Sample records for ballistic missile threat

  1. North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A


    ... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...

  2. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  3. Ballistic Missile Intercept from UCAV (United States)


    on the DPRK TPD-2 ballistic missile. A 3 degree-of-freedom ( 3DoF ) mathematical model was previously developed and used to simulate the trajectory...Characteristics(estimated) TPD-2 ICBM Data Input to Simulation(From [1]) Figure 3. Reach of TPD-2 Missile A 3DoF ballistic missile

  4. What Should Be the United States Policy towards Ballistic Missile Defense for Northeast Asia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delgado, Roberto L


    .... The threat of ballistic missiles from Northeast Asia is especially high. China and North Korea are seen as the top threats in the region when it comes to the delivery of WMD through ballistic missiles...

  5. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats (United States)


    annual investment of about $2.5 billion. The study also recommended that the Department of Defense enhance its ab ility to perform the kinds of broad...homeland fundamentally change the nature of the problem to one of strategic deterrence and that the spirit of the terms of reference was more...adversary investments in regional, precision attack cruise and ballistic threaten that foundation, investments that have dramatically increased both

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina


    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  7. Area Ballistic Missile Defense Coordinator and the Airborne Laser: Creating Ballistic Missile Defense Unity of Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oms, Pedro


    Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) is a challenging mission area for any Theater Combatant or Joint Task Force Commander, and one he must focus on to mitigate the strategic effects this "terror" weapon can impart...

  8. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.


    This paper reports that in late May 1972 former President Richard M. Nixon went to Moscow and signed, among other documents, a Treaty to Limit Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems. Under this agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union made a commitment not to build nationwide ABM defenses against the other's intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They agreed to limit ABM deployments to a maximum of two sites, with no more than 100 launchers per site. Thirteen of the treaty's sixteen articles are intended to prevent any deviation from this. In addition, a joint Standing Consultative Commission to monitor compliance was created. National technical means --- sophisticated monitoring devices on land, sea, and in space --- were to be the primary instruments used to monitor compliance with the treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed in conjunction with an Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms

  9. Trident II (D-5) Sea Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile) (United States)


    TRIDENT II (D5) Sea-Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (TRIDENT II (D5) missile) developed an improved Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile with...The TRIDENT II (D5) missile’s increased payload allows the deterrent mission to be achieved with fewer submarines . Trident II Missile December 2015...needed for the cable builds, which extended the overall time required for build/test, and b) unplanned work was required during the Burn-In Console

  10. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Keywords. Aerodynamic heating; ballistic missile; gravity; flat-earth. Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the ...

  11. Design and Manufacturing Process for a Ballistic Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Sebastian Marian


    Full Text Available Designing a ballistic missile flight depends on the mission and the stress to which the missile is subject. Missile’s requests are determined by: the organization of components; flight regime type, engine configuration and aerodynamic performance of the rocket flight. In this paper has been developed a ballistic missile with a smooth fuselage type, 10 control surfaces, 8 directional surfaces for cornering execution, 2 for maneuvers of execution to change the angle of incidence and 4 stabilizers direction. Through the technology of gluing and clamping of the shell and the use of titanium components, mass of ballistic missile presented a significant decrease in weight and a structure with high strength.

  12. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  13. The proliferation of ballistic missiles: an aggravating factor of crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Valery


    After a brief recall of the history of the development of ballistic missiles from World War II, the author discusses the various uses of these missiles, on the one hand by major powers, and on the other hand by other countries like Israel, Pakistan and India, and also Egypt and Iraq. He recalls the uses of these missiles during regional conflicts (Scuds by Iraq) and then discusses the issue of proliferation of ballistic missiles. He notices that most of these weapons are present in the arsenal of major powers under the form of intercontinental missiles, intermediate range weapons or theatre weapons. On the Third World side, proliferation concerns short- and medium-range missiles produced from technology transfers or national programmes. Mobile systems are now present in all conflicts (notably Libya, Syria) and are now based on more advanced technologies for propellers as well as for control and guidance systems. In the last part, the author discusses the perspectives associated with these missiles which are a strong offensive weapon, and are also modernised to carry nuclear warheads or multiple warheads. These evolutions could put the western superiority into question again

  14. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...

  15. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...

  16. The Full Costs of Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arrow, Kenneth


    ... and, therefore, are expensive. The Bush administration's interest in building a comprehensive, or "layered," missile defense system could lead to extraordinary defense budget costs over the next twenty to thirty years...

  17. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) (United States)


    variants.4 Aegis BMD 4.0: Flight testing of the Aegis BMD 4.0 system with Standard Missile -3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missiles has demonstrated that...range threshold IRBM threats in the midcourse phase of flight using SM-3 Block IB guided missiles .5 Flight testing in FY15 included a demonstration of...flight using SM-3 Block IB guided missiles .9 Midcourse engagements were made both organically (using the system’s own AN/SPY-1 radar) and with the

  18. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)


    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  19. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, Philip E.


    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  20. Sino-Japanese relations and ballistic missile defence


    Hughes, Christopher W.


    Since December 1998, the Japanese government has formally committed itself to undertake cooperative technological research with the US into Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD). Japanese government policy-makers stress that the BMD project remains at present purely at the research stage, and that separate government decisions will be necessary before any progression towards the stages of development, production and deployment. Nevertheless, even at the research phase it is clear that both Japanese...

  1. Countering Air and Missile Threats (United States)


    special instructions VID visual identification VR visual route Legend NOTES: 1. Update IDs at any level in the ID matrix; IDBO or POO considerations...nations. Such weapons provide an offensive capability and, when mated with a WMD, may give a nation the ability to deter a potential adversary by...the final stages of preparing the weapon for operations is mating the warhead to the missile body. This may be a training event so it can be

  2. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin


    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  3. Ballistic Missile Proliferation: An Emerging Threat 1992 (United States)


    structural design software programs are also many countries, including Iraq, have shown will- available from NASA and a variety of other unclas- ingness to...priority in maintaining national security, subsidiary of Brazil’s state-owned Empresa Brasi- leira de Aeronautica (Embraer). It is believed to be

  4. Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (United States)


    8217 ,;;::i’:’.w..:.v,:.’..’,;?.:.:. t OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH PROGRAM AT THE BALLISTIC...Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Small Business Innovation Research Accession Number: 3526 Publication Date: Mar 21, 1995 Title: Small... Business Innovation Research Program at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Corporate Author Or Publisher: DoD, Office of the Inspector General

  5. Ballistic Missile Defense: National Security and the High Frontier of Space. (United States)

    Adragna, Steven P.


    Ballistic missile defense is discussed, and the rationale behind the proposal to place defensive weapons in space is examined. Strategic defense is a national security, political, and moral imperative. (RM)

  6. Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The audit objective was to determine whether the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization complied with legislation and DoD policy covering commercial potential requirements for Phase 1 of the SBIR program...

  7. Small Business Administration Section 8 (A) Support Services Contracts at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. (United States)



  8. MEDUSA: A concept for countering multiple targets from theater ballistic missiles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peglow, S.G.


    We feel that the concept of intercepting a fractionated threat from a tactical ballistic missile is potentially feasible and would have very high payoff for the defense. Many other concepts have been suggested to solve this problem, although they have mostly been more futuristic approaches, e.g. aircrafty based lasers. We also believe that current technologies are not likely to be adequate for the expected types of very small submunition payloads, especially in the presence of relatively simple countermeasures. The MEDUSA concept, or its clones, may very well provide a vehicle for the study of less stressing threats, e.g. separating warheads and provide a lethality enhancement for non-deployed payloads. An opportunity also exists to investigate alternative technologies, such as the explosively-formed ``disk`` idea. The use of high-precision, limited field-of-view sensor-fuzed munitions is a subject of interest in other Defense Department programs and may have application to the important area of theater missile defense.

  9. South Africa's nuclear-tipped ballistic missile capability. Report of the Secretary-General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The fact remains that South Africa, with or without nuclear weapons and ballistic missile capability, remains a formidable military power in the continent of Africa. The threat it still represents for the security of African sates and, in particular the from line and other neighbouring states can only be reassessed in the light of the ongoing internal changes in South Africa. A tangible proof of South Africa's determination to abandon the policy of military intimidation would be its expeditions accession to the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the opening of all its nuclear facilities to international inspection. Recent statements concerning its intention to this effect are most encouraging. South Africa's accession to the non-proliferation Treaty will not only strengthen confidence in the region, but would also remove one of the main obstacles for transforming the continent into a nuclear-weapon free zone

  10. Missiles for Asia The Need for Operational Analysis of U.S. Theater Ballistic Missiles in the Pacific (United States)


    C O R P O R A T I O N Missiles for Asia ? The Need for Operational Analysis of U.S. Theater Ballistic Missiles in the Pacific Jacob L. Heim • The...Europe and East Asia ? One argument that has been advanced is that leaving the INF Treaty would free the United States to develop and deploy missiles, and perhaps for this reason, there have not been any vocal calls for the United States to consider fielding GLCMs in Asia . One could

  11. China and ballistic missile defense: 1955 to 2002 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad, Roberts


    China's opposition to U.S. ballistic missile defense was forcefully articulated officially and unofficially between 1991 and 2001. Vociferous opposition gave way to near silence following U.S. ABM Treaty withdrawal, raising a question about precisely whether and how China will respond to future U.S. deployments in both the political and military-operational realms. To gauge likely future responses, it is useful to put the experience of the 1991-2001 period into historical context. China's attitudes toward BMD have passed through a series of distinct phases since the beginning of the nuclear era, as China has been concerned alternately with the problems of strategic defense by both the Soviet Union and United States (and others) around its periphery. Throughout this era it has also pursued its own strategic defense capabilities. There are important elements of continuity in China's attitudes concerns about the viability of its own force and about strategic stability. These suggest the likelihood of significant responses to U.S. BMD even in the absence of sharp rhetoric. (author)

  12. China and ballistic missile defense: 1955 to 2002 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad, Roberts


    China's opposition to U.S. ballistic missile defense was forcefully articulated officially and unofficially between 1991 and 2001. Vociferous opposition gave way to near silence following U.S. ABM Treaty withdrawal, raising a question about precisely whether and how China will respond to future U.S. deployments in both the political and military-operational realms. To gauge likely future responses, it is useful to put the experience of the 1991-2001 period into historical context. China's attitudes toward BMD have passed through a series of distinct phases since the beginning of the nuclear era, as China has been concerned alternately with the problems of strategic defense by both the Soviet Union and United States (and others) around its periphery. Throughout this era it has also pursued its own strategic defense capabilities. There are important elements of continuity in China's attitudes concerns about the viability of its own force and about strategic stability. These suggest the likelihood of significant responses to U.S. BMD even in the absence of sharp rhetoric. (author)

  13. Information Management Principles Applied to the Ballistic Missile Defense System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koehler, John M


    .... Similarly several military systems with the single mission of missile defense have evolved in service stovepipes, and are now being integrated into a national and global missile defense architecture...

  14. The US ballistic missile defence policy in the Baltic and Nordic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyshev Valery


    Full Text Available This article examines the implications of the deployment of the US ballistic missile defense (BMD system in the Baltic and Nordic regions. These implications are to be considered to ensure Russia’s military security. Using the structural-functional method, the authors analyse the internal structure of the US BMD in Europe, stages of its implementation, and its influence on the military equilibrium in the region. Being similar to other regional missile defence systems of the Pentagon, BMD in Europe increases the offensive capabilities of the US armed forces and its allies and in doing so, it stops performing a purely defensive mission declared by Washington. It is stressed that the deployment of mobile sea- and land-based BMD elements in the Baltic Sea region and Nordic countries will inevitably destabilize the strategic situation and may lead to a new round of arms race in the region. The efficacy of BMD in Europe is evaluated from the perspective of military technology. The system’s potential threats to Russia’s military security and its armed forces are assessed. The article considers measures to enhance national security that could be taken by Russia provided the US plans to deploy BMD in Europe are fully implemented.

  15. A Systems Approach to Finding Cost-Effective Alternatives to European Ballistic Missile Defense (United States)


    has holes in its ability to cover the entire region as required. What are the existing approaches to ballistic missile defense in Europe? 4. What Are...however, this report focuses on ballistic missiles which use stellar or inertial guidance systems which are not subject to electromagnetic...location as the Baseline system (35.6° N, 32.5° E) while the other was placed north of Turkey in the Black Sea (41.5° N, 38.1° E). Each Aegis ship was

  16. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch... (United States)


    ... Vehicles (including cruise missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. 744.3... missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile...

  17. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    ballistic missiles or caches of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) might allow the United States to destroy these weapons before an adversary could... coherent force structure. Hence, although the Air Force considered the NPR objective of integrating nuclear and conventional strike forces as a

  18. Deterrence of ballistic missile systems and their effects on today's air operations (United States)

    Durak, Hasan


    Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.

  19. 1997 Report to the Congress on Ballistic Missile Defense. (United States)


    and ADCP completed operational testing and evaluation at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico . A successful TMD demonstration was conducted as part of...Satellite (RAMOS) program. The Russian Space Industrial Company, NPO Cometa , under the auspices of Rosvoorzhenie, the Russians Arms Import/Export...Val flight test program will be conducted at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico . The flight test schedule consists of flight and system

  20. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.


    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  1. System Requirements Analysis and Technological Support for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) - FY07 Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auguston, M; Drusinsky, D; Hutchins, R; Knorr, J. B; Michael, J. B; Otani, T; Pace, P. E; Sting, M; Tummala, M; Cook, T


    ... the communication requirements of the net-centric Ballistic Missile Defense warfare, and the use of architectural patterns and other software technologies to shape the emergent behavior of the BMDS taking...

  2. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R D Neumann and J R Hayes (Summerfield 1986) carried out a sort of aerodynamic heating analysis for high velocity missiles by applying the knowledge of both inviscid and viscous flow fields over the vehicle, as the heating rate at any point of the vehicle is a function of many test-specific properties such as fluid flow field ...

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    or informal conasultation with the U.S. Fiah and aoaroro daring the antelope fawaiog peeied wad yearloag for desert bighorn Wildlife= ceee oaceening... catalogued , thereby making missiles easier to identify and shortening response time. F.4.3 ELEMENT DESCRIPTION The SBS element would consist of a

  4. The National Guard Ballistic Missile Defense Mission minutemen at the Orgital Plane


    Trenary, Ralph Hiram


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the decision to assign the Ballistic Missile Defense mission to units of the Colorado and Alaska National Guard. The history of the Nike Ajax, Nike Hercules, Sentinel and Safeguard programs are examined to identify the origins of support for this decision. First-hand sources provide evidence that the National Guard performance in the Nike air defense program is a record of parity and some superiority to equivalent ...

  5. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Conventional Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carneige Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp...124 James M. Acton, Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp. 120-129. ...Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy

  6. Reasons Behind the Change of American Ballistic Missile Defense Architecture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan EUGEL


    Full Text Available The article analyses the change of the architecture of American ballistic missile system in Europe by Barrack Obama in September 2009. The author argues that this change was partially, but not solely, motivated by the effort to appease the Russian antagonism against this project. This is supported by various arguments for and against the assertion that it was an effort to appease Russia. Thus, the answer should be somewhere in the middle.

  7. Thermomechanical effects of ground-based directed energy weapons on satellites and Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles


    Mantzouris, Georgios


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Thermo mechanical modeling and simulation of a satellite and intercontinental ballistic missile assumes importance due to the increased interest in assessing the potential of such attacks. Effective and innovative methods are sought in assessing the structural integrity of such structural components. In this study, we present modeling and simulation aspects of two generic models loaded by high energy laser beam. We present an applicati...

  8. Trident II (D-5) Sea-Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile) (United States)


    unfavorable net change in the schedule variance is due to stopping Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyro assembly operations as a result of a technical problem...with oxygen depletion in the fill gas causing a frequency response problem with an optoelectrical gyro part. Trident II Missile December 2013 SAR

  9. Missileer: The Dawn, Decline, and Reinvigoration of America’s Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Operators (United States)


    year long! Thanks to my wife for knowing when I needed to go on a run, or taking the kids to Florida so I could focus on writing—you taught me one...weapons often left out of books on strategy. Unlike the pilot and the astronaut, figures that have been idolized as American heroes, missileers...from David N. Spires’ book , On Alert, which states on p. 50 of his history that, “on 1 September 1959 SAC Commander-in-Chief General Power announced

  10. Research on capability of detecting ballistic missile by near space infrared system (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng


    The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.

  11. Trade-off Study for the Hit-to-kill Interception of Ballistic Missiles in the Boost Phase (United States)


    71 A. 3DOF INTERCEPTOR.................................................................................71 1...78 B. 3DOF TARGET .............................................................................................79 1. BRFlight3.m...ABBREVIATIONS 3-D 3-Dimentional 3DoF 3 Degree-of-Freedom AIAA American Institute of Aeronautical and Astronautics BMDS Ballistic Missile Defense

  12. Injury representation against ballistic threats using three novel numerical models. (United States)

    Breeze, Johno; Fryer, R; Pope, D; Clasper, J


    Injury modelling of ballistic threats is a valuable tool for informing policy on personal protective equipment and other injury mitigation methods. Currently, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) are focusing on the development of three interlinking numerical models, each of a different fidelity, to answer specific questions on current threats. High-fidelity models simulate the physical events most realistically, and will be used in the future to test the medical effectiveness of personal armour systems. They are however generally computationally intensive, slow running and much of the experimental data to base their algorithms on do not yet exist. Medium fidelity models, such as the personnel vulnerability simulation (PVS), generally use algorithms based on physical or engineering estimations of interaction. This enables a reasonable representation of reality and greatly speeds up runtime allowing full assessments of the entire body area to be undertaken. Low-fidelity models such as the human injury predictor (HIP) tool generally use simplistic algorithms to make injury predictions. Individual scenarios can be run very quickly and hence enable statistical casualty assessments of large groups, where significant uncertainty concerning the threat and affected population exist. HIP is used to simulate the blast and penetrative fragmentation effects of a terrorist detonation of an improvised explosive device within crowds of people in metropolitan environments. This paper describes the collaboration between MoD and CPNI using an example of all three fidelities of injury model and to highlight future areas of research that are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Protecting Commercial Aviation Against the Shoulder-Fired Missile Threat (United States)


    Protecting Commercial Aviation Against the Shoulder-Fired Missile in the economy, such as fewer stays at hotels and decreased business travel . Aircraft...Protecting Commercial Aviation Against the Shoulder-Fired Missile Table A.2 (continued) Business Travel Airline Time cost: $34.50 Cost per mile: $0.134

  14. The Impact of Missile Threats on the Reliability of U.S. Overseas Bases: A Framework for Analysis (United States)


    including long-range bombers and cruise missiles. The current Air Force concept for achieving this type of capability is the Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ... GSTF is centered on early insertion of B-2 bombers equipped with conventional bombs, supported by F-22 escorts and advanced ISR to identify enemy...conventional cruise missiles. Plans to re- christen these ballistic missile submarines as SSGNs are underway, and may complement the GSTF program well

  15. A Three-Pronged Strategy to Solve the Problem of Long-Range Missile Proliferation (United States)


    costly to be worth while." 111. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Advanced Planning Briefing for Industry (The Ritz - Carlton , Tysons Corner, VA...Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. Advanced Planning Briefing for Industry. The Ritz - Carlton , Tysons Corner, VA, Meeting #494, 1-2 March 1994...threat of global war. But history did not end with that victory and neither did threats to the United States, its people and its interests

  16. The Cult of Deterrence: A Moral and Strategic Critique of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pringle, Cameron


    .... Analysis of the Just War Criteria and the utilitarian justifications of deterrence present a moral obligation to pursue the alternative strategy of missile defense as a means of defending the United States...

  17. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    procuring the missiles.... 97 Rob Taylor, “U.S. and Australia to Cooperate on Asian Missile-Defense...scheduled to grow from 33 at the end of FY2016 to 49 at the end of FY2021. The figure for FY2020 may include up to four BMD-capable Aegis cruisers in...building, or are planning to build Aegis-equipped ships include Japan, South Korea, Australia , Spain, and Norway.2 Aegis BMD System3 Aegis ships

  18. Hit-to-Kill Guidance Algorithm for the Interception of Ballistic Missiles During the Boost Phase (United States)


    MODELING PROGRAMS...............................................................81 A. 3DOF TARGET...BRFlight3.m .......................................................................................82 B. 3DOF INTERCEPTOR...Degree-of-Freedom ( 3DOF ) model of each. This paper will focus on the Taep’o-dong Two (TD2) ballistic rocket in development by the People’s

  19. Echoes That Never Were: American Mobile Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, 1956-1983 (United States)


    couplers, brake lines, and wheel sets. 30 The study committee recognized that the biggest problems facing air force engineers were missile alignment and...fuel consumption regenerative turboprop power plants" propelled the plane, and to extend its airborne endurance, it had air-to-air refueling capability...provided survivability through mobility, concealment, and deception. BSD proposed a large grid -like network of 350 pools, each separated by 3,000 feet

  20. An overview of the political-military implications of missile proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, T.


    The proliferation of advanced military technology, and of ballistic missiles in particular, should be viewed as a phenomenon with potential strategic ramifications for both the U.S. and its allies. This paper examines these ramifications on three levels: military, politico-military, and geostratigic. Four broad policy approaches can be taken singly or in combination to deal with the ballistic missile threat. They are: arms control, deterrence, preemption, and defense

  1. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  2. UCAV path planning in the presence of radar-guided surface-to-air missile threats (United States)

    Zeitz, Frederick H., III

    This dissertation addresses the problem of path planning for unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) in the presence of radar-guided surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). The radars, collocated with SAM launch sites, operate within the structure of an Integrated Air Defense System (IADS) that permits communication and cooperation between individual radars. The problem is formulated in the framework of the interaction between three sub-systems: the aircraft, the IADS, and the missile. The main features of this integrated model are: The aircraft radar cross section (RCS) depends explicitly on both the aspect and bank angles; hence, the RCS and aircraft dynamics are coupled. The probabilistic nature of IADS tracking is accounted for; namely, the probability that the aircraft has been continuously tracked by the IADS depends on the aircraft RCS and range from the perspective of each radar within the IADS. Finally, the requirement to maintain tracking prior to missile launch and during missile flyout are also modeled. Based on this model, the problem of UCAV path planning is formulated as a minimax optimal control problem, with the aircraft bank angle serving as control. Necessary conditions of optimality for this minimax problem are derived. Based on these necessary conditions, properties of the optimal paths are derived. These properties are used to discretize the dynamic optimization problem into a finite-dimensional, nonlinear programming problem that can be solved numerically. Properties of the optimal paths are also used to initialize the numerical procedure. A homotopy method is proposed to solve the finite-dimensional, nonlinear programming problem, and a heuristic method is proposed to improve the discretization during the homotopy process. Based upon the properties of numerical solutions, a method is proposed for parameterizing and storing information for later recall in flight to permit rapid replanning in response to changing threats. Illustrative examples are

  3. The BMD threat: when and how to intercept - Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouquet, F.


    NATO and the US are involved in developing Ballistic missile defense (BMD) capabilities that must provide protection against various threats, which has received global attention. One needs to carefully consider the consequences of employing the defensive missiles. It is assumed that there will be no

  4. Back to the Future: Integrated Air and Missile Defense in the Pacific (United States)


    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14...mis- sion, that service researched missile systems like the Nike -Zeus to de- fend against USSR ICBMs.11 Eventually, the Army fielded several ver- sions...of the Nike weapons system, along with the Hawk and Stinger missiles, to combat theater ballistic missiles and air-breathing threats. The colossal

  5. The Development of the US National Missile Defense and its Impact on the International Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu. Parshkova


    Full Text Available The article reflects the US officials' point of view on the development of its national missile defense. The major threat to international security is the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. The United States and the former Soviet Union made huge efforts to reduce and limit offensive arms. However, presently the proliferation of ballistic missiles spreads all over the world, especially in the Middle East, because of the ballistic missile technology falling into the hands of hostile non-state groups. Missile defenses can provide a permanent presence in a region and discourage adversaries from believing they can use ballistic missiles to coerce or intimidate the U.S. or its allies. With the possible attack regional missile defense systems will be promptly mobilized to enhance an effective deterrent. The ultimate goal of such large-scale missile defense deployment is to convince the adversaries that the use of ballistic missiles is useless in military terms and that any attack on the United States and its allies is doomed to failure. The United States has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of allies, including United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Israel, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Poland, Italy and many others. The Missile Defense Agency also actively participates in NATO activities to maximize opportunities to develop an integrated NATO ballistic missile defense capability. The initiative of the development of US BMD naturally belongs to the United States. That country has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities, exceeding by far those of the other NATO members combined.

  6. A new method of passive counting of nuclear missile warheads -a white paper for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durham, J. Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guardincerri, Elena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fellows, Shelby [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poulson, Daniel Cris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daughton, Tess Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Olivia Ruth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Cosmic ray muon imaging has been studied for the past several years as a possible technique for nuclear warhead inspection and verification as part of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation. The Los Alamos team has studied two different muon imaging methods for this application, using detectors on two sides and one side of the object of interest. In this report we present results obtained on single sided imaging of configurations aimed at demonstrating the potential of this technique for counting nuclear warheads in place with detectors above the closed hatch of a ballistic missile submarine.

  7. Diode Pumped Alkaline Laser System: A High Powered, Low SWaP Directed Energy Option for Ballistic Missile Defense High-Level Summary - April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisoff, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system is an R&D effort funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MDA has described the characteristics needed for a Boost Phase directed energy (DE) weapon to work against ICBM-class threat missiles. In terms of the platform, the mission will require a high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly in the “quiet” stratosphere and display long endurance – i.e., days on station. In terms of the laser, MDA needs a high power, low size and weight laser that could be carried by such a platform and deliver lethal energy to an ICBM-class threat missile from hundreds of kilometers away. While both the military and industry are pursuing Directed Energy for tactical applications, MDA’s objectives pose a significantly greater challenge than other current efforts in terms of the power needed from the laser, the low size and weight required, and the range, speed, and size of the threat missiles. To that end, MDA is funding two R&D efforts to assess the feasibility of a high power (MWclass) and low SWaP (size, weight and power) laser: a fiber combining laser (FCL) project at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, and LLNL’s Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system.

  8. A robust approach to the missile defence location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, A.A.F.; Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.


    This paper proposes a model for determining a robust defence strategy against ballistic missile threat. Our approach takes into account a variety of possible future scenarios and different forms of robustness criteria, including the well-known absolute robustness criterion. We consider two problem

  9. Regional Power Ballistic Missiles. An Emerging Threat to Deployed US forces? (United States)


    the ’ SONDA " series of suborbital scientific sounding rockets with progressively increasing payload and altitude capablilt!’. The latest SONDA -IV...version is credited with a 500 kg payload and a surface-to- surface range estimated at 625 km. (43:432; 44:15; 7:88-92) The SONDAs were two stage vehicles...used the civilian SONDA rocket motor designs as the basis for the military "ASTROS-’I’ un;uided artillery rockets which have been exported in large

  10. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.


