures, respectively. The results from the model compared well with field observations. The calibrated model has reproduced accurately the water distribution pattern in calm (r=0.98 and high windy conditions (r=0.76. A new relationship was found between the corrector parameters (K1’ and K2’ and the wind speed. As a consequence, model simulation will be possible for untested meteorological conditions.
The Effect of Ballistic Impacts on the High Cycle Fatigue Properties of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at.%)
Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Austin, C. M.; Erdman, O.
2000-01-01
The ability of gamma - TiAl to withstand potential foreign and/or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma - TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. The overall purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of ballistic impact damage on the high cycle fatigue strength of gamma - TiAl simulated LPT blades. Impact and specimen variables included ballistic impact energy, projectile hardness, impact temperature, impact location, and leading edge thickness. The level of damage induced by the ballistic impacting was studied and quantified on both the impact (front) and backside of the specimens. Multiple linear regression was used to model the cracking and fatigue response as a function of the impact variables. Of the impact variables studied, impact energy had the largest influence on the response of gamma - TiAl to ballistic impacting. Backside crack length was the best predictor of remnant fatigue strength for low energy impacts (fatigue strength. For the fatigue design stresses of a 6th stage LPT blade in a GE90 engine, a Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr LPT blade would survive an impact of normal service conditions.
Wave Pressures and Loads on a Small Scale Model of the Svåheia SSG Pilot Project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buccino, Mariano; Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, Francesco;
2011-01-01
The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG. The...... hydraulic model tests have been carried out at the LInC laboratory of the University of Naples Federico II using random waves. Results indicate wave overtopping is able to cause a sudden inversion of vertical force under wave crest, so that it is alternatively upward and downward directed over a short time...
Ballistic transport is dissipative: the why and how
Das, Mukunda P.; Green, Frederick
2006-01-01
In the ballistic limit, the Landauer conductance steps of a mesoscopic quantum wire have been explained by coherent and dissipationless transmission of individual electrons across a one-dimensional barrier. This leaves untouched the central issue of conduction: a quantum wire, albeit ballistic, has finite resistance and so must dissipate energy. Exactly HOW does the quantum wire shed its excess electrical energy? We show that the answer is provided, uniquely, by many-body quantum kinetics. No...
The role of ballistic erosion and sedimentation in lunar stratigraphy
Oberbeck, V. R.
1975-01-01
Aspects of base surge transport are considered along with questions regarding the applicability of base surge transport to lunar sedimentation, the ballistic transport of crater and basin ejecta, Copernicus crater ballistics, and the effects of ejecta impact on preexisting lunar ground. An ejecta emplacement model is discussed and attention is given to the structure of the surface of continuous deposits of craters and basins, the thickness of crater and basin deposits, and the characteristics of impact melts.
Sub-ballistic behaviour of the Quantum Kicked Rotor
Romanelli, A; Micenmacher, V; Siri, R
2006-01-01
We study the resonances of the quantum kicked rotor subjected to an excitation that follows an aperiodic Fibonacci prescription. In such a case the secondary resonances show a sub-ballistic behaviour like the quantum walk with the same aperiodic prescription for the coin. The principal resonances maintain the well-known ballistic behaviour. Then the parallelism previusly established between the kicked rotor and the generalized quantum walk is retained only with the secondary resonances.
Improvement of Interior Ballistic Performance Utilizing Particle Swarm Optimization
El Sadek, Hazem; Zhang, Xiaobing; Rashad, Mahmoud; Cheng, Cheng
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the interior ballistic propelling charge design using the optimization methods to select the optimum charge design and to improve the interior ballistic performance. The propelling charge consists of a mixture propellant of seven-perforated granular propellant and one-hole tubular propellant. The genetic algorithms and some other evolutionary algorithms have complex evolution operators such as crossover, mutation, encoding, and decoding. These evolution operators have ...
Statistical analysis of ballistic propagation distance in edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nonlinear simulation of resistive ballooning turbulence is performed in tokamak edge geometry. The spatiotemporal autocorrelation is calculated for the gradient of turbulent heat flux. The typical ballistic nature in the correlation plot is introduced by the 'Lagrangian correlation', which has spatial and temporal dependence. Propagation distances of the ballistic pulses of the gradient of turbulent heat flux are quantified and are about four times the characteristic size of the front. (author)
The Second National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC-2)
Vorburger, TV; Yen, J; Song, JF; Thompson, RM; Renegar, TB; Zheng, A.; Tong, M; Ols, M
2015-01-01
In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, NIST and the ATF initiated a joint project, entitled the National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC). The NBIC project aims to establish a national traceability and quality system for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories utilizing ATF’s National Integrated Ba...
Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials’ parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.
The ballistic Mars hopper: An alternative Mars mobility concept
Sercel, J. C.; Blandino, J. J.; Wood, K. L.
1987-01-01
The ballistic Mars hopper is proposed as an alternative mobility concept for unmanned exploration of the martian surface. In the ballistic Mars hopper concept, oxygen and carbon monoxide produced from the martian atmosphere are used as propellants in a rocket propulsion system for an unmanned vehicle on suborbital trajectories between landing sights separated by distances of up to 1000 km. This mobility concept is seen as uniquely capable of allowing both intensive and extensive exploration o...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1996-01-01
Water is the most active component in all geological systems.It has an important effect on the physical properties of minerals and melts.It also plays a key role in the evolution of the Earth.Accurate thermodynamics data on water are currently confined to pressures below 1.0GPa and temperatures below 900℃.Presented in this paper are new data available on the P-T properties of water at pressures up to 5.0GPa,develoged from differential thermal analysis and ultrasonic wave amplitude analysis.It has been found that there may exist another ternary point at 3.0GPa and that ultrasonic wave amplitude change of ice-water transition shows two inflection points above 2.0GPa, consistent with the two peaks of differential thermal curves above 2.0GPa .It may be a new phenomenon which needs further study.
Güldemeister, N.; Kowitz, A.; Wünnemann, K.; Reimold, W. U.; Schmitt, R. T.