    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  11. The Peak of Rocket Production: The Designer of Ballistic Missiles V.F. Utkin (1923-2000) (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Sitnikova, N.


    achievements V. Utkin and his pupils are crea- tion unique "mortar" launching of a heavy liquid rocket from shaft, the decision of a complex of prob- lems on maintenance ready for military action (continuous attendance) of liquid rockets in the filled condi-tion for many years, maintenance of stability of rockets at action on them of striking factors of nuclear explosion. With personal participation of academician IAA V. Utkin the following large scien- tific and technical results were received: (a) a military railway rocket complex with intercontinental solid-propellant rocket with starting weight of 105 tons and with 10 warheads; (b) a method of war manage-ment with the help of command rockets; (c) a method of definition of characteristics of means of overcoming of antimissile defense; (d) war intercontinental rockets with the increased accuracy, with the survivability, with the availability for action; (e) a commanding rocket. Design' decisions not ha- ving the analogues in world: (a) managements of flight solid-propellant an intercontinental ballistic missiles by means of a deviating head part; (b) managements solid-propellant rocket by method of inje- ction of gas in supercritical part of nozzle; (c) industrial introduction of the newest materials etc.V. Ut- kin is the active participant of works in the field of the international cooperation in research and deve- lopment of a space. In 1990 V. Utkin hold a high post of the director of ZSNIIMACH which is leading organization of a space-rocket industry of Russia. Under manual V. Utkin the Federal space program of Russia was developed. V. Utkin had huge authority as the chairman of Advice of the Main designers of the USSR. He was the co-chairman combined commission of experts V. Utkin - T. Stafford" on problems of maintenance joint manned flights. He was the chairman of Coordination advice under the program of researches on manned space complexes. V. Utkin dreamed to be the active participant of a new stage of the outer

  12. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.


    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Mihaela LEVONIAN


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate Romanian media discourse on the current standing of the relations between Romania and the United States of America in the military fi eld. The main topic investigated is connected to Romania’s decision to host the land-based component of the Balllistic Missile Defense System on its ground, an event which attracted signifi cant media coverage during the year 2011. The corpus analyzed consisted of 37 news and opinion items and reports published on the site of three Romanian newspapers. The main research questions were to assess whether the evaluations of this event were positive or negative, who were the actors issuing these statements and what objects were discussed in association to this event. The results showed that positive evaluations were more common than negative evaluations and that the offi cial stances on this topic formed a very coherent perspective, endorsing the project.

  14. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi


    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  15. North Korea’s Military Threat: Pyongyang’s Conventional Forces, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Ballistic Missiles (United States)


    confuse Westerners, the ROK Ministry of Culture and Tourism has changed the way Korean words are spelled to better associate those words with the...phonetic pronunciation that the South Koreans use. So now it is Bukgoe or other examples, “ Busan ” rather than “Pusan”; “Gimpo” not “Kimpo”; “Jinhae” not...Presidency made at the 1st meeting of the Fifth Supreme People’s Assembly ( SPA ) in December 1972. MPAF was separated from the Administration Council and

  16. Acquisition: Acquisition of Targets at the Missile Defense Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary L; Meling, John E; James, Harold C; Haynes, Christine L; Heller, Brad M; Pomietto, Kenneth M; Bobbio, Jaime; Chang, Bill; Pugh, Jacqueline


    Who Should Read This Report and Why? Missile Defense Agency program managers who are responsible for the acquisition and management of targets used to test the Ballistic Missile Defense System should be interested in this report...

  17. Ballistic-Missile Defense Weapons, (United States)


    During the Spring Festival, kids always love to play with rocket fireworks. Rocket fireworks light up the night one after another, Even though these are...yellow, green, blue, indigo , and violet light, and radia- tion of other wavelengths. Man has utilized the above characteristics of stimulated emission

  18. Missile defence : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.


    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even

  19. Izbor faktora rotacije vektora potiska za balističku raketu sa Lambertovim vođenjem / Choice of the rotational factor of the thrust vector for the ballistic missile with Lambert guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk


    Full Text Available Predmet rada jeste primena Lambertovog vođenja na balističku raketu. Koristeći fundamentalnu jednačinu za upravljački vektor brzine razvijena je formula za određivanje ugla orijentacije vektora potiska u zavisnosti od faktora rotacije njegovog pravca. Izvedena formula zahteva Q-matricu koja povezuje diferencijalnu promenu vektora položaja rakete sa odgovarajućom diferencijalnom promenom korelisane brzine za fiksnu poziciju cilja i konstantno vreme slobodnog leta rakete. Izborom parametra rotacije vektora potiska dobijaju se različiti profili ugaonog položaja rakete i ugla njene brzine u zavisnosti od vremena. Podešavanjem parametra rotacije vektora potiska moguće je ostvariti prekid rada raketnog motora pri nultom napadnom uglu i, na taj način, smanjiti početne poremećaje slobodnog leta rakete. / This paper deals with the application of the Lambert guidance to the ballistic missile. By using the fundamental equation for the velocity-to-be-gained, the demanded command for the thrust angle is developed in terms of the rotational factor of its direction. The developed formula requires the Q-matrix which links a differential change in the missile position vector to the corresponding differential change in the correlated velocity for the fixed target position and the constant time of free flight. The choice of the rotational parameter provides different profiles of the missile attitude and flight path angle with time. By adjusting the rotational parameter for the thrust vector, the cut-off of the rocket engine can occur at zero angle of attack and the initial perturbations during free flight may be thus reduced.

  20. The Rise and Fall of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: A Study of U.S. Decision-Making (United States)


    July/August 2000. 17 Greg Jaffe. “Clinton Leaves Choice to Deploy Missile Program to his Successor.” Wall Street Journal , 5 September 2000, p. A.8...2001, p. A.19. 15 References “Where’s the Treaty?” Wall Street Journal , 10 May 1999. Boese, Wade. “Little Progress on ABM, START at Moscow Summit...Presswire, 19 December 2001. Proquest (8 Jan 2003). Jaffe, Greg. “Clinton Leaves Choice to Deploy Missile Program to his Successor.” Wall Street Journal , 5

  1. Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe (United States)


    efforts at missile defense (such as the 1960s- era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the vast Soviet missile arsenal. Recent efforts are...on unclassified performance parameters for the various radars and interceptors and assumed that the systems would work “as advertised .” (A...develop defenses against ballistic missiles. Early U.S. efforts (such as the 1960s-era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the Soviet Union’s

  2. Role of air base operability in tactical missile defense. Student report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleet, S.A.


    The emergence of a new generation of Soviet short-range, conventional, tactical ballistic missiles (FRGO, SS-1, SS-12, SS-21, SS-22, SS-23) threaten US/NATO air bases in Central Europe. The US has initiated a comprehensive, long-term Tactical Missile Defense (TMD) Program to counter the threat. At the same time, the USAF has re-focused attention on the need to improve air base survivability through it Air Base Operability (ABO) Program. This research paper examines the threat, discusses the concepts and realities of TMD, and analyzes the role of ABO in TMD. In addition, it highlights the impact of the US-Soviet Treaty on Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces upon the US TMD Program.

  3. Hyper Velocity Missiles For Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Minhas


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of technical development in the field of hypervelocity missiles. It highlights the fact that the development of anti-ballistic systems in USA, Russia, France, UK, Sweden, and Israel is moving toward the final deployment stage; that USA and Israel are trying to sell PAC 2 and Arrow 2 to India; and that India’s Agni and Prithvi missiles have improved their accuracy, with assistance from Russia. Consequently, the paper proposes enhanced effort for development in Pakistan of a basic hypersonic tactical missile, with 300 KM range, 500 KG payload, and multi-rolecapability. The author argues that a system, developed within the country, at the existing or upgraded facilities, will not violate MTCR restrictions, and would greatly enhance the country’s defense capability. Furthermore, it would provide high technology jobs toPakistani citizens. The paper reinforces the idea by suggesting that evolution in the field of aviation and electronics favors the development of ballistic, cruise and guided missile technologies; and that flight time of short and intermediate range missiles is so short that its interception is virtually impossible.

  4. Ballistic materials in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.S.; Hurst, G.C.; Duerk, J.L.; Diaz, P.J.


    This paper reports on the most common ballistic materials available in the urban setting studied for deflection force, rotation, heating, and imaging artifact at 1.5 T to determine potential efficacy and safety for imaging patients with ballistic injuries. Twenty-eight missiles were tested, covering the range of bullet types and materials suggested by the Cleveland Police Department. Deflection force was measured by the New method. Rotation was studied by evaluating bullets in a 10% (W/W) ballistic gelating after 30 minutes with the long axis of the bullet placed parallel and perpendicular to the z axis. Heating was measured with alcohol thermometers imaged for 1 hour alternately with FESUM and spin-echo sequences (RF absorption w/Kg and 0.033 w/Kg). Image artifact evaluation of routine sequences was performed

  5. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) activities at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. It addresses future DTRA testing activities and expands on the current testing parameters addressed in existing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents...

  6. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality (United States)


    cooperate (they even share a common catalog of tar - 7 gets with single designations), but, as one Russian de- fense analyst put it, “in practice such...19 Aleksandr Tar - nayev, a member of the Russian State Duma Defense Committee, complained that due to insufficient funds, the VKO command could not...well as nuclear warheads, will probably utilize the presently moth- balled 51T6 (Gorgon) silos. It should have a range of up to 100-km and an

  7. Issues in national missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    Strategic missiles and weapons are proliferating rapidly; thus, the US and its Allies are likely to face both capable bilateral threats and multilateral configurations with complex coalitions for which defenses could be essential for stability. Current hit-to-kill interceptor and radar and infrared detection, track, and discrimination technology should suffice for limited threats, but it is necessary to meet those threats in time while maintaining growth potential for the more sophisticated threats likely to follow. National Missile Defense faces a confusing array of threats, programs, and alternatives, but the technologies in development are clearly an appropriate first step towards any of them. They are likely to succeed in the near term; the challenge is to retain flexibility to provide needed options in the mid and long terms.

  8. Laser beam riding artillery missiles guidance device is designed (United States)

    Yan, Mingliang; Huo, Zhicheng; Chen, Wei


    Laser driving gun missile guidance type beam of laser information field formed by any link failure or reduced stability will directly lead to ballistic or miss out of control, and based on this, this paper designed the driving beam of laser guided missile guidance beam type forming device modulation and zoom mechanism, in order to make the missile can recognize its position in the laser beam, laser beam gun missile, by means of spatial encoding of the laser beam laser beam into information after forming device, a surface to achieve the purpose of precision guidance.

  9. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume 1 (United States)


    bean, radish, wheat, tomato , sugar beet, meadow fescue, and rose). An effect level for phytotoxicity was established at a concentration of 50 ppm...White Sands Missile Range FPEIS F-30 TEP was shown to cause a decrease in plant growth at greater than 400 mg TEP/m2 for tomatoes , sorghum...decomposition products as oxides of oxide. If the product is heated to temperatures sufficient to produce smoke or fumes the TLV-TWA for rosin pyrolysis

  10. US-Led Cooperative Theater Missile Defense in Northeast Asia challenges and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiriah, Rex


    .... After maintaining four days of silence, North Korean officials stated that the Western labeled MRBM flight test was not the test firing of a ballistic missile but was a three-stage rocket launch...

  11. Defending the Homeland Path of Missile Defense Development full of Ups and Downs (United States)


    confrontation. The fi rst anti-ballistic missile system to emerge from the technological and political turmoil was the Nike -Zeus system. Elements of...such systems. The summer of 2006 was fraught with high-level political tension, as North Korea advertised their plan to test a long- range ballistic...warhead by direct impact versus detonation. The Army began to address national missile defense in the 1950’s with the NIKE -ZEUS project. The Zeus

  12. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 5, Number 2 (United States)


    rence is seen among animals (e.g., a dog baring its teeth). The stories of Adam and Eve and Pandora’s Box —as well as pa- rental behavior—are good...ballistic missile (SRBM) that can easily reach the node with minimal indica- tion and warning. The terrorist cell has stolen a missile- erector - launcher

  13. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang


    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  14. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi


    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  15. The Regional Dimension of Romania's Participation to the Anti-Missile Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode


    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.

  16. Missile Defense: Opportunity Exists to Strengthen Acquisitions by Reducing Concurrency (United States)


    unexpected energetic event in the third-stage rocket motor and failed to intercept a short-range ballistic missile target. Following the flight test...Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud , Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  17. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.


    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  18. Cruise Missile Proliferation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feickert, Andrew


    About 75 countries currently possess cruise missiles.1 Many experts predict that anti- ship and land attack cruise missile proliferation will increase in terms of both scope and technological sophistication...

  19. Advanced Missile Signature Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  20. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher


    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  1. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher


    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  2. Seeing 2020: America’s New Vision for Integrated Air and Missile Defense (United States)


    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14...siles. Examples included the Nike Zeus and Nike -X anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs), which used nuclear warheads to destroy incoming missiles (a practice...the Soviets also explored) in their terminal phase of flight. Yet despite some successful tests, the Nike programs were never fully implemented

  3. Time-to-impact estimation in passive missile warning systems (United States)

    Şahıngıl, Mehmet Cihan


    A missile warning system can detect the incoming missile threat(s) and automatically cue the other Electronic Attack (EA) systems in the suit, such as Directed Infrared Counter Measure (DIRCM) system and/or Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS). Most missile warning systems are currently based on passive sensor technology operating in either Solar Blind Ultraviolet (SBUV) or Midwave Infrared (MWIR) bands on which there is an intensive emission from the exhaust plume of the threatening missile. Although passive missile warning systems have some clear advantages over pulse-Doppler radar (PDR) based active missile warning systems, they show poorer performance in terms of time-to-impact (TTI) estimation which is critical for optimizing the countermeasures and also "passive kill assessment". In this paper, we consider this problem, namely, TTI estimation from passive measurements and present a TTI estimation scheme which can be used in passive missile warning systems. Our problem formulation is based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The algorithm uses the area parameter of the threat plume which is derived from the used image frame.

  4. IR sensor design insight from missile-plume prediction models (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; Gilbert, Bruno; Richer, Guy; Stowe, Robert


    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. An analysis of missile propellants suggests that missile detection based on plume characteristics alone may be more difficult than anticipated. Currently, the passive detection of missiles depends on signatures with a significant ultraviolet component. This approach is effective in detecting anti-aircraft missiles that rely on powerful motors to pursue high-speed aircraft. The high temperature exhaust from these missiles contains significant levels of carbon dioxide, water and, often, metal oxides such as alumina. The plumes emits strongest in the infrared, 1 to 5micrometers , regions with a significant component of the signature extending into the ultraviolet domain. Many anti-tank missiles do not need the same level of propulsion and radiate significantly less. These low velocity missiles, relying on the destructive force of shaped-charge warhead, are more difficult to detect. There is virtually no ultraviolet component and detection based on UV sensors is impractical. The transition in missile detection from UV to IR is reasonable, based on trends in imaging technology, but from the analysis presented in this paper even IR imagers may have difficulty in detecting missile plumes. This suggests that the emphasis should be placed in the detection of the missile hard body in the longer wavelengths of 8 to 12micrometers . The analysis described in this paper is based on solution of the governing equations of plume physics and chemistry. These models will be used to develop better sensors and threat detection algorithms.

  5. Regional Joint-Integrated Air and Missile Defense (RF-IAMD): An Operational Level Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Command and Control (C2) Organization (United States)


    Accessed April 26, 2015, avc /rls/2014/226073.html 24 Pacific Air Forces, PACAF establishes Pacific IAMD Center, Accessed April...U.S. Department of State. Gulf Cooperation Council and Ballistic Missile Defense. Accessed April 26, 2015. avc /rls/2014

  6. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang


    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  7. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles


    J.P. Dudeja; G.S. Kalsey


    Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs) are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper com...

  8. Legislative Environmental Impact Statement: Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program. (United States)


    85 and 95. In the Yuma PG area, areas of special visual quality are found in the vicinity of the Colorado River, the Muggins and Castle Dome moun...assemblages occur in several exposed localities east of the ROI. Floral assemblages and sparse invertebrate materials occur in the Pleistocene Citronelle ...PSD Class I areas include Kings Canyon-Sequoia National Park, Dome Land Wilderness, San Gabriel Wilderness, Cucamonga Wilderness, San Gorgonio

  9. Lorentz force perturbations of a charged ballistic missile (United States)

    Hough, M. E.

    It has been suggested that systematic targeting errors could arise from an uncompensated Lorentz force acting on a charged vehicle traveling through the earth's magnetic field. Lorentz force trajectory deflections from an elliptic reference orbit are determined. Since the amplitude of the Lorentz force depends on the electrostatic charge, several charging mechanisms are considered. It is shown that negligible deflections are caused by environmental charging in space and during reentry. The largest trajectory deflections could occur if the vehicle was intentionally charged, for example to deflect an electron beam.

  10. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    UCS K.2.1 Cahn Alma DC_M3467 UCS K.2.1 Cahoon Ruth DC_M3880 UCS K.2.1 Cain Art DC_M3371 UCS K.2.1 Calabria Antonio DC_M0629 K.2.1 Calabria Antonio...Alliance for World Security K.3.2, K.3.3, K.3.10, K.3.13, K.3.14, K.4 Flesch Alma S. DC_M2852 UCS K.2.1 Fleshman Joyce DC_M6805 UCS K.2.1 Flodin Betty...Reed, C.S. Ginter, and N. Carrasco , 2003. The sodium/iodide Symporter (NIS): Characterization, regulation, and medical significance. Endocrine

  11. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and their Role in Future Nuclear Forces (United States)


    13 Figure 8. Triad Better Than Bomber–SSBN Dyad on Most Metrics follows: • Current nuclear forces and associated nuclear recapitalization issues • Analysis of key metrics for nuclear forces 1 Speech by... spaced shelters, each of which would contain an erector launcher for an ICBM. The number of these shelters would exceed the maximum number of

  12. Kinetic Energy Kill for Ballistic Missile Defense: A Status Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A


    ... (NMD) system remains mixed and ambiguous. There is no recognizable pattern to explain this record nor is there conclusive evidence of a learning curve over more than two decades of developmental testing...

  13. Ballistic Missile Propellant Evaluation Test Motor System (Super BATES) (United States)


    ipotcted por HILThe deviT!W ring I;% a,’-+0 f nchdli iron, a pierqetd bla -nk or ring r-1icid forging 4ad testee in like mant-er. .. . ... ." TABLE 9...not t.SO I tfltotlf ý1- Itp o .1 vim *o m I%0 .’OAs~~o.:I A00-. 404 MkI . sA4 ൪ -IAPat O W4 50W. 010 ALA@ 41-W MAU M.10.38t Win NlorA43 OttO

  14. System Architecture for Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Defense (ASBMD) (United States)


    Attribute LCC Life Cycle Cost MCDM Multiple Criteria Decision Making MOE Measure of Effectiveness MOP Measure of Performance NPS Naval Postgraduate...describe the desirable characteristics of a given solution. Multiple Criteria Decision Making ( MCDM ) methodology such as min-max methods, min-max

  15. Ballistic Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  16. Characteristics of tornado generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Boritz, R.C.; Niyogi, P.K.


    The development of techniques designed to calculate tornado missile velocities is traced. It is shown that there is a need for a consistent method for obtaining missile velocities for a variety of tornado parameters. A consistent method for determination of trajectories and velocities of missiles generated by a tornado is described. The effects of plant layout upon missile impact velocity at a given building are discussed from the point of view of determining the necessary missile barrier characteristics. 19 references

  17. Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor (United States)


    satisfactory. W911NF-14-1-0572 -II 66414-EL-II.3 TO:(1) Electronics Division (Qiu, Joe) TITLE: Final Report: Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor (x) Material... Transistor ” as a STIP award for the period 09/1/2014 through 5/31/2015. The ARO program director responsible for the grant is Dr. Joe Qiu. The PI is Prof...UU 19-11-2015 1-Sep-2014 31-May-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor The views

  18. Laser Ballistic Sensor Development. (United States)


    Analysis David W. Taylor Naval Ship Center Research & Development Ctr -4 ATTN: ATOR-TSL ATTN: Lib Div, Code 522 is White Sands Missile Range, Aerodynamic...Culotta Systems P.O. Box 5837 ATTN: Dr. Richard MacLaren Orlando, FL 32805 Mr. Allen Holzman P.O. Box 50015 1 AEROJET Ordnance Company San Jose, CA

  19. Gun Internal Ballistics. (United States)

    An approximate method of analysis is formulated for gun internal ballistics. The method is incorporated in a digital computer program which is...described. The validity of the method of analysis and computational procedure is substantiated by comparison of theoretical results with experimental

  20. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.


    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  1. Firearms and Ballistics


    BOLTON-KING, Rachel; Schulze, Johan


    Chapter 7 of the book entitled 'Practical Veterinary Forensics' aims to introduce forensic veterinarians to the scientific concepts underpinning the field of firearms and ballistics. This introduction will enable practitioners to understand wound formation depending on the firearm and ammunition used. \\ud \\ud Various types of firearms, modern firing mechanisms and ammunition will be explained, together with an introduction to the physical concepts underpinning the four main constituents of th...

  2. Supra-ballistic phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.


    Energetic particles moving with a solid, either from nuclear reactions or externally injected, deposit energy by inelastic scattering processes which eventually appears as thermal energy. If the transfer of energy occurs in a crystalline solid then it is possible to couple some of the energy directly to the nuclei forming the lattice by generating phonons. In this paper the transfer of energy from a compound excited nucleus to the lattice is examined by introducing a virtual particle Π. It is shown that by including a Π in the nuclear reaction a substantial amount of energy can be coupled directly to the lattice. In the lattice this particle behaves as a spatially localized phonon of high energy, the so-called supra-ballistic phonon. By multiple inelastic scattering the supra-ballistic phonon eventually thermalizes. Because both the virtual particle Π and the equivalent supra-ballistic phonon have no charge or spin and can only exist within a lattice it is difficult to detect other than by its decay into thermal phonons. The possibility of a Π removing excess energy from a compound nucleus formed by the cold fusion of deuterium is examined. (Author)

  3. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)


    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  4. Tornado missile impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.


    UCRL-15910 specifies wind and tornado missiles for moderate- and high-hazard DOE facilities. Wall-barrier specimens have been tested at the Tornado Missile Impact Facility at Texas Tech University. The facility has an air-activated tornado missile cannon capable of firing 2x4 timber planks weighing 12 lb at speeds up to 150 mph and 3-in-diameter steel pipes weighing 75 lb at speeds to 7 5 mph. Wall barriers tested to date include reinforced concrete walls from 4-in. to 10-in. thick; 8-in. and 12-in. walls of reinforced concrete masonry units (CMU); two other masonry wall configurations consisting of an 8-in. CMU with a 4-in. clay-brick veneer and a 10-in. composite wall with two wythes of 4-in. clay brick. The impact test series is designed to determine the impact speed that will produce backface spall of each wall barrier. A set of 15 wall sections has been constructed and tested at this time. Preliminary finding suggest that all cells of CMU walls must be grouted to prevent missile penetration. Walls recommended in the workshop on UCRL-15910 provide acceptable protection if cracking can be accepted

  5. Hyperheat: a thermal signature model for super- and hypersonic missiles (United States)

    van Binsbergen, S. A.; van Zelderen, B.; Veraar, R. G.; Bouquet, F.; Halswijk, W. H. C.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.


    In performance prediction of IR sensor systems for missile detection, apart from the sensor specifications, target signatures are essential variables. Very often, for velocities up to Mach 2-2.5, a simple model based on the aerodynamic heating of a perfect gas was used to calculate the temperatures of missile targets. This typically results in an overestimate of the target temperature with correspondingly large infrared signatures and detection ranges. Especially for even higher velocities, this approach is no longer accurate. Alternatives like CFD calculations typically require more complex sets of inputs and significantly more computing power. The MATLAB code Hyperheat was developed to calculate the time-resolved skin temperature of axisymmetric high speed missiles during flight, taking into account the behaviour of non-perfect gas and proper heat transfer to the missile surface. Allowing for variations in parameters like missile shape, altitude, atmospheric profile, angle of attack, flight duration and super- and hypersonic velocities up to Mach 30 enables more accurate calculations of the actual target temperature. The model calculates a map of the skin temperature of the missile, which is updated over the flight time of the missile. The sets of skin temperature maps are calculated within minutes, even for >100 km trajectories, and can be easily converted in thermal infrared signatures for further processing. This paper discusses the approach taken in Hyperheat. Then, the thermal signature of a set of typical missile threats is calculated using both the simple aerodynamic heating model and the Hyperheat code. The respective infrared signatures are compared, as well as the difference in the corresponding calculated detection ranges.

  6. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile


    Huang, Hesong; Tong, Zhongxiang; Li, Taorui; Jia, Lintong; Li, Shenbo


    Surface-type infrared (IR) decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhau...

  7. Advanced prepreg ballistic composites for military helmets


    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta


    With the advancement of ballistic materials and technologies, the ballistic prepregs are becoming an essential construction technique for getting the maximum performance out of the high performance fibers. The ballistic prepregs help to maximize the engagement between fibers and high speed projectiles penetrating the ballistic material, thus reducing the amount of ballistic material required to defeat the projectiles. The backbone of lightweight ballistic materials is high perform...

  8. Ballistic transport and electronic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schep, Kees M.; Kelly, Paul J.; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.


    The role of the electronic structure in determining the transport properties of ballistic point contacts is studied. The conductance in the ballistic regime is related to simple geometrical projections of the Fermi surface. The essential physics is first clarified for simple models. For real

  9. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues (United States)


    Benjamin Cardin , and Marco Rubio, letter to Secretary Hillary Clinton, March 10, 2011. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and...China Northern Chemical and Minerals Company shipped a chemical, sodium sulfide, to Iran, but the PRC claimed that the shipment went to Armenia...Korea announced it has nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, but it is uncertain whether North Korea has the ability to mate a nuclear weapon with

  10. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  11. Ballistic quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, E.; Bonnet, J.; Porcheron, D.; Mazeron, J.J.; Peiffert, D.; Alapetite, C.


    This review describes the ballistic quality assurance for stereotactic intracranial irradiation treatments delivered with Gamma Knife R either dedicated or adapted medical linear accelerators. Specific and periodic controls should be performed in order to check the mechanical stability for both irradiation and collimation systems. If this step remains under the responsibility of the medical physicist, it should be done in agreement with the manufacturer's technical support. At this time, there are no recent published guidelines. With technological developments, both frequency and accuracy should be assessed in each institution according to the treatment mode: single versus hypo-fractionated dose, circular collimator versus micro-multi-leaf collimators. In addition, 'end-to-end' techniques are mandatory to find the origin of potential discrepancies and to estimate the global ballistic accuracy of the delivered treatment. Indeed, they include frames, non-invasive immobilization devices, localizers, multimodal imaging for delineation and in-room positioning imaging systems. The final precision that could be reasonably achieved is more or less 1 mm. (authors)

  12. North Korea's nuclear-armed missiles: options for the US and its allies in the Asia-Pacific


    Paul, Michael; Suh, Elisabeth


    During his presidential campaign, Donald Trump unsettled the governments of Japan and South Korea by suggesting they should develop their own nuclear weapons to defend against the missile threat from North Korea. When Pyongyang announced the launch of four missiles towards the island of Guam, a US territory in the West Pacific, President Trump demanded North Korea stop issuing threats against the US or "they will be met with fire and fury". Instead of bellicose rhetoric, however, diplomacy is...