2012-09-01
Porosity plays an important role in impact crater formation and shock wave propagation. Where present, it causes fast attenuation of shock pressure. In the framework of the "MEMIN" (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact crater research Network) project, the effect of porosity in dry and water-saturated sandstone on shock wave loading is investigated [1]. We are focusing on shock recovery experiments that have been carried out within one sub-project of MEMIN. The experiments are subject to investigate shock effects in experimentally shocked quartz at low shock pressure (5 - 12.5 GPa) where diagnostic shock features and calibration data are lacking at the moment. The influence of porosity on progressive shock metamorphism is investigated. The laboratory impact experiments were accompanied by meso-scale numerical modeling in order to quantify processes beyond the optical and electron optical observational capabilities. The model enables a detailed description and quantification of thermo-dynamic parameters during single pore collapse.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘俊邦; 张猛; 朱建峰
2013-01-01
针对目前弹道仿真均建立在标准气象条件下,无法反映弹道真实情况的问题,以非标准条件弹道模型为基础在非标准气象条件下改进了气温气压模型并建立了风场模型.应用Matlab/Simulink仿真工具构建对应的仿真模型;最后对某型火炮进行仿真验证.并通过对仿真结果分析得出各种气象条件对弹道诸元的影响规律,揭示了气象因素与射击误差的关系,为新型火炮非标准气象条件下弹道研究、火炮模拟器弹道仿真开发以及部队实弹射击提供了参考依据.%Because the gun exterior ballistics simulation under standard meteorological conditions cannot reflect the real situation of ballistics, the paper improves the temperature and air pressure model and establishes a wind field model on the basis of the ballistics model under nonstandard meteorological conditions. It constructs a simulation model of the gun exterior ballistics under nonstandard meteorological conditions by Matlab/Simulink. At last, it completes the simulation verification for a certain gun. Through analyzing the simulation results, it gains the law of various meteorological conditions influence on ballistics parameters, reveals the relationship between meteorological factors and firing errors and provides references for the ballistics study of the new type gun, the ballistics simulation of gun simulator and the gunshot of military units.
Solution of the Equations of Internal Ballistics for the Non Homogeneous Linear Law of Burning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. N. Kapur
1969-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the fundamental differential equation of internal ballistics for the non-homogeneous linear law of burning for tubular and cord charges has been solved numerically and results presented graphically. The results for the usual homogeneous linear law of burning have been deduced as a particular case. Tables for maximum pressure and position at all burnt have been prepared. Finally conclusions have been drawn to show the effect of non-homogeneous term in the law of burning, on the maximum pressure and position at all burnt have been prepared. Finally conclusions have been drawn to show the effect of non-homogeneous term in the law of burning, on the maximum pressure and on the all burnt positions.
Ballistic impact response of a coarse-aggregate barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physical understanding of the damage inflicted to a protective barrier resulting from impact with a projectile is paramount to the intelligent design of advanced protective systems. The configuration of the protective barrier used for ballistic impact studies depends upon the overall protective device that the barrier is to represent. Although many barriers are homogeneous in configuration, a much broader class of barriers involves a non-uniform agglomeration of components. Such barriers can conceivably represent the means of protection for ammunition bunkers, nuclear reactors, armored military vehicles, or any asset for which protection against projectile impact is desired. Here, an experiment-oriented investigation aimed at gaining insight and understanding of the physical phenomena that occur when a projectile impacts a thin barrier consisting of a uniform, coarse aggregate was performed at the US Army Research Laboratory. The thin barrier target was an assembly of solid steel cylinders oriented in a 15-by-15 rod square-packed array. The projectile consisted of a solid aluminum cylinder with a diameter of approximately 2.5 aggregate diameters and a length of 1.25 aggregate element lengths. The impact velocity was 2 km/s. The data collected consisted of the crater size in the barrier, plastic deformation of individual cylinders, a lateral damage wave velocity from the strain gage signals, and the residual penetrator length. A detailed analysis of the damage inflicted on the aggregate elements of the barrier was performed. The analysis focused primarily on the steel cylinders that resided outside of the eroded crater zone. Iso-strain contours were mapped on the face of the barrier to shed insight into the contact mechanics of the individual aggregate elements. A semi-empirical aggregate deformation model was created to predict the magnitude of deformation that occurs to cylinders located outside the physical crater
Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kalfon, Roy
2016-07-01
Combined isometric exercise or metaboreflex activation (post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI)) and cold pressor test (CPT) increase cardiac afterload, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. l-Citrulline supplementation (l-CIT) reduces systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) at rest and aortic haemodynamic responses to CPT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of l-CIT on aortic haemodynamic and baPWV responses to PEMI+CPT. In all, sixteen healthy, overweight/obese males (age 24 (sem 6) years; BMI 29·3 (sem 4·0) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to placebo or l-CIT (6 g/d) for 14 d in a cross-over design. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), aortic augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), baPWV, reflection timing (Tr) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated at rest and during isometric handgrip exercise (IHG), PEMI and PEMI+CPT at baseline and after 14 d. No significant effects were evident after l-CIT at rest. l-CIT attenuated the increases in aortic SBP and wave reflection (AP and AIx) during IHG, aortic DBP, MAP and AIx during PEMI, and aortic SBP, DBP, MAP, AP, AIx and baPWV during PEMI+CPT compared with placebo. HR and Tr were unaffected by l-CIT in all conditions. Our findings demonstrate that l-CIT attenuates aortic blood pressure and wave reflection responses to exercise-related metabolites. Moreover, l-CIT attenuates the exaggerated arterial stiffness response to combined metaboreflex activation and cold exposure, suggesting a protective effect against increased cardiac afterload during physical stress. PMID:27160957
A model of ballistic aggregation and fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple model of ballistic aggregation and fragmentation is proposed. The model is characterized by two energy thresholds, Eagg and Efrag, which demarcate different types of impacts: if the kinetic energy of the relative motion of a colliding pair is smaller than Eagg or larger than Efrag, particles respectively merge or break; otherwise they rebound. We assume that particles are formed from monomers which cannot split any further and that in a collision-induced fragmentation the larger particle splits into two fragments. We start from the Boltzmann equation for the mass–velocity distribution function and derive Smoluchowski-like equations for concentrations of particles of different mass. We analyze these equations analytically, solve them numerically and perform Monte Carlo simulations. When aggregation and fragmentation energy thresholds do not depend on the masses of the colliding particles, the model becomes analytically tractable. In this case we show the emergence of the two types of behavior: the regime of unlimited cluster growth arises when fragmentation is (relatively) weak and the relaxation towards a steady state occurs when fragmentation prevails. In a model with mass-dependent Eagg and Efrag the evolution with a crossover from one of the regimes to another has been detected
Superconducting Graphene Nanodevices in Ballistic Transport Regime
Chen, Yu-An; Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Pablo Jarillo-Herrero's Group Team
2013-03-01
Superconductivity carried by Dirac fermions can be realized through induced superconductivity in grapheme. Observation of novel phenomena anticipated by theories requires graphene devices with low disorder whereas the carrier transport is ballistic. Current fabrication procedures to make graphene devices with low disorder like suspension or ultra-flat substrates all call for certain kinds of annealing to remove organic residues derived from the fabrication process. Applying these methods to superconducting devices can be challenging since the transparency at the graphene/superconductor interface will be destroyed. Here we present a method to do dry transfer of patterned hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) flakes onto graphene. The ultra flatness and lack of dangling bond in the boron nitride substrate reduces the disorder in graphene, and the top layer hBN can protect the graphene from contamination in the nanofabrication procedures and yield the geometry desired for different experimental exploration. National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
Gilson, L.; Rabet, L.; Imad, A.; Kakogiannis, D.; Coghe, F.