  13. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense (United States)

    Fluk, H.


    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  14. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.


    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  15. The IR missile (spin-scan and con-scan seekers) countermeasures


    Chang, Ting Li


    In the combat scenario where the infrared missile is an almost continuous threat during the operation, fighter aircraft are currently quite susceptible to being killed in attacks by infrared missiles. Theoretical analysis applied to an encounter simulation seems to indicate that it is possible to use the infrared Active Jammer and the expendable decoy (flare) to defeat the infrared missile (spin-scan and con-scan seekers). The theoretical analysis of a simplified case of a spin-scan and con-s...

  16. Fired missile projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Gieszl, R.; Keller, P.J.; Drayer, B.P.


    This paper reports ferromagnetic properties of fired missile projectiles (bullets, BBs, etc) investigated. Projectile samples were obtained from manufactures, police, and commercial sources. Deflection measurements at the portal of a 1.5-T magnetic field were performed for 47 projectiles. Sixteen bullets were examined in gelatin phantoms for rotation-translation movements as well. Ferromagnetic bullets displayed considerable deflection forces in the presence of the magnetic field and could be rotated to 80 degrees from their previous alignments when introduced perpendicular to the magnetic field in our gelatin phantom experiments. Military bullet calibers appear to pose the greatest ferromagnetic risk. Commercial sporting ammunition is generally nonferromagnetic

  17. High Resolution Radar Imaging using Coherent MultiBand Processing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Ebeling, R.P.; Huizing, A.G.


    High resolution radar imaging techniques can be used in ballistic missile defence systems to determine the type of ballistic missile during the boost phase (threat typing) and to discriminate different parts of a ballistic missile after the boost phase. The applied radar imaging technique is 2D

  18. 15 CFR 742.5 - Missile technology. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missile technology. 742.5 Section 742... BASED CONTROLS § 742.5 Missile technology. (a) License requirements. (1) In support of U.S. foreign... establish the existence of a contract. (d) Missile Technology Control Regime. Missile Technology Control...

  19. Ballistic Trauma of Limbs (United States)

    Lamah, Léopold; Keita, Damany; Marie Camara, Ibrahima; Lamine Bah, Mohamed; Sory, Sidimé; Diallo, Mamadou Moustapha


    The objective of our study was to report the management and follow-up of a particular case of ballistic trauma and to do the literature review. Observation: A 35-year-old patient, a trader who was the victim of a firearm accident under not very clear circumstances. He was admitted to the emergency department after 3 hours. Clinically, the patient had significant bleeding in the arm and was in a state of clouding of consciousness. We could notice on the right arm, a posterior large transfixing wound of 1 cm and a 6 cm one on the antero-internal side. The limb was cold with a small and thready pulse. Sensitivity was decreased in the radial nerve area. The radiograph showed bone comminution from the middle 1/3 to the superior 1/3 of the humeral diaphysis. The treatment was orthopedic (after debridement) by scapula-brachio-ante-brachiopalmar plaster splint with thoracic strap. The wound healed in 46 days and the patient resumed his activities after 11 months and 2 weeks. Conclusion: The authors presented the value of using the scapulo-brachio-palmar plaster splints with thoracic strap in some severe upper limb trauma in the absence of the external fixator. PMID:28567155

  20. Threats to US Security in a Postcontainment World (United States)


    during the rejected Saddam Hussein’s attempt in course of the allied bombing campaign, January 1991 to draw Iran into a holy war but Its conventional...also at bania. Reformist communist elements of odds with the two groups, he or she, like varying stripes now exercise dominant Aquino , will confront... Thomas Ohlson, -Arms Production in the 1991): 5-14: Bill Gertz. "S. Africa to Test Ballistic Third World: An Overview," and appendix 2, Missile

  1. Nuclear Terrorism: Assessing the Threat, Developing a Response (United States)


    Ballistic Missile IND Improvised Nuclear Device JSOC Joint Special Operations Command JTOT Joint Technical Operations Team LEU Low Enriched Uranium MOX ...Unfortunately, numerous accounts suggest that al Qaeda’s core leadership is regaining its strength, reasserting and even expanding control over its far...either highly enriched uranium or plutonium) and then use that material to construct a nuclear device. Of all the scenarios, this is by far the

  2. Comparison of different lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of three lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile: three-loop conventional acceleration autopilot, and gamma-dot and three-loop acceleration autopilot based upon the inverse-dynamic control. The surface-to-surface missile motion is described by nonlinear differential equations whose parameters change rapidly over a very wide range due to variable velocity and altitude. The requirement for the accurate controlling of the missile in such an environment represents a challenge for the autopilot designer. The brief review of the calculation of the autopilot gains is given using the concept of the 'point' stability for the linear time-varying system with 'frozen' dynamic coefficients. The method of the inverse-dynamic control is presented in the next section for two types of the autopilots: gamma-dot and acceleration autopilot. Both of them require the design of the estimators for the variables used as inputs to the control law. Finally, six-degree-of-freedom simulation results of the missile response to the demanded command on the typical ballistic trajectory are presented. The comparison of three autopilots considers the steady state errors and the sensitivity of the response to the highly variable environment. It was shown that the inverse-dynamic control can be very effective in the controlling of the surface-to-surface missile.

  3. Thermoplastic composites for ballistic application (United States)

    Song, John Whachong


    Systematic studies of thermoplastic composites on ballistic impact failure and kinetic energy absorption mechanisms were examined on both semicrystalline and amorphous polymer matrix composites. By taking advantages of the nature of thermoplastic polymers, the main objective of this research was to develop armor grade composites with thermoplastic resin matrices through a understanding of the microscopic as well as macroscopic characteristics of the composites. In both semicrystalline neat resin and composites, the crystal formation and the degree of crystallinity of the polymer matrix were greatly influenced by processing conditions, especially, the cooling rate. As the cooling rate is decreased, more perfect crystal formation and amorphous rearrangements were evident vs cooling at higher rates. The relative degree of crystallinity of semicrystalline matrix composites was calculated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). These values were in good agreement with neat resin values obtained via differantial scanning calorimeter (DSC). Unfortunately, the morphological perfection of the semicrystalline matrix exhibits negligible advantage on ballistic impact resistance. Failure of the composites under ballistic impact was localized and the kinetic energy absorption was low. Amorphous polymers were also greatly influenced by processing conditions. Furthermore, amorphous polymers exhibit large processing windows in terms of processing temperature, which allows the various processing manipulations for ballistic composite fabrication. As increasing processing temperature, glass transition temperature of the polymer and stiffness of the composite increased due to the morphological perfection and level of wetting, respectively. Ballistic impact resistance was found to be inversely proportional to the stiffness of the composites. Fiber wetting characteristics and polymer morphology changes during the cooling process are considered to be major contributors of this behavior


    Phase IIb, Task I of the Missile Power Supply which consists of development, fabrication and test of an 8500 watt battery-converter breadboard power ...001 are reported and analyzed. The progress of the work on the Missile Power Supply DC to DC converter breadboard is reported.... supply , was continued during the quarter ending September 30, 1967. The basic parameters used in the design of the 95 volt battery breadboard are

  5. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin


    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  7. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  8. Study on Ballistic Absorbing Energy Character of High Performance Polyethylene Needle Felt (United States)

    Kailiang, Zhu; Jianqiao, Fu


    The ballistic performance of polyethylene needle felt is tested and the failure morphology after test is also observed. The results showed that when the non-dimensionally non-stressed fibers in polyethylene needles are subjected to high-speed projectile, secondary movement such as stretching and twisting occurs first. This secondary movement is very full, it is the main way of ballistic absorbing energy of the polyethylene needle felt which can avoid the polyethylene fiber short-term rapid heating-up and destroyed. Analysis results show that under normal temperature and humidity conditions, the V50 of 6-layer forded polyethylene needle felt sample is 250m/s. At (450 ± 50) m/s speed range of the target missile, the mean value of the penetrative specific energy absorption for 3-layer forded polyethylene needle felt anti-1.1g simulated projectiles (tapered column) reaches 24.1J·m2/kg.

  9. Increased Range/Mini-Cruise Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Technical Directions Inc. (TDI), Ortonville, Michigan, was asked by the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force to improve the efficiency of their J-45 missile engine for the NLOS-LS LAM Loitering Attack Missile...

  10. Novel applications of femtosecond laser in missile countermeasures (United States)

    Marquis, E.; Pocholle, J. P.


    Femtosecond lasers have been widely used in laboratories for years and are now suitable for industrial applications and new military ones. Due to their very short pulse duration, they have the capability to generate intense electric fields and plasmas in targeted materials. We present here a novel scheme of missile counter-measure that is using such an intense laser source to disrupt the operation of IR guidance systems. Classical lasers for missile defense are based on thermal effects on the target whereas photons are used as the kill vehicle [1,2]. In femtosecond countermeasure, the average power is quite low, but the very intense field creates ionization effects than can damage sensitive optics and also plasma that can be used as active decoys against IR homing electronics. As the recent systems are compact and portable, an airport protection scheme is proposed to eliminate manpads threats in the vicinity of a civilian airport.

  11. Estimation filters for missile tracking with airborne laser (United States)

    Clemons, T. M., III; Chang, K. C.


    This paper examines the use of various estimation filters on the highly non-linear problem of tracking a ballistic missile during boost phase from a moving airborne platform. The aircraft receives passive bearing data from an IR sensor and range data from a laser rangefinder. The aircraft is assumed to have a laser weapon system that requires highly accurate bearing information in order to keep the laser on target from a distance of 100-200 km. The tracking problem is made more difficult due to the changing acceleration of the missile, especially during stage drop-off and ignition. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), 'bootstrap' Particle Filter (PF), and the Gaussian Sum Particle Filter (GSPF) are explored using different values for sensor accuracy in bearing and range, and various degrees of uncertainty of the target and platform dynamic. Scenarios were created using Satellite Toolkit © for trajectories from a Southeast Asia launch with associated sensor observations. MATLAB © code modified from the ReBEL Toolkit © was used to run the EKF, UKF, PF, and GSPF sensor track filters. Mean Square Error results are given for tracking during the period when the target is in view of the radar and IR sensors. This paper provides insight into the accuracy requirements of the sensors and the suitability of the given estimators.

  12. Investigation of the Mechanics of Windborne Missile Impact on Window Glass (United States)


    windstorms . Window glass is one type of cladding material. Of the threats posed by a windstorm , the major threat to window glass consists of windborne...failure modes for window glass in windstorms . The contents of Table 2.2 are in no particular order. ASTM E1886 (ASTM, 1997) and SSTD 12-99 (SBCCI...INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICS OF WINDBORNE MISSILE IMPACT ON WINDOW GLASS by SCOTT A. BOLE, B.S.C.E. A THESIS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Submitted

  13. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron


    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  14. Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS): Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1 Final BMDS PEIS (United States)


    for months or longer. The NRC reported results of longer term studies that found that to cause hypothyroidism in adults would require them to be...children, and people with low iodide intake or pre-existing thyroid dysfunction, the dose required to cause hypothyroidism may be lower...infants. The NRC study considered the applicability of animal toxicology studies to human health and found that although studies in rats provide

  15. Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS): Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2. Appendices A - J (United States)


    The loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Kemp’s ridley ( Lepidochelys kempi), green (Chelonia mydeas), Olive ridley ( Lepidochelys olivacea ), green (Chelonia...Name) Threatened (T) or Endangered (E) Atlantic Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempi) E Reptiles and Amphibians American Crocodile (Crocodylus...leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and Atlantic Ridley turtle ( Lepidochelys kempi). No Federally listed threatened and

  16. Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS): Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3 Appendices K - N (United States)


    DC_M6918 UCS K.2.1 Bordenave M DC_M4761 UCS K.2.1 Borelli Elizabeth DC_M4914 UCS K.2.1 Borg Donald DC_M3971 UCS K.2.1 Borgo Rob DC_M6262 UCS K.2.1...McAndrew, Joseph Lyou, Lyle Talbot, Dennis Apel, Tensie Hernandez, Jim Murr, Luis Segui, Robert Armstrong, Cynthia Babich DC_E0375 K.3.9 Parfrey... Jorg DC_M5063 UCS K.2.1 Wiorek Mona DC_M6450 UCS K.2.1 Wischmann Lesley DC_M2720 UCS K.2.1 Wise Chad DC_M5963 UCS K.2.1 Wishingrad Barbara DC_M5727 UCS

  17. Ballistic Evaluation of 2060 Aluminum (United States)


    compared with other ballistic- grade AAs, namely AA2195 and AA2139. The results of these experiments were used to derive the acceptance tables for AA2060...contributions of the following people who made this work possible: program lead Brian Placzankis of ARL’s Coatings, Corrosion and Engineered Polymers as the AA2195 alloy and therefore became the basis for a fiscal year 2012 OSD-funded DAC program to fully validate and ultimately transition

  18. Tornado-borne missile speeds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiu, E.; Cordes, M.


    An investigation of the question of tornado-borne missile speeds was carried out, with a view to identify pertinent areas of uncertainty and to estimate credible tornado-borne missile speeds - within the limitations inherent in the present state of the art. The investigation consists of two parts: (1) a study in which a rational model for the missile motion is proposed, and numerical experiments are carried out corresponding to various assumptions on the initial conditions of the missile motion, the structure of the tornado flow, and the aerodynamic properties of the missile; (2) a theoretical and experimental study of tornado-borne missile aerodynamics, conducted by Colorado State Univ. (CSU) to be covered in a separate report by CSU. In the present report, the factors affecting missile motion and their influence upon such motion are examined

  19. Historical development of worldwide guided missiles (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.


    The development of missiles from early history to present time is put in perspective. The influence of World War II in accelerating the development of guided missiles, particularly through German scientists, is discussed. The dispersion of German scientists to other countries and the coupling of their work with native talent to develop guide missiles is traced. Particular emphasis is placed on the evolution of the missile in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Since the Soviets possess what is probably the world's most complete array of dedicated missile system types, their known inventory is reviewed. Some philosophical observations of missile design trends and missile purposes are made as related to the interests of various countries.

  20. Generation of missiles by tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Available data on tornado wind velocities and wind distribution are incorporated into a mathematical model of the tornado wind field. The mathematical model is then used to predict the time-history of motion of a potential missile in a tornado wind field. (U.S.)

  1. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Aerial Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delaney, William P; Williams, Michael


    .... Ballistic missile threats and targets were not part of the Task Force charter. The aerial targets involve full-scale aircraft, subsonic and supersonic cruise missiles, rotary wing vehicles, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs...

  2. Stereotype Threat. (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G


    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  3. Artifacts that mimic ballistic magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhoff, W.F. . E-mail :; Gan, L.; Ettedgui, H.; Kadmon, Y.; Powell, C.J.; Chen, P.J.; Shapiro, A.J.; McMichael, R.D.; Mallett, J.J.; Moffat, T.P.; Stiles, M.D.; Svedberg, E.B.


    We have investigated the circumstances underlying recent reports of very large values of ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR) in nanocontacts between magnetic wires. We find that the geometries used are subject to artifacts due to motion of the wires that distort the nanocontact thereby changing its electrical resistance. Since these nanocontacts are often of atomic scale, reliable experiments would require stability on the atomic scale. No method for achieving such stability in macroscopic wires is apparent. We conclude that macroscopic magnetic wires cannot be used to establish the validity of the BMR effect

  4. Effect of Hardness on the Ballistic Impact Behavior of High-Strength Steels Against 7.62-mm Armor Piercing Projectiles (United States)

    Demir, Teyfik; Übeyli, Mustafa; Yıldırım, R. O.


    Ballistic performance of engineering materials should be known in selection of the most suitable armor material to protect civilian or military system with the lowest possible weight against various threats. In this study, the ballistic impact characterization of high-strength steels, namely AISI 4340 and DIN 100Cr6, was investigated using 7.62-mm armor piercing (AP) projectiles by considering four hardness levels and five areal densities. The main aim was to examine the effect of hardness and areal density on the ballistic behavior of these steels. Hence, four different heat-treatment schedules were applied to these steels to get different mechanical properties. After ballistic testing, macro and micro examinations of the specimens were carried out to clarify their failure mechanisms. According to the results, the AISI 4340 steel having a hardness of ~50 HRC showed the best ballistic performance among the investigated materials.

  5. Acceleration effects on missile aerodynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA


    Full Text Available on the typical length scale L of the aerodynamic object under study: aeroelastic deflections [4][5], control surface deflections [6], dynamic wedges in wind tunnels [7], and the release of stores from aircraft [8] 2. calculation of dynamic derivatives using c... of the program required for absolute velocities were also found to be minor. Validation test cases have included a spinning plate, constant velocity airfoil, and oscillating airfoil [1]. Test case: rapidly accelerating missile We consider a simple...

  6. Development Feasibility of Missile Datcom (United States)


    NORMAL-FORCE-CURVE SLOPE, X=0 165 88 CORRELATION OF NORMAL-FORCE-CURVE SLOPE AT SUPERSONIC SPEEDS FOR GOTHIC AND OGEE PLANFORMS 166 89 METHODS FOR...FIN CROSS-FLOW DRAG 167 90 PREDICTION OF NONLINEAR LIFT OF DOUBLE-DELTA PLANFORMS AT SUBSONIC SPEEDS 169 91 CORRELATION OF LIFT CURVES OF GOTHIC ...methods are available in the literature for missile configurations, there is no collection of these techniques in a form suitable for efficient

  7. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  8. Ballistic representation for kinematic access (United States)

    Alfano, Salvatore


    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  9. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons. (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  10. Assessment of Ballistic Performance for Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim M. Fadhil


    Full Text Available A finite element method was used to investigate the ballistic behavior of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA under impact loading by spherical steel projectile with different ranges of velocities. Three different target thicknesses were used in the experimental and the numerical works. A mathematical model has been used for the ballistic limit based on the experimental results. It has been found that projectile velocity and target thickness play an important role in the ballistic behavior of PMMA. A good agreement was found between the numerical, experimental, and the analytical result.

  11. The Impact on Strategic Stability of Ballistic Missile Defense in Eastern Europe (United States)


    lightning rod for many, many historical resentments, and a kind of substitute issue for many other issues. So I wouldn‘t think that we may expect a...And it was something which didn‘t hurt anyone and at the same time it was a visible lightning rod for these frustrations and whatever. SCHIN...PERSPECTIVE. Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique: Points De Vue, April 12. /barreFRS/publications/ pv /defenseAntimissile

  12. Lithium/thionyl chloride batteries for the small intercontinental ballistic missile (United States)

    Chang, V. D. A.; Wilson, J. P.; Bruckner, J.; Inenaga, B.; Hall, J. C.

    The Small ICBM (SICBM) requires two batteries for flight testing; while power for the instrumentation and range safety system (IRSS) is furnished by a five-function battery set, the guidance and control system is powered by a three-function airborne power supply (APS). The activated stand requirements of the IRSS are met by the use of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte in all cells. The APS cells employ a slightly acidic electrolyte. The SICBM's IRSS battery has already completed a formal certification program, and is accordingly the first spaceflight-qualified reserve Li battery.

  13. Environmental Impact Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program. Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana (United States)


    was useful but not totally germane to the impact analysis in Chapter 4.0. At the same time, new material has been added to Chapter 3.0 in some areas...4.1.2-2 Military-Civilian Composition of Program Inmigration .............. 4-34 1990-2000 4.1.2-3 Great Falls Public Schools Projected Program...Proposed Action and Alternatives 1, 2, and 3 4.1.3-2 1990-2000 Small ICBM Population Inmigration for the ............... 4-63 Proposed Action and

  14. Environmental Impact Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana. Appendix E (United States)


    Section 99 4 COMMENT: Section, paragraph 5, last sentence: EPA is uncertain that " state or federal ambient air standards will... ambient air standards will be violated" - with or If you need further EPA assistance, please feel free to contact Lee Last sentence without operate the system. The i2 temporary disrupt ion or impacto dun to sedimentation when 22 ruo of rtudents ounld be lens that would he imposed upon

  15. Ballistic Missile Proliferation a National Security Focus for the 21st Century (United States)


    of Sonda sounding rockets, originally built for their civilian space program, to make artillery rockets. Because of their similar technological base...OTR21) 70 480 IS SS-1,ScudB(R-17) 300 985 IS AS4,Kitchen(KH-22) 400 1000 is, AS6,Kingfish(KSR-5) 400 1000 WS Belgium MGM52,Lance 130 450 IS Brazil Sonda

  16. Origins of the Strategic Defense Initiative: Ballistic Missile Defense, 1944-1983 (United States)


    stories about various inventors who claimed to have developed "death rays" that could kill animals and people. One of the most famous was Nikola Testla...1 " Tesla , at 78, Bares New ’Death-Beam’," New York Times, 11 July 1934, p. 18. For other stories about death rays, see "Says He Sold ’Death Ray’: H

  17. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.


    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  18. The Future of the U.S. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Force (United States)


    David Farley, and AF/A10’s RAND liaison, Edward Robbins. We are also equally grateful to Capt Mitchell Patton and John Correia from AFGSC for their...LUA • LOW Combinations •Hardening + mobility •Hardened mobile launcher O p ti o n s O ve rl ay s 38 The Future of the U.S

  19. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    deploying the land-based SM-3s? Would they be deployed on trucks (i.e., transporter- erector -launchers [TELs]), or in some other manner? Sea-Based... box ? How long will ships be assigned picket duty? Will BMD patrol ships sail with the crews they would have taken on normal deployments, or will

  20. China’s Growing Military Power: Perpectives on Security, Ballistic Missiles, and Conventional Capabilities (United States)


    y ear earlier, gras sroots units h ad to ov ercom e “ selfis h departm entalis m and ov erem p h asis of local interests” and m ov e forw ard w...reasons of strictly selfis h national interests w ere so strong th at th e “negativ e trend” w ould be arrested “at som e point,” th at pragm atis...readiness to w age local w ars an indispensable tool for ach iev ing lim ited political ends, and th is s h ould include effectiv e intim idation and th e

  1. Ballistic Missile Defense and China: Military Technologies, China’s Past, and Shaping the Worlds Future (United States)


    is often seen as a bad actor it is also the world’s most populous country and is critical to the world economy. So for all of its alleged atrocities...which has the highest aircraft loss rate of any U.S. fighter. The F-16 is sometimes referred to as “The Dorito ” with a reference to the... bad reality. It was once said that good fences make for good neighbors, but in the case of China it would seem that the great wall has held too many

  2. A Two-Stage Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Design Optimization Study and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (United States)


    CDT/(B1+B2) )*CCTC2*(TECX+1)-TECX))/DY)- + (TCI* CTE (X)-TE(X-.1))/DX)) C TEMPERATURE BETWEEN NODE X AID Y DO 40,J=X+1,NODEY-1 TENCJ)=TE(J)+CA2*DT/DY**2...TE(J+1)-2*TE(J)+TE(J-1)) 40 CONTINUE C C TEMPERATURE AT NODE Y TENCNODEY)=TECNODEY).CDT/(B2+B3))*( CTC3* CTE (NODEY+1)- + TE(NODEY))/DZ)-(TC2*(TE(NODEY...College where he was named Co- Captain of the football team and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1975. Af- ter teaching and coaching track and

  3. Peacekeeper Ballistic Missile System Fiscal Impact Analysis of Deployment in Wyoming and Nebraska (United States)


    Law Enforcement 11-28 Planning, Engineering, and Building Control 11-31 Road and Bridge 11-32 Health , Safety, and Welfare 11-33 Other Functions 11-35...102 Parks and Recreation 11-103 Solid Waste 11-106 Health , Safety, and Welfare 11-108 Other Functions 11-109 Capital Outlays from Operating Budget II...REGION ON INFLUENCE JOBS, LOCAL AND REGIONAL HIRES, AND INMIGRATION 1991 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 and on Total Additional 250 2,400 2,650 2,550

  4. Using the Land to Control the Sea? Chinese Analysts Consider the Antiship Ballistic Missile (United States)


    in 李新其, 毕义 明, 李红霞, 第二炮兵工程学院 [Li Xinqi, Bi Yiming, and Li Hongxia , Second Artillery Engineering College], “海上机动目标的 运动预测模型及精度分析” [Movement Forecast...Guidance] 28, no. 5 (2008), pp. 1–4. 47. Li Xinqi, Bi Yiming, and Li Hongxia , “Move- ment Forecast Model and Precision Analysis on Maneuvering

  5. The Air Campaign vs. Ballistic Missiles: Seeking the Strategic Win in the 21st Century (United States)


    Adapted from the Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 357–58; 4 Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...Cass Series--Studies in Air Power 12. London ; Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2003. Pape, Robert A. Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War

  6. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    General Benedict , we have had this discussion, not you and I, I am sorry. But the subcommittee has had a discussion in the past with regards to the, the Navy’s rationale for that? For moving from 24 to 16 as opposed to the max of 20? NAVY REAR ADMIRAL TERRY BENEDICT , DIRECTOR, STRATEGIC...specific numbers then? REARD ADMIRAL BENEDICT : Sir, we looked at the ability of the system, again, SSP does not look at specific targets with

  7. Environmental Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana. Appendix E (United States)


    o esets f t asiylodt Groatisu F lall .8 f 000 0 twom ., call be directd toM. Richard . p100.00t.: to. hoitl hors- tooth toad nole. tr eo "-t8...of the Final EthL Toy noy use, this Written Cotmments will he Conoidered in preporatior of the Final Elk. Yoo may use, this :beat to submtit

  8. A ballistics module as a part of the fire control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka R. Luković


    Full Text Available This article presents a ballistics module as a part of the fire control system of weapons for fire support (mortars, artillery weapons and rocket launchers. The software is "open" with the prominence of autonomy work. It can be modulated and adapted on the user demand. Moreover, it is independent of the hardware base. Introduction: The fire control system is based on a ballistic module (BM which determines the firing data for each weapon tool in the battery. Ballistic calculations, for the given position of the target in relation to the position of tools in the given weather conditions, determine firing data (elevation, direction, timing and locating devices so that the missile seems to cause the desired effect. This paper gives the basic information about the features the BM performs and the manner of their implementation in the fire control system without going into algorithmic solution procedures. Ballistic problem in the fire control system: Ballistic calculation is based on a trajectory calculation of all kinds of projectiles (current, time-fuze, illuminating, smoke, with conventional propulsion, rocket, with built-in gas generator, etc.. Instead of previous solutions, where a trajectory calculation of the fire control system was done by approximate methods, in this BM the trajectory calculation is made by the same model with the same data as for a weapon and ammunition in the process of creating a firing table. The data used in the fire control system are made simultaneously with the preparation of firing tables for a particular tool and associated ammunition,. A modified model of particle, standardized at the NATO level, is also used. Taking into account the meteorological situation, before the trajectory calculation is done, a relative position of the target in relation to the position of the tool should be determined. A selection or loading check is carried out (possibility of reaching a given target as well as the point at which the

  9. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  10. Air and Missile Defense Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (AMD IPB) (United States)


    will increase burn rate (and delivered thrust), while cold temperatures will significantly degrade missile delivered thrust. Unexpected thermal ...are passive in nature such as Radar Absorbent Material (RAM) or Low-Observable design (aka Stealth ). How will this effect AMD system classification...Evaluate the Threat 31 March 2016 ATP 3-01.16 4-15 RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) 4-43. Though there are Low-Observable aircraft (aka Stealth ) cruise

  11. Have Adversary Missiles Become a Revolution in Military Affairs? (United States)


    SI LE FO RC ES Figure. Trends in missiles and missile defense. The global gap between our mis- sile defense and our adversaries’ missile capabilities...Antiballistic Missiles,” Kuang Chiao Ch- ing, 16 August 1998, 54–61. 29. Toshi Yoshihara and James R. Holmes, Red Star over the Pacific: China’s Rise

  12. Air Drag Effects on the Missile Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available The equations of motion of a missile under the air drag effects are constructed. The modified TD88 is surveyed. Using Lagrange's planetary equations in Gauss form, the perturbations, due to the air drag in the orbital elements, are computed between the eccentric anomalies of the burn out and the reentry points [Ebo,2π−Ebo], respectively. The range equation is expressed as an infinite series in terms of the eccentricity e and the eccentric anomaly E. The different errors in the missile-free range due to the drag perturbations in the missile trajectory are obtained.