2016-03-01
Among the different material surrogates used to study the effect of small calibre projectiles on the human body, ballistic gelatine is one of the most commonly used because of its specific material properties. For many applications, numerical simulations of this material could give an important added value to understand the different phenomena observed during ballistic testing. However, the material response of gelatine is highly non-linear and complex. Recent developments in this field are available in the literature. Experimental and numerical data on the impact of rigid steel spheres in gelatine available in the literature were considered as a basis for the selection of the best model for further work. For this a comparison of two models for Fackler gelatine has been made. The selected model is afterwards exploited for a real threat consisting of two types of ammunitions: 9 mm and .44 Magnum calibre projectiles. A high-speed camera and a pressure sensor were used in order to measure the velocity decay of the projectiles and the pressure at a given location in the gelatine during penetration of the projectile. The observed instability of the 9 mm bullets was also studied. Four numerical models were developed and solved with LS-DYNA and compared with the experimental data. Good agreement was obtained between the models and the experiments validating the selected gelatine model for future use.
Gilson, L.; Rabet, L.; Imad, A.; Kakogiannis, D.; Coghe, F.
2016-05-01
Among the different material surrogates used to study the effect of small calibre projectiles on the human body, ballistic gelatine is one of the most commonly used because of its specific material properties. For many applications, numerical simulations of this material could give an important added value to understand the different phenomena observed during ballistic testing. However, the material response of gelatine is highly non-linear and complex. Recent developments in this field are available in the literature. Experimental and numerical data on the impact of rigid steel spheres in gelatine available in the literature were considered as a basis for the selection of the best model for further work. For this a comparison of two models for Fackler gelatine has been made. The selected model is afterwards exploited for a real threat consisting of two types of ammunitions: 9 mm and .44 Magnum calibre projectiles. A high-speed camera and a pressure sensor were used in order to measure the velocity decay of the projectiles and the pressure at a given location in the gelatine during penetration of the projectile. The observed instability of the 9 mm bullets was also studied. Four numerical models were developed and solved with LS-DYNA and compared with the experimental data. Good agreement was obtained between the models and the experiments validating the selected gelatine model for future use.
Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Gerocarni, Beatrice; Bacchelli, Stefano; Veronesi, Maddalena; Strocchi, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio
2011-09-01
Contrasting data partially support a certain antihypertensive efficacy of lactotripeptides (LTPs) derived from enzymatic treatment of casein hydrolysate. Our aim was to evaluate this effect on a large number of hemodynamic parameters. We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial, which included 52 patients affected by high-normal blood pressure (BP) or first-degree hypertension. We investigated the effect of a 6-week treatment with the LTPs isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline at 3 mg per day, assumed to be functional food, on office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) values, stress-induced BP increase and cardiac output-related parameters. In the LTP-treated subjects, we observed a significant reduction in office systolic BP (SBP; -5±8 mm Hg, P=0.013) and a significant improvement in pulse wave velocity (PWV; -0.66±0.81 m s(-1), P=0.001; an instrumental biomarker of vascular rigidity). No effect on 24-h ABPM parameters and BP reaction to stress was observed from treatment with the combined LTPs. LTPs, but not placebo, were associated with a mild but significant change in the stroke volume (SV), SV index (markers of cardiac flow), the acceleration index (ACI) and velocity index (VI) (markers of cardiac contractility). No effect was observed on parameters related to fluid dynamics or vascular resistance. LTPs positively influenced the office SBP, PWV, SV, SV index, ACI and VI in patients with high-normal BP or first-degree hypertension. PMID:21753776
Improvement of Interior Ballistic Performance Utilizing Particle Swarm Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazem El Sadek
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the interior ballistic propelling charge design using the optimization methods to select the optimum charge design and to improve the interior ballistic performance. The propelling charge consists of a mixture propellant of seven-perforated granular propellant and one-hole tubular propellant. The genetic algorithms and some other evolutionary algorithms have complex evolution operators such as crossover, mutation, encoding, and decoding. These evolution operators have a bad performance represented in convergence speed and accuracy of the solution. Hence, the particle swarm optimization technique is developed. It is carried out in conjunction with interior ballistic lumped-parameter model with the mixture propellant. This technique is applied to both single-objective and multiobjective problems. In the single-objective problem, the optimization results are compared with genetic algorithm and the experimental results. The particle swarm optimization introduces a better performance of solution quality and convergence speed. In the multiobjective problem, the feasible region provides a set of available choices to the charge’s designer. Hence, a linear analysis method is adopted to give an appropriate set of the weight coefficients for the objective functions. The results of particle swarm optimization improved the interior ballistic performance and provided a modern direction for interior ballistic propelling charge design of guided projectile.
Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R2 (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime
Ballistic heat conduction and mass disorder in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity (κ) scales asymptotically as limL→∞κ∝L0.5 where L is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modelling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale (LC) below which ballistic heat conduction (κ∝L) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic-to-subballistic heat conduction crossover is connected to the exponential attenuation of the phonon transmittance function Ξ i.e. Ξ(ω, L) = exp[−L/λ(ω)], where λ is the frequency-dependent attenuation length. The crossover length can be determined from the minimum attenuation length, which depends on the maximum transmitted frequency. We numerically determine the dependence of the transmittance on frequency and mass composition as well as derive a closed form estimate, which agrees closely with the numerical results. For the length-dependent thermal conductance, we also derive a closed form expression which agrees closely with numerical results and reproduces the ballistic to subballistic thermal conduction crossover. This allows us to characterize the crossover in terms of changes in the length, mass composition and temperature dependence, and also to determine the conditions under which heat conduction enters the ballistic regime. We describe how the mass composition can be modified to increase ballistic heat conduction. (paper)
Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sciacca, Michele, E-mail: michele.sciacca@unipa.it [Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Sellitto, Antonio, E-mail: ant.sellitto@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed Economia, Università della Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2014-07-04
The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R{sup 2} (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data were collected from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California from 27...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pressure gauge and other data were collected from the MOANA WAVE in the Gulf of Alaska from 04 March 1976 to 22 August 1976. Data were collected by the Pacific...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pressure, temperature, and salinity data were collected while underway from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific warm pool. Data were collected in support of the Coupled...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The resistance of single crystals of NbSe3 under pressure, between 1.2 and 70 K has been measured in magnetic fields up to 180 kG. The CDW which appears at ambient pressures at 59 K, is totally suppressed for pressures greater than 5.5 kbar. At this pressure NbSe3 is fully superconducting as shown by a total Meissner effect. Fermi surface studies by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations show that the Fermi surface is strongly affected by the CDW formation. At ambient pressure, when H is parallel to the plane (b,c), one frequency (0.3 MG) is detected, but when the pressure has suppressed the CDW, at least eight frequencies (up to 7 MG) were detected. The experiments are consistent with the model of different types of chains in NbSe3 on which the two CDW form. (author)
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Doyon
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doyon, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.doyon@kcl.ac.uk
2015-03-15
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
A theoretical consideration of the ballistic response of continuous graphene membranes
Wetzel, Eric D.; Balu, Radhakrishnan; Beaudet, Todd D.