  13. Army Tactical Missile System (TACMS) Block II Insensitive Munitions Test Results (United States)

    Fisher, Jamie M.; Nelson, Steven G.


    The Army TACMS Block II missile system provides the soldier with long range precision fire against moving armored combat vehicles in support of deep operations beyond the capability of other currently existing munitions. As part of an ongoing IM program for the ATACMS/BAT, warhead components were subject to IM threats identified in the system's Threat Hazard Assessment. These tests were conducted to assess the reaction of the Block II warhead, containing BAT submunitions, to bullet impact, fragment impact and fast cook-off. This paper will provide a summary of the test item configurations, test setups, results and preliminary assessments.

  14. De Nederlandse missile defence capaciteit: Strategisch onmisbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.


    Surface based air & missile defence behelst enerzijds de verdediging tegen conventionele luchtdreigingen, zoals vliegtuigen, helikopters en onbemande vliegtuigen (luchtverdediging). Aan de andere kant houdt het de verdediging tegen ballistische raketten en kruisraketten in (raketverdediging). De

  15. Deploying Missile Defense: Major Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M


    By October 2004, the United States will have begun initial deployment of a missile defense capability albeit a modest, limited, and not completely proven one to defend the homeland against a limited...

  16. Tornado missile simulation and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.; Chu, J.


    Mathematical models of the contributing events to the tornado missile hazard at nuclear power plants have been developed in which the major sources of uncertainty have been considered in a probabilistic framework. These models have been structured into a sequential event formalism which permits the treatment of both single and multiple missile generation events. A simulation computer code utilizing these models has been developed to obtain estimates of tornado missile event likelihoods. Two case studies have been analyzed; the results indicate that the probability of a single missile from the sampling population impacting any of the plant's targets is less then about 10 -7 per reactor-year. Additional work is needed for verification and sensitivity study

  17. Missile non-proliferation: an alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delory, Stephane


    In this report, the author first proposes an overview of the notion of missile prohibition. He notices that the association between weapons of mass destruction and missiles is a prelude to the legitimacy of missile control, notably within the framework of the Missile Technology Control Regime or MTCR. He also comments the notion of total ban. In a second part, the author analyses and discusses the limitations of the control of technology diffusion. He discusses the role of the MTCR, comments the evolution of this regime with the taking of China and Russia into consideration, the impacts of national implementations of export regimes on the MTCR, and economic aspects of control implementation. In the next part, the author addresses other kinds of limitations, i.e. those related with capacity evolutions of proliferating States. The last part addresses the evolution towards a new definition of approach to missile non-proliferation, notably in terms of perception of missile roles and of technology transfer controls

  18. Reinforced concrete behaviour due to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.


    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete structures. A programme of experimental work has been initiated within the United Kingdom to resolve the problem of design for the shear stresses produced by the impact loading. The basic scale of the experiments has been chosen to be 1/25th and both hard and soft missiles have been employed. The missiles are launched by a compressed air gun towards a vertical, circular, reinforced concrete target, high speed cine photography and deflection gauges being employed to record the missile behaviour and response of the target. Hard missiles have initially been plane circular discs and soft missiles have been developed to simulate the scaled load/time characteristic of a MRCA impacting at a velocity of 215 m/s. Targets of different overall thickness and varying amounts of reinforcement have been tested. A theoretical analysis of the impact phenomena has also been carried out using computer programs based on finite difference methods (Dynamic Relaxation and PISCES 2DL). The paper outlines the experimental work performed and discusses the analytical assessment by comparison with the test results. (Auth.)

  19. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.


    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  20. Offensive Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A. Mahdi


    Full Text Available This paper try to give us more details about the meaning of directory, and which type of security involved within the intended with each type of the specified directory. The security threats pose a significant and increasing problem for organizations. This is shown by the regular stories of fraud and data loss reported daily in the media in anywhere in the world. There is a need to provide systematic protection from insider attacks because of their privileged access. Moreover, we should provide a systematic protection from the outside attacks, as well. It is worthy to separate the duty of directory by indentifying the main two duties: the duty of the system administrator and the database administrator, and we have to recognize the difference between them. We will provide the researchers with four main threats that might be offensive to the security of directory. Moreover, we will address the nature of attack and the purpose of this attack that may encounter the directory or network assets. Finally, we will show the relation between Active Directory Security and Server Security.

  1. 24th International Symposium on Ballistics (United States)


    2008s.ppt Experimental Set-up Reverse ballistics experiments Flash radiography used to measure position of nose and tail of rod versus time 3 IBS 2008s.ppt...s Ballistic Testing. [VC]max vs Velocity Thorax -Kevlar Thorax -Twaron Thorax -Zylon Abdomen-Kevlar Abdomen-Twaron Abdomen-Zylon 25% Severe Thoracic...Injury 25% Severe Abdominal Injury -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 D is pl ac em en tm m Time sec Displacement vs Time Thorax

  2. Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic (United States)


    ARL-TR-7416 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic...of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic by JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.


    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. Examples are given for bricks with viscoelastic materials as missiles against a rigid target. (Auth.)

  4. Probability and containment of turbine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.C.K.


    With the trend toward ever larger power generating plants with large high-speed turbines, an important plant design consideration is the potential for and consequences of mechanical failure of turbine rotors. Such rotor failure could result in high-velocity disc fragments (turbine missiles) perforating the turbine casing and jeopardizing vital plant systems. The designer must first estimate the probability of any turbine missile damaging any safety-related plant component for his turbine and his plant arrangement. If the probability is not low enough to be acceptable to the regulatory agency, he must design a shield to contain the postulated turbine missiles. Alternatively, the shield could be designed to retard (to reduce the velocity of) the missiles such that they would not damage any vital plant system. In this paper, some of the presently available references that can be used to evaluate the probability, containment and retardation of turbine missiles are reviewed; various alternative methods are compared; and subjects for future research are recommended. (Auth.)

  5. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions (United States)

    Lefebvre, M.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.


    The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1-4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5-7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two processes. The first is a

  6. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutellier D.


    Full Text Available The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1–4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5–7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two

  7. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells.

  8. Capability of satellite-aided ballistic capture (United States)

    Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.


    In this paper we study a special instance of ballistic capture dynamics: the case in which the capture orbit about a planet experiences a close passage to one or more of its natural satellites. The capability of the satellites in improving ballistic capture is assessed. The dynamical framework considers at least the gravitational attractions of the Sun, the planet, and its satellites, all acting on a massless particle. The effect of the satellites is introduced explicitly by modifying a previously developed method, which relies on three-dimensional stable sets and n-body dynamics with precise ephemeris. Once a stability criterium is defined, initial conditions defined over a computational grid are integrated forward and backward. This allows us to classify orbits into different sets. Ballistic capture orbits with prescribed features are generated by manipulating these sets. Two indices, namely the hyperbolic velocity and the stability index, are used to assess the performance of pre- and post-capture portions, respectively. A Pareto frontier is used to extract orbits of practical interest. Case studies are performed in the context of Earth and Jupiter environments. Comparing to the situation with no moons, the satellite-aided ballistic capture can evidently increase the pre-capture energy and post-capture stability, so making it possible to have permanent capture of a particle at zero-cost. This is a desirable feature in mission design.

  9. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun (United States)

    Denny, Mark


    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  10. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes


    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  11. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semi- conductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensem- ble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide ...

  12. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  13. Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N; Bai Ming; Lu Yonghua; Munoz, M; Cheng Hao; Levanyuk, A P


    When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport

  14. Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Bai Ming [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Lu Yonghua [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Munoz, M [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Cheng Hao [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Levanyuk, A P [Fisintec Innovacion Tecnologica, Miraflores 65, Alcobendas, Madrid 28100 (Spain)


    When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport.

  15. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.


    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Defence-related Intelligent Textiles and Clothing for Ballistic and NBC Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Intelligent textiles and clothing for ballistic and NBC protection


    This volume describes the latest developments in protective clothing against nearly any kind of threat for both military and civilians. It deals with protection through the use of nanotechnology, interactive clothing and biotechnological processes. Factors such as comfort and ballistics are also considered in the book, and several practical examples are discussed. All papers are written by leading experts in their respective fields. Professionals and students alike will benefit from the knowledge and expertise imparted in these outstanding contributions.

  17. The probability of a tornado missile hitting a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.; Koch, J.E.


    It is shown that tornado missile transportation is a diffusion Markovian process. Therefore, the Green's function method is applied for the estimation of the probability of hitting a unit target area. This propability is expressed through a joint density of tornado intensity and path area, a probability of tornado missile injection and a tornado missile height distribution. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 43156 - Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Missile... Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C., Appendix, as amended) and the Government in the Sunshine Act of... Missile Defense Advisory Committee will meet on August 4 and 5, 2010, in Washington, DC. DATES: The...

  19. Rocket and Missile Container Engineering Guide (United States)


    complex equations which may, for the sake of expe- diency, be circumvented. To satisfy the intent of this handbook, it will suffice merely to be aware of...tabulates dm given h and Gm. 1-11 RATE OFTRAVEL To attain a required level of protection (G,.- factor), it has been shown that the item to be pro- tected...706-298 This page intentionally left blank. - 2-2 MISSILE OR ROCKET PROFILE SHILLELAGH • REDEYE LAUNCHER (CONTAINS .. MISSILE) M41A2 M41A3

  20. An analysis of Common Missile and TOW 2B using the Janus combat simulation


    Kruse, Rachel A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The US Army is currently developing a new close combat missile system, Common Missile, to replace the aging Tubelaunched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided (TOW 2B) and HELLFIRE missile systems. The Common Missile will have a greater range and improved target acquisition capability over the current missile systems. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the performance of the Common Missile and the TOW 2B missile in a simulated ground ...

  1. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.


    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target

  2. Sustainability Of The 21M Missile Maintainer (United States)


    PROFESSIONAL STUDIES PAPER: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE 21M MISSILE MAINTAINER LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID S. MILLER AIR...of the health and sustainability of the ICBM maintenance officer career field will reveal conclusions and recommendations that could assist the...maintenance career field as healthy and sustainable , and ready to flourish. However, the evidence presented in this paper will show otherwise. To

  3. Ballistic model to estimate microsprinkler droplet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca


    Full Text Available Experimental determination of microsprinkler droplets is difficult and time-consuming. This determination, however, could be achieved using ballistic models. The present study aimed to compare simulated and measured values of microsprinkler droplet diameters. Experimental measurements were made using the flour method, and simulations using a ballistic model adopted by the SIRIAS computational software. Drop diameters quantified in the experiment varied between 0.30 mm and 1.30 mm, while the simulated between 0.28 mm and 1.06 mm. The greatest differences between simulated and measured values were registered at the highest radial distance from the emitter. The model presented a performance classified as excellent for simulating microsprinkler drop distribution.

  4. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D


    Full Text Available Darshan Lakha Vodacom Group CTSO 6th CSIR Conference 6 October 2017 INSIDER THREATS Darshan Lakha 2 INSIDER THREATS | Impact Darshan Lakha 3 Are insider threats the main security threat in 2017? 2017 insider threat Intelligence report (Dtex...,2017) High Risk Applications 95% Leavers, Joiners & Movers 56% Public Data 64% Inappropriate Internet Usag 59% Security Bypass x2 INSIDER THREATS | Who is involved? Darshan Lakha 4 Privileged Users Terminated Employees Third...

  5. Orbital magnetism in ensembles of ballistic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmo, D.; Richter, K.; Jalabert, R.A.


    The magnetic response of ensembles of small two-dimensional structures at finite temperatures is calculated. Using semiclassical methods and numerical calculation it is demonstrated that only short classical trajectories are relevant. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in regular systems, where these trajectories appear in families. For ensembles of squares large paramagnetic susceptibility is obtained, in good agreement with recent measurements in the ballistic regime. (authors). 20 refs., 2 figs

  6. Lightweight Multifunctional Linear Cellular Alloy Ballistic Structures (United States)


    densities of 10, 15 and 20 % with the dimensions shown in Table 1. The alloy compositions were high strength maraging steel (M200) and Super Invar ... alloys made from LCA processing3 are shown in Table 3. Super Invar in the as-reduced state is a ductile (25-30%) austenitic alloy . When cooled to...Final Report for Lightweight Multifunctional Linear Cellular Alloy Ballistic Structures from Structured Alloys , Inc. Joe K

  7. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns. (United States)

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias


    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  8. Buildings vs. ballistics: Quantifying the vulnerability of buildings to volcanic ballistic impacts using field studies and pneumatic cannon experiments (United States)

    Williams, G. T.; Kennedy, B. M.; Wilson, T. M.; Fitzgerald, R. H.; Tsunematsu, K.; Teissier, A.


    Recent casualties in volcanic eruptions due to trauma from blocks and bombs necessitate more rigorous, ballistic specific risk assessment. Quantitative assessments are limited by a lack of experimental and field data on the vulnerability of buildings to ballistic hazards. An improved, quantitative understanding of building vulnerability to ballistic impacts is required for informing appropriate life safety actions and other risk reduction strategies. We assessed ballistic impacts to buildings from eruptions at Usu Volcano and Mt. Ontake in Japan and compiled available impact data from eruptions elsewhere to identify common damage patterns from ballistic impacts to buildings. We additionally completed a series of cannon experiments which simulate ballistic block impacts to building claddings to investigate their performance over a range of ballistic projectile velocities, masses and energies. Our experiments provide new insights by quantifying (1) the hazard associated with post-impact shrapnel from building and rock fragments; (2) the effect of impact obliquity on damage; and (3) the additional impact resistance buildings possess when claddings are struck in areas directly supported by framing components. This was not well identified in previous work which may have underestimated building vulnerability to ballistic hazards. To improve assessment of building vulnerability to ballistics, we use our experimental and field data to develop quantitative vulnerability models known as fragility functions. Our fragility functions and field studies show that although unreinforced buildings are highly vulnerable to large ballistics (> 20 cm diameter), they can still provide shelter, preventing death during eruptions.

  9. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  10. Learning without knowing: subliminal visual feedback facilitates ballistic motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    received supraliminal as compared to subliminal feedback. In the 0 ms feedback group motor performance increased only slightly indicating an important role of augmented feedback in learning the ballistic task. In the two groups who received subliminal feedback none of the subjects were able to tell what...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance....

  11. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott


    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of tornado-borne missile speeds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiu, E.; Cordes, M.R.


    A procedure was developed for estimating speeds with which postulated missiles hit any given set of targets in a nuclear power plant or similar installation. Hit speeds corresponding to probabilities of occurrence of .0000001 were calculated for a given nuclear power plant under various assumptions concerning the magnitude of the force opposing missile take-off, direction of tornado axis of translation, number and location of missiles, and size of target area. The results of the calculations are shown to depend upon the parameters: CDA/m, where CD = drag coefficient, A = projected area, m = mass of missiles, and the ratio, k, between the minimum aerodynamic force required to cause missile take-off, and the weight of the missile

  13. Generic Surface-to-Air Missile Model. (United States)


    types of aircraft sensors are considered: radar, launch and missile approach detectors. Their limits are also defined by geometric shapes within the...E FOIZC OPLP- IZELE’A% Q CLAST D 6 I AQ3 f v r RATE Commeme I Lj%-vljtK EVA- CoMMMLF 51 ok) MA Lsu- A vwwov GV A Vc-k I m4uE A FIGURE 3-22 erVAD 3

  14. Nonlinear Control Theory for Missile Autopilot Design. (United States)


    tan 2.9) a -q W "pc Sientific Systems FcoS -Fs n + (p cos6 + q sind) tana coso (2.10) where V is the velocity: V = (u2 + v 2 + w2 ) 1 1 2 The terms...1984), "How Autopilot Requirements Constrain the Aerodynamic Design of Homing Missiles", Proc. American Contr. Conf., San Diego, CA, pp 71b-73U. I .N

  15. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma. (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C


    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contemporary management of maxillofacial ballistic trauma. (United States)

    Breeze, J; Tong, D; Gibbons, A


    Ballistic maxillofacial trauma in the UK is fortunately relatively rare, and generally involves low velocity handguns and shotguns. Civilian terrorist events have, however, shown that all maxillofacial surgeons need to understand how to treat injuries from improvised explosive devices. Maxillofacial surgeons in the UK have also been responsible for the management of soldiers evacuated from Iraq and Afghanistan, and in this review we describe the newer types of treatment that have evolved from these conflicts, particularly that of damage-control maxillofacial surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and testing of a flexible ballistic neck protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Rensink, P.


    Sufficient ballistic protection of the neck area would significantly reduce the vulnerability of an infantry soldier. So far this protection is offered by extensions on the ballistic vest or combat helmet. However, the requirements for head agility and the various body to head positions combined

  18. A ballistic mission to fly by Comet Halley (United States)

    Boain, R. J.; Hastrup, R. C.


    The paper describes the available options, ballistic trajectory opportunities, and a preliminary reference trajectory that were selected as a basis for spacecraft design studies and programmatic planning for a Halley ballistic intercept mission in 1986. The paper also presents trajectory, performance, and navigation data which support the preliminary selection.

  19. Experiments with Liquid Propellant Jet Ignition in a Ballistic Compressor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birk, Avi


    .... The apparatus consists of an inline ballistic compressor and LP injector. The rebound of the ballistic compressor piston was arrested, trapping 40 to 55 MPa of 750 to 8500 C argon for ignition of circular jets in a windowed test chamber...

  20. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of..., Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification... armor community will be summarized as part of the workshop notes. Contributors of comments will not be...

  1. Towards reliable simulations of ballistic impact on concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoe, Y.S.; Tyler Street, M.D.; Maravalalu Suresh,, R.S.; Weerheijm, J.


    Protection against weapon effects like ballistic impacts, fragmenting shells and explosions is the core business of the Explosions, Ballistics and Protection department of TNO (The Netherlands). Experimental and numerical research is performed to gain and maintain the knowledge to support the Dutch

  2. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection. (United States)

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J


    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  3. ballistic performance of a quenched and tempered steel against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conditions. Hardness is an important feature for the materials used for armour strategy [1-3]. Sangoy and others.[5]reported that high hardness of given armour steel directly determines the ballistic performance and perforation mode. Many studies on the ballistic impact behaviour of the steels revealed that relationship exists ...

  4. Ballistic performance and microstructure of four armor ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Carton, E.P.


    The ballistic behavior of four different armor ceramic materials with thicknesses varying from 3 mm to 14 mm has been investigated. These are two types of alumina Al2O3 armor grades and two types of SiC armor grades produced by different armor ceramic producers. The ballistic study has been

  5. Battlefield Dominance and Missile Defense in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaminski, Paul


    This document discusses various aspects of missile defense systems like the Patriot, Avenger, and the supporting Battlefield Management Command Control, Communications, Computer, and Intelligence (BMC4I...

  6. Veiled Normalization: The Implications of Japanese Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Timothy L


    Japan's development of a missile defense system has been accompanied by the acquisition of potentially offensive military assets, an increased command and control capability, significant restructuring...

  7. Field mapping of ballistic pressure pulse sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rad Abtin Jamshidi


    Full Text Available Ballistic pressure pulse sources are used since late 1990s for the extracorporeal treatment of chronic Enthesitis. Newly indications are found in trigger-point-therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. In both applications excellent results without relevant side effects were found in clinical trials. The technical principle of pressure pulse source is based on the same techniques used in air guns. A projectile is accelerated by pressurized air and hits the applicator with high kinetic energy. By this a compression wave travels through the material and induces a fast (4..5μs, almost singular pressure pulse of 2..10 MPa, which is followed by an equally short rarefaction phase of about the same amplitude. It is assumed that the pressure pulse accounts for the biomedical effects of the device. The slower inertial motion of the waveguide is damped by elastic stoppers, but still can be measured several micro seconds after the initial pressure pulse. In order to characterize the pressure pulse devices, field mapping is performed on several radial pressure pulse sources using the fiber optic hydrophone and a polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF piezoelectric hydrophone. It could be shown that the current standard (IEC 61846 is not appropriate for characterization of ballistic pressure pulse sources.

  8. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium (United States)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.


    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  9. Advanced geometries for ballistic neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanzer, Christian; Boeni, Peter; Filges, Uwe; Hils, Thomas


    Sophisticated neutron guide systems take advantage of supermirrors being used to increase the neutron flux. However, the finite reflectivity of supermirrors becomes a major loss mechanism when many reflections occur, e.g. in long neutron guides and for long wavelengths. In order to reduce the number of reflections, ballistic neutron guides have been proposed. Usually linear tapered sections are used to enlarge the cross-section and finally, focus the beam to the sample. The disadvantages of linear tapering are (i) an inhomogeneous phase space at the sample position and (ii) a decreasing flux with increasing distance from the exit of the guide. We investigate the properties of parabolic and elliptic tapering for ballistic neutron guides, using the Monte Carlo program McStas with a new guide component dedicated for such geometries. We show that the maximum flux can indeed be shifted away from the exit of the guide. In addition we explore the possibilities of parabolic and elliptic geometries to create point like sources for dedicated experimental demands

  10. Ballistic resistant article, semi-finished product for and method of making a shell for a ballistic resistant article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harings, Jules; Janse, Gerardus


    The invention relates to a ballistic resistant article, such as a helmet (1), comprising a double curved shell (2) in turn comprising a stack (5) of layers (6) of an oriented anti-ballistic material, the layers (6) comprising one or more plies and having a plurality of cuts (7), the ends of which

  11. Counterproliferation strategy: The influence of technology, budget, and arms control on theater missile defenses. Strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlier, G.H.


    This paper describes the historical evolution of the theater missile threat during World War II and the Persian Gulf War, and analyzes current technological challenges, budgetary pressures, and arms control restraints which constrain the development and deployment of effective theater missile defenses. The impact of these trends on strategic concepts as outlined in the National Military Strategy and their implications for attaining national policy objectives is assessed. A systems approach is used to described analyze, and evaluate the effectiveness of emerging counterproliferation strategy within the framework of an ends-ways-means strategy formulation paradigm. I conclude that current trends will lead to a self-deterring strategy: resources are inadequate to support the ways we intend to achieve our national objectives. Recommendations are made to eliminate unacceptable risk and enhance the concept of `extended conventional deterrence` consistent with U.S. national values and security interests for our role in a new world order.

  12. Mind-Sets and Missiles: A First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis (United States)


    and had practiced moving the missiles to the erectors . At a January 1989 conference of American and Soviet leaders in Moscow, Soviet General Dmitri...4-3/7/63” folder, President’s Office Files, Special Correspondence, Box 31, JFKL. President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, March 11, 1963

  13. Ballistic Target PHD Filter Based on Infrared Focal Plane Ambiguous Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao


    Full Text Available Space-based early warning system, the main detection means of which is passive detection based on focal plane, is an important part of ballistic missile defense system. The focal plane is mainly composed of CCD, and its size can reach the micron level, so the pixel is often regarded as point of no area in image postprocessing. The design of traditional tracking methods is based on this, and the observation based on the focal plane is modeled as the azimuth with random noise. However, this modeling is inaccurate. In the context of space-based detection, CCD cannot be simplified as a point, and its size should be considered. And the corresponding observation cannot be treated as azimuth with random noise. In this paper, the observation based on focal plane is modeled as Unambiguously Generated Ambiguous (UGA measurement. The PHD filter algorithm is redesigned and simplified. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on UGA measurement observation model has better tracking effect compared with that based on traditional observation model. This method provides technical support for more accurate target tracking for space-based early warning system.

  14. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.


    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  15. Replica scaling studies of hard missile impacts on reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.; Carter, P.G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.


    Missile and target combinations at three different liners scales have been used in an experimental assessment of the applicability of replica scaling to the dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures impacted by rigid missiles. Experimental results are presented for models with relative linear scales of 1, 0.37 and 0.12. (orig.) [de


    system to meet the Power Supply requirements has been initiated. Paper designs for two types of unit cells to be used in the ’all battery’ approach to the... Power Supply were prepared. Initial screening tests on 0.2 Ampere-hour unit cells were performed. Additional cells are being fabricated to verify the...Work defining the requirements for a solid state DC to DC converter to be used in conjunction with a Silver-Zinc battery in the Missile Power Supply has been drawn up. (Author)

  17. Guidance Optimization for Tactical Homing Missiles and Air Defense Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Sh. ALQUDSI


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a functional approach to optimize the engagement effectiveness of the tactical homing missiles and air defense systems by utilizing the differential geometric concepts. In this paper the engagement geometry of the interceptor and the target is developed and expressed in differential geometric terms in order to demonstrate the possibilities of the impact triangles and specify the earliest interception based on the direct intercept geometry. Optimizing the missile heading angle and suitable missile velocity against the target velocity is then examined to achieve minimum missile latax, minimum time-to-go (time-to-hit and minimum appropriate missile velocity that is guaranteed a quick and precise interception for the given target. The study terminates with different scenarios of engagement optimization with two-dimensional simulation to demonstrate the applicability of the DG approach and to show its properties.

  18. Ballistic and Diffusive Thermal Conductivity of Graphene (United States)

    Saito, Riichiro; Masashi, Mizuno; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.


    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Phonon-related thermal conductivity of graphene is calculated as a function of the temperature and sample size of graphene in which the crossover of ballistic and diffusive thermal conductivity occurs at around 100 K. The diffusive thermal conductivity of graphene is evaluated by calculating the phonon mean free path for each phonon mode in which the anharmonicity of a phonon and the phonon scattering by a 13C isotope are taken into account. We show that phonon-phonon scattering of out-of-plane acoustic phonon by the anharmonic potential is essential for the largest thermal conductivity. Using the calculated results, we can design the optimum sample size, which gives the largest thermal conductivity at a given temperature for applying thermal conducting devices.