2015-09-01
The remarkable properties of graphene, including unusually high mechanical strength and stiffness, have been well-documented. In this paper, we combine an analytical solution for ballistic impact into a thin isotropic membrane, with ab initio density functional theory calculations for graphene under uniaxial tension, to predict the penetration resistance of multi-layer graphene membranes. The calculations show that continuous graphene membranes could enable ballistic barriers of extraordinary performance, enabling resistance to penetration at masses up to 100× lighter than existing state-of-the-art barrier materials. The very high elastic wave speed and strain energy to failure are the major drivers of this increase in performance. However, the in-plane mechanical isotropy of graphene, as compared to conventional orthotropic woven textiles, also contributes significantly to the efficiency of graphene as a barrier material. This result suggests that, for barrier applications, isotropic membranes composed of covalently bonded two-dimensional molecular networks could provide distinct advantages over fiber-based textiles derived from linear polymers.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality
Ballistic spin filtering across the ferromagnetic-semiconductor interface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.H. Li
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The ballistic spin-filter effect from a ferromagnetic metal into a semiconductor has theoretically been studied with an intention of detecting the spin polarizability of density of states in FM layer at a higher energy level. The physical model for the ballistic spin filtering across the interface between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductor superlattice is developed by exciting the spin polarized electrons into n-type AlAs/GaAs superlattice layer at a much higher energy level and then ballistically tunneling through the barrier into the ferromagnetic film. Since both the helicity-modulated and static photocurrent responses are experimentally measurable quantities, the physical quantity of interest, the relative asymmetry of spin-polarized tunneling conductance, could be extracted experimentally in a more straightforward way, as compared with previous models. The present physical model serves guidance for studying spin detection with advanced performance in the future.
Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts.
Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S
2016-02-10
Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible. PMID:26783634
Quantum Point Contact Transistor and Ballistic Field-Effect Transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the experimental results and theoretical understanding of the Quantum Point Contact Transistor - a fully ballistic one-dimensional (1D) Field-Effect Transistor (FET). Experimentally obtained voltage gain greater than 1 in our Quantum-Point-Contact transistors at 4.2 K can be explained with the help of an analytical modeling based on the Landauer-Büttiker approach in mesosopic physics: the lowest 1D subband and the band gap play the key role in increasing its transconductance, especially by reducing its output conductance, and thus achieving a voltage gain higher than 1. This work provides a general basis for devising future ballistic FETs and the quantum limits found in this work may be used to estimate normalized transconductance and channel resistance in future two-dimensional (2D) ballistic FETs.
A novel navigation method used in a ballistic missile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The traditional strapdown inertial/celestial integrated navigation method used in a ballistic missile cannot accurately estimate the accelerometer bias. It might cause a divergence of navigation errors. To solve this problem, a new navigation method named strapdown inertial/starlight refractive celestial integrated navigation is proposed. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a simulated program of a ballistic missile is presented. The simulation results indicated that, when multiple refraction stars are used, the proposed method can accurately estimate the accelerometer bias, and suppress the divergence of navigation errors completely. Specifically, in order to apply this method to a ballistic missile, a novel measurement equation based on stellar refraction was developed. Furthermore a method to calculate the number of refraction stars observed by the stellar sensor was given. Finally, the relationship between the number of refraction stars used and the navigation accuracy is analysed. (paper)
Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb+1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance
["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].
Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta
2014-01-01
Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear. PMID:24855739
Development of high-density ceramic composites for ballistic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The application of ceramic composites for ballistic application has been generally developed with ceramics of low density, between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cm2. These materials have offered good performance in defeating small-caliber penetrators, but can suffer time-dependent degradation effects when thicker ceramic tiles are needed to defeat modem, longer, heavy metal penetrators that erode rather than break up. This paper addresses the ongoing development, fabrication procedures, analysis, and ballistic evaluation of thinner, denser ceramics for use in armor applications. Nuclear Metals Incorporated (NMI) developed a process for the manufacture of depleted uranium (DU) ceramics. Samples of the ceramics have been supplied to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) as part of an unfunded cooperative study agreement. The fabrication processes used, characterization of the ceramic, and a ballistic comparison between the DU-based ceramic with baseline Al2O3 will be presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PHERMEX, an acronym for Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-Rays, has been used as a diagnostic tool to make quantitative measurements from radiographs of inert materials under dynamic high-pressure conditions and of explosives during the detonation process. In some experiments, radiography is the best method (compared to high-speed optical cameras and contactor pins) to study complicated hydro-dynamic flow occuring in a dynamic experiment. To demonstrate the versatility and uniqueness of PHERMEX and the radiographic method, several experiments on inert solids having high and low atomic numbers will be discussed with some particulars. This includes the observation of the 11.0-GPa-pressure phase transition for antimony and the accompanying two-shock structure and the off-Hugoniot data for lead using regular reflection. Also, by careful design of a radiographic experiment, the Hugoniot state behind a shock front can be completely and precisely specified. Aluminium is an example of a material studies in this manner. PHERMEX is useful in studying some detonation properties of explosives. As an illustration, the discussion will include radiographic results of divergence characteristics of a detonation wave in sensitive explosives as it propagates past a corner and the effect of preshocking on the detonation process of insensitive explosives when the detonation wave interacts with a region that has been shock-compressed at a pressure too low to cause detonation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michaël F. Hinderdael
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Additive manufactured components have a different metallurgic structure and are more prone to fatigue cracks than conventionally produced metals. In earlier papers, an effective Structural Health Monitoring solution was presented to detect fatigue cracks in additive manufactured components. Small subsurface capillaries are embedded in the structure and pressurized (vacuum or overpressure. A crack that initiated at the component’s surface will propagate towards the capillary and finally breach it. One capillary suffices to inspect a large area of the component, which makes it interesting to locate the crack on the basis of the pressure measurements. Negative pressure waves (NPW arise from the abrupt encounter of high pressure fluid with low pressure fluid and can serve as a basis to locate the crack. A test set-up with a controllable leak valve was built to investigate the feasibility of using NPW to localize a leak in closed tubes with small lengths. Reflections are expected to occur at the ends of the tube, possibly limiting the localization accuracy. In this paper, the results of the tests on the test set-up are reported. It will be shown that the crack could be localized with high accuracy (millimeter accuracy which proves the concept of crack localization on basis of NPW in a closed tube of small length.
Relationship between Ballistic Coefficient and Static Mechanical Properties for Armor Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The relationship between the ballistic coefficient and the static mechanical properties of armor materials was studied. The results show that the ballistic coefficient is determined by the strength, hardness and the toughness of materials. According to the Martel rule, the equation of the relationship between ballistic coefficient and static mechanical properties satisfies the following formula: . From the mixture law of composite, the prerequisite, for which ballistic coefficient has maximum to reinforcement volume fraction, is obtained by the following equation: .
Matter waves with angular momentum
Bracher, C; Kleber, M; Bracher, Christian; Kramer, Tobias; Kleber, Manfred
2003-01-01
An alternative description of quantum scattering processes rests on inhomogeneous terms amended to the Schr\\"odinger equation. We detail the structure of sources that give rise to multipole scattering waves of definite angular momentum, and introduce pointlike multipole sources as their limiting case. Partial wave theory is recovered for freely propagating particles. We obtain novel results for ballistic scattering in an external uniform force field, where we provide analytical solutions for both the scattering waves and the integrated particle flux. As an illustration of the theory, we predict some properties of vortex-bearing atom laser beams outcoupled from a rotating Bose--Einstein condensate under the influence of gravity.
Research on ballistic missile laser SIMU error propagation mechanism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Shihui; Xiao Longxu
2008-01-01
It is necessary that the laser inertial system is used to further improve the fire accuracy and quick reaction capability in the ballistic missile strapdown inertial navigation system. According to the guidance con-trolling method and the output and error model of ballistic missile laser SIMU, the mathematical model of error propagation mechanism is set up and any transfer environmental function of error coefficient that affects the fire accuracy is deduced. Also, the missile longitudinal/lateral impact point is calculated using MATLAB. These estab-lish the technical foundation for further researching the dispersion characteristics of impact point and reducing the laser guidance error.
Ballistic bunching theory of electron cyclotron resonance masers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baik, C. W.; Jeon, S. G.; Park, G. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2003-12-15
A bunching parameter which determines the strength of modulation in electron cyclotron resonance masers (ECRM) is derived using a ballistic bunching theory. Unlike klystrons that utilize space bunching, this bunching parameter strongly depends on the beam velocity ratio due to phase bunching in ECRM. The dependencies of the beam velocity ratio ({approx} {alpha}{sup 2}), the interaction length ({approx} d), and the input drive power ({approx} P{sub in}{sup 1/2}) on the bunching parameter are derived. The orbital phase bunching results calculated using the ballistic bunching theory and a large-signal code are compared and show reasonable agreement.
Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits
Parker, Jeffrey S.
2009-01-01
Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.
Ballistic thermoelectric properties in double-bend graphene nanoribbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballistic thermoelectric properties in double-bend graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function. We find that due to the elastic scattering caused by the interface mismatching, the thermal conductance contributed by phonons is greatly reduced, while ballistic transport behaviors for electrons are dramatically demolished, and even some gaps can be opened at antiresonance energies. Near these antiresonance gaps, the maximum value of ZT (ZTmax) can be observed, much larger than that for straight GNRs. Moreover, this ZTmax can be effectively tuned by modulating the length or width of double-bend GNRs.
A microscopic model of ballistic-diffusive crossover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several low-dimensional systems show a crossover from diffusive to ballistic heat transport when system size is decreased. Although there is some phenomenological understanding of this crossover phenomenon at the coarse-grained level, a microscopic picture that consistently describes both the ballistic and the diffusive transport regimes has been lacking. In this work we derive a scaling form for the thermal current in a class of one dimensional systems attached to heat baths at boundaries and rigorously show that the crossover occurs when the characteristic length scale of the system competes with the system size. (paper)
Influence of strained drain on performance of ballistic channel devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied the performance of ballistic channel diodes with strained channel or drain, based on Monte Carlo simulation. A larger increase in drain current and mean velocity of electrons in the drain region is observed for strained drain diode compared to strained channel diode. This is due to reduction of intervalley scattering and electrons transported with smaller transverse effective mass in the strained drain. This also results in lower heat generation and parasitic resistances in strained drain. We conclude that the strained drain is an efficient way to improve electrical characteristics of devices with ballistic channel. (paper)
Geometrical optimization of a local ballistic magnetic sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed a highly sensitive local magnetic sensor by using a ballistic transport property in a two-dimensional conductor. A semiclassical simulation reveals that the sensitivity increases when the geometry of the sensor and the spatial distribution of the local field are optimized. We have also experimentally demonstrated a clear observation of a magnetization process in a permalloy dot whose size is much smaller than the size of an optimized ballistic magnetic sensor fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas
Spin Injection Across a Heterojunction: A Ballistic Picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spin injection across heterojunctions plays a decisive role in the new field of spintronics. Within the ballistic transport regime, we state a general expression for the spin-injection rate in a heterojunction made of two ballistic electrodes. Both the spin-orbit interaction and interface scattering effect are taken into account. Our model is consistent with the well-documented results of ferromagnetic-metal junctions. It explains the recent experimental results of a dilute-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor junction and predicts solutions to enhance the spin-injection rate across a ferromagnetic-semiconductor junction
Ballistics for neurosurgeons: Effects of firearms of customized cranioplasty implants
Lemcke, Johannes; Löser, Rainer; Telm, Andreas; Meier, Ullrich; Hunt, C. David
2013-01-01
Introduction: There are about 33,000 deaths caused by gunshot wounds in the USA each year. Probably half of these deaths result from head wounds. Among US Army soldiers, 17% of all ballistic injuries are head wounds. This means that, even in those protected by ballistic helmets, gunshot injuries to the head represent a danger. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of shelling of computer-aided designed (CAD) cranioplasty implants made of two different materials. Methods: An experim...