  19. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in a Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Y V


    The Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of a homogeneous Luttinger liquid are calculated in the ballistic regime. Nonlinearity of the electron spectrum is taken into account. It is shown that, in the framework of the defined approximations, the thermoelectric power of a Luttinger liquid is equal to zero, in agreement with the exponentially small thermopower of a one-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas. The Peltier coefficient is controlled by a nonequilibrium state of the system. It is finite and renormalized by the interaction in the case of a convective flow of a Luttinger liquid. The zero modes of bosonic excitations and the dispersion-induced contribution to the electric current operator are taken into account in calculations.

  20. Ballistic transport in gold [110] nanowire (United States)

    Kurui, Yoshihiko; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Masakuni; Takayanagi, Kunio


    Conductance of gold nanowire elongated along the [110] direction (gold [110] nanowire) was measured during many breaking procedures, while simultaneously acquiring transmission electron microscope images. The conductance histogram exhibits a series of peaks whose conductance values increased nearly in steps of the conductance quantum, G0 =2e^2/h. However thick nanowires above 10G0 showed dequantization, where the increment was only 0.9G0. The structure for each peak was determined to be either an atomic sheet or a hexagonal prism. The number of conductance channels calculated for each atomic structure by first principles theory, coincided well with the peak index in the conductance histogram. The present study shows that the [110] nanowire behave as ballistic conductors, and a conductance peak appears whenever a conductance channel is opened.

  1. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.


    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  2. Statistics of magnetoconductance in ballistic cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.; Ishio, H.; Burgdoerfer, J.


    The statistical properties of magnetoconductance in ballistic microcavities are investigated numerically. The distribution of conductance for chaotic cavities is found to follow the renormalized Porter-Thomas distribution suggested by random-matrix theory for the Gaussian ensemble while the conductance distribution of regular cavities in magnetic fields is nonuniversal and shifted towards the maximum value for a given number of open channels. The renormalized Porter-Thomas distribution implies a universal dependence of fluctuation amplitude on the mean conductance for chaotic cavities in the absence of time-reversal symmetry. The fluctuation amplitude for regular cavities is found to be larger than the saturation value of the fluctuation amplitude of chaotic cavities predicted by random-matrix theory. The change of the mean conductance as a function of the external magnetic field is consistent with semiclassical predictions

  3. 19 mm ballistic range: a potpourri of techniques and recipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpluk, G.T.


    The expansion of ballistic gun range facilities at LLL has introduced state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques to glovebox-enclosed ballistic guns systems. These enclosed ballistic ranges are designed for the study of one-dimensional shock phenomena in extremely toxic material such as plutonium. The extension of state-of-the-art phtographic and interferometric diagnostic systems to glovebox-enclosed gun systems introduces new design boundaries and performance criteria on optical and mechanical components. A technique for experimentally evaluating design proposals is illustrated, and several specific examples (such as, target alignment, collateral shrapnel damage, and soft recovery) are discussed

  4. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan (United States)

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.


    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  5. Synchro-ballistic recording of detonation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchfield, R.R.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.; Davis, W.C.; Ferm, E.N.; Idar, D.J.


    Synchro-ballistic use of rotating-mirror streak cameras allows for detailed recording of high-speed events of known velocity and direction. After an introduction to the synchro-ballistic technique, this paper details two diverse applications of the technique as applied in the field of high-explosives research. In the first series of experiments detonation-front shape is recorded as the arriving detonation shock wave tilts an obliquely mounted mirror, causing reflected light to be deflected from the imaging lens. These tests were conducted for the purpose of calibrating and confirming the asymptotic Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory of Bdzil and Stewart. The phase velocities of the events range from ten to thirty millimeters per microsecond. Optical magnification is set for optimal use of the film`s spatial dimension and the phase velocity is adjusted to provide synchronization at the camera`s maximum writing speed. Initial calibration of the technique is undertaken using a cylindrical HE geometry over a range of charge diameters and of sufficient length-to-diameter ratio to insure a stable detonation wave. The final experiment utilizes an arc-shaped explosive charge, resulting in an asymmetric detonation-front record. The second series of experiments consists of photographing a shaped-charge jet having a velocity range of two to nine millimeters per microsecond. To accommodate the range of velocities it is necessary to fire several tests, each synchronized to a different section of the jet. The experimental apparatus consists of a vacuum chamber to preclude atmospheric ablation of the jet tip with shocked-argon back lighting to produce a shadow-graph image.

  6. An overview of non-traditional nuclear threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Wogman, N.A.


    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, air cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear warheads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or 'dirty' bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are both economic and life threatening. The defense against undesirable materials entering our borders involves extensive radiation monitoring at ports of entry. The radiation and other signatures of potential nuclear and radiological threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve radiation detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo. (author)

  7. ISST (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Silo Superhardening Technology) Structure with SIFCON (Slurry-Infiltrated Fiber Concrete) - HFC-2 Test (United States)


    Base gusset /• • plates Figure 2. ISST terminology. 9 - I 5 mm i (0. 2 i n) 30 mm 1 S(0.1,2 in) •’ 0.5 mm "’ ~(0.02 in) Fiur 3. Selfie o S) ICN 1" 0 -V...splicing--Twenty-pair cable was -’liced wihere necessary using crimp tools , sealing compound, and plastic tape. The drain wire was also spliced. A tape

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense and China: China’s Past, Military Technologies, and Shaping the World’s Future (United States)


    to be the mother of strange bedfellows. Although the PRC is often seen as a bad actor it is also the world’s most populous country and is as "The Dorito " with a reference to the advertisement which states, "Eat all you want, we’ll make more." 14 keep China a generation on so many new levels. The conditions that must be set should be considered carefully before good intention turns into a bad reality. It was once

  9. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    nuclear powered submarines, which are powered by energy sources such as diesel engines. A submarine’s use of nuclear or non- nuclear power as its... energy source is not an indication of whether it is armed with nuclear weapons—a nuclear -powered submarine can lack nuclear weapons, and a non- nuclear, components, systems, and subsystems common with and required for other nuclear -powered vessels. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement ) Program

  10. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas


    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  11. Enhancement in ballistic performance of composite hard armor through carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibson


    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes in composite hard armor is discussed in this study. The processing techniques to make various armor composite panels consisting of Kevlar®29 woven fabric in an epoxy matrix and the subsequent V50 test results for both 44 caliber soft-point rounds and 30 caliber FSP (fragment simulated projectile threats are presented. A 6.5% improvement in the V50 test results was found for a combination of 1.65 wt% loading of carbon nanotubes and 1.65 wt% loading of milled fibers. The failure mechanism of carbon nanotubes during the ballistic event is discussed through scanning electron microscope images of the panels after the failure. Raman Spectroscopy was also utilized to evaluate the residual strain in the Kevlar®29 fibers post shoot. The Raman Spectroscopy shows a Raman shift of 25 cm−1 for the Kevlar®29 fiber utilized in the composite panel that had an enhancement in the V50 performance by using milled fiber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Evaluating both scenarios where an improvement was made and other panels without any improvement allows for understanding of how loading levels and synergistic effects between carbon nanotubes and milled fibers can further enhance ballistic performance.

  12. Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies Report: Ballistic Gelatin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas, N. C; Welsch, J. R


    Ballistic gelatin is designed to simulate living soft tissue. It is the standard for evaluating the effectiveness of firearms against humans because of its convenience and acceptability over animal or cadaver testing...

  13. Designing an Innovative Composite Armor System for Affordable Ballistic Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zheng-Dong; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yushun; Rose, Douglas; Socks, Adria; Ostberg, Donald


    .... This paper focuses on the frontal armor plate and back plate design problems with demonstration examples, including both results of the virtual prototyping and ballistic testing for proof-of-concept...

  14. The Modeling and Application of Small Arms Wound Ballistics (United States)


    Components." The Journal of Traurma, vol. 25, pp. 522-529, 1985. 3. Clare, V., W. Ashman, P. Broome, J. Jameson, J. Lewis, J. Merkler, A. Mickiewicz , W...Proving Ground, MD, 1962. 28. Olivier, A., J. Merkler, B. Brown, and A. Mickiewicz . ’Wound Ballistics of the 15.2 Grain Steel Flechette." CRDLR 3132...NWerkler, A. Mickiewicz , W. Sacco, L. Sturdivan, D. Lamb, and F. Sylva,)us. "The ARRADCOM Computer Man - An Automated Approach To Wound Ballistics

  15. Understanding the Ballistic Event: Methodology and Initial Observations


    Healey, Adam; Cotton, J; Maclachlan, S; Smith, Paul; Yeomans, Julie


    The purpose of the study is to accelerate the development of ceramic materials for armour applications, by substantially increasing the information obtained from a high-energy projectile impact event. This has been achieved by modifying an existing test configuration to incorporate a block of ballistic gel, attached to the strike face of a ceramic armour system, to capture fragments generated during the ballistic event such that their final positions are maintained. Three different materials,...

  16. Ballistic Heat Conduction and Mass Disorder in One Dimension


    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang


    It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity ($\\kappa$) scales asymptotically as $\\lim_{L\\rightarrow\\infty}\\kappa\\propto L^{0.5}$ where $L$ is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modeling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale ($L_{C}$) below which ballistic heat conduction ($\\kappa\\propto L$) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic...

  17. Ballistic Impact Simulation of Ceramic/Metal Armor Structures


    ARSLAN, Kemal; GÜNEŞ, Recep


    The study presents a comparative numericalinvestigation on ballistic performance of ceramic/metal armor structures. 2Daxisymmetric numerical model was developed for ballistic impact simulationsusing LS-DYNA® finite element software. The armor structuresincluded combinations of boron carbide (B4C), Al6061-T6 and 4340steel constituents. The interfaces in the armor structure were modelled with anepoxy resin adhesive. In order to define proper material behavior,Johnson-Holmquist-Ceramics material...

  18. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy


    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  19. Missiles caused by severe pressurized-water reactor accidients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.


    For future pressurized-water reactors, which should be designed against core-meltdown accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles, as well as their velocities, may vary to a great extent. Therefore a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. In this article the potential sources of missiles are discussed, and the conclusion was reached that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles that endanger the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure, the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions may be tolerable, but shielding structures that protect the containment shell may be required. Further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. Investigations are currently being carried out that will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In addition, a device for retaining the fragments of a failing reactor vessel is discussed

  20. Prevention of heavy missiles during severe PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.


    For future pressurized water reactors, which should be designed against core melt down accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles as well as their velocities may vary to a great extend. Therefore, a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. To overcome this problem the potential sources of missiles are discussed. In section 5 it is concluded that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles endangering the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions might be tolerable, but shielding structures which protect the containment shell might be required. Here further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. In section 6 investigations are explained which will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In section 7 a device is discussed keeping the fragments of a failing reactor vessel at its place. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs

  1. Insider threat data sharing


    Sellen, Jeremey J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Insider threat is a significant problem for both governmental and private organizations. Individuals can do immense harm with their trusted accesses. To combat this threat, organizations have created departments with trained analysts whose sole purpose is to deter, detect, and mitigate the insider threat. These analysts monitor employees and analyze activities to detect dangerous practices, whether witting or unwitting, and report thes...

  2. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.


    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  3. Numerical simulation of tornado-borne missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, D.K.; Murray, R.C.


    The feasibility of using a finite element procedure to examine the impact phenomenon of a tornado-borne missile impinging on a reinforced concrete barrier was assessed. The major emphasis of this study was to simulate the impact of a nondeformable missile. Several series of simulations were run, using an 8-in.-dia steel slug as the impacting missile. The numerical results were then compared with experimental field tests and empirical formulas. The work is in support of tornado design practices for fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants

  4. Protective properties of a missile enclosure against electromagnetic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fisahn


    Full Text Available In order to predict the immunity of a generic missile (GENEC, not only the electronic system but also the enclosure has to be taken into consideration. While a completely closed metallic missile enclosure shows a high electric shielding effectiveness, it is decreased substantially by apertures which could not be avoided by different reasons. The shielding effectiveness of the generic missile could be investigated by means of a hollow cylinder equipped with different apertures. Numerical simulations and measurements of this hollow cylinder will be carried out and analyzed.

  5. The application of a calibrated 3D ballistic trajectory model to ballistic hazard assessments at Upper Te Maari, Tongariro (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R. H.; Tsunematsu, K.; Kennedy, B. M.; Breard, E. C. P.; Lube, G.; Wilson, T. M.; Jolly, A. D.; Pawson, J.; Rosenberg, M. D.; Cronin, S. J.


    On 6 August, 2012, Upper Te Maari Crater, Tongariro volcano, New Zealand, erupted for the first time in over one hundred years. Multiple vents were activated during the hydrothermal eruption, ejecting blocks up to 2.3 km and impacting ~ 2.6 km of the Tongariro Alpine Crossing (TAC) hiking track. Ballistic impact craters were mapped to calibrate a 3D ballistic trajectory model for the eruption. This was further used to inform future ballistic hazard. Orthophoto mapping revealed 3587 impact craters with a mean diameter of 2.4 m. However, field mapping of accessible regions indicated an average of at least four times more observable impact craters and a smaller mean crater diameter of 1.2 m. By combining the orthophoto and ground-truthed impact frequency and size distribution data, we estimate that approximately 13,200 ballistic projectiles were generated during the eruption. The 3D ballistic trajectory model and a series of inverse models were used to constrain the eruption directions, angles and velocities. When combined with eruption observations and geophysical observations, the model indicates that the blocks were ejected in five variously directed eruption pulses, in total lasting 19 s. The model successfully reproduced the mapped impact distribution using a mean initial particle velocity of 200 m/s with an accompanying average gas flow velocity over a 400 m radius of 150 m/s. We apply the calibrated model to assess ballistic hazard from the August eruption along the TAC. By taking the field mapped spatial density of impacts and an assumption that an average ballistic impact will cause serious injury or death (casualty) over an 8 m2 area, we estimate that the probability of casualty ranges from 1% to 16% along the affected track (assuming an eruption during the time of exposure). Future ballistic hazard and probabilities of casualty along the TAC are also assessed through application of the calibrated model. We model a magnitude larger eruption and illustrate

  6. North Korea's satellite launch: provocation and ballistic progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard


    North Korea's putting into orbit of a small meteorological satellite using an Unha-3 launcher on the 13 December 2013, a year on from Kim Jong-il's passing, smacks of provocation. The launch of an SLV that is closely related to the Taepodong-2 and that has numerous characteristics in common with a long-range ballistic missile contravened Security Council Resolutions 1695 (2006), 1718 (2006), and 1874 (2009), adopted in response to nuclear and ballistic tests carried out by Pyongyang. These resolutions implemented a progressively more strenuous regime of sanctions, which cannot fail to have marked the North Korean dictatorship, at least in economic and financial terms. The provisional successes and failures of the Six-party talks, mediated by China, which have been at a dead-end since 2009 bear witness to the unpredictability of the North's reactions. Pyongyang's double-agenda is, nonetheless, relatively easily to discern. Firstly, with this successful launch, North Korea has redeemed the failure of the first Unha-3 launch on the 13 April 2012, at the same time as Kim Jong-un took power and the country was celebrating the centenary of the birth of its founder, Kim Il-sung. This success evidently helps to bolster both the young leader's prestige on the domestic front and his sway over the army. Simultaneously, and beyond any symbolic value, North Korea's development of long-range ballistic capabilities constitutes veritable progress, on the back of a series of failures since 2006. Naturally, the reliability of the Unha-3 launcher (or of an improved Taepodong-2) is by no means guaranteed. Moreover, its payload is limited, since it can presently only launch small satellites, and thus well below the capacity needed to carry a nuclear weapon. If this is indeed North Korea's objective in years to come, it will need to make considerable technological progress, including the development of sufficiently small nuclear devices, which would

  7. Testiranje balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka / Ballistic resistance of body armour testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Jovanić


    Full Text Available U radu je predstavljena osnova standarda NIJ 0101.04 (Nacionalni Institut Pravde, namenjenog za utvrđivanje minimuma tehničkih zahteva i propisivanje metoda ispitivanja balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka, koji treba da zaštite gornji deo tela od dejstva streljačkog oružja. Standard jeste revizija standarda NIJ 0101.03 iz aprila 1987. i preciznije definiše zahteve u pogledu obeležavanja, kriterijume za prijem i postupke merenja otiska u materijalu iza prsluka. Područje ovog standarda odnosi se samo na balističku otpornost, ali ne i na pretnje od noža i predmeta sa oštrim vrhom. Takođe, ne odnosi se na zaštitne prsluke koji sadrže dopunske elemente ili varijacije u konstrukciji balističkih panela za malu površinu torza, radi povećanja osnovnog nivoa zaštite na ograničenim površinama (bilo balističke ili povrede od tupog vrha. / This work is a basic presentation of NIJ 0101.04 (National Institute of Justice standard, -whose purpose is to establish minimum performance requirements and methods of testing ballistic resistance of body armor intended to protect the torso against gunfire. This standard is a revision of NIJ Standard 0101.03 dated April 1987 and it clarifies the labeling requirements, acceptance criteria, and backface signature measurement procedure. The scope of this standard is limited only to ballistic resistance; and it does not include threats from knives and sharply pointed instruments. In addition, the standard does not include armor that incorporates inserts, or variations in construction of the ballistic panel over small areas of the torso, used for increasing the basic level of protection of the armor (whether ballistic or blunt trauma on localized areas.

  8. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army (United States)


    Figure 3). However, a 2016 Department of Defense (DoD) report explained that in 2013 “China launched an object into space on a ballistic trajectory with...well as other non-kinetic counter- space capabilities.42 The USCC report also provided detailed analysis of Chinese developments of co-orbital...Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the

  9. EMP Threats to US National Security: Congressional Responses (United States)

    Huessy, Peter


    The US Congress is considering how best to respond to concerns that EMP is a real and present danger to US security. The threats come from a variety of areas: solar storms, non-nuclear EMP from man-made machines and devices; and nuclear EMP from a nuclear device exploded above CONUS or other critical areas important to the United States and its allies. Responses have to date included passage in the House of legislation to protect the electrical grid in the United States from such threats and hearings before the Homeland Security Committee. Additional efforts include examining missile defense responses, protection of the maritime domain, and hardening of US military and related civilian infrastructure. The House of Representatives has also examined what Europe, the European Union and NATO, both government and private industry, have done in these areas. Complicating matters are related issues of cyber-security and overall homeland security priorities.

  10. Reinforced concrete behavior due to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.


    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w

  11. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  12. Allegany Ballistics Lab: sensor test target system (United States)

    Eaton, Deran S.


    Leveraging the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's historical experience in weapon simulation, Naval Sea Systems Command commissioned development of a remote-controlled, digitally programmable Sensor Test Target as part of a modern, outdoor hardware-in-the-loop test system for ordnance-related guidance, navigation and control systems. The overall Target system design invokes a sciences-based, "design of automated experiments" approach meant to close the logistical distance between sensor engineering and developmental T&E in outdoor conditions over useful real world distances. This enables operating modes that employ broad spectrum electromagnetic energy in many a desired combination, variably generated using a Jet Engine Simulator, a multispectral infrared emitter array, optically enhanced incandescent Flare Simulators, Emitter/Detector mounts, and an RF corner reflector kit. As assembled, the recently tested Sensor Test Target prototype being presented can capably provide a full array of useful RF and infrared target source simulations for RDT&E use with developmental and existing sensors. Certain Target technologies are patent pending, with potential spinoffs in aviation, metallurgy and biofuels processing, while others are variations on well-established technology. The Sensor Test Target System is planned for extended installation at Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (Rocket Center, WV).

  13. Heat Coulomb blockade of one ballistic channel (United States)

    Sivre, E.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Ouerghi, A.; Jin, Y.; Pierre, F.


    Quantum mechanics and Coulomb interaction dictate the behaviour of small circuits. The thermal implications cover fundamental topics from quantum control of heat to quantum thermodynamics, with prospects of novel thermal machines and an ineluctably growing influence on nanocircuit engineering. Experimentally, the rare observations thus far include the universal thermal conductance quantum and heat interferometry. However, evidence for many-body thermal effects paving the way to markedly different heat and electrical behaviours in quantum circuits remains wanting. Here we report on the observation of the Coulomb blockade of electronic heat flow from a small metallic circuit node, beyond the widespread Wiedemann-Franz law paradigm. We demonstrate this thermal many-body phenomenon for perfect (ballistic) conduction channels to the node, where it amounts to the universal suppression of precisely one quantum of conductance for the transport of heat, but none for electricity. The inter-channel correlations that give rise to such selective heat current reduction emerge from local charge conservation, in the floating node over the full thermal frequency range (<~temperature × kB/h). This observation establishes the different nature of the quantum laws for thermal transport in nanocircuits.

  14. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward


    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  15. Rifle bullet penetration into ballistic gelatin. (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Jin, Yongxi; Batra, R C


    The penetration of a rifle bullet into a block of ballistic gelatin is experimentally and computationally studied for enhancing our understanding of the damage caused to human soft tissues. The gelatin is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic-plastic linearly strain-hardening material that obeys a polynomial equation of state. Effects of numerical uncertainties on penetration characteristics are found by repeating simulations with minute variations in the impact speed and the angle of attack. The temporary cavity formed in the gelatin and seen in pictures taken by two high speed cameras is found to compare well with the computed one. The computed time histories of the hydrostatic pressure at points situated 60 mm above the line of impact are found to have "two peaks", one due to the bullet impact and the other due to the bullet tumbling. Contours of the von Mises stress and of the effective plastic strain in the gelatin block imply that a very small region adjacent to the cavity surface is plastically deformed. The angle of attack is found to noticeably affect the penetration depth at the instant of the bullet tumbling through 90°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.


    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  17. Threats and vulnerabilities (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  18. Multivariable Autopilot Design and Implementation for Tactical Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Friedrich


    A tactical skid to turn missile autopilot is designed and implemented using a two step design process that results in an optimal output feedback with a fixed, low order dynamic compensator for reduced...

  19. The Aerodynamic Influence of a Helicopter on a Jettisoned Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Jr, Milton E


    ...) methodology Titled Euler Tunnel Analysis (ETA). Initially, comparison of CFD computations with wind tunnel measurements for the isolated missile are used to anchor the computations in reality and provide an evaluation benchmark...

  20. NATO Pallet with Javelin Missiles, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted tests in accordance with MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" on the NATO pallet with Javelin missiles...

  1. Analysis of Nonlinear Missile Guidance Systems Through Linear Adjoint Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gamal Eltohamy


    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear simulation algorithm, the adjoint method, is modified and employed as an efficient tool for analyzing the contributions of system parameters to the miss - distance of a nonlinear time-varying missile guidance system model. As an example for the application of the linear adjoint method, the effect of missile flight time on the miss - distance is studied. Since the missile model is highly nonlinear and a time-varying linearized model is required to apply the adjoint method, a new technique that utilizes the time-reversed linearized coefficients of the missile as a replacement for the time-varying describing functions is applied and proven to be successful. It is found that, when compared with Monte Carlo generated results, simulation results of this linear adjoint technique provide acceptable accuracy and can be produced with much less effort.

  2. Operation TEAPOT: Distribution and Density of Missiles from Nuclear Explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, I


    A new experimental procedure was used in the open shot of Operation Teapot to study various properties of secondary missiles produced in houses, shelters, and open areas at distances of 1470 to 10,500...

  3. Development of Advanced Rocket Engine Technology for Precision Guided Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nusca, Michael J; Michaels, R. S


    ...) that can power tactical missiles for both current and future combat systems. The use of gel propellants brings the advantages of selectable thrust and the promise of small engine size but also introduces new challenges in combustion control...

  4. Anti-Ship Missile Defense and the Free Electron Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, Paul


    In order to improve ship self-defense against sea-skimming missiles, several concepts, such as the free electron laser, high-power microwaves, and the Phalanx gun system are reviewed and evaluated in this thesis...

  5. Adaptive Missile Flight Control for Complex Aerodynamic Phenomena (United States)


    ARL-TR-8085 ● AUG 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Missile Flight Control for Complex Aerodynamic Phenomena by Frank...Adaptive Missile Flight Control for Complex Aerodynamic Phenomena by Frank Fresconi and Jubaraj Sahu Weapons and Materials Research Directorate...currently valid OMB control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) August 2017 2. REPORT TYPE

  6. Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century (United States)

    LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby


    Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.


    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  8. Approximate ballistics formulas for spherical pellets in free flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Allen


    Full Text Available The ballistics equations for spherical pellets in free flight are simplified through appropriate scaling of the pellet velocity and pellet distance. Two different drag coefficient curves are averaged to yield a single curve applicable to shot pellets and round balls. The resulting S-shaped drag coefficient curve is approximated by three straight-line segments. The scaled ballistics equations are then solved exactly and simple formulas are found for the velocity and flight time with respect to trajectory distance. The formulas are applicable to spherical shot pellets and round balls of any composition under any atmospheric conditions. The formulas are amenable to quick and easy computation and may also serve as an aid in understanding and comparing black-box ballistics calculators. For shotshell ballistics, an important assumption in the present investigation is that the pellets are moving as single, free spheres and not as a dense cloud or in a shot column, in particular, the pellets are not interacting during flight. Therefore, the formulas are most appropriate for single round balls, for large shot sizes, and for pellets of small shot size fired from open chokes. The formulas are clear and accessible, and can be implemented by military or law enforcement personnel as well as hunters and shooters. This work differs from previous investigations in that accurate ballistics formulas are derived for spherical projectiles of shotguns and muzzleloaders using realistic drag coefficients.

  9. Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciacca, Michele, E-mail: [Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Sellitto, Antonio, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed Economia, Università della Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Jou, David, E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R{sup 2} (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime.

  10. Ballistic heat conduction and mass disorder in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang


    It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity (κ) scales asymptotically as lim L→∞ κ∝L 0.5 where L is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modelling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale (L C ) below which ballistic heat conduction (κ∝L) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic-to-subballistic heat conduction crossover is connected to the exponential attenuation of the phonon transmittance function Ξ i.e. Ξ(ω, L) = exp[−L/λ(ω)], where λ is the frequency-dependent attenuation length. The crossover length can be determined from the minimum attenuation length, which depends on the maximum transmitted frequency. We numerically determine the dependence of the transmittance on frequency and mass composition as well as derive a closed form estimate, which agrees closely with the numerical results. For the length-dependent thermal conductance, we also derive a closed form expression which agrees closely with numerical results and reproduces the ballistic to subballistic thermal conduction crossover. This allows us to characterize the crossover in terms of changes in the length, mass composition and temperature dependence, and also to determine the conditions under which heat conduction enters the ballistic regime. We describe how the mass composition can be modified to increase ballistic heat conduction. (paper)

  11. Chile: Its Conventional Threats (United States)


    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  12. Learning without knowing: subliminal visual feedback facilitates ballistic motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    by subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance.......). It is a well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated...

  13. Kinetics of diffusion-controlled and ballistically-controlled reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redner, S.