On heydenreich method of internal ballistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Sirpal
1958-10-01
Full Text Available The pressure space curve standardized by Heydenreich has been analysed. It has been found that the index of expansion of the gases after burnt is not a constant and the standardized curve is probably only a mean curve obtained from a number of experimental firing results. A curve of the form pV/Sup/n with a good fit to the Heydenreich values of pressure decay after all-burnt shows that the index of expansion is 1.116 and the chamber volume is 1.2 times the volume of the bore swept up to Pmax. No defined value of the shot-start pressure is revealed.
Monte Carlo Uncertainty Quantification Using Quasi-1D SRM Ballistic Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Viganò
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Compactness, reliability, readiness, and construction simplicity of solid rocket motors make them very appealing for commercial launcher missions and embarked systems. Solid propulsion grants high thrust-to-weight ratio, high volumetric specific impulse, and a Technology Readiness Level of 9. However, solid rocket systems are missing any throttling capability at run-time, since pressure-time evolution is defined at the design phase. This lack of mission flexibility makes their missions sensitive to deviations of performance from nominal behavior. For this reason, the reliability of predictions and reproducibility of performances represent a primary goal in this field. This paper presents an analysis of SRM performance uncertainties throughout the implementation of a quasi-1D numerical model of motor internal ballistics based on Shapiro’s equations. The code is coupled with a Monte Carlo algorithm to evaluate statistics and propagation of some peculiar uncertainties from design data to rocker performance parameters. The model has been set for the reproduction of a small-scale rocket motor, discussing a set of parametric investigations on uncertainty propagation across the ballistic model.
Solid propellant rocket motor internal ballistics performance variation analysis, phase 3
Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.; Murph, J. E.; Adams, G. W., Jr.
1977-01-01
Results of research aimed at improving the predictability of off nominal internal ballistics performance of solid propellant rocket motors (SRMs) including thrust imbalance between two SRMs firing in parallel are reported. The potential effects of nozzle throat erosion on internal ballistic performance were studied and a propellant burning rate low postulated. The propellant burning rate model when coupled with the grain deformation model permits an excellent match between theoretical results and test data for the Titan IIIC, TU455.02, and the first Space Shuttle SRM (DM-1). Analysis of star grain deformation using an experimental model and a finite element model shows the star grain deformation effects for the Space Shuttle to be small in comparison to those of the circular perforated grain. An alternative technique was developed for predicting thrust imbalance without recourse to the Monte Carlo computer program. A scaling relationship used to relate theoretical results to test results may be applied to the alternative technique of predicting thrust imbalance or to the Monte Carlo evaluation. Extended investigation into the effect of strain rate on propellant burning rate leads to the conclusion that the thermoelastic effect is generally negligible for both steadily increasing pressure loads and oscillatory loads.
Josephson currents and spin-transfer torques in ballistic SFSFS nanojunctions
Halterman, Klaus; Alidoust, Mohammad
2016-05-01
Utilizing a full microscopic Bogoliubov–de Gennes (BdG) approach, we study the equilibrium charge and spin currents in ballistic SFSFS Josephson systems, where F is a uniformly magnetized ferromagnet and S is a conventional s-wave superconductor. From the spatially varying spin currents, we also calculate the associated equilibrium spin-transfer torques. Through variations in the relative phase differences between the three S regions, and magnetization orientations of the ferromagnets, our study demonstrates tunability and controllability of the spin and charge supercurrents. The spin-transfer torques are shown to reveal details of the proximity effects that play a crucial role in these types of hybrid system. The proposed SFSFS nanostructure is discussed within the context of a superconducting magnetic torque transistor.
Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R; Haj-Hariri, Hossein
2011-11-21
The propagation of pressure waves in fluidic channels with elastic covers is discussed in view of applications to flow control in microfluidic devices. A theory is presented which describes pressure waves in the fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral bending of the cover dominates over longitudinal bending, leading to propagating, non-dispersive longitudinal pressure waves in the channel. The theory addresses effects due to both the finite viscosity and compressibility of the fluid. The coupled waves propagate without dispersion, as long as the wave length is larger than the channel width. It is shown that in channels of typical microfluidic dimensions, wave velocities in the range of a few 10 m s(-1) result if the channels are covered by films of a compliant material such as PDMS. The application of this principle to design microfluidic band pass filters based on standing waves is discussed. Characteristic frequencies in the range of a few kHz are readily achieved with quality factors above 30. PMID:21966667
The ballistic performance of the bombard Mons Meg
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian Lewtas
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The bombard Mons Meg, located in Edinburgh Castle, with a diameter of 19 inches (48 cm, was one of the largest calibre cannons ever built. Constructed in 1449 and presented to King James II of Scotland in 1454, Mons Meg was used in both military and ceremonial roles in Scotland until its barrel burst in 1680. This paper examines the history, internal, external and terminal ballistics of the cannon and its shot. The likely muzzle velocity was estimated by varying the propellant type and the cannon profile was investigated to identify weak spots in the design that may have led to its failure. Using the muzzle velocity calculated from the internal ballistics, simulations were performed with granite and sandstone shot for varying launch angle and ground temperature. The likely trajectory and range of the cannonballs are described. The internal and external ballistics informed the initial conditions of the terminal ballistic impact scenarios. The performance of the cannonball against both period and modern targets, in the form of a pseudo-castle wall and a monolithic concrete target, respectively, were simulated and are presented and discussed.
The application of computed tomography in wound ballistics research
Tsiatis, Nick; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Papadodima, Stavroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Kelekis, Alexis; Kelesis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kordolaimi, Sofia; Ploussi, Agapi
2015-09-01
In wound ballistics research there is a relationship between the data that characterize a bullet and the injury resulted after shooting when it perforates the human body. The bullet path in the human body following skin perforation as well as the damaging effect cannot always be predictable as they depend on various factors such as the bullet's characteristics (velocity, distance, type of firearm and so on) and the tissue types that the bullet passes through. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the contribution of Computed Tomography (CT) in wound ballistics research. Using CT technology and studying virtual “slices” of specific areas on scanned human bodies, allows the evaluation of density and thickness of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, the muscles, the vital organs and the bones. Density data taken from Hounsfield units can be converted in g/ml by using the appropriate software. By evaluating the results of this study, the anatomy of the human body utilizing ballistic gel will be reproduced in order to simulate the path that a bullet follows. The biophysical analysis in wound ballistics provides another application of CT technology, which is commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.
Self-Avoiding Walk is Sub-Ballistic
Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Hammond, Alan
2013-12-01
We prove that self-avoiding walk on is sub-ballistic in any dimension d ≥ 2. That is, writing for the Euclidean norm of , and for the uniform measure on self-avoiding walks for which γ 0 = 0, we show that, for each v > 0, there exists such that, for each.
Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy on metal-semiconductor interfaces
Banerjee, T.; Ul Haq, E.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.
2005-01-01
The transport of hot holes across metal-semiconductor interfaces is studied using ballistic hole emission microscopy. From the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope nonequilibrium holes are injected into a thin metallic overlayer on a p-type Si semiconductor, inducing a current of holes into the Si
On the Internal Ballistics of a Supergun Using Multitubular Powders
Sharma, B.K.
1980-01-01
The basic equations of internal ballistics of the German Supergun using multitubular propellants have been set up. The equations have been expressed in terms of dimensionless variables and an analytical solution has also been given assuming a linear rate of burning and neglecting the co-volume correction.
Minimum Ballistic Factor Missile Shapes For Variable Skin Friction Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. C. Jain
1973-10-01
Full Text Available Minimum ballistic factor for slender axisymmetric power law bodies have been obtained by taking a variable skinfriction coefficient for the cases when any two of the three quantities length, diameter and surface area have been pre-prescribed.
On the Trajectories of Projectiles Depicted in Early Ballistic Woodcuts
Stewart, Sean M.
2012-01-01
Motivated by quaint woodcut depictions often found in many late 16th and 17th century ballistic manuals of cannonballs fired in air, a comparison of their shapes with those calculated for the classic case of a projectile moving in a linear resisting medium is made. In considering the asymmetrical nature of such trajectories, the initial launch…
On the Internal Ballistics of a Supergun Using Multitubular Powders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. K. Sharma
1980-10-01
Full Text Available The basic equations of internal ballistics of the German Supergun using multitubular propellants have been set up. The equations have been expressed in terms of dimensionless variables and an analytical solution has also been given assuming a linear rate of burning and neglecting the co-volume correction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Studied the pressure wave propagation velocity during condensation of refrigerants R134a and R404A. ► Condensation process occurred in minichannels. ► In the calculations used two-phase flow model. ► Having regard to relevant flow regime obtained satisfactory agreement with experimental results of computational. -- Abstract: In the present paper, an attempt was undertaken to model the propagation of a pressure wave triggered by periodic hydrodynamic instabilities in the condensation of the R404A and R134a refrigerants in pipe mini-channels. A homogenous transient two-fluid model was used based on balance equations. The model presents the complexity of multi-phase flows. The heat exchange between the phases in the condensation process was calculated using the one-dimensional form of Fourier’s equation. The dependence which defines the interfacial the drag forces for the flow in mini-channels was also taken into consideration. The results of the numerical calculations were verified with experimental investigations and satisfactory compliance was obtained
On Attainment of Constant Pressure Phase in an Orthodox Gun with Resistance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. N. Bhattacharyya
1976-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper the conditions for the existence pressure phase for certain period during burning in an orthodox gun with constant bore resistance have been obtained and then the internal ballistics is calculated.
Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields
Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.
2015-01-01
The dual-wall, Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum shock wave strength generated by the threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of room that is available for expansion. Ensuring the shock wave strength is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the shock wave strength achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. An analytic model is developed here, to describe the influence of these three key factors. In addition this paper develops a description of a fourth key parameter related to fragmentation and its role in establishing the onset of projectile expansion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An instability theoretical model for multi-channel system had been developed by building one-dimensional homogeneous model and adopting nonlinear analysis for two-phase flow in vertical single pipe, supplied by Clausse and Lahey. With the same parameters as the experiment, two-phase flow density wave oscillation in parallel inclined inner ribbed pipes was analyzed and solved in this paper. The variation of the working fluid inlet velocity perturbation with time was found using the time domain method. The criteria of density wave oscillation were defined according to the convergence or divergence of the velocity. The pulse cycle of calculated results was mostly between 5 and 16 seconds, which was quite similar to the data between 7 and 19 seconds in the experiment. It is shown that the calculated results have a good agreement with the experimental data. Therefore, the method can be used to determine whether the incidence of density wave instabilities. It can also provide a reference for the safety parameters of the water wall in the supercritical pressure boiler. (authors)
The role of computed tomography in terminal ballistic analysis.
Rutty, G N; Boyce, P; Robinson, C E; Jeffery, A J; Morgan, B
2008-01-01
Terminal ballistics concerns the science of projectile behaviour within a target and includes wound ballistics that considers what happens when a projectile strikes a living being. A number of soft tissue ballistic simulants have been used to assess the damage to tissue caused by projectiles. Standard assessment of these materials, such as ballistic soap or ordnance gelatine, requires the block to be opened or that a mould to be made to visualize the wound track. This is time consuming and may affect the accuracy of the findings especially if the block dries and alters shape during the process. Therefore, accurate numerical analysis of the permanent or temporary cavity is limited. Computed tomography (CT) potentially offers a quicker non-invasive analysis tool for this task. Four commercially purchased ballistic glycerine soap blocks were used. Each had a single firearm discharged into it from a distance of approximately 15 cm using both gunshot and shotgun projectiles. After discharge, each block was imaged by a modern 16 slice multi-detector CT scanner and analysed using 3-D reconstruction software. Using the anterior-posterior and lateral scout views and the multi-plane reconstructed images, it was possible to visualize the temporary cavity, as well as the fragmentation and dispersal pattern of the projectiles, the distance travelled and angle of dispersal within the block of each projectile or fragment. A virtual cast of the temporary cavity can be also be made. Multi-detector CT with 3-D analysis software is shown to create a reliable permanent record of the projectile path allowing rapid analysis of different firearms and projectiles. PMID:17205351
Haardt, Martin; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang
1982-01-01
Our step wave technique, so far, has been discussed with respect to the investigation of already prepared samples. In some situations it is of interest to study the buildup of charge and polarization distributions during the poling procedure. This can be accomplished by inserting an additional insulating film, e.g. mylar between the conducting rubber electrode and the sample film. The insulating film acts as a series capacitor reducing the signal amplitude with no influence on the signal shap...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Westenberg Jos JM