    The kinetics of diffusion-controlled two-species annihilation, A+B → O and single-species ballistically-controlled annihilation, A+A → O are investigated. For two-species annihilation, we describe the basic mechanism that leads to the formation of a coarsening mosaic of A- and B-domains. The implications of this picture on the distribution of reactants is discussed. For ballistic annihilation, dimensional analysis shows that the concentration and rms velocity decay as c∼t -α and v∼t -β , respectively, with α+β = 1 in any spatial dimension. Analysis of the Boltzmann equation for the evolution of the velocity distribution yields accurate predictions for the kinetics. New phenomena associated with discrete initial velocity distributions and with mixed ballistic and diffusive reactant motion are also discussed. (author)

  14. Ballistic spin filtering across the ferromagnetic-semiconductor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li


    Full Text Available The ballistic spin-filter effect from a ferromagnetic metal into a semiconductor has theoretically been studied with an intention of detecting the spin polarizability of density of states in FM layer at a higher energy level. The physical model for the ballistic spin filtering across the interface between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductor superlattice is developed by exciting the spin polarized electrons into n-type AlAs/GaAs superlattice layer at a much higher energy level and then ballistically tunneling through the barrier into the ferromagnetic film. Since both the helicity-modulated and static photocurrent responses are experimentally measurable quantities, the physical quantity of interest, the relative asymmetry of spin-polarized tunneling conductance, could be extracted experimentally in a more straightforward way, as compared with previous models. The present physical model serves guidance for studying spin detection with advanced performance in the future.

  15. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts. (United States)

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S


    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible.

  16. Development of high-density ceramic composites for ballistic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupert, N.L.; Burkins, M.S.; Gooch, W.A.; Walz, M.J.; Levoy, N.F.; Washchilla, E.P.


    The application of ceramic composites for ballistic application has been generally developed with ceramics of low density, between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cm 2 . These materials have offered good performance in defeating small-caliber penetrators, but can suffer time-dependent degradation effects when thicker ceramic tiles are needed to defeat modem, longer, heavy metal penetrators that erode rather than break up. This paper addresses the ongoing development, fabrication procedures, analysis, and ballistic evaluation of thinner, denser ceramics for use in armor applications. Nuclear Metals Incorporated (NMI) developed a process for the manufacture of depleted uranium (DU) ceramics. Samples of the ceramics have been supplied to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) as part of an unfunded cooperative study agreement. The fabrication processes used, characterization of the ceramic, and a ballistic comparison between the DU-based ceramic with baseline Al 2 O 3 will be presented

  17. Poland and Global Threats (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy


    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  18. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappai, M.V.


    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  19. Coupling between a Langmuir wave and a ballistic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, F.; Olivain, J.; Quemeneur, A.; Trocheris, M.


    The study of the mode-mode coupling usually neglects the ballistic contribution associated with parent waves. If this approximation is not made, a new mode, resulting from the interaction between the ballistic perturbation of pulsation ω 2 associated with one launched wave and the Landau component of pulsation ω 1 of the second one appears if ω 1 >ω 2 . The problem is solved theoretically and experimental evidence of this mode from measurements performed on a D.C. plasma column, confirms the results of this analysis

  20. Ballistics for neurosurgeons: Effects of firearms of customized cranioplasty implants


    Lemcke, Johannes; L?ser, Rainer; Telm, Andreas; Meier, Ullrich


    Introduction: There are about 33,000 deaths caused by gunshot wounds in the USA each year. Probably half of these deaths result from head wounds. Among US Army soldiers, 17% of all ballistic injuries are head wounds. This means that, even in those protected by ballistic helmets, gunshot injuries to the head represent a danger. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of shelling of computer-aided designed (CAD) cranioplasty implants made of two different materials. Methods: An experim...

  1. Quantifying Uncertainty from Computational Factors in Simulations of a Model Ballistic System (United States)


    Ballistic System by Daniel J Hornbaker Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES...Uncertainty from Computational Factors in Simulations of a Model Ballistic System by Daniel J Hornbaker Weapons and Materials Research...November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying Uncertainty from Computational Factors in Simulations of a Model Ballistic System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  2. Extending U.S. Theater Missile Defense to Northeast Asia: Ramifications for Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attenweiler, Steven


    The absence of a formidable U.S. and allied Theater Missile Defense (TMD) capability in the East Asian region has encouraged a build-up in offensive missile capability on the part of the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  3. Combatting Insider Threats (United States)

    Neumann, Peter G.

    Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

  4. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats. (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R


    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  5. Aerodynamic shape optimization of guided missile based on wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulation


    Ocokoljić Goran J.; Rašuo Boško P.; Bengin Aleksandar Č.


    This paper presents modification of the existing guided missile which was done by replacing the existing front part with the new five, while the rear part of the missile with rocket motor and missile thrust vector control system remains the same. The shape of all improved front parts is completely different from the original one. Modification was performed based on required aerodynamic coefficients for the existing guided missile. The preliminary aerodynamic configurations of the improved mis...

  6. Viscoelastic Properties of Advanced Polymer Composites for Ballistic Protective Applications (United States)


    bibliography; illustration(s); maps; diagrams SUBJECTS COVERED: Petroleum geology /Utah Petroleum geology /Colorado 5AST AUTHOR: Hashemi, S. M. R...Roketsan Missiles Industries Inc, Ankara , Turk Source: Journal of Propulsion and Power v 8 n 5 Sep-Oct 1992 p 1125-1128 Publication Year: 1992 CODEN

  7. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard


    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  8. Gate controlled high efficiency ballistic energy conversion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.


    Last year we demonstrated the microjet ballistic energy conversion system[1]. Here we show that the efficiency of such a system can be further improved by gate control. With gate control the electrical current generation is enhanced a hundred times with respect to the current generated from the zeta

  9. Ballistic study of Tensylon®–based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-C. Alil


    Full Text Available Ballistic protection is a matter of interest requested by civilian as well as military needs. The last decade has witnessed an increase in the use of light weight and efficient armour systems. These panels may be used for body protection as well as light vehicle protection against small calibres or to enhance the protection level of heavier vehicles with decreasing or maintaining their weight penalty. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene is a material of interest for light weight armour applications. The authors designed panels made of hot–pressed Tensylon® in different configurations with thin steel sheets as a backing and shield protection. Comparison of their ballistic performance to the theory predictions reveals the improved ballistic response of the panels. In addition, a non–pressed Tensylon® panel has been tested in order to facilitate the observations of the failure mechanisms inside the panels. Even if not suitable for practical use, such non–pressed panels clearly reveal the dynamic processes at micro–scale that occur during the impact. The failure mechanisms of the material under bullet penetration are discussed based on photography, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The supposed effects of the panel pressing are discussed based on the observed difference between pressed and non–pressed structures ballistic response.

  10. The application of computed tomography in wound ballistics research (United States)

    Tsiatis, Nick; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Papadodima, Stavroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Kelekis, Alexis; Kelesis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kordolaimi, Sofia; Ploussi, Agapi


    In wound ballistics research there is a relationship between the data that characterize a bullet and the injury resulted after shooting when it perforates the human body. The bullet path in the human body following skin perforation as well as the damaging effect cannot always be predictable as they depend on various factors such as the bullet's characteristics (velocity, distance, type of firearm and so on) and the tissue types that the bullet passes through. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the contribution of Computed Tomography (CT) in wound ballistics research. Using CT technology and studying virtual “slices” of specific areas on scanned human bodies, allows the evaluation of density and thickness of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, the muscles, the vital organs and the bones. Density data taken from Hounsfield units can be converted in g/ml by using the appropriate software. By evaluating the results of this study, the anatomy of the human body utilizing ballistic gel will be reproduced in order to simulate the path that a bullet follows. The biophysical analysis in wound ballistics provides another application of CT technology, which is commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.

  11. Quantum ballistic evolution in quantum mechanics: Application to quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benioff, P.


    Quantum computers are important examples of processes whose evolution can be described in terms of iterations of single-step operators or their adjoints. Based on this, Hamiltonian evolution of processes with associated step operators T is investigated here. The main limitation of this paper is to processes which evolve quantum ballistically, i.e., motion restricted to a collection of nonintersecting or distinct paths on an arbitrary basis. The main goal of this paper is proof of a theorem which gives necessary and sufficient conditions that T must satisfy so that there exists a Hamiltonian description of quantum ballistic evolution for the process, namely, that T is a partial isometry and is orthogonality preserving and stable on some basis. Simple examples of quantum ballistic evolution for quantum Turing machines with one and with more than one type of elementary step are discussed. It is seen that for nondeterministic machines the basis set can be quite complex with much entanglement present. It is also proven that, given a step operator T for an arbitrary deterministic quantum Turing machine, it is decidable if T is stable and orthogonality preserving, and if quantum ballistic evolution is possible. The proof fails if T is a step operator for a nondeterministic machine. It is an open question if such a decision procedure exists for nondeterministic machines. This problem does not occur in classical mechanics. Also the definition of quantum Turing machines used here is compared with that used by other authors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.


    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  13. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.


    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  14. Comparison of ballistic impact effects between biological tissue and gelatin. (United States)

    Jin, Yongxi; Mai, Ruimin; Wu, Cheng; Han, Ruiguo; Li, Bingcang


    Gelatin is commonly used in ballistic testing as substitute for biological tissue. Comparison of ballistic impact effects produced in the gelatin and living tissue is lacking. The work in this paper was aimed to compare the typical ballistic impact effects (penetration trajectory, energy transfer, temporary cavity) caused by 4.8mm steel ball penetrating the 60kg porcine hind limbs and 10wt% gelatin. The impact event in the biological tissue was recorded by high speed flash X-ray machine at different delay time, while the event in the gelatin continuously recorded by high speed video was compared to that in the biological tissue. The collected results clearly displayed that the ballistic impact effects in the muscle and gelatin were similar for the steel ball test; as for instance, the projectile trajectory in the two targets was basically similar, the process of energy transfer was highly coincident, and the expansion of temporary cavity followed the same pattern. This study fully demonstrated that choosing gelatin as muscle simulant was reasonable. However, the maximum temporary cavity diameter in the gelatin was a little larger than that in the muscle, and the expansion period of temporary cavity was longer in the gelatin. Additionally, the temporary cavity collapse process in the two targets followed different patterns, and the collapse period in the gelatin was two times as long as that in the muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Fan


    Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.

  16. Full-scale tornado-missile impact tests. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, A.E.


    Seven completed initial tests are described with 4 types of hypothetical tornado-borne missiles (impacting reinforced concrete panels that are typical of walls in nuclear power facilities). The missiles were rocket propelled to velocities currently postulated as being attainable by debris in tornadoes. (1500-pound 35-foot long utility pole; 8-pound 1-inch Grade 60 reinforcing bar; 78-pound 3-inch Schedule 40 pipe; and 743-pound 12-inch Schedule 40 pipe;) The results show that a minimum thickness of 24 inches is sufficient to prevent backface scabbing from normal impacts of currently postulated tornado missiles and that existing power plant walls are adequate for the most severe conditions currently postulated by regulatory agencies. This report gives selected detailed data on the tests completed thus far, including strain, panel velocity, and reaction histories

  17. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386 (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.


    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  18. Missile placement analysis based on improved SURF feature matching algorithm (United States)

    Yang, Kaida; Zhao, Wenjie; Li, Dejun; Gong, Xiran; Sheng, Qian


    The precious battle damage assessment by use of video images to analysis missile placement is a new study area. The article proposed an improved speeded up robust features algorithm named restricted speeded up robust features, which combined the combat application of TV-command-guided missiles and the characteristics of video image. Its restrictions mainly reflected in two aspects, one is to restrict extraction area of feature point; the second is to restrict the number of feature points. The process of missile placement analysis based on video image was designed and a video splicing process and random sample consensus purification were achieved. The RSURF algorithm is proved that has good realtime performance on the basis of guarantee the accuracy.

  19. SIP threats detection system


    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip


    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  20. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide... regulatory guide, (RG) 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants... missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed to withstand to prevent undue risk to the health and...

  1. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon (United States)

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.


    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  2. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range: 1971 (United States)

    Cruz, R.R.


    This report presents water-resource information that was collected at White Sands Missile Range during 1971 and early 1972 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality, percipitation, and surface-water runoff are summarized in the report. The data were obtained as a result of the continuing water-resources basic-data collection program sponsored by the Facilities Engineering Directorate, White Sands Missile Range.

  3. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.


    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  4. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 2: model verification and data base updates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.


    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments

  5. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead


    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  6. An analysis of the common missile and TOW 2B on the Stryker anti-tank guided missile platform, using the Janus simulation


    Peterson, Samuel L.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The U.S. Army is beginning to field the first of six Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs) and equip the organic Anti-Tank (AT) Company of the Brigade with the LAV III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Platform and the Tube-Launched, Optically-Tracked, Wire-Guided 2B (TOW 2B) missile system. A developmental effort is currently underway to replace the aging TOW 2B and Hellfire missile systems with a common missile that meets both ground...

  7. Missiles and aircraft (part 2) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (part 2).

  8. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3).

  9. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4 | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4. C Meyer. Abstract.

  10. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1).

  11. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. (United States)


    ... systems in Item 1, as follows: (a) Composite structures, laminates, and manufactures thereof, including... provided in Note (1) below for those designed for missiles with a range under 300 km or manned aircraft...) Item 3(a) engines may be exported as part of a manned aircraft or in quantities appropriate for...

  12. Fifty Years On: The Cuban Missile Crisis Revisited and Reinterpreted


    White, Mark


    On the 50th anniversary of the Cuban missile crisis Mark White re-examines the most dangerous episode in the history of the Cold War. Utilising declassified materials, he provides a fresh interpretation of the roles play by John Kennedy’s team of advisers. In particular, the contributions made by Robert McNamara and Robert Kennedy are re-evaluated.

  13. 77 FR 51970 - Renewal of Missile Defense Advisory Committee (United States)


    ..., Technology, and Logistics and the Director, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), independent advice and... be appointed for term of service ranging from one-to-two years. Unless authorized by the Secretary of Defense, no member may serve more than two consecutive terms of service. This same term of service...

  14. Cyber Intelligence Threat Prioritization (United States)


    actors resources. Money People Tools Training Motive Why do threat actors attack? Determining an actor’s motive provides insight into the...possible direction of their behavior. and determines their interest in targeting the organization. t Intrinsic (personally rewarding) Extrinsic (receive...Prioritization October 1, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Relevance From leadership to rank-and-file employees . the Internet offers a communication

  15. The behavior of reinforced concrete barriers subjected to the impact of tornado generated deformable missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, P.M.; Meyers, B.L.; Buchert, K.P.


    The paper presents a general model for the evaluation of local effects damage including, penetration and backface spalling, of reinforced concrete barriers subjected to the impact of deformable tornado generated missiles. The model is based on an approximte force time history which assumes: 1) the initial penetration of the missile occurs without significant deformation of the missile if the strength of the missile is greater than that of the barrier. This portion of the time history is represented by a linear and finite rise time; 2) wrinkling or collapse of the missile occurs when the critical stress of the missile is exceeded. This portion of the time histroy is represented by a constant force-time relationship, although a decreaseing force might be more accurate; 3) while the missile is penetrating and wrinkling both elastic and plastic stress waves are developed in the missile, and compressive and shear stress waves are generated in he target. When the shear waves reach the backface of the slab, doagonal cracks initiating at the end of the penetrating missile are formed. These cracks propagate to the backface reinforcing where splitting cracks are formed. Finally, yield hinge lines form in the plane of reinforcing; 4) repenetration of the missile occurs after the wrinkling has caused a change in missile cross section. This repenetration results from moving the failure cone described in three above, and is also represented by the costant force time history. Using the assumptions, relationships for the penetration depth of the missile the wrinkling length of the missile, the critical missile stress, the time history of the impact and the spalling of the target are developed. (Auth.)

  16. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  17. Earth to Mars Ballistic Mission Opportunities from Naro Space Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Moon Yoo


    Full Text Available Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities from Naro Space Center are studied. Determining ballistic mission opportunities can be divided into two major parts, i.e. the launch window and the daily launch window determination. At the launch window determination parts, Porkchop diagrams of Earth launch C3 magnitude, total mission duration, declination of V∞ vector at the Earth launch, and declination & right ascension of V∞ vector at the Mars arrival are examined. The location of launch site and rotation effects of the Earth are considered during the daily launch window determination parts. Using Lambert method, various Porkchop diagrams of launching in 2027 are examined for example. The daily launch window of Naro Space Center at that year was checked to verify the launch possibility by comparing with the Kennedy Space Center.

  18. Ballistic penetration of multi-layered ceramic/steel targets (United States)

    Zavattieri, Pablo D.; Espinosa, Horacio D.


    The response of multi-layered ceramic/steel targets to high velocity impact and penetration has been investigated through experiments and finite element simulations. Damage quantification and the material stresses and velocity histories provided by experiments are used as constraints to be satisfied by numerical simulations of the ballistic penetration event. Experimental and numerical observations demonstrate that the penetration process does not strongly depend on the ceramic material as usually assumed by most investigators. Instead, local and global effects which are related to material performance and structural features have been found to be very important factors that affect the overall target performance. These findings show that meaningful light weight armor design can only be accomplished through a combined experimental/numerical study in which relevant ballistic materials and structures are simultaneously investigated.

  19. Pivotal role of ballistic and quasi-ballistic electrons on LED efficiency (United States)

    Ni, X.; Li, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, S.; Avrutin, V.; Matulionis, A.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.


    Significant progress in the power conversion efficiency and brightness of InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) has paved the way for these devices to be considered for LED lighting. In this realm, however, the efficiency must be retained at high injection levels in order to generate the lumens required. Unfortunately, LEDs undergo a monotonic efficiency degradation starting at current densities even lower than 50 A/cm 2 which would hinder LED insertion into the general lighting market. The physical origins for the loss of efficiency retention are at present a topic of intense debate given its enormous implications. This paper reviews the current status of the field regarding the mechanisms that have been put forward as being responsible for the loss of efficiency, such as Auger recombination, electron overflow (spillover), current crowding, asymmetric injection of electrons and holes, and poor transport of holes through the active region, the last one being applicable to multiple quantum well designs. While the Auger recombination received early attention, increasing number of researchers seem to think otherwise at the moment in that it alone (if any) cannot explain the progressively worsening loss of efficiency reduction as the InN mole fraction is increased. Increasing number of reports seems to suggest that the electron overflow is one of the major causes of efficiency degradation. The physical driving force for this is likely to be the relatively poor hole concentration and transport, and skewed injection favoring electrons owing to their relatively high concentration. Most intriguingly there is recent experimental convincing evidence to suggest that quasi-ballistic electrons in the active region, which are not able to thermalize within the residence time and possibly longitudinal optical phonon lifetime, contribute to the carrier overflow which would require an entirely new thought process in the realm of LEDs.

  20. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei


    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of gelatine in wound ballistics research. (United States)

    Carr, D J; Stevenson, T; Mahoney, P F


    Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability. Research areas that use gelatine blocks are diverse and include ammunition designers, the medical and forensics communities and designers of ballistic protective equipment (including body armour). This paper aims to provide an overarching review of the use of gelatine for wound ballistics studies; it is not intended to provide an extensive review of wound ballistics as that already exists, e.g. Legal Med 23:21-29, 2016. Key messages are that test variables, projectile type (bullet, fragmentation), impact site on the body and intermediate layers (e.g. clothing, personal protective equipment (PPE)) can affect the resulting wound profiles.

  2. Ballistic Phonon Penetration Depth in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide. (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Gerboth, Matthew; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Terry T; Walker, D Greg; Li, Deyu


    Thermal transport in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ) is traditionally treated as random walks of vibrations owing to its greatly disordered structure, which results in a mean free path (MFP) approximately the same as the interatomic distance. However, this picture has been debated constantly and in view of the ubiquitous existence of thin a-SiO 2 layers in nanoelectronic devices, it is imperative to better understand this issue for precise thermal management of electronic devices. Different from the commonly used cross-plane measurement approaches, here we report on a study that explores the in-plane thermal conductivity of double silicon nanoribbons with a layer of a-SiO 2 sandwiched in-between. Through comparing the thermal conductivity of the double ribbon samples with that of corresponding single ribbons, we show that thermal phonons can ballistically penetrate through a-SiO 2 of up to 5 nm thick even at room temperature. Comprehensive examination of double ribbon samples with various oxide layer thicknesses and van der Waals bonding strengths allows for extraction of the average ballistic phonon penetration depth in a-SiO 2 . With solid experimental data demonstrating ballistic phonon transport through a-SiO 2 , this work should provide important insight into thermal management of electronic devices.

  3. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul


    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  4. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Randjbaran


    Full Text Available Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  5. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing. (United States)

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul


    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  6. Defining the minimum anatomical coverage required to protect the axilla and arm against penetrating ballistic projectiles. (United States)

    Breeze, Johno; Fryer, R; Lewis, E A; Clasper, J


    Defining the minimum anatomical structural coverage required to protect from ballistic threats is necessary to enable objective comparisons between body armour designs. Current protection for the axilla and arm is in the form of brassards, but no evidence exists to justify the coverage that should be provided by them. A systematic review was undertaken to ascertain which anatomical components within the arm or axilla would be highly likely to lead to either death within 60 min or would cause significant long-term morbidity. Haemorrhage from vascular damage to the axillary or brachial vessels was demonstrated to be the principal cause of mortality from arm trauma on combat operations. Peripheral nerve injuries are the primary cause of long-term morbidity and functional disability following upper extremity arterial trauma. Haemorrhage is managed through direct pressure and the application of a tourniquet. It is therefore recommended that the minimum coverage should be the most proximal extent to which a tourniquet can be applied. Superimposition of OSPREY brassards over these identified anatomical structures demonstrates that current coverage provided by the brassards could potentially be reduced. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  7. Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland (United States)


    lasers to dazzle the seekers on missiles in combat zones today and the next evolution of directed energy weapons will help commanders win battles...response these weapons. Directed energy weapons range from various types of lasers to microwave weapons. R&D breakthroughs with free electron and fiber... lasers have increased laser power while reducing size for military applications. The military has begun to realize the potential advantages

  8. Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin (United States)


    ARL-TR-7467 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin ...EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin by Yolin Huang Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for...State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yolin Huang 5d

  9. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam


    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  10. The United States’ European Phased Adaptive Approach Missile Defense System: Defending Against Iranian Missile Threats Without Diluting the Russian Deterrent (United States)


    km/s burnout velocity) located in Deveselu as part of the EPAA Phase 1 Aegis Ashore site were able to kinematically engage minimum energy trajectory...deterrent. After the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed in 2010, Russia refused to engage in further nuclear arms control talks with...defense system, Russian officials began to express concern that Phase 4 of the EPAA system—in which SM-3 IIB interceptors (with a burnout velocity of

  11. Terrorism: Global Threat Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna


    Full Text Available Three significant developments will characterize the global threat landscape in 2017. First, it is likely that the so-called Islamic State (IS will transform itself from a caliphate-building entity into a global terrorist movement in a similar manner as Al Qaeda (AQ. Second, the death of either the IS leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi or AQ leader Ayman al Zawahiri, may lead to collaboration or possible unification of the most powerful terrorist groups. IS, AQ and their associates will compensate for their losses in the physical space by expanding further into cyber space

  12. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo


    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  13. Threats to international science (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of UF sub 6 measured with a ballistic piston compressor (United States)

    Sterritt, D. E.; Lalos, G. T.; Schneider, R. T.


    From experiments performed with a ballistic piston compressor, certain thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride were investigated. Difficulties presented by the nonideal processes encountered in ballistic compressors are discussed and a computer code BCCC (Ballistic Compressor Computer Code) is developed to analyze the experimental data. The BCCC unfolds the thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride from the helium-uranium hexafluoride mixture used as the test gas in the ballistic compressor. The thermodynamic properties deduced include the specific heat at constant volume, the ratio of specific heats for UF6, and the viscous coupling constant of helium-uranium hexafluoride mixtures.

  15. Development of Mortar Simulator with Shell-In-Shell System – Problem of External Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedaravicius


    Full Text Available The shell-in-shell system used in the mortar simulator raises a number of non-standard technical and computational problems starting from the requirement to distribute the propelling blast energy between the warhead and the ballistic barrel, finishing with the requirement that the length of warhead's flight path must be scaled to combat shell firing tables. The design problem of the simulator is split into two parts – the problem of external ballistics where the initial velocities of the warhead must be determined, and the problem of internal ballistics – where the design of the cartridge and the ballistic barrel must be performed.

  16. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.


    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  17. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.


    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  18. Effect of aerodynamic heating on infrared guided missiles (United States)

    Milthorpe, J. F.; Lynn, P. J. P.

    Many guided weapons, particularly air-to-air missiles, employ infra-red homing devices to locate targets. Infra-red (IR) seekers receive the electromagnetic radiation from hot emitters, such as aircraft, using wavelengths that are typically between 3 mm and 14 mm. For a target to be detected, there must be a significant contrast, either in strength or in wavelength, between the heat emitted by the target and the background, which is usually the sky. While early IR missiles detected the hot exhaust of the engine, modern weapons can detect the radiation from lower temperature parts of the aircraft such as the skin, which enables the weapon to attack an aircraft from in front.

  19. Ionospheric effects of the missile destruction on December 9, 2009 (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata


    We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67N, 27E, Finland) on December 9, 2009 during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Because of the technical problem the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at ionospheric height (170-260 km) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion, including long-lived ionized aluminum oxides, were spread into the large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 hours (around 09 UT). After about 3 hours (around 10 UT) a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains was observed close to the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We present the data and discuss possible mechanisms accounting for both vertical and horizontal transport of the remains. Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be likely due to thermospheric turbulence.

  20. Laser-initiated ordnance for air-to-air missiles (United States)

    Sumpter, David R.


    McDonnell Douglas Missile Systems Company (MDMSC) has developed a laser ignition subsystem (LIS) for air-to-air missile applications. The MDMSC subsystem is designed to activate batteries, unlock fins, and sequence propulsion system events. The subsystem includes Pyro Zirconium Pump (PZP) lasers, mechanical Safe & Arm, fiber-optic distribution system, and optically activated pyrotechnic devices (initiators, detonators, and thermal batteries). The LIS design has incorporated testability features for the laser modules, drive electronics, fiber-optics, and pyrotechnics. Several of the LIS have been fabricated and have supported thermal battery testing, integral rocket ramjet testing, and have been integrated into integral rocket ramjet flight test vehicles as part of the flight control subsystem.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Robert L.; Boor, R.A.; Cole, W.M.; Elder, G.E.


    A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)

  2. Multi-Mode Electric Actuator Dynamic Modelling for Missile Fin Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimashankar Gurav


    Full Text Available Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral acceleration (LATAX performance. This paper aims to integrate a generic DC fin actuator model with dual-mode feedforward and feedback control for tail-controlled missiles in conjunction with the autopilot system design. Moreover, the characteristics of the actuator torque information in relation to the aerodynamic fin loading for given missile trim velocities are also provided. The novelty of this paper is the integration of the missile LATAX autopilot states and actuator states including the motor torque, position and angular velocity. The advantage of such an approach is the parametric analysis and suitability of the fin actuator in relation to the missile lateral acceleration dynamic behaviour.