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bramwell-Hill model describes the relation between vascular wall stiffness expressed in aortic distensibility and the pulse wave velocity (PWV, which is the propagation speed of the systolic pressure wave through the aorta. The main objective of this study was to test the validity of this model locally in the aorta by using PWV-assessments based on in-plane velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, with invasive pressure measurements serving as the gold standard. Methods Seventeen patients (14 male, 3 female, mean age ± standard deviation = 57 ± 9 years awaiting cardiac catheterization were prospectively included. During catheterization, intra-arterial pressure measurements were obtained in the aorta at multiple locations 5.8 cm apart. PWV was determined regionally over the aortic arch and locally in the proximal descending aorta. Subsequently, patients underwent a CMR examination to measure aortic PWV and aortic distention. Distensibility was determined locally from the aortic distension at the proximal descending aorta and the pulse pressure measured invasively during catheterization and non-invasively from brachial cuff-assessment. PWV was determined regionally in the aortic arch using through-plane and in-plane velocity-encoded CMR, and locally at the proximal descending aorta using in-plane velocity-encoded CMR. Validity of the Bramwell-Hill model was tested by evaluating associations between distensibility and PWV. Also, theoretical PWV was calculated from distensibility measurements and compared with pressure-assessed PWV. Results In-plane velocity-encoded CMR provides stronger correlation (p = 0.02 between CMR and pressure-assessed PWV than through-plane velocity-encoded CMR (r = 0.69 versus r = 0.26, with a non-significant mean error of 0.2 ± 1.6 m/s for in-plane versus a significant (p = 0.006 error of 1.3 ± 1.7 m/s for through-plane velocity-encoded CMR. The Bramwell-Hill model shows a
Slime mould logical gates: exploring ballistic approach
Adamatzky, Andrew
2010-01-01
Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. On a non-nutrient substrate the plasmodium propagates as a traveling localization, as a compact wave-fragment of protoplasm. The plasmodium-localization travels in its originally predetermined direction for a substantial period of time even when no gradient of chemo-attractants is present. We utilize this property of \\emph{Physarum} localizations to design a two-input two-output Boolean logic gates $ \\to $ and $ \\to $. We verify the designs in laboratory experiments and computer simulations. We cascade the logical gates into one-bit half-adder and simulate its functionality.
Determining the Shock Hugoniot of Transparent Materials with Hydrodynamic Pressure Loading
Svingala, Forrest; Settles, Gary
2011-11-01
The shock Hugoniot is a fundamental relationship between pressure, volume, and energy for a given material. Accurate knowledge of the Hugoniot for a material is critical in order to determine its response to blast waves and ballistic impacts. Traditionally, the shock Hugoniot is measured on a point-by-point basis through an extensive series of high-velocity impact experiments. Observations are confined to pointwise pressure or velocity measurements at the free surfaces of the sample. In this work a new technique is presented, one which allows multiple points of the shock Hugoniot to be determined in a single experiment. A gram-scale explosive charge is detonated to produce an unsteady shock wave in the transparent material sample. Pressure between the charge and sample is initially high, but is rapidly reduced by expansion of the explosive product gases. This loading produces an initially strong shock wave, which attenuates to near the bulk sound speed as it transits the sample. Using a high-speed shadowgraph technique, multiple shock and particle velocity combinations are observed in a single experiment. This allows the measurement of a shock Hugoniot in fewer experiments than by traditional methods. This technique produces data in agreement with published Hugoniot results for polyurethane. It can be easily extended to measure the Hugoniot of any transparent solid, liquid, or gas.
Wear, Keith; Liu, Yunbo; Gammell, Paul M; Maruvada, Subha; Harris, Gerald R
2015-01-01
Nonlinear acoustic signals contain significant energy at many harmonic frequencies. For many applications, the sensitivity (frequency response) of a hydrophone will not be uniform over such a broad spectrum. In a continuation of a previous investigation involving deconvolution methodology, deconvolution (implemented in the frequency domain as an inverse filter computed from frequency-dependent hydrophone sensitivity) was investigated for improvement of accuracy and precision of nonlinear acoustic output measurements. Timedelay spectrometry was used to measure complex sensitivities for 6 fiber-optic hydrophones. The hydrophones were then used to measure a pressure wave with rich harmonic content. Spectral asymmetry between compressional and rarefactional segments was exploited to design filters used in conjunction with deconvolution. Complex deconvolution reduced mean bias (for 6 fiber-optic hydrophones) from 163% to 24% for peak compressional pressure (p+), from 113% to 15% for peak rarefactional pressure (p-), and from 126% to 29% for pulse intensity integral (PII). Complex deconvolution reduced mean coefficient of variation (COV) (for 6 fiber optic hydrophones) from 18% to 11% (p+), 53% to 11% (p-), and 20% to 16% (PII). Deconvolution based on sensitivity magnitude or the minimum phase model also resulted in significant reductions in mean bias and COV of acoustic output parameters but was less effective than direct complex deconvolution for p+ and p-. Therefore, deconvolution with appropriate filtering facilitates reliable nonlinear acoustic output measurements using hydrophones with frequency-dependent sensitivity. PMID:25585399
Pavier, Julien; Langlet, André; Eches, Nicolas; Prat, Nicolas; Bailly, Patrice; Jacquet, Jean-François
2015-07-01
The objective of the study is to better understand how blunt projectile ballistic parameters and material properties influence the events leading to injuries. The present work focuses on lateral thoracic impacts and follows an experimental approach. The projectiles are made with a soft foam nose assembled with a rigid rear plastic part. The dynamic properties of the foams were first determined using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) system. The impact forces on a rigid wall were then measured to provide reference load data. Lastly, shots were made on isolated thoraxes of porcine cadavers to investigate the response in the vicinity of the impact (wall displacements, rib accelerations and strains, rib fractures). Results show that the severity of the response appears to be mainly correlated with the impulse and with the pre-impact momentum. PMID:25951500
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Asgari, H., E-mail: hamed.asgari@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zeng, L.J.; Olsson, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Li, D.Y. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)
2015-01-19
In this research, effect of yttrium on the texture formation, microstructural evolution and mechanical response of AE42 and AE44 cast magnesium alloys were investigated under ballistic impact. The selected strain rates were 800 and 1100 s{sup −1} and the tests were conducted using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. It was inferred that after high velocity impact, a weaker basal texture developed in the samples with lower content of yttrium. Experimental results also showed that by increasing the concentration of yttrium in the cast AE alloys, strength, ductility and dislocation density of the impacted alloys increased but, the fraction of twinning decreased, which indicate the effective influence of yttrium on the nucleation and growth of twins. Moreover, it was inferred that accumulation of dislocations at intersections of the twins led to the cracking and fracture of the samples under shock loading conditions.