  3. Application of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle in Optimum Time of Missile Manoeuvring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Cahyaningtias


    Full Text Available Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to solve the problem. The numerical solution showed that trajectory of the missile is split it up in three sub-intervals; flight, climbing, and diving. The numerical simulation showed that the missile must climb in order to satisfy the final dive condition and the optimum time of a missile depend on initial condition of the altitude and the terminal velocity

  4. Ogive Nose Hard Missile Penetrating Concrete Slab Numerical Simulation Approach


    Bux, Qadir; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Zaidi, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad


    Great demand exists for more efficient design to protect delicate and serious structures such as nuclear plants, Power plants, Weapon Industries, weapons storage places, water retaining structures, & etc, against impact of kinetic missiles generated both accidentally and deliberately such as dynamic loading, incident occurs in nuclear plants, terrorist attack, Natural disasters like tsunami and etc., in various impact and blast scenarios for both civilian and military activities. In many ...

  5. Composite steel panels for tornado missile barrier walls. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A composite steel panel wall system is defined as a wall system with concrete fill sandwiched between two steel layers such that no concrete surface is exposed on the interior or the exterior wall surface. Three full scale missile tests were conducted on two specific composite wall systems. The results of the full scale tests were in good agreement with the finalized theory. The theory is presented, and the acceptance of the theory for design calculations is discussed

  6. MISSILE DATCOM User’s Manual - 2011 Revision (United States)


    Underwood (U.S. Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center) William B. Blake (AFRL/ RBCA ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER A07T 5e. TASK...Control Design and Analysis Branch (AFRL/ RBCA ) Control Sciences Division Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate WPAFB, OH 45433-7542...OH 45433-7542 Air Force Materiel Command United States Air Force AFRL/ RBCA 11. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER(S) AFRL-RB

  7. Missile Defense Acquisition: Failure Is Not An Option (United States)


    Seattle Pacific University, Seattle Washington. LTC Lloyd’s military education includes the Air Defense Officer Basic and Advance Courses, Army...Missile Defense Acquisition: Failure is Not an Option 8 capabilities. Retired Marine General James Mattis’ renowned quote rings true, “The enemy...facilities, and fire control and communications nodes based in Alaska and California.21USNORTHCOM personnel operate MDA’s battle command, control, and

  8. Maintenance cost control at the Pacific Missile Test Center.


    Jenson, Richard J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Pacific Missile Test Center (PMTC) is the Navy's largest Major Range and Test Facility Base, with an investment of over one billion dollars. The majority of this investment is in range test equipment and facilities including radar, telemetry, communication and command/ control systems. Concern is growing over the "excessively obsolete condition of PMTC technical equipment." Improvement of factors concerned with...

  9. Analyzing and designing object-oriented missile simulations with concurrency (United States)

    Randorf, Jeffrey Allen


    A software object model for the six degree-of-freedom missile modeling domain is presented. As a precursor, a domain analysis of the missile modeling domain was started, based on the Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) technique described by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). It was subsequently determined the FODA methodology is functionally equivalent to the Object Modeling Technique. The analysis used legacy software documentation and code from the ENDOSIM, KDEC, and TFrames 6-DOF modeling tools, including other technical literature. The SEI Object Connection Architecture (OCA) was the template for designing the object model. Three variants of the OCA were considered---a reference structure, a recursive structure, and a reference structure with augmentation for flight vehicle modeling. The reference OCA design option was chosen for maintaining simplicity while not compromising the expressive power of the OMT model. The missile architecture was then analyzed for potential areas of concurrent computing. It was shown how protected objects could be used for data passing between OCA object managers, allowing concurrent access without changing the OCA reference design intent or structure. The implementation language was the 1995 release of Ada. OCA software components were shown how to be expressed as Ada child packages. While acceleration of several low level and other high operations level are possible on proper hardware, there was a 33% degradation of 4th order Runge-Kutta integrator performance of two simultaneous ordinary differential equations using Ada tasking on a single processor machine. The Defense Department's High Level Architecture was introduced and explained in context with the OCA. It was shown the HLA and OCA were not mutually exclusive architectures, but complimentary. HLA was shown as an interoperability solution, with the OCA as an architectural vehicle for software reuse. Further directions for implementing a 6-DOF missile modeling

  10. A Potent Vector: Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments (United States)


    Termit (NATO designation: SS-N-2A Styx) antiship missiles, models, and technical data to China beginning in 1959. Moscow was to assist Beijing with...performance, the PLAN has begun to expand its training and has become more diverse and realistic in re- cent years with increasing focus on cruise...these routines in diverse ways over many years and the command and control architecture needed to deal with complex combined- arms operations

  11. Resonant Inductive Power Transfer for Noncontact Launcher-Missile Interface (United States)


    stored on the capacitor. The capacitor then discharges through the inductive coil, which creates a magnetic field. Meanwhile, the capacitor charges ...TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-37 RESONANT INDUCTIVE POWER TRANSFER FOR NONCONTACT LAUNCHER-MISSILE INTERFACE Martin S...AGENCY USE ONLY 2. REPORT DATE August 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resonant Inductive Power Transfer

  12. The art and science of missile defense sensor design (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.


    A Missile Defense Sensor is a complex optical system, which sits idle for long periods of time, must work with little or no on-­board calibration, be used to find and discriminate targets, and guide the kinetic warhead to the target within minutes of launch. A short overview of the Missile Defense problem will be discussed here, as well as, the top-level performance drivers, like Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI), Acquisition Range, and Dynamic Range. These top-level parameters influence the choice of optical system, mechanical system, focal plane array (FPA), Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC), and cryogenic system. This paper will not only discuss the physics behind the performance of the sensor, but it will also discuss the "art" of optimizing the performance of the sensor given the top level performance parameters. Balancing the sensor sub-­systems is key to the sensor's performance in these highly stressful missions. Top-­level performance requirements impact the choice of lower level hardware and requirements. The flow down of requirements to the lower level hardware will be discussed. This flow down directly impacts the FPA, where careful selection of the detector is required. The flow down also influences the ROIC and cooling requirements. The key physics behind the detector and cryogenic system interactions will be discussed, along with the balancing of subsystem performance. Finally, the overall system balance and optimization will be discussed in the context of missile defense sensors and expected performance of the overall kinetic warhead.

  13. Consolidation of ATC (Air Training Command) and TAC (Tactical Air Forces) Missile Maintenance Officer Courses (United States)


    INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW The purpose of this research paper is to answer the ques - tion "Should entry level missile maintenance officer courses conducted...Management Organization GLCM (HQ TAC/ SMOG ), informally proposed combining missile main- tenance courses in the summer-fall timeframe of 1981. Colonel...facilitate discussion and decision making. Chapter Two outlines the procedure the paper will use to answer the ques - - tion "Should we combine missile

  14. A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs


    Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.

  15. Potential hazard to secondary containment from HCDA-generated missiles and sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romander, C.M.


    The potential hazard of HCDA-generated missiles is analyzed, and the current status of the potential hazards of sodium fires is summarized. Simple analyses are performed to determine lower bounds on the HCDA energetics required to generate missiles that could reach the secondary containment structure of a 1000-MWe LMFBR. The potential missiles considered include the vessel head, components mounted on the head, and conrol rods

  16. Application of a Complex Lead Compensator for a Laser Guided Missile (United States)

    Akhila, M. R.; Gopika, S.; Abraham, R. J.


    This paper discusses the application of a lead compensator with complex pole and complex zero for a missile. It is compared with a lead compensator with real pole and real zero. A typical laser guided missile control system is considered for the performance comparison of both the compensators. Simulation studies carried out with MATLAB brings out the scope of using complex compensator in missile guided systems.

  17. Application of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle in Optimum Time of Missile Manoeuvring


    Sari Cahyaningtias; Subchan Subchan


    Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to s...

  18. Threats, protests greet conference. (United States)

    Struck, D


    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  19. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  20. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher


    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  1. Ballistic performance of polyurea-coated armor grade ceramic tiles (United States)

    Samiee, Ahsan; Isaacs, Jon; Nemat-Nasser, Sia


    The use of ceramics as energy absorbents has been studied by many researchers and some improvements in the ballistic performance of ceramic tiles have been made by coating them with different classes of materials (e.g. E-glass/epoxy, carbon-fiber/epoxy, etc.). Using ceramics for energy absorbing applications leads to a significant weight reduction of the system. Therefore, any modification to the ceramic configuration in the system which leads to more energy absorption with the same or less areal density is significant. On the other hand, polyurea has been proved to be an excellent energy dissipating agent in many applications. Inspired by this, we are studying the effect of coating ceramics with polyurea and other materials, on the energy absorption and ballistic performance of the resulting ceramic-based composites. In this study, we investigate the effect of polyurea on ballistic efficiency of ceramic tiles. To this end, we have performed a set of penetration tests on polyurea-ceramic composites. In our experiments, a high velocity projectile is propelled to impact and perforate the ceramic-polyurea composite. The velocity and mass of the projectile are measured before and after the penetration. The change in the kinetic energy of the projectile is evaluated and compared for different polyurea-ceramic configurations (e.g., polyurea on front face, polyurea on back face, polyurea between two ceramic tiles, etc.). The experimental results suggest that polyurea is not as effective as other restraining materials such as E-glass/epoxy and carbon-fiber/epoxy.

  2. Ballistic impact resistance of selected organic ophthalmic lenses. (United States)

    Chou, B Ralph; Yuen, Gloria S-C; Dain, Stephen J


    The aim was to assess the impact resistance of coated and uncoated mid-index spectacle lens materials using the ballistic impact test. Nominally plano lenses of each material in three thicknesses were obtained. The lenses were flat edged to a 50 mm diameter. Each lens was impacted by a 6.35 mm steel ball. Impact velocities were selected using the Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing protocol to determine the threshold fracture impact velocity. Threshold fracture impact velocity generally increased with thickness; however, there was a wide variation in performance among the various lens materials at each thickness. In all but two instances, the differences in impact velocity at each thickness of lens material were significant. Comparison of the data for CR39 and Hoya Phoenix with the results of earlier studies showed that the lens mounting is a significant factor. The fracture velocities found in the present study were significantly lower than the fracture velocities found when the lens edge is restrained in the mounting. A scratch resistant coating reduced the impact resistance of CR39. The effect of the antireflection coating on the fracture velocity depended on the nature of the base scratch-resistant coating. Mid-index lens materials of the same thickness show widely varying levels of impact resistance under the ballistic test. Impact resistance increases non-linearly with centre thickness. The lens mounting might affect the results of the ballistic impact test. The presence of 'cushion coatings' might enhance impact resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  3. Flowfield and Radiation Analysis of Missile Exhaust Plumes Using a Turbulent-Chemistry Interaction Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W. H; Kenzakowski, D. C


    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulent-chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  4. Assessment of Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions in Missile Exhaust Plume Signature Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W


    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulence chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  5. Biospheric Changes are Threat Multipliers


    Cairns, John


    A threat multiplier is defined as another agent that impacts a current situation, creating an additional set of problems while also making existing problems worse. Sometimes a seemingly innocent change in the biosphere can cause major alterations and become a threat multiplier. Because the biosphere is a highly interactive system, damage to a single component, like the ocean for example, will produce a ripple effect throughout the entire system. In order for humans to eliminate threat multip...

  6. Ndt Characterization of Boron Carbide for Ballistic Applications (United States)

    Liaptsis, D.; Cooper, I.; Ludford, N.; Gunner, A.; Williams, Mike; Willis, David


    Boron Carbide (B4C) is widely used to provide ballistic protection in challenging service environments. This work was carried out to develop non-destructive testing (NDT) for B4C characterization. Deliberate flaws were introduced within the B4C tiles during manufacturing. An experimental program was undertaken to determine the best method to detect defects in ceramic tiles and material characterization. Ultrasonic characterization of the material was found to be able to detect both density variation and defects within the material.

  7. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of cold atoms in ballistic motion (United States)

    Eloy, Aurélien; Yao, Zhibin; Bachelard, Romain; Guerin, William; Fouché, Mathilde; Kaiser, Robin


    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy is a powerful technique which consists in measuring the temporal correlation function of the intensity of light multiply scattered by a medium. In this paper, we apply this technique to cold atoms under purely ballistic motion and we investigate the transition between the single and the multiple-scattering regime. The intensity correlation function changes from a simple Gaussian function, whose width reveals the sample temperature, to a more complex decay shortened by the frequency redistribution in the thick cloud. These features are quantitatively compared to simulations with a phase-coherent and an incoherent model. Both show a very good agreement with the experiments.

  8. Star-grain rocket motor - nonsteady internal ballistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loncaric, S.; Greatrix, D.R.; Fawaz, Z. [Ryerson University, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto (Canada)


    The nonsteady internal ballistics of a star-grain solid-propellant rocket motor are investigated through a numerical simulation model that incorporates both the internal flow and surrounding structure. The effects of structural vibration on burning rate augmentation and wave development in nonsteady operation are demonstrated. The amount of damping plays a role in influencing the predicted axial combustion instability symptoms of the motor. The variation in oscillation frequencies about a given star grain section periphery, and along the grain with different levels of burn-back, also influences the means by which the local acceleration drives the combustion and flow behaviour. (authors)

  9. Thermodynamic Bounds on Precision in Ballistic Multiterminal Transport (United States)

    Brandner, Kay; Hanazato, Taro; Saito, Keiji


    For classical ballistic transport in a multiterminal geometry, we derive a universal trade-off relation between total dissipation and the precision, at which particles are extracted from individual reservoirs. Remarkably, this bound becomes significantly weaker in the presence of a magnetic field breaking time-reversal symmetry. By working out an explicit model for chiral transport enforced by a strong magnetic field, we show that our bounds are tight. Beyond the classical regime, we find that, in quantum systems far from equilibrium, the correlated exchange of particles makes it possible to exponentially reduce the thermodynamic cost of precision.

  10. Quantum transport through ballistic chaotic cavities: a statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, P.A.


    The problem of quantum chaotic scattering is addressed by means of a statistical model for the scattering matrix. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, describes the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to describe the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The model is applied to the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities: it describes well the results arising form the numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation for two-dimensional cavities. (Author)

  11. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet


    Mohamed Ali Maher; Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood; Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad; Mahmoud Mohamed Younes


    In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m...

  12. Missile Defense: Assessment of DODs Reports on Status of Efforts and Options for Improving Homeland Missile Defense (United States)


    fielding ground station assets and a fleet of over 30 GMD interceptors; upgrading, redesigning, refurbishing, and retrofitting the system; and...CE-II Block I, to fix known issues, address 3GAO, Missile Defense: DOD’s Report Provides Limited...Progress in Achieving Acquisition Goals and Improving Accountability , GAO-14-351 (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 1, 2014). 4GAO-15-345. Page 4

  13. Modeling of Quasi-ballistic transport in multi-gate MOSFET for circuit simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinie, Sebastien


    Today, the MOSFET transistor reaches deca-nanometer dimensions for which the effects of ballistic transport can no longer be neglected. The challenge is therefore to be able to introduce (quasi-)ballistic transport in the modeling of new devices and evaluates its impact at the circuit level. In this context, our work focuses on the introduction of (quasi-)ballistic transport in compact model of multi-gate transistor for the simulation of circuit elements. Firstly, the McKelvey's method applied to MOSFET has been used to synthesize existing works on analytical modeling of ballistic / quasi-ballistic transport. Then, we built a macroscopic model called 'quasi-ballistic mobility' (starting from pioneering work of Rhew et al), following the comparison between the moment method and the McKelvey method to describe (quasi-)ballistic transport in TCAD environment. Secondly, results from this first model have led us to build our (quasi-)ballistic current by adapting or creating new approaches to take into account various effects of nano-scale devices: short-channel effects, quantum confinement and scattering mechanisms. Finally, our work investigates the impact of the transport properties on the performances of circuit operation. (author)

  14. Results of a Round Robin ballistic load sensing headform test series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.A.G.; Anctil, B.; Markwardt, K.C.


    The majority of methods to assess the behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) risk for ballistic helmets is based on plastic deformable headforms. An alternative, the Ballistic Load Sensing Headform (BLSH) can record the dynamic contact force between helmet back face and the skull. Helmet BABT methods are

  15. Threat Barometer. Ten Years of Terrorist Threat Assessment Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.


    In this essay, which was commissioned by the NCTV to mark the occasion of the conference “Threat Barometer. Ten years of Terrorist Threat Assessments for the Netherlands 2005-2015”, we address this and other aspects of the DTN and consider how this instrument has developed over the past decade. We

  16. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management. (United States)

    Bulley, Adam; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas


    Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans. For instance, mental time travel empowers people to contemplate and learn from threats experienced long ago, as well as to plan for dangers that might arise in the distant future. However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ballistic behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composite: effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Andreia L. dos Santos; Nascimento, Lucio F.C.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez;


    Since World War II, textile composites have been used as ballistic armor. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are used in the production of armor materials. As they have been developed and commercialized only recently, there is not enough information about the effect of environmental agents in the ballistic performance of UHMWPE composites. In the present work, was evaluated the ballistic behavior of composite plates manufactured with UHMWPE fibers after exposure to gamma radiation. The ballistic tests results were related to the macromolecular alterations induced by the radiation through mechanical (hardness, impact and flexure) and physicochemical (Ftir/Mir. DSC and TGA) testing. It was observed that irradiation induces changes in the UHMWPE, degrading the ballistic performance of the composite. These results are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for... of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor...

  19. Clinical aspects of ballistic peripheral nerve injury: shrapnel versus gunshot. (United States)

    Rochkind, Shimon; Strauss, Ido; Shlitner, Zvi; Alon, Malvina; Reider, Evgeny; Graif, Moshe


    Ballistic injuries to peripheral nerves pose special challenges in terms of indications, timing and type of surgical intervention. The aim of the present work was to analyze our experience in the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve ballistic injuries with respect to the mechanism of injury (gunshot versus shrapnel), and identify common and dissimilar prognostic factors in both types of injury. This study was conducted on 42 patients totaling 58 nerves. Twenty-two patients (32 nerves) were injured by gunshot and 20 patients (26 nerves) by shrapnel. Median postoperative follow-up was 33 months (range 12 months to 14 years). Overall postoperative outcome appears to be more favorable for gunshot-wound (GSW) patients than shrapnel-injured patients, especially in terms of neuropathic pain relief (75 % vs. 58 % respectively, p Nerve graft reconstruction, rather than neurolysis, seems to be the more beneficial treatment for shrapnel-induced neuropathic pain (100 % vs. 47 % in improvement rate, respectively). Early surgical intervention (median 2 months after injury) significantly relieved neuropathic pain in 83 % of shrapnel-injured patients compared to 58 % in patients operated later. This study suggests that shrapnel injury is more destructive for nerve tissue than gunshot injury. Our impression is that early surgical intervention in shrapnel injuries and split nerve grafting (especially when small fragments are recognized in the nerve) significantly improve the patient's functional activity and quality of life.

  20. Threat Assessment in College Settings (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey


    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  1. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (United States)


    ..., Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. ...

  2. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.


    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  3. Assessing Detecting and Deterring the Threat of Maritime Nuclear and Radiological Smuggling in the Western Indian Ocean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Umer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center


    This paper proposes that current maritime smuggling routes in the western Indian Ocean region are similar to those in the past and that the motivations of terrorist groups and the presence of radioactive sources in the Indian Ocean littoral and other states present a significant security threat. The majority of regional terrorist groups have a hybrid structure, piggybacking on criminal activity to fund their terror activities. Additionally, states have used maritime routes in the Indian Ocean region to transport nuclear materials and missiles. Thus, the maritime dimension of such threats remains, and may be increasing. This paper focuses on issues, motivations, pathways, and methods to detect and interdict nuclear and radiological trafficking. It analyzes the potential use of maritime technology applications for radiation detection and presents recommendations for states and multinational nonproliferation advocacy organizations to address the threat in the Indian Ocean region.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning area...

  5. 78 FR 42430 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control... (United States)


    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) to reflect changes to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex that.... 130104008-3008-01] RIN 0694-AF81 Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control Regime Plenary Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce...

  6. 75 FR 20520 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2009 Missile Technology Control... (United States)


    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) to reflect changes to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex that.... 0912031426-0047-01] RIN 0694-AE79 Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2009 Missile Technology Control Regime Plenary Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce...

  7. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  8. Integrity assessment of nuclear containment vessel steels due to missile impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.


    The impact behavior of the steel plate of BWR containment vessels against missiles, that are caused by the postulated catastrophic failure of components with a high kinematic energy has been investigated. The research started in 1977 and was completed in 1979 by a project team of the Technical Research Association for Integrity of Structures at Elevated Service Temperatures, sponsored by three Electric Power Companies (Tokyo, Chubu, and Chugoku). Although the probability of the occurrence of missiles inside and outside of containment vessels is extremely low, the following items are required to maintain the integrity of containment vessels. (1) The probability of the occurrence of missiles. (2) The weight and energy of the missiles. (3) The impact behavior of containment vessel steel plate against postulated missiles. In connection with the above item (3), an actual-scale missile test was conducted. In addition, a computation analysis was performed to confirm the impact behavior against the missiles, in order to search for wide applicability to the various kinds of postulated missiles. This research has finally aimed at obtaining a new empirical formula which carries out the assessment of the integrity of containment vessels. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Voronin


    Full Text Available The article summarizes the basic directions of automation for planning and management of combat by the divisions of tactical missile defense. The article focuses on the problem of the automated choice of rational option for combat order and fire control carried out by the divisions of tactical missile defense during operation.

  10. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene


    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  11. A design proposal of a certain missile tactical command system based on Beidou satellite communication and GPS positioning techniques (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Hao, Yongsheng; Miao, Jian; Zhang, Jianmao


    This paper introduced a design proposal of tactical command system that applied to a kind of anti-tank missile carriers. The tactical command system was made up of embedded computer system based on PC104 bus, Linux operating system, digital military map, Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments. The geographic coordinates was measured by the GPS receiver, the positioning data, commands and information were transmitted real-time between tactical command systems, tactical command systems and command center, by the Beidou satellite communication systems. The Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments were integrated to an independent module, exchanging data with embedded computer through RS232 serial ports and USB ports. The decision support system software based on information fusion, calculates positioning data, geography information and battle field information synthetically, shows the position of allies and the position of enemy on the military map, and assesses the various threats of different enemy objects, educes a situation assessment and threat assessment.

  12. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles (United States)


    ...-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed interim...-ISG-024, ``Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles....221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit...

  13. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  14. The Eastern Space and Missile Center - Jonathan Dickinson Instrumentation Facility (United States)

    Beckner, H. E.; Clark, S. R.; Bonner, J. R.; Thomas, C. G.

    The Jonathan Dickinson Instrumentation Facility (JDIF) is an instrumentation station at the Eastern Test Range designed to provide space diversity tracking of all launches from the Eastern Space and Missile Center or Kennedy Space Center. The JDIF includes tracking radar, telemetry, command/control systems, timing, and communication systems and the Navy's Flight Test Support System in one integrated building. Since virtually all of the instrumentation at JDIF is critical to the success of launches, a concept was established to make it possible to run the Eastern Test Range site during mission support from a bank of diesel generators, and to use commercial power for normal day-to-day operations.

  15. The U.S. Navy and the Cuban Missile Crisis (United States)


    Wall Street’s fears by denying that he was a communist and declaring his respect for private property. Not everyone saw Castro as a nuevo amigo, however...Commander Thomas Cosgrove , the Oxford’s captain, had prepared his ship for trouble. If the Cubans tried to stop and board her, he could call upon the ready...removal of the missiles under the auspices of a UN observer team. The Soviet UN ambassador repeatedly denied the American charges, however. 39 That same

  16. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.


    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  17. Tornado missile risk analysis. Topical report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.L.; Lew, S.T.; Davis, R.L.; Hsu, J.C.; McConnell, B.S.


    Literature reviews, preliminary models, methodology descriptions, and general progress appraisal corresponding to the first 12 weeks of the research and approximately 14% of the budget expenditures are presented. Consequently, much of the methodology discussed in the various tasks is tentative and dependent upon further investigation as noted. The objective of this project is to develop a probabilistic formalism for characterizing the effects of the tornado generated missiles on the plant safety. The state-of-the-art nnd the R/D efforts needed to accomplish the stated objective are summarized

  18. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U


    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P < or = 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P < or = 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength

  19. Assessment and monitoring of ballistic and maximal upper-body strength qualities in athletes. (United States)

    Young, Kieran P; Haff, G Gregory; Newton, Robert U; Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M


    To evaluate whether the dynamic strength index (DSI: ballistic peak force/isometric peak force) could be effectively used to guide specific training interventions and detect training-induced changes in maximal and ballistic strength. Twenty-four elite male athletes were assessed in the isometric bench press and a 45% 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) ballistic bench throw using a force plate and linear position transducer. The DSI was calculated using the peak force values obtained during the ballistic bench throw and isometric bench press. Athletes were then allocated into 2 groups as matched pairs based on their DSI and strength in the 1RM bench press. Over the 5 wk of training, athletes performed either high-load (80-100% 1RM) bench press or moderate-load (40-55% 1RM) ballistic bench throws. The DSI was sensitive to disparate training methods, with the bench-press group increasing isometric bench-press peak force (P=.035, 91% likely), and the ballistic-bench-throw group increasing bench-throw peak force to a greater extent (P≤.001, 83% likely). A significant increase (P≤.001, 93% likely) in the DSI was observed for both groups. The DSI can be used to guide specific training interventions and can detect training-induced changes in isometric bench-press and ballistic bench-throw peak force over periods as short as 5 wk.

  20. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart (United States)

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.


    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

  1. Shot noise in a harmonically driven ballistic graphene transistor (United States)

    Korniyenko, Y.; Shevtsov, O.; Löfwander, T.


    We study time-dependent electron transport and quantum noise in a ballistic graphene field effect transistor driven by an ac gate potential. The nonlinear response to the ac signal is computed through Floquet theory for scattering states and Landauer-Büttiker theory for charge current and its fluctuations. Photon-assisted excitation of a quasibound state in the top-gate barrier leads to resonances in transmission that strongly influence the noise properties. For strong doping of graphene under source and drain contacts, when electrons are transmitted through the channel via evanescent waves, the resonance leads to a substantial suppression of noise. The Fano factor is then reduced well below the pseudodiffusive value, F tunneling (total suppression of back-reflection) persists for perpendicular incidence also when the barrier is driven harmonically. Although the transmission is inelastic and distributed among sideband energies, a sum rule leads to total suppression of shot noise.

  2. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects...... learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of a precision tracking task with the same movement direction and agonist muscles, but not by learning involving the opposite movement and antagonist muscles or by voluntary agonist contractions that did...... not require learning. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below ankle movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS did. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve to the plantarflexors (but not extensors...

  3. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann


    Full Text Available In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In addition, the correlation between ballistic performance and ceramic material properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit, has been considered.

  4. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal (United States)


    by the early part of 1942, and since the beginning of 1943 fracture tests for steel soundness and fiber and V-notch Charpy tests were also employed...prior to ballistic testing . Later, for armor 6" and thicker, non-ballistic tests (hardness and V-notch Charpy ) were substituted for ballistics. Today it...conclusions were drawn: "Shock failures in 1-112" and 2" armor, subjected to the slug test , are largely attributable to either poor steel quality, low

  5. Theoretical Study on Adhesives Used in Ballistic Protection Structures and Transparent Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alil Luminiţa-Cristina


    Full Text Available This article is a brief study conducted on adhesives currently used for manufacturing performance ballistic protection structures. The study landmarks several aspects, such as: types of connections available to achieve multilayer structures based on ceramics, metals and polymers; ways in which adhesives influence the ballistic performance of protective structures; analysis of various types of adhesives used in ballistic protection industry; general considerations in the selection of adhesives for certain types of armor and protective structures; considerations for characterizing, testing and modeling adhesives.

  6. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk


    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  7. In-flight dynamics of volcanic ballistic projectiles (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Cruz-Vázquez, O.; Del Bello, E.; Scarlato, P.; Ricci, T.


    Centimeter to meter-sized volcanic ballistic projectiles from explosive eruptions jeopardize people and properties kilometers from the volcano, but they also provide information about the past eruptions. Traditionally, projectile trajectory is modeled using simplified ballistic theory, accounting for gravity and drag forces only and assuming simply shaped projectiles free moving through air. Recently, collisions between projectiles and interactions with plumes are starting to be considered. Besides theory, experimental studies and field mapping have so far dominated volcanic projectile research, with only limited observations. High-speed, high-definition imaging now offers a new spatial and temporal scale of observation that we use to illuminate projectile dynamics. In-flight collisions commonly affect the size, shape, trajectory, and rotation of projectiles according to both projectile nature (ductile bomb versus brittle block) and the location and timing of collisions. These, in turn, are controlled by ejection pulses occurring at the vent. In-flight tearing and fragmentation characterize large bombs, which often break on landing, both factors concurring to decrease the average grain size of the resulting deposits. Complex rotation and spinning are ubiquitous features of projectiles, and the related Magnus effect may deviate projectile trajectory by tens of degrees. A new relationship is derived, linking projectile velocity and size with the size of the resulting impact crater. Finally, apparent drag coefficient values, obtained for selected projectiles, mostly range from 1 to 7, higher than expected, reflecting complex projectile dynamics. These new perspectives will impact projectile hazard mitigation and the interpretation of projectile deposits from past eruptions, both on Earth and on other planets.

  8. Joint Warfare and the Modern Fire-Arrow: The Implications of Time, Space, and Force on Ballistic Missile Defense Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooke, Timothy V


    .... An analysis of the operational factors of BMD in terms of time, space, and force will help substantiate this thesis and lead to recommendations for determining the optimal BMD command and control...

  9. Ionospheric effects of the missile destruction on 9 December 2009 (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata; Lester, Mark


    We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67°22'N, 26°38'E, Finland) on 9 December 2009, during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Due to a technical problem, the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at an ionospheric height (near 200 km altitude) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion were spread into a large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 h (around 09 UT). After about 3 h (around 10 UT), a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains including long-lived metallic (aluminum and its oxides) ions, was observed near the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We discuss possible mechanisms accounting for transport of the remains. (1) Since the event occurred during a long-lasting period of extremely low solar and magnetic activity, the ionospheric electric field was unlikely to play a substantial role in the transport of the remains and sporadic E layer formation. (2) The horizontal transport of the remains cannot be explained by the neutral winds based on empirical models. (3) Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be due to thermospheric turbulence.

  10. Physics based performance model of a UV missile seeker (United States)

    James, I.


    Electro-optically (EO) guided surface to air missiles (SAM) have developed to use Ultraviolet (UV) wavebands supplementary to the more common Infrared (IR) wavebands. Missiles such as the US Stinger have been around for some time, these have been joined recently by Chinese FN-16 and Russian SA-29 (Verba) and there is a much higher potential proliferation risk. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a first-principles, physics based, model of a typical seeker arrangement. The model is constructed from various calculations that aim to characterise the physical effects that will affect the performance of the system. Data has been gathered from a number of sources to provide realism to the variables within the model. It will be demonstrated that many of the variables have the power to dramatically alter the performance of the system as a whole. Further, data will be shown to illustrate the expected performance of a typical UV detector within a SAM in detection range against a variety of target sizes. The trend for the detection range against aircraft size and skin reflectivity will be shown to be non-linear, this should have been expected owing to the exponential decay of a signal through atmosphere. Future work will validate the performance of the model against real world performance data for cameras (when this is available) to ensure that it is operates within acceptable errors.

  11. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse (United States)

    ... to Prevent HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Important ... due to syringe reuse by your healthcare provider. Patients need to be aware of a very serious ...

  12. Defeating the Modern Asymmetric Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connor, Robert


    ...) ending a horrific 19 year-old low-intensity conflict, Over the course of nearly two decades, the LTTE came to exemplify the modern asymmetric threat as they battled the Sri Lankan Armed Forces (SLAF...

  13. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.


    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  14. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat


    Cohen, Alma


    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  15. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael


    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  16. Full-scale impact test data for tornado-missile design of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, A.E.; Sliter, G.E.


    It is standard practice to consider the effects of low-probability impacts of tornado-borne debris (''tornado missiles'' such as utility poles and steel pipes) in the structural design of nuclear power plants in the United States. To provide data that can be used directly in the design procedure, a series of full-scale tornado-missile impact tests was performed. This paper is a brief summary of the results and conclusions from these tests. The tests consisted of reinforced concrete panels impacted by poles, pipes, and rods propelled by a rocket sled. The panels were constructed to current minimum standards and had thicknesses typical of auxiliary buildings of nuclear power plants. A specific objective was the determination of the impact velocities below which the panels do not experience backface scabbing. Another objective was to assess the adequacy of (1) conventional design formulae for penetration and scabbing and (2) conventional design methods for overall structural response. Test missiles and velocities represented those in current design standards. Missiles included utility poles, steel pipes, and steel bars. It is important to interpret the data in this paper in recognition that the test conditions represent conservative assumptions regarding maximum wind speeds, injection of the missile into the wind stream, aerodynamic trajectory, and orientation of missile at impact. Even with the severe assumptions made, the full-scale tests described demonstrate the ability of prototypical nuclear plant walls and roofs to provide adequate protection against postulated tornado-missile impact

  17. Aerodynamic shape optimization of guided missile based on wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Goran J.


    Full Text Available This paper presents modification of the existing guided missile which was done by replacing the existing front part with the new five, while the rear part of the missile with rocket motor and missile thrust vector control system remains the same. The shape of all improved front parts is completely different from the original one. Modification was performed based on required aerodynamic coefficients for the existing guided missile. The preliminary aerodynamic configurations of the improved missile front parts were designed based on theoretical and computational fluid dynamics simulations. All aerodynamic configurations were tested in the T-35 wind tunnel at the Military Technical Institute in order to determine the final geometry of the new front parts. The 3-D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the aerodynamic loads of the missile based on the finite volume method. Experimental results of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment coefficients are presented. The computational results of the aerodynamic loads of a guided missile model are also given, and agreed well with.

  18. Ballistic Imaging in the Primary Breakup Region of Diesel Injector Sprays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linne, M. A; Parker, T. E


    ...) for single-shot imaging of the near-field primary breakup region of a diesel spray. Ballistic imaging is a non-intrusive optical measurement technique that produces line-of-sight integrated images...

  19. Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro


    Full Text Available The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed.

  20. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira


    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  1. Micro-Doppler Feature Extraction and Recognition Based on Netted Radar for Ballistic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cun-qian


    Full Text Available This study examines the complexities of using netted radar to recognize and resolve ballistic midcourse targets. The application of micro-motion feature extraction to ballistic mid-course targets is analyzed, and the current status of application and research on micro-motion feature recognition is concluded for singlefunction radar networks such as low- and high-resolution imaging radar networks. Advantages and disadvantages of these networks are discussed with respect to target recognition. Hybrid-mode radar networks combine low- and high-resolution imaging radar and provide a specific reference frequency that is the basis for ballistic target recognition. Main research trends are discussed for hybrid-mode networks that apply micromotion feature extraction to ballistic mid-course targets.

  2. Design Guide for Aerodynamics Testing of Earth and Planetary Entry Vehicles in a Ballistic Range (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.


    The purpose of this manual is to aid in the design of an aerodynamics test of an earth or planetary entry capsule in a ballistic range. In this manual, much use is made of the results and experience gained in 50 years of ballistic range aerodynamics testing at the NASA Ames Research Center, and in particular, that gained in the last 27 years, while the author was working at NASA Ames. The topics treated herein include: Data to be obtained; flight data needed to design test; Reynolds number and dynamic similarity of flight trajectory and ballistic range test; capabilities of various ballistic ranges; Calculations of swerves due to average and oscillating lift and of drag-induced velocity decreases; Model and sabot design; materials, weights and stresses; Sabot separation; Launches at angle of attack and slapping with paper to produce pitch/yaw oscillations.

  3. A Comparison of the Deformation Flow and Failure of Two Tungsten Heavy Alloys in Ballistic Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuster, Brian E; Peterson, Bryan P; Magness, Lee S


    .... Small, but consistent, differences in the ballistic performances of the two lots of penetrators were observed in depth of penetration tests, in thick armor steel targets, and in limit velocity...

  4. Understanding the ballistic event : Methodology and observations relevant to ceramic armour (United States)

    Healey, Adam

    The only widely-accepted method of gauging the ballistic performance of a material is to carry out ballistic testing; due to the large volume of material required for a statistically robust test, this process is very expensive. Therefore a new test, or suite of tests, that employ widely-available and economically viable characterisation methods to screen candidate armour materials is highly desirable; in order to design such a test, more information on the armour/projectile interaction is required. This work presents the design process and results of using an adapted specimen configuration to increase the amount of information obtained from a ballistic test. By using a block of ballistic gel attached to the ceramic, the fragmentation generated during the ballistic event was captured and analysed. In parallel, quasi-static tests were carried out using ring-on-ring biaxial disc testing to investigate relationships between quasi-static and ballistic fragment fracture surfaces. Three contemporary ceramic armour materials were used to design the test and to act as a baseline; Sintox FA alumina, Hexoloy SA silicon carbide and 3M boron carbide. Attempts to analyse the post-test ballistic sample non-destructively using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) were unsuccessful due to the difference in the density of the materials and the compaction of fragments. However, the results of qualitative and quantitative fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed similarities between the fracture surfaces of ballistic fragments at the edges of the tile and biaxial fragments; this suggests a relationship between quasi-static and ballistic fragments created away from the centre of impact, although additional research will be required to determine the reason for this. Ballistic event-induced porosity was observed and quantified on the fracture surfaces of silicon carbide samples, which decreased as distance from centre of impact increased; upon further analysis this

  5. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng


    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  6. Forensic chemistry: perspective of new analytical methods applied to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse


    Romão, Wanderson; Schwab, Nicolas V; Bueno, Maria Izabel M. S; Sparrapan, Regina; Eberlin, Marcos N; Martiny, Andrea; Sabino, Bruno D; Maldaner, Adriano O


    In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing ''lead-free'' or ''nontoxic'' handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are be...

  7. The role of contemporary ferrous and nonferrous materials in ballistic protection of military vehicles


    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta


    Metallic armor is the most mature class of armor materials and is still widely used for ballistic protection today. Although the materials for metallic armor are highly developed, new and innovative metallic armor systems are being used to improve the ballistic protection (while reducing the weight) of various weapon systems. Historically, most metallic armor evolved from designing materials to meet structural or other requirements rather than from designing specifically for balli...

  8. Computational Predictions of Rear Surface Velocities for Metal Plates under Ballistic Impact (United States)


    Reinecke WG, editor. Ballistics ’99. Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics; 1999 Nov 15–19; San Antonio, TX. Lancaster (PA...Antonio, TX. Lancaster (PA): Technomic Pub Co. p. 761–768. 6. Robinson AC, Brunner TA, Carroll S, Drake R, Garasi CJ, Gardiner T, Haill T, Heath H...material library . While the primary data in this report does not consider fracture models, the comparisons below do include default settings of the JC

  9. Low-temperature ballistic transport in nanoscale epitaxial graphene cross junctions


    Weingart, S.; Bock, C.; Kunze, U.; Speck, F.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.


    We report on the observation of inertial-ballistic transport in nanoscale cross junctions fabricated from epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001). Ballistic transport is indicated by a negative bend resistance of R12,43 ~ 170 ohm which is measured in a non-local, four-terminal configuration at 4.2 K and which vanishes as the temperature is increased above 80 K.

  10. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound ballistics studies


    Mabbott, A.; Carr, D. J.; Champion, S.; Malbon, C.


    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20?%) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tiss...

  11. Numerical simulation of tornado-borne missile impact on reinforced concrete targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, D.K.; Larder, R.


    This study is a continuation of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) effort to evaluate the applicability of using the finite element procedure to numerically simulate the impact of tornado-borne missiles on reinforced concrete targets. The objective of this study is to assess the back-face scab threshold of a reinforced concrete target impacted by deformable and nondeformable missiles. Several simulations were run using slug and pipe-type impacting missiles. The numerical results were compared with full-scale experimental field tests

  12. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu


    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  13. Application of Super-Hydrophobic Coating for Enhanced Water Repellency of Ballistic Fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL


    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.

  14. Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength. (United States)

    Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Monteiro, Gizele Assis; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Cabral, Leonardo Ferreira; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha


    Different stretching techniques have been used during warm-up routines. However, these routines may decrease force production. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching protocol on lower-limb maximal strength. Fourteen physically active women (169.3 +/- 8.2 cm; 64.9 +/- 5.9 kg; 23.1 +/- 3.6 years) performed three experimental sessions: a control session (estimation of 45 degrees leg press one-repetition maximum [1RM]), a ballistic session (20 minutes of ballistic stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM), and a static session (20 minutes of static stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM). Maximal strength decreased after static stretching (213.2 +/- 36.1 to 184.6 +/- 28.9 kg), but it was unaffected by ballistic stretching (208.4 +/- 34.8 kg). In addition, static stretching exercises produce a greater acute improvement in flexibility compared with ballistic stretching exercises. Consequently, static stretching may not be recommended before athletic events or physical activities that require high levels of force. On the other hand, ballistic stretching could be more appropriate because it seems less likely to decrease maximal strength.

  15. Have we underestimated the kinematic and kinetic benefits of non-ballistic motion? (United States)

    Frost, David M; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U


    Explosive upper-body movements, with which the load is not thrown (non-ballistic), may comprise a phase during which forces are produced in opposition to the motion of the load. Thirty men completed three test sessions (free weight, ballistic, and pneumatic), each consisting of a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) and four explosive repetitions of a bench press at six loads (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1-RM). The end of the lifting phase for the non-ballistic conditions (free weight and pneumatic) was defined by: the point of peak barbell displacement and the point at which the vertical force became negative (positive work). When analysed by peak displacement, the ballistic condition elicited significantly greater mean velocity, force, and power at loads of 15-60% 1-RM compared with the free weight condition. When the period of negative work was removed, the mean free weight velocity, force, and power at loads below 60% 1-RM increased. Consequently, the only differences between the free weight and ballistic conditions were found at loads of 15% and 30% 1-RM. Including a period of negative work may underestimate all kinematic and kinetic variables dependent on the time to, or position of, the end of the lifting phase, for non-ballistic efforts.

  16. THUNDERBALL -- A power-beaming architecture for missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.P.; Ponikvar, D.R. [W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    W.J. Schafer Associates has proposed an architecture for a laser system capable of not only beaming power from a ground site to space, but also capable of intercepting theater missiles during their boost phase for defense of ground troops in regional conflicts. The system comprises a ship-based multi-megawatt laser and beam control system, a relay mirror package mounted on a high altitude, long endurance, unmanned lighter-than-air vehicle, and a sensor package, mounted on the balloon, which directs the laser beam to the target and can also provide an early commitment of ground based kinetic energy interceptors. A system concept is presented, as well as an assessment of system effectiveness.

  17. Research on Multichannel Test Device of Missile Fuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhen


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design of multichannel acquisition circuit based on FPGA which samples and records the Doppler signals, ignition signal and the working condition of fuze security enforcement agencies of missile fuze in real-time in the test of high speed dynamic intersection. Furthermore, for the problem of increasing number of sample channel which causes the complexity of the multiplexer control, a general programmable channel switching method is proposed based on FPGA. In the method, FPGA is the control core, and using the internal ROM resource effectively simplifies the complexity of channel switch in the multichannel acquisition system. This paper analyzes the acquisition system design, and describes the design of hardware circuit and analog switch address coding in detail. The test result shows that the acquisition circuit meets the design requirements with high sampling precision and application value.

  18. Tornado missiles protections taken at the Ikata NPP of SEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazutoyo; Takagi, Toshimitsu; Inoue, Haruhisa; Yoshida, Hisao; Moriuchi, Takehiro


    On July 8, 2013, the new regulatory requirements for commercial power reactors got in force. Based on a concept of 'Defense-in-depth', essential importance was placed on the third and fourth layers of defense and prevention of simultaneous loss of all safety functions due to common causes. In this regards, the previous assumptions on the impact of earthquakes, tsunamis and other external events such as volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and forest fires were re-evaluated, and countermeasures for nuclear safety against these external events were decided to be enhanced. For tornado, Nuclear Regulation Authority promulgated the 'Assessment Guide for Tornado Effect on Nuclear Power Plants' to evaluate the effect of tornadoes. This paper will introduce the outline of evaluation cases of tornado effect, and tornado missiles protections taken at the Ikata Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant (for actual case studies). (author)

  19. A Game-Theoretic History of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Zagare


    Full Text Available This study surveys and evaluates previous attempts to use game theory to explain the strategic dynamic of the Cuban missile crisis, including, but not limited to, explanations developed in the style of Thomas Schelling, Nigel Howard and Steven Brams. All of the explanations were judged to be either incomplete or deficient in some way. Schelling’s explanation is both empirically and theoretically inconsistent with the consensus interpretation of the crisis; Howard’s with the contemporary understanding of rational strategic behavior; and Brams’ with the full sweep of the events that define the crisis. The broad outlines of a more general explanation that addresses all of the foundational questions associated with the crisis within the confines of a single, integrated, game-theoretic model with incomplete information are laid out.

  20. Simulation Study on Missile Penetration Based on LS - DYNA (United States)

    Tang, Jue; Sun, Xinli


    Penetrating the shell armor is an effective means of destroying hard targets with multiple layers of protection. The penetration process is a high-speed impact dynamics research category, involving high pressure, high temperature, high speed and internal material damage, including plugging, penetration, spalling, caving, splashing and other complex forms, therefore, Analysis is one of the difficulties in the study of impact dynamics. In this paper, the Lagrang algorithm and the SPH algorithm are used to analyze the penetrating steel plate, and the penetration model of the rocket penetrating the steel plate, the failure mode of the steel plate and the missile and the advantages and disadvantages of Lagrang algorithm and SPH algorithm in the simulation of high-speed collision problem are analyzed and compared, which provides a reference for the study of simulation collision problem.

  1. A biologically inspired neural network controller for ballistic arm movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, the implementation of multijoint tasks of the arm implies a highly complex integration of sensory information, sensorimotor transformations and motor planning. Computational models can be profitably used to better understand the mechanisms sub-serving motor control, thus providing useful perspectives and investigating different control hypotheses. To this purpose, the use of Artificial Neural Networks has been proposed to represent and interpret the movement of upper limb. In this paper, a neural network approach to the modelling of the motor control of a human arm during planar ballistic movements is presented. Methods The developed system is composed of three main computational blocks: 1 a parallel distributed learning scheme that aims at simulating the internal inverse model in the trajectory formation process; 2 a pulse generator, which is responsible for the creation of muscular synergies; and 3 a limb model based on two joints (two degrees of freedom and six muscle-like actuators, that can accommodate for the biomechanical parameters of the arm. The learning paradigm of the neural controller is based on a pure exploration of the working space with no feedback signal. Kinematics provided by the system have been compared with those obtained in literature from experimental data of humans. Results The model reproduces kinematics of arm movements, with bell-shaped wrist velocity profiles and approximately straight trajectories, and gives rise to the generation of synergies for the execution of movements. The model allows achieving amplitude and direction errors of respectively 0.52 cm and 0.2 radians. Curvature values are similar to those encountered in experimental measures with humans. The neural controller also manages environmental modifications such as the insertion of different force fields acting on the end-effector. Conclusion The proposed system has been shown to properly simulate the development of

  2. Measuring the Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor (United States)


    designs under arbitrary conditions. Such comparisons are obfuscated by the disparate requirements of performance and weight. For this reason, it is...Application in Armour ,” Advances in Applied Ceramics 109, 446–466 (2009). 12. W.A. Gooch and M.S. Burkins, “Analysis of Threat Projectiles for

  3. Cyber threats within civil aviation (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  4. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.


    . Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...... environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Analysis of a Generic Missile With Grid Fins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSpirito, James


    This report presents the results of a study demonstrating an approach for using viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations to calculate the flow field and aerodynamic coefficients for a missile with grid fin...

  6. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A


    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya...

  7. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A


    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya...

  8. China's Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Current Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A


    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China s technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, like Iran, North Korea, Libya, and Syria...

  9. Estimated Costs and Technical Characteristics of Selected National Missile Defense Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Celeste; Hall, Raymond


    ...) a constellation of space-based lasers. Note that the cost estimates CBO has prepared for individual systems should not be added together to yield an estimate of the total potential costs of national missile...

  10. Investigation of acceleration effects on missile aerodynamics using computational fluid dynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA


    Full Text Available missiles with generic configurations. It is shown that acceleration affects wave drag significantly. Also, it is shown that strake-generated vortices move significantly in turns. These results clearly show the necessity of including the acceleration effects...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Transient Jet Interaction on a Generic Supersonic Missile with Fins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebrahimi, Houshang


    ... of the highly turbulent flow field produced by a pulsed, lateral jet control thruster and the interaction of this jet with the supersonic free stream and missile boundary layer were completed for different...

  12. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.


    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  13. Study on the Mission, Roles, and Structure of the Missile Defense Agency (MDA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, Larry D; Briggs, David L; Bleach, R. D; Canavan, G. H; Clark-Sestak, S. L; Constantine, R. W; Cook, C. W; Fries, M. S; Frost, D. E; Graham, D. R; Keane, D. J; Kramer, S. D; Major, P. L; Primmerman, C. A; Ruddy, J. M; Schneiter, G. R; Seng, J. M; Stein, R. M; Weiner, S. D; Williams, J. D


    ...) was tasked by the Department of Defense to carry out an independent study to examine and make recommendations with respect to the long-term missions, roles, and structure of the Missile Defense Agency (MDA...

  14. EKF-based fault detection for guided missiles flight control system (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Yongjin


    The guided missiles flight control system is essential for guidance accuracy and kill probability. It is complicated and fragile. Since actuator faults and sensor faults could seriously affect the security and reliability of the system, fault detection for missiles flight control system is of great significance. This paper deals with the problem of fault detection for the closed-loop nonlinear model of the guided missiles flight control system in the presence of disturbance. First, set up the fault model of flight control system, and then design the residual generation based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for the Eulerian-discrete fault model. After that, the Chi-square test was selected for the residual evaluation and the fault detention task for guided missiles closed-loop system was accomplished. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach proposed in the case of elevator fault separately.

  15. Evaluation and Selection of Technology Concepts for a Hypersonic High Speed Standoff Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Bryce


    This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...

  16. Transition of Army Missile Acquisition Programs from Program Management Offices to Commodity Commands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannin, Patricia


    ... management offices to commodity commands. The primary audit objective was to assess whether program management offices were transferring adequate funds and other resources to Military Department commodity commands for missile acquisition...

  17. Investigation on energy absorption efficiency of each layer in ballistic armour panel for applications in hybrid design


    Yang, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaogang


    This study aims to reveal different energy absorption efficiency of each layer when armour panel is under ballistic impact. Through Finite Element (FE) modelling and ballistic tests, it is found that when fabrics are layered up in a panel, energy absorption efficiency is only 30%–60% of an individual fabric layer with free boundary condition. In addition, fabric layers in front, middle, and back exhibit different ballistic characteristics. Therefore, a new hybrid design principle has been pro...

  18. Clothing increases the risk of indirect ballistic fractures (United States)


    Background Current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. The objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation. Methods Twenty-five fresh red deer femora embedded in ballistic gelatine were shot with varying distances off their medial cortex with a 5.56 × 45 mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bullet while being filmed with a slow-motion video. We compared the effect of two different gelatine depths and the effect of denim cloth laid onto the impact surface of the moulds. Results Bullet passage in thinner moulds failed to cause fracture because the bullet exited the mould before a large expanding temporary cavity was produced. Clothing dramatically altered the size and depth of the expanding cavity, as well as increased lateral pressures, resulting in more severe fractures with greater bullet distances from the bone that can cause fracture. Conclusions Clothing increases the risk of indirect fracture and results in larger, more superficial temporary cavities, with greater lateral pressures than are seen in unclothed specimens, resulting in more comminuted fractures. Greater tissue depth affords the 5.56 × 45 mm NATO a chance to yaw and thus develop an enlarging temporary cavity that is sufficient to cause fracture. PMID:24267379

  19. Photodegradation in ballistic laminates: Spectroscopy and lifetime extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; Stallard, B.R.; White, C.A.; Garcia, M.J.; Morse, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Properties of Organic Materials Dept.


    Several years ago, the Materials and Process Sciences Center (Org. 1800) was asked by Dept. 9613 to study the materials aging issues which had led to the loss of ballistic protection by Armored Tractor (AT) windshields and windows. The authors speculated that this loss of impact strength was due to photodegradation of the polycarbonate (PC) inboard ply. They developed a spectroscopic method to identify changes in the outboard surface of the PC, and showed that the changes in the surface which occurred upon natural aging in the field could be reproduced by exposing the laminates to a simulated solar flux. Based on these results, they recommended changes in the adhesive interlayers to filter out the ultraviolet (UV) light causing the aging problem. Working with the laminate vendor, PPG, they re-designed the laminates to implement these changes and block essentially all UV light from the inboard ply. The most recent phase of this work involved accelerated solar aging of laminates made with the new design to verify that photoaging effects have been blocked by the new materials. They report here the results of that study, and recommended follow-on work.

  20. Current neutralization in ballistic transport of light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, R.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Ottinger, P.


    Intense light ion beams are being considered as drivers to ignite fusion targets in the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). Ballistic transport of these beams from the diode to the target is possible only if the beam current is almost completely neutralized by plasma currents. This paper summarizes related work on relativistic electron beam and heavy ion beam propagation and describes a simple simulation model (DYNAPROP) which has been modified to treat light ion beam propagation. DYNAPROP uses an envelope equation to treat beam dynamics and uses rate equations to describe plasma and conductivity generation. The model has been applied both to the high current, 30 MeV Li +3 beams for LMF as well as low current, 1.2 MeV proton beams which are currently being studied on GAMBLE B at the Naval Research Laboratory. The predicted ratio of net currents to beam current is ∼0.1--0.2 for the GAMBLE experiment and ∼0.01 for LMF. The implications of these results for LMF and the GAMBLE experiments art discussed in some detail. The simple resistive model in DYNAPROP has well-known limitations in the 1 torr regime which arise primarily from the neglect of plasma electron transport. Alternative methods for treating the plasma response are discussed